1.Introduction 2.Break drum 3.Wheel 4.Master cylinder piston 5.Wheel cylinder piston 6.Wheel cylinder 7.Master cylinder 8.Hydraulic break 9.General operation 10. Component specification 11. Special consideration 12. Functioning 13. Manufacturing 14. Advantages 15. Disadvantages 16. Brake fluid 17. Principles of hydrolics 18. Theory of hydrolics

The hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism which uses brake fluid, typically containing ethylene glycol, to transfer pressure from the controlling unit, which is usually near the operator of the vehicle, to the actual brake mechanism, which is usually at or near the wheel of the vehicle. The most common arrangement of hydraulic brakes for passenger vehicles consists of a brake pedal, a vacuum assist module, a master cylinder, hydraulic lines, and a brake rotor and/or brake drum. At one time, passenger vehicles commonly employed disc brakes on the front wheels and drum brakes on the rear wheels. However, four wheel disc brakes have becoming more popular, replacing drums on all but the most basic vehicles.



A drum brake is a brake in which the friction is caused by a set of shoes or pads that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum. The drum is connected to a rotating wheel. The modern automobile drum brake was invented in 1902 by Louis Renault, though a less-sophisticated drum brake had been used by Maybach a year earlier. In the first drum brakes, the shoes were mechanically operated with levers and rods or cables. From the mid1930s the shoes were operated with oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons (as in the picture), though some vehicles continued with purely-mechanical systems for decades. Some designs have two wheel cylinders.

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load (mass), or performing labor in machines. Common examples are found in transport applications. A wheel, together with an axle overcomes friction by facilitating motion by rolling. In order for wheels to rotate, a moment needs to be applied to the wheel about its axis, either by way of gravity, or by application of another external force. More generally the term is also used for other circular objects that rotate or turn, such as a ship's wheel, steering wheel and flywheel.

. It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. In an engine. In some engines. In a pump. the function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder. its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall. pumps and gas compressors.WHEEL AND MASTER CYLINDER PISTON A piston is a component of reciprocating engines.

Hence the brake fluid pressure forces the piston a part for applying the brakes. The rubber caps avoid the leakage of the fluid out of the wheel cylinder. The construction of wheel cylinder is very simple as shown in fig. The piston transmits fluid pressure to the brake shoes for the application of breaks. The cylinder body contains two holes which provide connection for the pipe line and bleeder valve. piston.Wheel cylinder It is the important part of the hydraulic breaking system. rubber caps. it consist of cylinder body. .

A master cylinder may also use differing diameters between the two sections to allow for increased .Master cylinder The diameter and length of the master cylinder has a significant effect on the performance of the brake system. A smaller diameter master cylinder has the opposite effect. A larger diameter master cylinder delivers more hydraulic fluid to the slave cylinders. yet requires more brake pedal force and less brake pedal stroke to achieve a given deceleration.

.fluid volume to one set of slave cylinders or the other.

If . The first indication of a leak in a brake line or hose may be a low fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir. Fluid can sometimes be pulled into the engine through a leak in the power brake vacuum booster. the entire brake system should be inspected for a leak. all braking ability in the affected brake circuit will be lost. or a brake warning light that comes on. dampness on the back of a drum brake. Other clues may include wet spots on the driveway. The most likely leak points are the brake calipers. A slow leak in a brake line or hose is almost as bad as a sudden failure because over time. Air in the fluid is bad because air is compressible. If a leak is suspected. though steel lines can also rust through and leak. enough fluid may be lost to allow air to enter the hydraulic system. This increases the amount of pedal travel that's necessary to apply the brakes. The lines and hoses must withstand pressures that can range from a few hundred pounds per square inch up to almost 2000 psi! If a line or hose can't take the pressure and blows. and may increase it to the point where the pedal hits the floor before the brakes apply. wheel cylinders and rubber brake hoses.BRAKE LINES AND HOSES The arteries of the brake system are the steel lines and flexible rubber hoses that route hydraulic pressure to each brake when the driver steps on the brake pedal.

Although it doesn't happen very often. internal damage or deterioration in a rubber hose allows a small flap of material to lift up and plug the line. . the brake booster needs to be replaced. sometimes. In some cases. swelling or other damage that would indicate a need for replacement. causing the brake to drag. Debris in the brake fluid or a crushed or kinked line can block the passage of hydraulic pressure to the brakes. fluid will force its way under the outer liner causing a bubble or blister to appear when the brakes are applied. This prevents brake pressure from reaching the wheel causing a brake pull when the brakes are applied. the blockage prevents pressure from releasing back to the master cylinder. The same thing can also happen to steel brake lines. If the inner liner leaks. bulges. Rubber hoses have an expansion resistant inner lining that should not give under pressure. pressure will get through but when the brakes are released.there's any fluid inside brake booster vacuum hose. Rubber brake hoses also need to be inspected for age cracks.

to the actual brake mechanism. which is usually near the operator of the vehicle. a master cylinder. a "slave cylinder". four wheel disc brakes are becoming more popular. The most common arrangement of hydraulic brakes (for passenger vehicles) consists of a brake pedal.hydraulic brake The hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism which uses brake fluid. However. to transfer pressure from the controlling unit. typically containing ethylene glycol. Typical passenger vehicles employ disc brakes on the front wheels and drum brakes on the rear wheels. . which is usually at or near the wheel of the vehicle. hydraulic lines. a vacuum assist module. and a brake rotor and/or brake drum.

. Water under pressure doesnt have the mass for the stress placed on brake fluid or hydrolic fluid. Also. It is one of the major differences between oil and water. at this point it is considered a plasma. transmission fluid and hydrolic fluids or oils will exert the same pressure as what is placed upon it. water under pressure freezes. Water is best used for cooling.Why do you use brake oil in hydraulic brakes can you use water in the place of brake oil to transmit the pressure? No. Hydolic fluids such as brake fluid. oil does not. It will still cool at 700 degrees F.

The force applied to the linings cause them to be pushed against the drums and rotors.General operation When the brake pedal is pressed. The slave cylinder pistons then apply force to the brake linings (generally referred to as shoes for drum brakes and pads for disc brakes). As force is applied to this piston. forcing fluid through the lines to the slave cylinders. leverage multiplies the force applied from the pedal to a vacuum booster. pressure in the hydraulic system increases. slowing the vehicle. . and a single piston which is forced out of its housing (disc brake). The friction between the linings and drum/rotor causes a braking torque to be generated. The booster multiplies the force again and acts upon a piston in the master cylinder. The two most common arrangements of slave cylinders are a pair of opposed pistons which are forced apart by the fluid pressure (drum brake).

One end is attached to the framework of the vehicle. Each section supplies pressure to one circuit. .Component specifics (For typical light duty automotive braking systems) The brake pedal is a simple lever. The master cylinder is divided internally into two sections. and the foot pad is at the other end of the lever. Passenger vehicles typically have either a front/rear split brake system or a diagonal split brake system. a rod extends from a point along its length. each of which pressurizes a separate hydraulic circuit. The rod either extends either to the master cylinder (manual brakes) or to the vacuum booster (power brakes).

9) return spring. 4) hydraulic line. 5) brake cylinder. 6) brake piston. 2) piston. 8) wheel. 3) master cylinder. 1) Brake pedal. 7) brake band. .Automobile hydrolic brake-system Automobile hydraulic-brake system.

These units consist of a hollow housing with a moveable rubber diaphragm across the center. A smaller diameter master cylinder has the opposite effect. A master cylinder may also use differing diameters between the two sections to allow for increased fluid volume to one set of slave cylinders or the other.A front/rear split system uses one master cylinder section to pressurize the front slave cylinders. The vacuum booster is attached between the master cylinder and the brake pedal and multiplies the braking force applied by the driver. When attached to the low-pressure portion of the throttle body or intake manifold of the engine. and the other section to pressurize the rear slave cylinders. The vacuum booster or vacuum servo is used in most modern hydraulic brake systems. A larger diameter master cylinder delivers more hydraulic fluid to the slave cylinders. the pressure in both chambers of the unit is lowered. the other circuit can stop the vehicle. yet requires more brake pedal force and less brake pedal stroke to achieve a given deceleration. if one circuit fails. A return spring keeps the diaphragm in the starting . The equilibrium created by the low pressure in both chambers keeps the diaphragm from moving until the brake pedal is depressed. creating two chambers. A split circuit braking system is now required by law in most countries for safety reasons. The diameter and length of the master cylinder has a significant effect on the performance of the brake system.

When the brake pedal is applied.position until the brake pedal is applied. an assisting force of about 1500 N (150 kgf) is produced by a 20cm diaphragm with an area of 0. in addition to the driver's foot force. The compensator has two . and it provides a warning if one system loses pressure. A relatively small diameter booster unit is required. The fluid pressure from the master cylinder travels through a pair of steel brake tubes to a compensator. After the runout point is reached. for a very conservative 50% manifold vacuum. pushes on the master cylinder piston. The diaphragm will stop moving when the forces on both sides of the chamber reach equilibrium. This force. only the driver's foot force can be used to further apply the master cylinder piston. the movement opens an air valve which lets in atmospheric pressure air to one chamber of the booster. which performs two functions: It equalizes pressure between the two systems. Runout occurs when the pressure in one chamber reaches atmospheric pressure and no additional force can be generated by the now stagnant differential pressure. Since the pressure becomes higher in one chamber.03 square metres. the diaphragm moves toward the lower pressure chamber with a force created by the area of the diaphragm and the differential pressure. This can be caused by either the air valve closing (due to the pedal apply stopping) or if "runout" is reached.

When the piston makes contact with a simple electrical probe in the center of the unit. Steel lines are preferred for most of the system for their rigidity. the fluid pressure enters the Slave Cylinders and use one or more pistons to apply force to the braking unit. A common upgrade is to replace the standard rubber hoses with a set which are externally reinforced with braided stainless-steel wires. it is necessary to use hydraulic brake hose from the end of the steel line at the vehicle frame to the caliper at the wheel. Finally.chambers (to which the hydraulic lines attach) with a piston between them. the piston does not move. . and the operator is warned of a failure in the brake system. brake failure. with reduced braking effectiveness. ultimately. a circuit is completed. Since the wheels do not maintain a fixed relation to the automobile. brake tubing carries the pressure to the brake units at the wheels. When the pressure in either line is balanced. Any pressure induced distortion in the lines results in less useful volume and pressure of fluid reaching the slave cylinders. the pressure from the other side moves the piston. If the pressure on one side is lost. Allowing steel brake tubing to flex invites metal fatigue and. these have negligible expansion under pressure and can give a firmer feel to the brake pedal with less pedal travel for a given braking effort.

such as when descending steep grades. hydraulic or brake fluid must resist vaporization at high temperatures. Water vaporizes easily with heat and can corrode the metal parts of the system. If any vapor is introduced into the system it will compress. Hydraulic braking systems are sometimes subjected to high temperatures during operation. This is why light oils are used as hydraulic fluids. where a valve is opened and air flows into the lines and brake chambers until the pressure rises sufficiently. and can tolerate much higher temperatures before vaporizing. it can degrade brake performance dramatically. . Unlike air brakes. For this reason. If it gets into the brake lines. Hydraulic fluid must be non-compressible. and the pressure may not rise sufficiently to actuate the brakes. Hydraulic systems are smaller and less expensive.Special considerations Air brake systems are bulky. and require air compressors and reservoir tanks. Oil displaces water and protects metal parts against corrosion. hydraulic systems rely on a single stroke of a piston to force fluid through the system.

. resulting in a reduction in braking capability that requires replacement of the affected parts. vaporization of the hydraulic fluid under temperature extremes. Thermal distortion may also cause permanent changes in the shape of the metal components. It may occur for many reasons. The pads which engage the rotating part may become overheated and "glaze over". becoming so smooth and hard that they cannot grip sufficiently to slow the vehicle. and thermal distortion may cause the linings to change their shape and engage less surface area of the rotating part."Brake fade" is a condition caused by overheating in which braking effectiveness reduces. and may be lost.


On later cars fitted with antisink or Activa suspension. up to 75 bar. showing centre spheres and stiffness valves At the heart of the system. It powers the front brakes first. are the so called 'spheres'. The high pressure pump powered by the engine pressurizes the circuit and an accumulator sphere. there may be as many as nine spheres. five or six in all. This part of the circuit is between 150 and 180 bars. the bottom connects to the car's LHM fluid circuit. clutch.Functioning Diagram of the Hydractive system. The top is filled with nitrogen at high pressure. can power steering. and depending on type. open to the bottom. fixed at the 'equator' inside separating top and bottom. They consist of a hollow metal ball. prioritised via a security valve. with a flexible desmopan rubber membrane. . gearchange etc. one per wheel and one main accumulator as well as a dedicated brake accumulator on some models. acting as pressure sink as well as suspension elements. (See hydraulic accumulator).

it is the simplest damper and one of the most efficient. . front and rear. Suspension works by the rod pushing LHM into the sphere.g. Rear brakes are powered from the rear suspension spheres. LHM has to squeeze back and forth through this valve which causes resistance and controls the suspension movements. Car height correcting works by height correctors connected to the anti-roll bar. so is the braking power. These height correctors allow for more fluid to travel under pressure to the rod/sphere system when detecting that the suspension is lower than its expected ride height (e. after unloading) fluid is returned to the system reservoir via low-pressure return lines. the damping is provided by a two-way 'leaf valve' in the opening of the sphere. Height correctors act with some delay in order not to correct regular suspension movements. When the car is too high (e. pressurizing the bottom part of the spheres and rods connected to the wheel suspension.Pressure goes from this circuit to the wheel spheres. the car is loaded). compacting the nitrogen in the upper part of the sphere.g. Because the pressure there is proportional to the load.

3-48) that brakes.—Hand brake valve. Figure 3-48. The hand brake valve or .Air-over-hydraulic power cylinder. The air-over-hydraulic brake system has an trailer brakes without applying the truck or tractor air-over-hydraulic power cylinder (fig.Figure 3-46.

as shown in figures 3-44 and 3-46. This difference in the two pistons Figure 3-47. the hydraulic piston. .independent trailer contains an air cylinder and a hydraulic cylinder in control valve.-Typical airover-hydraulic brake system. 3-26 This system combines the use of compressed air and hydraulic pressure for brake operation. tandem. The air piston is of greater diameter than times. Each cylinder is fitted with a piston and a provides the operator control of the trailing load at all common rod.

connected to valve control units by Lockheed type pipe unions with special seals made from desmopan rubber. suspension strut or steering ram are sealed by extremely small tolerances between the cylinder and piston for tightness under pressure. a type of rubber compatible with the LHM fluid.g.Manufacturing The whole high pressure part of the system is manufactured from steel tubing of small diameter. The other plastic/rubber parts are return tubes from valves such as the brake control or height corrector valves. The metal and alloy parts of the system rarely fail even after excessively high mileages but the rubber components (especially those exposed to the . also catching seeping fluid around the suspension push-rods. The moving parts of the system e.

Or in the case of the accumulator sphere.000 and 100. A ruptured membrane means suspension loss at the attached wheel. Newer spheres do not have this valve anymore. typical failure points for the system.air) can harden and leak. They typically keep between 60. Spheres originally used to have a valve on top and be rechargeable. . however ride height is unaffected. mostly from nitrogen naturally diffusing through the membrane.000 km. Spheres are subject to no mechanical wear but suffer pressure loss. reliance on the high pressure pump as the only source of braking pressure to the front wheels. but it can be retrofitted. the membranes will eventually wear out though this can take over 20 years. Though a rechargeable sphere has a longer lifespan.

this provides aerodynamic benefits because of the stable ride-height and extra clearance over rough terrain. giving precise handling and roadholding (like a sports car) • . The ride comfort is excellent (the ride is described as floating above the road surface) but the suspension never 'wallows'.Advantages • The suspension is self-leveling and rideheight is adjustable.

for vehicles that would otherwise have a conventional power steering pump. • Upon body roll.• Large loads do not seriously affect the dynamics of the suspension system and handling is not affected thereby. . • • Maintenance for relatively easy. the pressure exerted between the tyres of the same axle is not subject to the same differential as on some other cars. potentially giving the 'light' tyre more footprint pressure. the pressure in one suspension strut equals the pressure in the other through Pascal's law. trained mechanic is • Inexpensive in mass production. Compact suspension design. hydropneumatic suspension adds no new equipment and in many cases results in a lower unsprung mass.

especially for heavy vehicles. If they are interconnected in the threedimensional full car model. roll and pitch properties for different types of vehicles. the interconnected hydro-pneumatic suspension could realize enhanced roll and pitch control during excitations arising from steering. Can be connected in the pitch plane to improve braking dive and traction squat. road input and crosswind. braking/traction. • • • Horizontal orientation of the rear suspension cylinders below the level of the boot floor means that the full width of the boot is available for loads. . as with the Hydractive arrangement Flexibility in the suspension strut design in the interconnected suspension system to realize desirable vertical.• • Can be conveniently interconnected in the roll plane to improve roll stiffness and thus roll stability limit.

• Disadvantages • Service requires mechanic. adjustable shock absorbers) end up more complex to build and maintain than the straightforward hydropneumatic layout.• Mechanical steel spring suspension systems that try to replicate some of the inherent advantages of hydropneumatic suspension (multilink. a specifically trained . People who are prepared to carry out simple maintenance can acquire a luxury car for a fraction of the cost as hydropneumatic suspension scares potential buyers and dealers.

Older designs of hydropneumatic suspension systems can lead to significant body roll. • • • Hydractive . purchasing or trusting it. However. Failure of the hydraulic system will cause a drop in ride height and. an acute failure will not lead to acute brake failure as the accumulator sphere holds enough pressure to ensure safe braking far beyond the braking needed to bring a vehicle with a failed system to a standstill. possibly. if poorly maintained. the failure of suspension completely. The novelty (and unfamiliarity) of the hydropneumatic suspension system leads to people being wary of using.• Hydropneumatic suspension systems are expensive to repair or replace.

acceleration. The driver can make the vehicle stiffen (sport mode) or ride in outstanding comfort (soft mode). This development keeps Citroën in the forefront of suspension design.and within milliseconds . Sensors in the steering. and road conditions to on-board computers.Hydractive Suspension is a new automotive technology introduced by the French manufacturer Citroën in 1990. throttle pedal and gearbox feed information on the car's speed. given the widespread goal in the auto industry of an Active Suspension system. to allow the car a smooth supple ride in normal circumstances. suspension. It describes a development of the 1955 Hydropneumatic suspension design using additional electronic sensors and driver control of suspension performance. Auto manufacturers try to balance these aims and . Where appropriate .these computers switched an extra pair of suspension spheres in or out of circuit. All auto suspension is a compromise between comfort and handling. or greater roll resistance for better handling in corners. brakes.

Hydractive 1 and Hydractive 2 Citroën hydractive (Hydractive 1 and Hydractive 2) suspension was available on several models. which had a more advanced sub-model known as the Activa.locate new technologies that offer more of both. . including the XM and Xantia.

It is used to transfer force under pressure from where it is created through hydraulic lines to the braking mechanism near the wheels. most cars produced in the U. It works because liquids are not appreciably compressible. glycol esters and ethers. DOT 4. standardized under by the United States Department of Transportation (DOT). and DOT 5. Braking applications produce a lot of heat so brake fluid must have a high boiling point to remain effective and must also not freeze under normal temperatures.1 are composed of various mineral oils.Brake fluid Brake fluid is a type of hydraulic fluid used in brake applications in motorcycles. even . These requirements eliminate most water-based solutions. use DOT 3.S. In the USA brake fluid comes in a number of forms. DOT 2 is essentially castor oil. light trucks and some advanced bicycles. As of 2006. Glycol based fluids are two times less compressible than silicone type fluids. some are synthetic oil based. and DOT 5 is silicone-based. automobiles. DOT 3.

reacts violently. . reducing the boiling point of the fluid and degrading hydraulic efficiency. Changing fluid on a regular basis will greatly increase the performance of the brake system. Less compressibility of brake fluid will increase pedal feel (firmness). Army has used silicone brake fluid exclusively since 1982 successfully. producing a large fireball. notably pool care products. but this is often not a concern in passenger cars. The U. Additionally. in the concentrations found in DOT brake fluids. polyethylene glycol. On the other hand. but in either case this effect is minimal.when heated. with some household chemicals. changing fluid at least every several years will preserve the life of brake system components (by removing accumulated water and other contaminants) and increase the overall reliability of the brake system.S. Polyethylene glycol and other brake fluid ingredients may be corrosive to paint and finished surfaces such as chrome and thus care should be taken when working with the fluid. Glycols are hygroscopic and will absorb water from the atmosphere.

Hotwheelscollectors. It is less likely to harm skin and will not harm cites that hobby modellers use brake fluid as a safe (if somewhat slow) paint stripper. Components Mineral-based • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alkyl ester Aliphatic amine Diethylene glycol Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether Dimethyl dipropylene glycol Polyethylene glycol monobutyl ether Polyethylene glycol monoethyl ether Polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether Polyethylene oxide Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether .

One of the outstanding differences is the large variety of submarine devices which are now operated by hydraulic power.Silicone-based • • • Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate Dimethyl polysiloxane Tributyl phosphate PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS 1A1. In early classes. many changes and improvements have occurred. and power requirements were met by means of air or electricity. Increasing use of hydraulic power in modern submarines. Along with constantly improving submarine design has gone a constant extension and diversification of the use of hydraulic power. Why this noticeable trend toward hydraulics? Obviously . In the development of the submarine from pre-war classes. Other sources of power available on submarines. 1A2. there was no hydraulic system.

Some equipment on a submarine is still operated exclusively by hand. Since compressed air must also be used aboard a submarine for certain functions.hydraulic actuation is not the only means of transmitting power throughout the submarine. or compressed air. but this practice is rapidly disappearing. because heavy. thus greatly reducing the communication necessary between crew members. such as lamps. Since the electrical plant occupies such a prominent place in the submarine power system and must be used for propulsion in any event. and bow and stern planes. cooking facilities. pneumatic or compressed-air . bulky electrical units are required. But electricity is not so ideal when it is necessary to move heavy apparatus such as rudders. this system. since electric motors have a tendency to "overtravel c. This is because the power requirements exceed that which manual effort can provide over long periods of time. a. high and low pressure air bottles and air lines. and because power operation is faster and can be remotely controlled. b. electricity. radios. it would be reasonable to expect that electricity would also be used to operate all of the auxiliary equipment as well. provides another source of auxiliary power. Electric power. Pneumatic power. which consists of the compressors. and the tasks now being done by the hydraulic system were originally performed by hand. and similar devices. Also it is not ideal when instantaneous stopping of a driving mechanism is demanded. However. Hand power. Electricity is ideally adapted for submarine equipment that has few or no moving parts.

Finally. Hydraulic systems possess numerous advantages over other systems of power operation. The high pressure necessary for compressed-air storage increases the hazard from ruptured lines. and the mere fact that air is a compressible substance. with consequent danger to personnel and equipment. They are light in weight. Hydraulic systems are self-lubricated. they are simple and extremely reliable. hydraulic units are relatively quiet in operation. Hydraulic controls are sensitive. Because of the low inertia of moving parts. consequently there is little wear or corrosion. requiring a minimum of attention and maintenance. and their operation is positive. Their operation is not apt to be interrupted by salt spray or water. d. Pressure drop caused by leakage. they start and stop in complete obedience to the desires of the operator. an important . may result in "sponginess" or lag in operation. Comparative advantages of hydraulic power. Another disadvantage of air systems is that the air compressors require greater maintenance and are relatively inefficient. and afford precise controllability.power also has definite shortcomings.

consideration when detection by the enemy must be prevented. If we draw up a table of the characteristics of the three power systems." Derivation Pressure is the result of a force applied over a specific area and that pressure is therefore measured by the formula P = . e. Pascal's law or Pascal's principle states that "a change in the pressure of an enclosed incompressible fluid is conveyed undiminished to every part of the fluid and to the surfaces of its container. a comparison will reveal the superiority of hydraulics for the operation of auxiliary mechanisms Pascal's law In the physical sciences. Comparative summary.

or the difference in pressure at two points within a fluid column. . If we consider that this container and its fluid contents are subject to gravity as an additional force then we must consider that the difference of pressure due to a difference in elevation within a fluid column is given by: where ΔP is the hydrostatic pressure (given in pascals in the SI system). ρ is the fluid density (in kilograms per cubic meter in the SI system). the area in question is the contact area between any two molecules of the fluid. Because an incompressible fluid accepts and applies forces evenly throughout itself.F / A or "pressure equals force divided by area". The molecules that are in contact with the surface of the container will push against that surface with the same pressure as between any two molecules anywhere else within the container because they have the same contact area with the molecules of the container as with each other. That area is the same for any pair of molecules within the fluid. due to the weight of the fluid. the pressure will be equal at all points within the fluid. When a force is applied to an incompressible fluid.

Therefore Pascal's law can be interpreted as saying that any change in pressure applied at any given point of the fluid is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid. Δh is the height of fluid above the point of measurement.g is acceleration due to gravity (normally using the sea level acceleration due to Earth's gravity in meters per second squared). Note that the variation with height does not depend on any additional pressures. The intuitive explanation of this formula is that the change in pressure between two elevations is due to the weight of the fluid between the elevations. • • . or the difference in elevation between the two points within the fluid column (in meters in SI). Applications The underlying principle of the hydraulic press Used for amplifying the force of the driver's foot in the braking system of most cars and trucks.

pressure is twice the atmospheric pressure at sea level.• Used in artesian wells. Comparison of Air. • Scuba divers must understand this principle. and increases by about 105 kPa for each increase of 10 m depth. Electricity & Hydraulics . At a depth of 10 meters under water. water towers. and dams.

broken lines cause failure and Safe. Simple e attention requiring necessar skilled y personnel Vulnerabilit High Good y pressure bottle dangero us. broken lines cause failure .FACTOR Reliability Weight AIR Poor Light ELECTRICI HYDRAULI TY CS Good Heavy Simple Good Light Simple Installation Simple Control Valves Mechanism Switches Valves and solenoids Maintenanc Constant Difficult.

danger to personne l and equipme nt Response Slow for both starting and stopping Rapid starting. slow stopping Fair Poor Instant starting and stopping Good Good Controllabil Poor ity Quietness of Operation Poor .

For many centuries. however. everyday needs. man has utilized hydraulic principles to satisfy common. It includes the study of the behavior of enclosed liquids under pressure. and the harnessing of the forces existing in fluids to do some practical task such as steering a submarine or opening the outer door of a torpedo tube. Stepping on the brake pedal in an automobile creates the hydraulic power which . Barber or dentist chairs are raised and lowered hydraulically. Examples of hydraulically operated equipment are familiar to all. Water moves through a dam in accordance with wellknown principles of fluid motion. There are hydraulic principles that explain the action of fluids in motion and others for fluids at rest. Opening a faucet to fill a sink with water a practical application of hydraulics.THEORY OF HYDRAULICS 1B1. so is an automobile when placed on a hydraulic rack for a grease job. We are chiefly concerned. Familiarity of hydraulic principles. with that branch of hydromechanics which is called simply Hydraulics and is defined in engineering textbooks as the engineering application of fluid mechanics.

Liquids in open containers. Density and specific gravity. The first characteristic of an unconfined liquid which interests us is its density. to which the atmospheric pressure. however. The density of a fluid is the weight of a unit volume of it. we must know the basic principles. that is. 1B2. the unit of weight normally used is the pound. in open containers. The standard of density. . of confined liquids under pressure. This will be made easier. The unit of volume normally used in this text is the cubic foot. a. that is. of hydraulics. or laws. For an understanding of how a hydraulic system works. if we first examine the somewhat simpler laws governing the behavior of liquids when unconfined.stops the rotation of the four wheels and brings the car to a halt.

a similar volume of oil. When we speak of the weight of substance. the contents and find it to be 62. or gravitational pull. Liquids of different densities. exerted on the substance at the earth's . its density obviously exceeds that of water.4 pounds.9 pounds. Under the same conditions. Under the same conditions. such as is used in a submarine's hydraulic system weighs approximately 50 pounds. therefore its density is less than that of water. This is the density of water. we actually mean the force. a cubic foot of mercury weighs 845.Let us fill a container with a cubic foot of pure water (see Figure 1-1). We weigh Figure 1-1.

Oil has a specific gravity of (50 x 1)/62.9 x 1)/62. as the relationship between the weight of a unit volume of any other material and of water would be the same no matter what measuring unit were used. its density is 13. different results would be obtained. Mercury. This does not affect specific gravity.4 or about 13. Every material responds to the earth's gravitational attraction. or approximately 0. Water. At other temperatures and altitudes. gravitational pull upon them is compared to the gravitational pull upon an equal volume of water. This explains why oil floats on water. consequently. has a specific gravity of (845. A liquid has no shape of its own.8 of that of water. These calculations of the weights of water. or specific gravity. To express the relative density. it sinks rapidly. that is. In some engineering calculations. that is. on the other hand. oil.5 times as great as that of water. It acquires the shape of its container up to the level to which . and mercury were made at zero degrees centigrade (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and at sea level. is said to have a specific gravity of 1 and the specific gravity of any other substance is its density relative to that of water. its density is of various liquids and solids. therefore. b. cubic centimeters and grams are used instead of cubic feet and pounds. Force and pressure.surface.

Again a force of 1 pound is applied to the . This weight exerts a force upon Figure 1-2. We are now ready to consider a remarkable fact which follows from the principles just discussed. Weight of an isolated column of water. we know that liquids have weight. and which is illustrated in a simplified manner in Figure fills the container. Increase of force with area. Here a cylinder whose base has an area of 1 square inch is connected to another cylinder whose base has an area of 10 square inches. However.

Actually. the ratio between the force applied to the smaller piston and the force applied to the . an upward pressure of 1 pound per square inch will be exerted on the piston in the larger cylinder. In other words. the total force is equal to the downward pressure on the small piston (1 pound per square inch) multiplied by the area of the larger piston (10 square inches). what is happening is that an upward force of 1 pound is being exerted against each square inch of bottom surface of the larger piston. Now. and since this larger piston has a total area of 10 square inches. since this pressure is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the confined liquid. 1 (pounds per square inch) X 10 (square inches) = 10 pounds (total force exerted on larger piston). and since the area of this surface is 10 square inches.piston in the smaller cylinder. or. and again the pressure exerted is 1 pound per square inch. the total force exerted on the larger piston is 10 pounds.

larger piston is the same as the ratio between the area of the smaller piston and the area of the larger piston. Expressed as a proportion.Figure 1-10. then. Transmission of equal pressures to equal areas. we have: Force on larger piston/Force on smaller piston = Area of larger piston/Area of smaller piston This means that the mechanical advantage obtainable by such an arrangement is equal to the ratio between the areas of the two pistons. .

Multiple units from a single source of power. which makes possible the tremendous forces attainable in certain hydraulic devices. Equal pressure transmitted to larger area. and hydraulic hoists. such as the hydraulic press. pushing the liquid down a distance of 1 inch in . It is this principle. Since the cylinders (and pistons) are of equal area. discovered by Pascal. Figure 1-12.Figure 1-11. Now let us once more consider the arrangement shown in Figure 1-10.

In other words. Therefore. we may say that what the larger piston gains in force. . since the area of the larger cylinder is 10 times as great as that of the smaller cylinder. pushing the smaller piston downward a distance of 1 inch will move the larger piston upward only 1/10 of an cylinder will force it upward a distance of 1 inch in the other cylinder. The ratio between the displacement of liquid in the smaller cylinder and the displacement of liquid in the larger cylinder is once again equal to the ratio between their areas. the displacements of liquid are equal. in Figure 1-11. But. so that the amount of work (force X distance) done by the larger piston is exactly the same as the amount done by the smaller piston. it loses in distance traveled.