INFANCY – birth (one month to 12 months)  Babies have internal clock to regulate sleeping, eating, elimination and perhaps

their moods.  State of arousal  Average 16 hours of sleep daily  Wakes up every 2-3 hrs day and night  Has 6-8 sleep periods which alternate between quiet and active sleep – rapid eye movement (REM) within adults are associated with dreams account for 50 – 80% of newborn’s total sleep time.  3 months – awake in the afternoon & early evening & sleeps through the night  6 months more than half their sleep occurs at night  the amount of REM continuous to decline throughout life  Quiet babies maintain their wieght better  Activities like rocking, walking them, wrapping them snuggly, letting them hear rhythmic sounds, or sucking on a pacifier  Babies exhibit behaviors while awake: 1. sucking 2. sticks tongue in and out 3. smile or rarely smiles 4. more active Parents respond to these behavior differences and babies respond to the way their caretakers treat them. The bidirectional influences have far reaching influences on what kind of person the baby will turn out to be. Thus, from the start babies affect their own lives by molding the environment on which they grow. Weight & Height  Growth – fastest at 5-6 double birth weight  One year it is tripled.  Tapers off in 2nd year ( will gain 5-6 lbs.) 3rd year – 4-5 lbs.  Height – 10-12 “ by 1st yr. = 30 inches tall  2nd year – up to 5 “  2 yrs. – 3 ft.  3rd yr. – 3-4”  Growth occurs in spurts.  Head becomes proportionately smaller until full adult height is reached.  Becomes leaner  Genes dictate height, built but interacts with environment ( Nutrition, living environment freedom from diseases) Breast milk  Breast milk or Formula – needed until 4-6 months  Breast milk – best food; up to 6 months  complete source of nutrients  more digestible than cow’s milk  less likely to produce allergic reactions  teeth & jaws tend to develop better compared to bottle fed.  Varying degrees of protection from diarrhea, respiratory infection – (bronchitis, pneumonia, Otitis media)  Better visual acuity & neurological development  Emotional & a physical act. Bonding so too with bottle fed. Important quality of relationship between mother & child.  Not advisable when mother has AIDS which can be transmitted thru her milk  Or with Silicone breast implant  Or has infectious illness  Or use of any drug harmful for the baby  Encourage woman to breastfeed  Government institutions – feeding Nursery; onsite infant care Cow’s Milk and Solid food  Cow’s milk – lacks iron  Can be formula fed at one year with supplementary foods – should be whole milk

Fetus respond to sounds & even learn to recognize them. begin to develop more deliberate  Movements – increasing control over body parts – maturity of cerebral cortex  Repeated practice  Skills proceed from simple to complex  A continuous. Known it when they were in their wombs.    Teething – 3-4 months First tooth arrives – 5-9 months 2 years old – 20 teeth Use of juice can be interfere with appetite for high calorie.  Sucks the nipple more when hearing a voice that is recognizable. blue & yellow. MILESTONE IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT  DDST ( Denver Development Screening Test) HAND CONTROL  Born with a grasping reflex when palm is stroked. can grasp an object with one hand and transfer it to the other and then hold but not pick up. green. circumcision with anesthesia or pain relieves. Prefers red & blue  Neonate focus between from about one foot away – mother – infant bonding  Vision is acute in the 1st year  Binocular vision . Smell  can distinguish odors  vanilla from strawberry  6 day old baby prefers his mother’s breast pad over that of another nursing mother but a 2 day baby will not Taste  prefers sweet than sour or bitter.  One month – can discriminate between sounds as close as “ba” & “pa”  Babies less than 3 day old can recognize the mother’s voice from a stranger’s.  Hearing correlated with intelligence Sight least well developed Eyes are smaller  retinal structures are incomplete  optic nerves underdeveloped  blinks at bright light  Peripheral vision is narrow  Ability to shift gaze develops at first  2 months. it closes tightly  3 ½ months. can discriminate among red.g. can tell red from green  3 months. more nutritious food. multifactorial process of interaction between baby & environment. Stroking on the mouth of baby when he is hungry – rooting reflex  By 32 weeks of gestation – all parts of body are sensitive to touch  Sense of Touch enables people to feel pain e. ability to acquire information by handling them rather than by looking at them MOTOR DEVELOPMENT  4 months. can distinguish blue  4 months.using both eyes to focus which allows perception of depth & distance – 4-5 months  Haptic perception. Human breast milk is quite sweet Hearing  begins in the womb and is acute before birth. . EARLY SENSORY CAPACITIES: Touch and Pain Sensitivity  Touch first seems to develop & most mature sensory system. dynamic.

Certain neurological & sensory & motor capacities must be developed before learning can occur.g. Babkin reflex – stroke of forehead while at the same time given sweetened H2O  Babkin – babies open their mouth and turn their heads when hearing a tone & when arms are moved 2. It is concerned with how behavior changes in response to experience. see. but will not search for in a place he did not see it being hidden. Basis for children’s awareness that they exist apart from objects & other people.  Inversible imitation – imitation using parts of the baby’s body can’t see – like mouth – develops at 9 months after visible imitation  Purpose – identity check . build a tower of 2 cubes 3rd birthday.  3rd substage – baby will look for something that he has dropped.  Babies sit by raising themselves from a prone position ( facedown) or by plopping down from a standing position  2 ½ years – sit without help  6 months – wriggle around on their bellies pull their bodies along with their arms dragging their feet behind. (Reward)  Infant Memory  2-6 months . can pick up a tiny object with pincer motion  15 months. roll over purposelfully first from front to back then from back to front. but if they can’t see a part of it. go back to crawling & then try again walk – toddlerhood  climb stairs one at a time  walking downstairs come later  Baby gates needed COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AMONG INFANT & TODDLERS Intelligent behavior 1.can remember to perform an action that brought pleasure D. it no longer exists. Types of learning 1. C. Piagetian Approach  Representational Ability – the ability to mentally represent objects & actions to memory largely through symbols such as words. A person learns to anticipate an event before it happens. adaptive – adjusting to the circumstances & conditions of life.  6th substage – look for an object even if he did not see where it is hidden.  Deferred imitation – imitating actions they no longer see in front of them  Object Permanence – realization that an object or person continues to exist even when out of sight. B.  E. better locomotion  7 months or so. Operant conditioning – baby learns to make a certain response in order to produce a particular effect. stand alone  11 ½ months. parallel to the floor. May hitch or scoot by moving along in a sitting position pushing forward with their arms & legs.  4th substage – baby looks for the object in a place when he first saw it hidden even if he sees it moved to another place  5th substage – he will search for an object in the last place he saw it being hidden. Classical conditioning – a person or animal learns to respond automatically to a stimulus that originally did not provoke the response. Human beings are born with the ability to learn from experience. Behavioral approach – studies the basic mechanics of learning. take their first unsided steps.  9-10 months. can copy a circle fairly well LOCOMOTION  3 months. 4 Approaches to measure intelligent A. can stand with help  11 months. numbers & mental pictures – sixth substage 18 months to 2 years. 7-11 months. taste & touch. smell. goal oriented – deliberate & conscious 2. Learn from what they hear. tumble. Bear walk with hands & feet touching the ground. May crawl on hands & knees with their trunks raised.

linguistic speech – verbal expression that conveys meaning. paying attention to child & talking to him – operant conditioning (B. nodding his head means yes & shaking his head to mean no. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT  4 ½ . all are grandpa with gray hair) Facility with language  Nature vs. “dada” “da” – means “I want that or where is dad”.F.  Use articles (a.g. Its meaning depends on the content in which the child utters it. the) prepositions (in.  13 months – hold an empty cup to his mouth or hold up his arms to show that he wanted to pick up.  Nativism (by Chomsky) – the child has innate brain functioning on language all in their own – nature.  9-10 months – words that they understand are their own names  13 months – children understand that a word stands for specific thing or event.chuckles aloud  Says ngooh & ngaah  7 months da or ga  11 months – dada  14 months – da for I want that points to everything asking what 2 is?  17 months – points to right place – where is your nose? Tongue?  21 months – 50 words  Tells you in his language what he likes & does not like  Growth of language represents the interaction of all aspects of development physical. a complete thought in a single  Word – holophrase.Intelligence Tests  Habituation – type of learning in which repeated exposure to a stimulus (sound or sight).  Symbolic gestures – blowing to mean “hot” First Words  10-14 months – first word. .  Will show some understanding of grammar.  15 months – 10 words  Common early spoken words are names of things.  Imitate & repeat sounds that are reinforced by parents. patterns & intensities signal hunger. Results in a reduced response to that stimulus. Skinner Learning Theory.  Different pitches. squels.  Telegraphic speech – include only the essentials “Ma sweep”  20-30 months syntax – the rule for putting sentences together in their language.  Gestures – 9-12 months waving bye-bye. pronunciation. Dolly Fall 18-24 months. longer & more complex Overextend word meanings (grandpa.  “mama” . cognitive. Nature  Learn language by reinforcement – smile. sleepiness or anger  6 weeks to 3 months – cooing. intonation & rhythm. social Early vocalization  Crying – only means of communication in NB  Cry for food or cry of pain.  New stimulus – dishabituation  Explanatory competence – at 13 months a cognitive activity that seems to underlie the growing variance at that age in the sophistication of toddlers play their ability to sustain attention.  Toddler 50 words to 400 words. on)  3 year old – speech is fluent. emotional. bow – mean for dog or specific name for dog. giggles & vowel sound like ahhh  Babbling – repeating consonant vowel strings such ma-ma-ma-ma (6-10 months)  9-10 months – deliberately imitate sounds without understanding  Research suggest that hearing the “Mother Tongue” before may pretune an infants ears to pick up linguistic sounds (& HR when rhyme is recited before birth)  6 months – babies have learned the basic sounds of their native language. Allows people to conserve mental energy by remaining alert to things & events in the environment only as they seem to merit attention.  Toddlers put two words together to express an idea – e.

Language is a social set which needs practice. shyness & fear. Toddlers sometimes become anxious because they now realize how much they are separating from their caregiver. Differentiate into joy. Infants can anticipate what is about to happen & experience disappointment when it does not.36 Timetable of Emotional Development (Table 5-2) Emotion Interest Distress (in response to pain) Disgust (in response to unpleasant taste or smell) Anger. They work out their awareness of their limitations in fantasy & in play & by identifying with adults. they become more confident & more eager to assert themselves. creatures with minds of their own. showing joy.  Facial expressions varied emotions – joy. anger. As they master the environment. may become afraid of strangers. Abused infants show fear several months before other babies. They begin to show interest & curiosity. pride Approximate Age of Emergence Present at birth soon after First 6 months 18-24 months 30-36 months EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT  Soon after birth. structure phrases and carry on a conversation. . 6-9 9 . surprise. Seemed to be governed by a biological clock of the brain’s maturationnecessary for survival.12 12 -18 18 . By talking to babies. & they smile readily at people. & cajole other babies to get them to respond. They express more differentiated emotions. joy.  Psychosocial development in the first 3 years – docility in infancy are transferred into strong-willed often times ill-tempered. Infants are intensely preoccupied with their principal caregiver.  language requisition is anchored on the nature – nurture relationship. touch.  Emotional reactions to events to people which are tied to cognitive perceptions. surprise anger. fear anger & surprise. showing moods. fear. using the people they are most attached to as a secure base. flail their arms & legs & stiffen their bodies. embarassment Shame. Importance of social interaction – how adults talk with ah infant or toddler and how often is crucial to language acquisition. resistance at 3 transition from dependency to independence  Personality development is intertwined with social relationships. Infants play “social games” & try to get responses from people. jealousy. They let out piercing cries. ambivalence & gradations of feeling. fear.  Terrible 2. sadness. shyness Empathy. are a basic development of personality. Highlights of Infant’s & Toddler’s Psychosocial Development – Birth to 36 months (Table 5-1) Approximate Age in Months 0-3 3-6 Characteristics Infants are open to stimulation. sadness. babies show signs of distress & disgust & interest. adults show how to use new words.  1 year – baby has some sense of intentional conversation  Socioeconomic status seems to affect the amount and quality of verbal interaction between parents and children with their long range language and cognitive development. & act subdued in new situations. they communicate emotions more clearly. Toddlers explore their environment.  How do infants show their emotions?  Newborns – show when they are unhappy. guilt. By 1 year. They “talk” to. This is a time of social awakening and early reciprocal exchanges between the baby & the caregiver.

cooing. Environment – parental treatment – good marriage. high self esteem have good relationship with their babies. cries often & loudly.  When babies need something they cry.  NB – faint smile as a result of brain activity appears while infant is sleeping.  At the end of one year – less cry especially if mother has been responding to the different patterns of crying. Angry cry – excess air is forced through the vocal cords 3.  Crying – the most powerful & they only way infants communicate their need. smile when hands are moved together to play pat-a-cake.  Smiling & laughing – a happy cheerful baby who rewards caregiving efforts with smiles & gurgles are likely to form better relationships than one who smile less often. babies smile more at people. Quiet when hearing a human voice or when picked up.  One month – smiles become more frequent & more social.  2nd week – smiles drowsily after feeding. . parents are psychologically healthy. they smile or laugh. Smile when their hands are clapped together. fetuses show unique personalities  8 weeks – show differences in emotional response  Largely inborn  At 2 months old who cries in outrage when given a shot will likely become just as infuriated at 19 months. also laughs loudly Responds poorly to novelty & change Accepts new foods slowly Is suspicious of strangers Adapts slowly to new situations Reacts frustration w/ tantrums Adjust slowly to new routines Slow-to-Warm-up Child Has mildly intense reactions.  3 months – smiles are broader & longer lasting  4 months – laugh out loud as he is being kissed on the stomach  4-6 months – giggles in response to sounds & touch  7-9 months – laughs in a game of peek-a-boo  Temperament – even in the womb.  Their sense of control grow over the world grows as they see that their cries bring help & comfort & that their smiles & laughter elicit smiles & laughter in return.  As time goes by. smiling. usually positive Responds well to novelty & change Takes to new foods easily Smiles at strangers Adapts easily to new situations Accepts most frustrations w/ little fuss Adapts quickly to new routines & rules of new games Difficult Child Displays intense & frequently negative moods. Frustration cry – 2 or 3 drawn out cries with no prolonged breathholding. both positive & negative Responds slowly to novelty & change Shows mildly negative initial response to new stimuli (like a first encounter with new person. Pain cry – sudden onset of loud cry without preliminary warning meaning sometimes followed by holding breath. When a playmate takes away a toy. longer & more irregularly than hungry babies. 4. place. Role of parents – especially mother’s feelings about her role.  Babies in distress cry louder. Easy Child Has moods of mild to moderate intensity. 4 Patterns of cry: 1. or situation) Gradually develops liking for new stimuli after repeated unpressured exposures Influences on temperament 1. Heredity 2. responds more to people. when they feel sociable.  2nd month – as visual recognition develops. Hunger cry (rythmic cry) 2. reaching out & finally going to them.

Father’s role in baby care  Parenting shaping of Gender Girls – are given a wide range of emotions Boys – given more attention Girls – encouraged to smile.the process by which children learn the behavior that their culture considers appropriate for each sex. The Child in the Family Study the family as a whole 1. How old are the parents? 2. Key to healthy adjustment is a good fit between a child & the environmental demands & constraints parents or caregivers set up. How many people live at home? 5. What is their financial status? 4.  Goodness fit between parent & child is a key role in the child’s adjustment. both in integrity emotional expressions  Gender typing . How does living in a single-parent hold. Are they healthy? 3.  Boys sets appropriately aggressive behaviors. or with grandparents or other relatives? Mother’s role. in a stepfamily. Relationship of the couple with the baby? 6. .

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