Gaseous Exchange across the Respiratory Surfaces and Transport ol Gases in Irumans

LEARNING OUTCOMES Describe the process of gaseous exchange across:h: sl:-,::: of the alveolus and blood capillaries in the lungs Explain the transport of respiratory gases Explain the process of gaseous exchange between the Dio,JC c'.1 body cells Distinguish the conrposrtion of inhaled and exhaleci air

Gaseous exchange across

the surface of alveolus and blood capilaries

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biooc cacrlla;y has Blood entering the blood capillary has a higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide and a lower partial pressure of
oxygen.
a higher cartral

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cxyge:r anC a lciver cania pressuie of carbon
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Capillary vrall

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Oxygen diffuses into red blood cells Diffuses out of blood plasma

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Gaseous exchange across the surface of the

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alveolus and blood capillaries in the lungs.

summarises the differences between the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the alveoli and in the blood capiilaries.
Effects

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Air in the alveoli Hioh

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Oxygen diffuses from the aivec!i ntc ti'e clood

cariiialres Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxi,Je diifuses

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frnm ihe hinn,i n:niiiarroc into tne ai'.,eoli summarises the differences between the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the tissue capillaries and body cells. Partial pressure

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Carbon dioxide

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The transporl of respiratory gases irr lrurrralts

a) Transpcrt c: cx','qen

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1.

Oxygen in the orocc
respiration.

:ral reaves tne alveolr is transpofted io body cells for cellular

2.
3.

Orygen is then ccnb;nes',v;'th a oigment called haemoqlobin which is contained in the red blood cells
A haemoglobin mclecuie ccnsists of four units, each with a heme group that has a

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oxygen is canied in the form of o{rha_emoglo-bin to all parts of the body.
lungs

Haemoglobin

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+ oxygen :

oxyhaemogiobin

b) Transport of carbon

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dioxide

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carbon dioxide released by body cells can be transported in ihi-ee ways: a) as dissolve carbon dioxide in the blood plasma ( 7%)
b) combines

with haemoglobin as carbarninohaemoqlobin (23To\ ions ( Hcq-) eao
).

c) transported in the biood in the form of bicarbonqte

By usino the informalicn below. complete a graphic diagram to make it easier to understand.
Blood plasru Red Blood cells

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Body cells release CO2 and diffuses into blood plasma then combines with the red blood cells. Carbon dioxide reacts wiilr water to form carbonic acid ( HzCO:) Red blood cells contain the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to catalyse this reaction. The cafuenic aciC then disscciates into a hydrogen ion and a bicarbonate ion. Most of the bicarbonate ions diffuse into the blood plasnna and are carried in the bloocjp]€me-lg rhe From the blood caoitlaries to the

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Blood capillaries

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The bicarbcnate icns Ci,{use frs.q-. ihe blood plas;-na in'.o ine r.ed blooo cells and form carbcnic acid again Carbonic aid 5:eaks dowr1 i: carbon dioxrde anc water Carbon dioi.ice .:ffuses froi.:r ile blood capillaries intc the aiveoii tnus expelled during exnaiaiion
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Lungs

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The excltancte of respiratory qases betwecn ttre blood and bodv cells.
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tissue clipiilrriv

Exchange of gases between the blood and body cells

1. ln the tissue
2

capillaries, the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood is hiqher than the

partial pressure of oxygen in the cells. Oxyhaemoglobin breaks down and releases oxvqen, which then diffuses through the capillary walls irito the cells. Cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide thus, the partial pressure of carbon

dioxide is hiqher in the cells than the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the tissue
capillaries.
4.

Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cells into the tissue capillaries

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The composition of inhaled and exhaled air

Content
Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nitrogen
.ty'ater vapour

lnhaled air
21.09
o/o

Exhaled air
16.4 %

0.03 %

4.1 79.0
saturated

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79.0 Varies

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an! is never

Saturated Body temperature
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rei"nperature

Room temperature

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7.4 The Regulation Mechanism in Respiration LEARNING OUTCOMES Describe the ctiange rn the rate of respiration after con'rpierltg vrgcr.cus exercise Correlate the rate of respiration with the oxygen and carbon droxrde contents in the body Explain the regulatory ntechanism of oxygen and carbon dioxide contenls in the body Explain the hunrarr respiratory response and rate of respiration ir.r different situations Correlate the rate of respiration with the rate of heaftbear

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Corelation the rate of respiration with the oxygen and carbon dioxide contents in the body.
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During viqorous exercise, the muscle require more oxvqen and qlucose to release

enerqv during cellular respiration. Therefore the rate of respiration increases.
2. 3

ln order to supply more oxygen, the rate and depth of breathing increases. This means the breathinq rate increases.

4. At the same time, the heartbeat rate increases to pump more blood into circulation.
5.

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This is to enable more oxygen and glucose to be suppried for ceilurar respiration and

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for more carbon dioxide to be removed from the cells.

6. The ventilation rate also increases. 7. Rate of ventilation is the rate of gaseous exchanqe
capillaries
The regulatory mechanism

between the alveoli and b|ogd

of carbon dioxide content

in the body

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Increased concenlration of
carbon dioxide ( During vigorous exercise
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carbon dioxide

Breathing rate'and

C02 + H:O-_*

,'ertiiation rate increase

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pH value in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood drops

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RESPIRATORY CENTRE

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Central chemoreceptors The regulatory mechanism of oxygen content in the body Decreased concentration of
oxygen ( at very high altitude
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Normal concentration of oxygen

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RESPTRATORY

CENTRE

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Tne periphefal chemoreceptors called the aortic bodies and carorid bodics are iocaied in the lvalls of the aofla arch and caiotid a(eries in the neck

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mcre sensilrve tc the exchange of oxygenconcentration

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the blood

::1'fei'ed to exchange cf carbcn

droxrde content and the pH of the blood

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The regulatory mechanism of oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the body
According to the numbers given in the diagram above state what happened when there are , a change in oxygen and carbon dioxide contents of the body .

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NUMBERS Detects the

EXPLANATION

Aecreji

Detects the changes of carbon dioxide concentration Detects the pH changes
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i Rate of heartbeat increased Rate of ventilation increased
Bleath tAglgl;nd dggpgl / rate oiiespiration is rrrcreasea Ourrng vrgorous exeroses so that more oxygen is taken in and more carbon dioxide to be removed from the cells

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The human respiratory response and rate of respiration irr different situations.
The breathing rate RELAXING The heartbeat rate minute.

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RESPOI'ISES_ 18 to 20 breaths per minute
between 60 to 70 beats

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DURING VIGOROUS ACTIVITIES

Activities

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exercise, playing badminton , can give the breathing rate increases to about 30 breaths per minute, while the heartbeat increases to 120 beats per minute
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IN FEAR

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The breathing and the heartbeatlaGslncrease The higher respiration rate is needed to generate
more enerqv to the person to cope better in fear. The adrenal glands secrele lhe adrenaline
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hormone. This hormone increases the heartbeat
and breathing rates. More glucose and oxvqen are supplied to the muscle.

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This prepares the person to respond to the dangerous situation.
The atmospheric pressure is low and lead to difficult in breathi nq. The decreased partial pressure of oxygen causes a drop in the oxygen level of the blood. lnitially, a person will experience headaches, nausea and dizziness.

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AT HIGH ALTITUDES

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After a few days, the body will become
acclimatised to the condition.

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7.5 Tlre lmportance of Maintaining a Healthy Respiraiory System

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LEARNiNG OUTCOMES
Care and maintain efficient functroning of the respirato:.), oigers

1

The air we inhale contains dirt, dust. soot,various irritanis 3lrii n3imi,.;i pollutants.

2

A smoker inhales smoke which contains gases like carbon monoxide tar
nicotine.

and

Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 chemicals which include tar. nicotine, carbon
monoxide, acetone, benzene and formaldehyde

4.

These chemicals are carcinoqenic compounds.v,ihich can cause luno cancer

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@Dibenzacridine
Naphtala rnine

Arsenic

Ammonia Cadmium

Butane Benzene Benzopvrene

Acetone
Methanol

Carbon monoxide

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Naphtalene

DDT

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Vinyl Chloride
Tolvyne Hydrogen cyanide

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Formaldehide
Pyrene Pcloniunr-2'l 0
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The chemicai ingiedtents !vnict-,

cc.ri.ir !i c!. aierra

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HEAT AND DRYNESS CARBON MONOXIDE

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lritation the lungs and can lead
:o laryngitis
Makes speakinq difficult and painful. TAR . Contarn nicotine . stimulate the production of

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with haemoqlobin 6::; isr;.r carboxv haemoqlobin lt reduces tte supolT ci oxygen tc i:r3 cells.

Competes rv;ih oxvqen

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NITROGEN DIOXIDE ' Can dissolve rn mucus tc for'::r an acidic medium rvhich
erodes iung tissue.

l'oBACCO S\IOKES'S CONTAIN

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cancer cell in trachea and lung. Constrict the blood vessels and
make the heart to pump harder and will increase the blood pressure.

3,4 BENzO-(o)-PYRENE Carcinoqenic chemical that can cause cancer.

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5.
6.

Two of the most common types of COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) are

Emphvsema and Chronic bronchitis. Emphysema is a desease in rvhich the walls between the air sacs in the lungs are

damaqed.
7.

Chronic bronchitis is the lmflammation of the bronchi that can caused overproduction of fluid and lead to frequent couqhinq.
Eat a healthv diet

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A'.'o!C smoky and dusty environment

plenty of water

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Respiration in Plants
LEARNING OUTCOMES Describe the energy requirement in plants Explain the intake of oxygen for respiration Explain aerobic and anaerobic respiration in plants Compare and contrast photosynthesis and respiration Relate light intensify with compensation point Predict the situation when the rate of photosynthesis and respiration remain at compensation point

Energy requirement in plant.

1
2-

Plant derive their energy from cellular respiration. During cellular respiration, plant cells take in oxvqen and produce carbon dioxide

3.

Photosynthesis only occur in the presence of light. ln darkness, plants carry out respiration. Plants need energy continuously to sustain their living process.

The intake of oxygen by plants for respiration
1. Gaseous exchange between plant cell and the environment occurs by

diffusion through

stomata and lenticels.

lenticel

Structure of stomata and lenticel

2. The stomata of most plants open when there is liqht and they close in the dark. 3 Lenticels are raised pores found on lhe stems and roots.

4 The cells around the lenticels
and out of the plant tissue

are arranged loosely to allow the

diffusion of qases

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Labelthe diagram below artd r)ark the pathway of oxygen and carDOn droxroe excnange

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The pathway of gaseous exchange in a leaf

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Oxygen from the atmosphere diffuses to the air spaces and then into the mesophvll

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cells. During aerobic respira{ion, oxygen concentration in the cells rs lower than the concentration of oxygen in the air spaces, thus allows it to diffuse from :he air spaces
into the cells.
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Carbon dioxide which

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produced during aerobic respiration

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photosvnthesis during the day

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Excess carbon dioxide diffuses into air spaces and

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then through the stomata into the atmosphere

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Aerobic and anaerobic respiration in plants

1 2 3

Aerobrc reslriaiion rs JSti:ilv c3l.i.reJ 3iit:t,piants throughoul fhe day and night Unoe, can:ir cl.ci,lrcr.s s:a,r 3s:_::iJ flcocinq, pian,l can alsc carny out anaerobic respiration for short periods Anaerobrc respiraiion also occu:s c,:,i.1

ire

initrai stages of qermination when the

embryo is completely encloseo l.linin 6 seeo coal Respiration and photosynthesis

1 2

Respiration and photosynthesis are oepenoent on each other.

Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide from respiration and produces oxvqen needed
for respiration

3 A point called compensation

point has reached whereby all the carbon dioxide

produced during respiration is reused during photosynthesis.

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\THESIS

RESPIRATION

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Net sugar production ( ratL. of photosynthesis . rate of respiration )

Releases of CO:
inc rc'a sc- s

Net sugar loss ( rate of sugar used in respiration , rate of sugar produce during photosynthesis)

high

llighl rntensity

'
llight intensity

' . . '

Rate of photosvnthesis is higher than the rate of respiration Carbon dioxide is taken in from the atmosphere Oxvqen is released into the atmosphere The rate of suqar production is higher than the rate of sugar consumption Excess sugar can be used for qroMh and other living
DTOCCSSES

no net gain or net loss in CO2 by plants and no
nett gain or net loss in the sugar produced.

Compensation point

The iate of carbon dioxide production
d,uring respiration
.

The rate of carbon dioxide consum ption during photosynthesis.

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compare and contrast tletween photosynthesis and respiration

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similarities

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Occurs in organelle of living ceil

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RESPIRATION

TOSYNTHESIS Organisms involve

Takes place
organrsms

in

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plants

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Occurs during day and nighl

When it occurs

Occurs only on dav time or at
certain light intensity.

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As a catabolisme process, thal is the metabolisme break down
of complex molecules to smaller ones.
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Process

As a anabolisme process, that is ihe synthesis of complex molecules from a simpler
molecules
.

Glucose and oxygen are used

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Carbon dioxide
Reaction are released.

and

r,vater are

while the carbon dioxide and
water are released.

used while oxygen and glucose

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is converted to chemical energy ATP and
Chemical energy
heat energy.

Light energy
Exchange of energy

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converted to

chemical energy

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Related Interests

\THESIS

RESPIRATION

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Net sugar production ( ratL. of photosynthesis . rate of respiration )

Releases of CO:
inc rc'a sc- s

Net sugar loss ( rate of sugar used in respiration , rate of sugar produce during photosynthesis)

high

llighl rntensity

'
llight intensity

' . . '

Rate of photosvnthesis is higher than the rate of respiration Carbon dioxide is taken in from the atmosphere Oxvqen is released into the atmosphere The rate of suqar production is higher than the rate of sugar consumption Excess sugar can be used for qroMh and other living
DTOCCSSES

no net gain or net loss in CO2 by plants and no
nett gain or net loss in the sugar produced.

Compensation point

The iate of carbon dioxide production
d,uring respiration
.

The rate of carbon dioxide consum ption during photosynthesis.

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compare and contrast tletween photosynthesis and respiration

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similarities

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Occurs in organelle of living ceil

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ri,

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RESPIRATION

TOSYNTHESIS Organisms involve

Takes place
organrsms

in

all

lTakes place only ln qreen
plants

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Occurs during day and nighl

When it occurs

Occurs only on dav time or at
certain light intensity.

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As a catabolisme process, thal is the metabolisme break down
of complex molecules to smaller ones.
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Process

As a anabolisme process, that is ihe synthesis of complex molecules from a simpler
molecules
.

Glucose and oxygen are used

"d

Carbon dioxide
Reaction are released.

and

r,vater are

while the carbon dioxide and
water are released.

used while oxygen and glucose

d /,
'd

is converted to chemical energy ATP and
Chemical energy
heat energy.

Light energy
Exchange of energy

is

converted to

chemical energy

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