1

Module 2.5 : First-Degree Equations and Inequalities
in One Variable














EXPLORE Your Understanding












Activity 1

Do You Remember?


















This module is about first-degree equations and inequalities in
one variable. As you go through the activities/exercises, you will
be able to
 identify and translate mathematical sentences into first-
degree equations and inequalities in one variable, and
 describe situations where equations and inequalities are
used.

ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION!
Rings a bell? What is an algebraic
expression? Do you still remember?
Give examples then.

Warm up your brain cells! Let us begin with
exploratory activities that will guide you through the lesson on
first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable.
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Activity 2


Can You Spot the Difference?


Examples of mathematical phrases and mathematical sentences are given
below. Study the following and spot the difference.


Mathematical Phrases Mathematical Sentences

12 20 ÷ 8 12 20 = ÷
b 2 4 2 = b
y x + y x + = 7
s 5 t s = 5
4 3 + r 0 4 3 < +
c 7 ÷ 1 7 s ÷ c
d e 4 ÷
2
1
4 > ÷ d e
w v + 2 a w v 9 2 > +

What do you observe? How do you compare a mathematical phrase with a
mathematical sentence?


Activity 3

Look, Observe and Point Out



The equations below are first-degree equations in one variable.

1 = x 4 5 ÷ b 0 7 2 = + a 2 5 6 ÷ = ÷ c 2 8 7 = + y

The equations below are not first-degree equations in one variable.

1
2
= y 14 5 = ÷r b 0 7 2
3
= + b a 2 5 6
4
÷ = ÷ c c x y 2 8 =

Look at the equations above. Observe them carefully and point out their
differences. Based on your observation, what are first-degree equations in one
variable?

Which of the following equations are first-degree equations in one variable?
15 8 = + x 0
3
= z
2
1
6 3 = + h a 4 1 5 = ÷ r 7 ÷ = t

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FIRM UP Your Understanding











Equations and Inequalities

In Module 2.1, you have learned about algebraic expressions.









The mathematical phrases in Activity 2 are algebraic expressions.

A mathematical phrase is an algebraic expression. It does not express a
complete thought. On the other hand, a mathematical sentence contains algebraic
expressions together with a relation symbol =, <, s, > or > and it expresses a
complete thought. We recall that these relation symbols are read as follows.

= is equal to or equals
< is less than
s is less than or equal to
> is greater than
> is greater than or equal to

Now, let us look at the given mathematical sentences. The first four
mathematical sentences in Activity 2, 8 12 20 = ÷ , 4 2 = b , y x + = 7 and t s = 5 are
called equations. Can you give your own examples of equations?

An equation is a mathematical sentence that makes use of the symbol =.
What do you think does the symbol = imply?

The symbol = implies that the two sides of the equation are equal. This
means that whatever is the value of the left side of the equation is also the value of
the right side.


An algebraic expression is a collection of constants and
variables that are combined using one or more of the four fundamental
operations namely, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
(except division by zero).

Now let’s keep going! Enjoy learning more and
more about first-degree equations and inequalities in
one variable .Here are enabling activities that will help
you.
4
This time, let us focus on the last four mathematical sentences in Activity 2,
0 4 3 < + , 1 7 s ÷ c ,
2
1
4 > ÷ d e and a w v 9 2 > + . These mathematical sentences are
called inequalities. Can you give your own examples of inequalities?

How do you then define an inequality?
An inequality is a mathematical sentence that makes use of the relation
symbols <, s, > or >.
What do the symbols < and > imply?

The symbols < and > imply that the left side of the inequality is not equal to
the right side of the inequality. This means further that the symbol < is used when
the value of the left side of the inequality is less than the value of the right side, while
the symbol > is used when the value of the left side of the inequality is greater than
the value of the right side.

The symbol s means that the value of the left side of the inequality is either
less than or equal to the value of the right side, while the symbol > means that the
value of the left side of the inequality is either greater than or equal to the value of
the right side.


Activity 4

Again, go back to each of the given mathematical sentences and tell whether
it is true or false.

Mathematical sentence True or False?

1. 8 12 20 = ÷ _____
2. 4 2 = b _____
3. y x + = 7 _____
4. t s = 5 _____
5. 0 4 3 < + _____
6. 1 7 s ÷ c _____
7.
2
1
4 > ÷ d e _____
8. a w v 9 2 > + _____

If your answer is true for the first mathematical sentence, false for the 5
th

mathematical sentence, while may be true or false or neither true nor false, for the
remaining mathematical sentences, then you are correct.

Sentences 2, 3 4, 6, 7 and 8 may be true or false depending upon the value/s
of the variable/s. For example, in the equation 4 2 = b ,
if 2 = b , then ( ) 4 2 2 = and the equation is true,

but if 1 ÷ = b , then ( ) 4 1 2 = ÷ thus, the equation is false.
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Sentences 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 are examples of open sentences. An open
sentence is an equation or inequality that becomes true or false when the variable is
replaced by a value.


Translating English Statements to Equations or Inequalities
and Vice Versa


A knowledge of mathematical symbols and their meanings will enable you to
translate verbal sentences into mathematical sentences and vice-versa.

Word/Phrase Symbol
added to, increased by, more than,
the sum of, plus
+
subtracted from, decreased by, diminished by, less
than, the difference, minus

-


as much as, of, as many as, the product of
- or ( )
or sometimes not written
anymore, i.e., a number
is simply written together
with variables
divided by, the quotient of, ratio, over ÷, /, __
is equal to, equals, is the same as =
is less than <
is less than or equal to, at most s
is greater than >
is greater than or equal to, at least >

Example 1
Translate each of the following into mathematical sentences.

1.1 English sentence: Three times a number is nine.

translation: 3 · n = 9
mathematical sentence: 9 3 = · n or ( ) 9 3 = n or 9 3 = n

We note that the symbol for the operation multiplication may not be written
anymore.

1.2 English sentence: The sum of a number and seven is twelve.


translation: b + 7 = 12
mathematical sentence: 12 7 = + b


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1.3 English sentence: The difference between a number and one is eight.


translation: c - 1 = 8
mathematical sentence: 8 1= ÷ c


Let us see if you can do the same thing in the following sentences. Write the
corresponding symbols below.

1.4 English sentence: A number added to six is greater than two.


translation: ___ ___ ___ ___ ____

mathematical sentence: ______________

1.5 English sentence: Twice a number subtracted by nine is less than five.


translation: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

mathematical sentence: ________________


Example 2.
Translate each mathematical sentence into an English sentence.

2.1 mathematical sentence: 16 = xy x
English sentence: The product of x and y is sixteen.
We note that the given mathematical sentence may also be translated as “The
product of a number and another number is 16.” or “ x times y is equal to 16.”

2.2 mathematical sentence: 7 4 > + a
English sentence: The sum of a number and four is greater than or equal
to seven.

Now, let us see if you can translate the given mathematical sentences into an
English sentence.

2.3 mathematical sentence: 3 2 5 ÷ = ÷ y
English sentence: ____________________________________________ .

2.4 mathematical sentence: ( ) 10 9 3 < + r
English sentence: ____________________________________________ .



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Activity 5

Translate each English sentence into a mathematical sentence and identify if
each is an equation or an inequality.

1. A number, p , minus sixteen is equal to twenty-eight.
2. Seven times the sum of negative eight and a number, b , is greater than or
equal to ninety-nine.
3. Fifteen is greater than the sum of four and the square of a number, x .
4. Seven subtracted from four times a number, a , is less than or equal to the
square of the number, a .
5. The quotient when a number, x , is divided by three is equal to negative
eleven.


Differentiating First-Degree Equations from
First-degree Inequalities in One Variable

A first-degree equation in one variable is an equation that contains only
one variable and the variable is raised to the exponent 1. Thus, a first-degree
equation in x is of the form 0 = +b ax , where a is a nonzero real number and b is
any real number.

Consider the first set of first-degree equations in one variable that are given in
Activity 3.

1 = x 4 5 ÷ b 0 7 2 = + a 2 5 6 ÷ = ÷ c 2 8 7 = + y

If the symbol = is changed to any of the following relation symbols, <, s, > or >, then
we have first-degree inequalities in one variable. Some possible results are as
follows.

1 < x 4 5 > b 0 7 2 s + a 2 5 6 ÷ > ÷ c 2 8 7 < + y


What is a first-degree inequality in one variable?

A first-degree inequality in one variable is an inequality that contains only
one variable and the variable is raised to the exponent 1.
A first-degree inequality in x is any of the following forms:
0 < +b ax
0 s +b ax
0 > +b ax
0 > +b ax
where a is a nonzero real number and b is any real number.



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Activity 6

1. Give your own examples of first-degree equations in one variable.
2. Give examples of first-degree inequalities in one variable.

Activity 7

Identify which of the following is a first-degree equation or inequality in one
variable.
1. 0 1 2 3
2
= + ÷ x x 6. 1 = + y x
2. 31 9 = ÷ y 7. 4 3 14 > ÷ x
3. 75
2
1
= z 8. 0 2
2
= + ÷ c x ax
4. 15 15
2
s + ÷ b a 9. 23 = + n m
5. 18
8
3
> b 10. 100 23 = ÷ m

Applications of First-Degree Equations and Inequalities

Equations and inequalities are used to model some real-life situations. This is
successfully done by using your knowledge in translating an English sentence into
an equation or inequality.

Study the following examples.

1. In 1994, twice the population ( n ) of a barangay in Bulacan was 50 000. This
is modeled by an equation that is obtained by translating the sentence “Twice
n is 50 000.” into an equation. Thus, we have 50000 2 = n .

2. The distance, d , that a vehicle travels is computed by multiplying the rate, r ,
by the time, t , it consumes. In symbols, this is written as rt d = . What
equation represents the time consumed by a plane in travelling a distance of
1,468 miles at the rate of 400 mi/hr.?
The equation is t 400 468 , 1 = .

3. Patrick is 4 inches taller than James. The sum of their heights is less than 7
feet. Represent this by a first-degree inequality in one variable.

If you use the variable p for Patrick’s height, then Jame’s height is 4 + p .
(You can also use other variables.) Thus, your final answer must be
7 4 < + + p p .

4. The amount earned by Jonathan is three times the amount earned by Arthur.
If you use the variable a to represent the amount earned by Arthur and their
total earnings is at least Php28,000, what first-degree inequality in one
variable will be used to model the situation?
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You should have represented the amount earned by Jonathan as a 3 and your
final answer must be 000 , 28 3 > + a a .

5. Anika’s age is half of Marielle’s age. Suppose Marielle’s age is represented
by m. What first-degree equation in one variable will represent the sentence,
“Ten years from now, their total ages will be 54”?

You should have used m
2
1
for Anika’s age. Ten years from now, the
ages of Marielle and Anika should be represented by 10 + m and 10
2
1
+ m ,
respectively. Why?

Yes, ten years from now is translated as + 10. Thus, your first-degree
equation must be 54 10
2
1
10 = + + + m m .

Activity 8

Write on equation or inequality to model each situation/problem.

1. I’m thinking of a number, n . If 12 is added to it, the result is 79.

2. If my mother would increase my weekly allowance by Php60, it would be
more than Php310. If a represents my weekly allowance, write an
inequality to find the possible amounts for my weekly allowance.

3. Glenn weighs 7 kg more than his brother Raymond. What first-degree
inequality represents the statement, “Together they weigh at least 124 kg.”,
if r represents Raymond’s weight?

4. The width of a rectangle is 43 dm. Find the length which will make its area
at most 3096 square dm. Represent the length by the variable l .

5. Mang Jose earns Php65 an hour. How long must he work to earn more
than P520? Suppose t represents the number of hours that Mang Jose
works, write an inequality to solve this problem.










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DEEPEN Your Understanding












Activity 9

A. Tell whether each of the following is a mathematical phrase or a
mathematical sentence.

1. 2
2
1
+ + x 6. 14 21 2 > + x
2. ( ) ( ) 5 2 2 3 + = ÷ x x 7. ( )
2 2
4 d c +
3. 7 5 s ÷ y 8. x ÷ 10
4.
y
y
1
+ 9. 1 3 5 11 ÷ < + x x
5. y y 5
2
+ 10. ( ) 13 2 = + ÷ n n

B. Classify the following mathematical sentences as true, false or open.

11. One kilometer is equal to 1,000 meters.
12. It is the world’s largest archipelago.
13. 14 9 5 = +
14. 20 4 9 = + x
15. 21 15 >

C. Fill in the box with the relation symbol =, <, s, > or > to make it a true
statement.

16. 5 3+ 1 9 ÷
17. 8 ( ) 3 7 2 ÷
18. ( ) 2 3 39 + ÷ ( ) 1 5 2 6 ÷ +
19. 6 + x 13, if x is replaced by 7
20. m 2 9 6 + , if m is 1


Get ready to take on more challenges to your
mathematical thinking and reasoning in relation to
the lessons. Do the following activities to further
enhance your skills.
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Activity 10

A. Translate each English sentence into a mathematical sentence.

1. A number, m, added to six is equal to two.
2. A number, p , minus 16 is equal to 38.
3. The difference between a 4 and 7 is less than 6.
4. Seven times the sum of 8 and a number, b , is greater than or equal to
10.
5. Six times a number, y , less four is equal to eight.

B. Translate the given mathematical sentence into an English sentence.

6. 9 5 2 = + x
7. 18 3 9 = + x
8. 4 16 2 s ÷ x
9. ( ) 8 1 2 = + x
10. 16 3 4 > ÷ m


Activity 11

Determine whether each of the following is an example of a first-degree
equation or a first-degree inequality in one variable. Explain your answer.

1. 0 1= + x
2. 3
9
2
=
y

3. 0 1 4 4
2
> + + a a
4. 25 = + n m
5. c 3 9 =


Activity 12

Read the following situations and do what is required.

1. Kristine’s weight is 2 lbs less than the weight, w of Ronald. Write a first-degree
equation in one variable that represents the sentence “The sum of the
weights of Kristine and Ronald is 210 lbs.”

2. The perimeter, p of a rectangle with length, l and width, wis given by the
formula w l p 2 2 + = . The length of a rectangular table is 1 m more than its
width. What is the first-degree equation in one variable that relates the
perimeter and width of the table if the perimeter is 6 m?


12
3. Belle sold 20 more magazines than Chris. If you use the variable, c to
represent the number of magazines sold by Chris, what first-degree equation in
one variable represents the sentence “Five times the total number of magazines
sold by Belle and Chris is ten more than seven times the number of magazines
sold by Belle.”?

4. The number of Php10 coins is 17 decreased by the number of Php5 coins. If the
variable f is used to represent the number of P5 coins, how will you represent
the following?

4.1 the number of Php10 coins in terms of f
4.2 the value of Php5 coins
4.3 the value of Php10 coins
4.4 the first-degree mathematical sentence in one variable for “The value of all
coins is at most Php110.”

5. Running, Bryan covered a distance, b while Louie covered a third of this. Write
the first-degree equation that models the statement, “The distance covered by
Bryan is four times the distance covered by Louie.”



TRANSFER Your Understanding











Activity 13

A.
Based on what you have learned, think of real-life situations that can
be modelled by first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable, similar
to those in Activity 12 . Compile your work in your portfolio.

B.
Write a journal about your views regarding the importance of
first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable in modelling real -life
relationships of various quantities.





It’s time to demonstrate what you have
learned. Do the following activities and compile
your work in your portfolio.
13
Answers Key

Module 2.5: First-Degree Equations and Inequalities in One Variable

Activity 1

An algebraic expression is an expression composed of constants, variables,
grouping symbols, and operation symbols.

Some examples are: y x 2 3 + ,
2
6m , ( ) y x ÷ 3 .
(Given examples may vary.)


Activity 2

Difference: The expressions under the column of mathematical sentences
made use of the relation symbols such as > , =, s , >, and <, whereas those
expressions which are classified as mathematical phrases do not make use of these
relation symbols.


Activity 3

The examples of first-degree equations in one variable contain only one
variable and the exponent of the variable is always one (1), that is, the degree is one.
Among the given equations, the following are first-degree equations in one
variable: 15 8 = + x , 4 1 5 = ÷ r and 7 ÷ = t .


Activity 4

1. true 5. true
2. neither true nor false 6. neither true nor false
3. neither true nor false 7. neither true nor false
4. neither true nor false 8. neither true nor false


Activity 5

1. 28 16 = ÷ p equation
2. ( ) 99 8 7 > + ÷ b inequality
3.
2
4 15 x + > inequality
4.
2
7 4 a a s ÷ inequality
5. 11
3
÷ =
x
equation



14
Activity 6

(Answers may vary.)


Activity 7

1. not
2. first-degree equation in one variable
3. first-degree equation in one variable
4. not
5. first-degree inequality in one variable
6. first-degree equation in one variable
7. first-degree inequality in one variable
8. not
9. first-degree inequality in one variable
10. first-degree equation in one variable


Activity 8

1. 79 12 = + n
2. 310 60 > + a
3. 124 7 > + + r r
4. ( ) 3096 43 s l
5. 520 65 > t

Activity 9

A.
1. mathematical phrase 6. mathematical sentence
2. mathematical sentence 7. mathematical phrase
3. mathematical sentence 8. mathematical phrase
4. mathematical phrase 9. mathematical sentence
5. mathematical phrase 10. mathematical sentence

B.
11. true 14. open
12. open 15. false
13. true

C.
16. = 19. =
17. = 20. <
18. >





15
Activity 10

A.
1. 2 6 = + m 4. ( ) 10 8 7 > +b
2. 38 16 = ÷ p 5. 8 4 6 < ÷ y
3. 6 7 4 < ÷ a

B.
6. The sum of twice a number and five is equal to nine.
or Twice a number increased by five is equal to nine.
7. Thrice a number added to nine is equal to eighteen.
8. Twice a number less sixteen is less than or equal to four.
or Sixteen subtracted from twice a number is less than or equal to four.
9. Twice the sum of a number and one is equal to eight.
10. Three subtracted from four times a number is greater than or equal to
sixteen.


Activity 11

1. first-degree equation in one variable
The only variable used is x and its exponent is one.
2. not
The exponent of the variable y is two.
3. not
The degree is two because the exponent of the variable a is two.
4. not
There are two variables, m and n .
5. first-degree equation in one variable
There is only one variable, c with an exponent of one.


Activity 12

1. 210 2 = ÷ + w w
2. ( ) w w 2 1 2 6 + + =
3. ( ) ( ) 10 20 7 20 5 + + = + + c c c
4. 4.1. f ÷ 17
4.2. f 5
4.3. ( ) f ÷ 17 10
4.4. ( ) 110 17 10 5 s ÷ + f f
5. |
.
|

\
|
= b b
3
1
4

y2  1 5b  r  14 2a  7b 3  0 6c 4  5c  2 8 y  2x Look at the equations above. Observe them carefully and point out their differences. Study the following and spot the difference. what are first-degree equations in one variable? Which of the following equations are first-degree equations in one variable? 1 3a  6h  z3  0 x  8  15 5r  1  4 t  7 2 2 . x 1 5b  4 2a  7  0 6c  5  2 7  8y  2 The equations below are not first-degree equations in one variable. Observe and Point Out The equations below are first-degree equations in one variable. Mathematical Phrases 20  12 2b x y 5s 3r  4  7c e  4d 2v  w Mathematical Sentences 20  12  8 2b  4 7 x y 5s  t 3 4  0  7c  1 1 e  4d  2 2v  w  9a What do you observe? How do you compare a mathematical phrase with a mathematical sentence? Activity 3 Look.Activity 2 Can You Spot the Difference? Examples of mathematical phrases and mathematical sentences are given below. Based on your observation.

This means that whatever is the value of the left side of the equation is also the value of the right side. addition. An algebraic expression is a collection of constants and variables that are combined using one or more of the four fundamental operations namely. you have learned about algebraic expressions. 20  12  8 . A mathematical phrase is an algebraic expression. On the other hand.Here are enabling activities that will help you.FIRM UP Your Understanding Now let’s keep going! Enjoy learning more and more about first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable . a mathematical sentence contains algebraic expressions together with a relation symbol =. We recall that these relation symbols are read as follows. subtraction. multiplication and division (except division by zero). 7  x  y and 5s  t are called equations. . Can you give your own examples of equations? An equation is a mathematical sentence that makes use of the symbol =. <.1. It does not express a complete thought. let us look at the given mathematical sentences. What do you think does the symbol = imply? The symbol = implies that the two sides of the equation are equal. 2b  4 . > or  and it expresses a complete thought. 3 . The first four mathematical sentences in Activity 2. Equations and Inequalities In Module 2. = <  >  is equal to or equals is less than is less than or equal to is greater than is greater than or equal to Now. The mathematical phrases in Activity 2 are algebraic expressions.

This means further that the symbol < is used when the value of the left side of the inequality is less than the value of the right side. 3. Mathematical sentence 20  12  8 2b  4 7 x y 5s  t 3 4  0  7c  1 1 7. but if b  1 . 22  4 if b  2 . > or . 2. 4. The symbol  means that the value of the left side of the inequality is either less than or equal to the value of the right side. If your answer is true for the first mathematical sentence. for the remaining mathematical sentences. 7 and 8 may be true or false depending upon the value/s of the variable/s. then and the equation is true. 6. then you are correct. while the symbol > is used when the value of the left side of the inequality is greater than the value of the right side. 5. then 2 1  4 thus. For example. in the equation 2b  4 . go back to each of the given mathematical sentences and tell whether it is true or false. Activity 4 Again. 2v  w  9a True or False? _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 1. These mathematical sentences are 2 called inequalities. .  7c  1 . What do the symbols < and > imply? The symbols < and > imply that the left side of the inequality is not equal to the right side of the inequality. 1 3  4  0 . while the symbol  means that the value of the left side of the inequality is either greater than or equal to the value of the right side. Can you give your own examples of inequalities? How do you then define an inequality? An inequality is a mathematical sentence that makes use of the relation symbols <. false for the 5 th mathematical sentence. while may be true or false or neither true nor false. Sentences 2. e  4d  2 8. 6.This time. 4 . e  4d  and 2v  w  9a . 3 4. the equation is false. let us focus on the last four mathematical sentences in Activity 2.

6. 7 and 8 are examples of open sentences. at least Example 1 Translate each of the following into mathematical sentences. i. is the same as is less than is less than or equal to. /. the difference.1 English sentence: Three times a number is nine. __ = <  >  as much as. 3. translation: mathematical sentence: b + b  7  12 7 = 12 5 . 1. more than. less than. 4. minus Symbol +  or ( ) or sometimes not written anymore. decreased by. plus subtracted from. over is equal to. the product of divided by. translation: 3  n = 9 mathematical sentence: 3  n  9 or 3n   9 or 3n  9 We note that the symbol for the operation multiplication may not be written anymore. as many as. equals.2 English sentence: The sum of a number and seven is twelve. ratio. Translating English Statements to Equations or Inequalities and Vice Versa A knowledge of mathematical symbols and their meanings will enable you to translate verbal sentences into mathematical sentences and vice-versa. the sum of. a number is simply written together with variables . increased by.. diminished by.e. at most is greater than is greater than or equal to. of.Sentences 2. 1. An open sentence is an equation or inequality that becomes true or false when the variable is replaced by a value. Word/Phrase added to. the quotient of.

translation: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ mathematical sentence: ________________ Example 2. 5  2 y  3 2. Now.1. 2. translation: ___ ___ ___ ___ ____ mathematical sentence: ______________ 1.5 English sentence: Twice a number subtracted by nine is less than five.3 mathematical sentence: English sentence: ____________________________________________ . Write the corresponding symbols below.4 English sentence: A number added to six is greater than two.2 mathematical sentence: a47 English sentence: The sum of a number and four is greater than or equal to seven.” 2. 3r  9  10 2. let us see if you can translate the given mathematical sentences into an English sentence. 1.4 mathematical sentence: English sentence: ____________________________________________ . c c 1  8 - 1 = 8 Let us see if you can do the same thing in the following sentences. Translate each mathematical sentence into an English sentence.” or “ x times y is equal to 16. We note that the given mathematical sentence may also be translated as “The product of a number and another number is 16. 6 .3 English sentence: The difference between translation: mathematical sentence: a number and one is eight.1 mathematical sentence: xy  16 x English sentence: The product of x and y is sixteen.

minus sixteen is equal to twenty-eight. b . . a first-degree equation in x is of the form ax  b  0 . x . a . Fifteen is greater than the sum of four and the square of a number. 4. Seven subtracted from four times a number.Activity 5 Translate each English sentence into a mathematical sentence and identify if each is an equation or an inequality. a . 5. is greater than or equal to ninety-nine. Some possible results are as follows. The quotient when a number. is divided by three is equal to negative eleven. Differentiating First-Degree Equations from First-degree Inequalities in One Variable A first-degree equation in one variable is an equation that contains only one variable and the variable is raised to the exponent 1. Seven times the sum of negative eight and a number. 2. then we have first-degree inequalities in one variable. Thus. x 1 5b  4 2a  7  0 6c  5  2 7  8y  2 What is a first-degree inequality in one variable? A first-degree inequality in one variable is an inequality that contains only one variable and the variable is raised to the exponent 1. 7 . x 1 5b  4 2a  7  0 6c  5  2 7  8y  2 If the symbol = is changed to any of the following relation symbols. where a is a nonzero real number and b is any real number. p . x . is less than or equal to the square of the number. Consider the first set of first-degree equations in one variable that are given in Activity 3. <. A first-degree inequality in x is any of the following forms: ax  b  0 ax  b  0 ax  b  0 ax  b  0 where a is a nonzero real number and b is any real number. > or . A number. 3. 1.

1.468 miles at the rate of 400 mi/hr. What equation represents the time consumed by a plane in travelling a distance of 1. If you use the variable p for Patrick’s height. Patrick is 4 inches taller than James. by the time. This is successfully done by using your knowledge in translating an English sentence into an equation or inequality. In 1994. twice the population ( n ) of a barangay in Bulacan was 50 000. b  18 10. 3x 2  2 x  1  0 6.000. then Jame’s height is p  4 . This is modeled by an equation that is obtained by translating the sentence “Twice n is 50 000. 2. The distance. m  n  23 3 5. Thus. Give your own examples of first-degree equations in one variable. If you use the variable a to represent the amount earned by Arthur and their total earnings is at least Php28. your final answer must be p  p 4  7.  15a 2  b  15 9. In symbols.” into an equation.468  400t . (You can also use other variables. 1. d . we have 2n  50000 . y  9  31 7. this is written as d  rt . 2. Represent this by a first-degree inequality in one variable.Activity 6 1. 14 x  3  4 1 3. Give examples of first-degree inequalities in one variable. x  y  1 2. r . 4. t .? The equation is 1. it consumes. Activity 7 Identify which of the following is a first-degree equation or inequality in one variable. ax 2  2 x  c  0 z  75 2 4. Study the following examples. The sum of their heights is less than 7 feet. The amount earned by Jonathan is three times the amount earned by Arthur. 3. what first-degree inequality in one variable will be used to model the situation? 8 . that a vehicle travels is computed by multiplying the rate. m  23  100 8 Applications of First-Degree Equations and Inequalities Equations and inequalities are used to model some real-life situations.) Thus. 8.

2 Activity 8 Write on equation or inequality to model each situation/problem. 1. n . What first-degree inequality represents the statement. your first-degree 1 equation must be m  10  m  10  54 . Ten years from now. it would be more than Php310. Anika’s age is half of Marielle’s age. I’m thinking of a number.You should have represented the amount earned by Jonathan as 3a and your final answer must be a  3a  28. “Ten years from now. “Together they weigh at least 124 kg. ten years from now is translated as + 10. if r represents Raymond’s weight? 4. The width of a rectangle is 43 dm. write an inequality to solve this problem. Mang Jose earns Php65 an hour. How long must he work to earn more than P520? Suppose t represents the number of hours that Mang Jose works. 5. Thus. Suppose Marielle’s age is represented by m . the 2 1 ages of Marielle and Anika should be represented by m  10 and m  10 .000 . If my mother would increase my weekly allowance by Php60. Glenn weighs 7 kg more than his brother Raymond. the result is 79.”. 5. 2 respectively. their total ages will be 54”? 1 m for Anika’s age. write an inequality to find the possible amounts for my weekly allowance. Why? You should have used Yes. Find the length which will make its area at most 3096 square dm. 3. Represent the length by the variable l . If a represents my weekly allowance. What first-degree equation in one variable will represent the sentence. 9 . If 12 is added to it. 2.

if m is 1 18. 12.000 meters. Activity 9 A. false or open. 5  9  14 9 x  4  20 15  21 C. It is the world’s largest archipelago. 11. Tell whether each of the following is a mathematical phrase or a mathematical sentence. 15. 14. 2m 10 . 1 2 2 3x  2  2x  5 y 5  7 1 y y 2 y  5y 6. x  2. 3  5 17. . 13. 4 c 2  d 2 8. 16. 4. 8 9 1 27  3 6  25  1 13 . 2 x  21  14 7.DEEPEN Your Understanding Get ready to take on more challenges to your mathematical thinking and reasoning in relation to the lessons. 10  x   9. 39  3  2 19. <. x  6 20. Do the following activities to further enhance your skills. Classify the following mathematical sentences as true. n  n  2  13 B. 3. Fill in the box with the relation symbol =. > or  to make it a true statement. One kilometer is equal to 1. 11  5x  3x  1 10. 5. 1. if x is replaced by 7 6  9 .

w is given by the formula p  2l  2w . is greater than or equal to 10. The difference between 4a and 7 is less than 6. Six times a number. 9  3c Activity 12 Read the following situations and do what is required. l and width. 1. Translate the given mathematical sentence into an English sentence. The length of a rectangular table is 1 m more than its width.” 2. p . The perimeter. 6. A number. less four is equal to eight. Write a first-degree equation in one variable that represents the sentence “The sum of the weights of Kristine and Ronald is 210 lbs. 7. 2  3 y 3. Seven times the sum of 8 and a number. 3. 8. A number. 4. y . p of a rectangle with length. 9. 2. 4a 2  4a  1  0 4. x  1  0 9 2. 2x  5  9 9  3x  18 2 x  16  4 2x  1  8 4m  3  16 Activity 11 Determine whether each of the following is an example of a first-degree equation or a first-degree inequality in one variable. m  n  25 5. What is the first-degree equation in one variable that relates the perimeter and width of the table if the perimeter is 6 m? 11 .Activity 10 A. b . 1. minus 16 is equal to 38. added to six is equal to two. 5. 10. Translate each English sentence into a mathematical sentence. B. w of Ronald. 1. Explain your answer. m . Kristine’s weight is 2 lbs less than the weight.

Write a journal about your views regarding the importance of first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable in modelling real-life relationships of various quantities. similar to those in Activity 12 .4 the number of Php10 coins in terms of f the value of Php5 coins the value of Php10 coins the first-degree mathematical sentence in one variable for “The value of all coins is at most Php110. Compile your work in your portfolio. how will you represent the following? 4. what first-degree equation in one variable represents the sentence “Five times the total number of magazines sold by Belle and Chris is ten more than seven times the number of magazines sold by Belle. c to represent the number of magazines sold by Chris.” TRANSFER Your Understanding It’s time to demonstrate what you have learned. Activity 13 A. “The distance covered by Bryan is four times the distance covered by Louie.” 5. If the variable f is used to represent the number of P5 coins.1 4.3.2 4. Do the following activities and compile your work in your portfolio.3 4. Bryan covered a distance. B. Running. Based on what you have learned. Belle sold 20 more magazines than Chris. think of real-life situations that can be modelled by first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable. If you use the variable. Write the first-degree equation that models the statement. The number of Php10 coins is 17 decreased by the number of Php5 coins. b while Louie covered a third of this.”? 4. 12 .

the following are first-degree equations in one variable: x  8  15 . variables. grouping symbols. 7. 3. Among the given equations. true neither true nor false neither true nor false neither true nor false Activity 5 p  16  28 7 8  b  99 15  4  x 2 4a  7  a 2 x  11 5.Answers Key Module 2. and <. 2. 3 x  y  . =. Activity 4 1. 6m 2 . 6.  . true neither true nor false neither true nor false neither true nor false 5. 4. 5r  1  4 and t  7 . whereas those expressions which are classified as mathematical phrases do not make use of these relation symbols. the degree is one. 4. equation inequality inequality inequality equation 13 . 2. 3 1. and operation symbols. Some examples are: 3x  2 y . that is. 8.) Activity 2 Difference: The expressions under the column of mathematical sentences made use of the relation symbols such as  . 3. (Given examples may vary. >.5: First-Degree Equations and Inequalities in One Variable Activity 1 An algebraic expression is an expression composed of constants. Activity 3 The examples of first-degree equations in one variable contain only one variable and the exponent of the variable is always one (1).

3. 5. false mathematical phrase mathematical sentence mathematical sentence mathematical phrase mathematical phrase 6. 10. not 2. 5. first-degree inequality in one variable 6. true 12. open 13. 4. true C. open 15. 8. 2. mathematical sentence mathematical phrase mathematical phrase mathematical sentence mathematical sentence n  12  79 a  60  310 r  r  7  124 43l   3096 65t  520 14 . 3. 2. Activity 9 A.Activity 6 (Answers may vary. 9. = 20. first-degree equation in one variable Activity 8 1. first-degree equation in one variable 3. < 14. first-degree equation in one variable 7. 1.) Activity 7 1. first-degree inequality in one variable 8. 4. > 19. first-degree equation in one variable 4. = 18. = 17. not 5. 16. B. 7. not 9. first-degree inequality in one variable 10. 11.

6. 4. 6 y  4  8 Activity 12 1. 1017  f  4. Twice a number less sixteen is less than or equal to four. The sum of twice a number and five is equal to nine. 3. b  4 b  3  15 . 17  f 4. or Twice a number increased by five is equal to nine. 5.1. Thrice a number added to nine is equal to eighteen. not The exponent of the variable y is two. 5 f  1017  f   110 1  5. 8. or Sixteen subtracted from twice a number is less than or equal to four. 4. 9. Three subtracted from four times a number is greater than or equal to sixteen. 10. 6  2w  1  2w 3. 78  b  10 5.2. first-degree equation in one variable The only variable used is x and its exponent is one. 2. c with an exponent of one. not The degree is two because the exponent of the variable a is two. 5 f 4. p  16  38 3. first-degree equation in one variable There is only one variable. not There are two variables. m and n . 4a  7  6 B. 7. w  w  2  210 2. 5c  c  20  7c  20  10 4. 4. Twice the sum of a number and one is equal to eight.3. Activity 11 1.Activity 10 A. 6  m  2 2.4. 1.