The culture of the Philippines reflects the complexity of the history of the Philippines through the blending of many

diverse traditional Malay[1] heritage mixed with Spanish,[2] American and other Asian cultures. Pre-Hispanic, and non-Christian Philippine cultures are derived from many native traditions of the Austronesianpeople called Malayo-Polynesian or the Malay people. The prehistoric Philippine Mythology and Philippine indigenous culture was later influenced by the Malay cultures of Southeast Asia, accompanied by a mixture of Western-Christianity, EasternIslamic, Hinduism and Buddhism tradition. Spanish colonization in the Philippines lasted from 1565 to 1898. Most of that time the islands were governed from Mexico and later directly from Spain. As a result, there is a significant amount of Spanish and Mexican influence in Philippine customs and traditions. Hispanic influences are visible in traditional Philippine folk musicand dance, cuisine, festivities, religion, and language, though usually integrated with other influences. The most visible example of this are the Spanish names of Filipinos, which were given through a tax law (see: Alphabetical Catalog of Surnames), the thousands of Spanish loanwords in native languages such as Tagalog and Cebuano, and the majority Catholic religion. Later, the Philippines was a territory of the United States from 1898 until 1946. American influences are evident in the use of the English language, and in contemporary pop culture, such as fast-food, music, film and basketball. Other Asian ethnic groups such as the Chinese and Japanese have been settling in the Philippines since even before the colonial period and their influence is also present in the popularity of gambling games such mahjong,jueteng, Kali and a variety of Asian cuisine. Muslim Filipinos also celebrate their own customs and traditions. These groups follow a Philippine Islamic culture, and other Muslim recreation such as the Kali, Kulintang and Gamelan, are used by Islamic groups in the southern islands of Mindanao and Sulu archipelago.

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1 Way of life 1.1 Religion in the Philippines

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1.1.1 Superstition

2 Arts of the Philippines 2.1 Literature 2.2 Performing Arts 2.2.1 Music 2.2.2 Dance 2.3 Visual arts 2.3.1 Painting

4 Cinema and television 2. The majority of the people follow age-old traditions as well as contemporary lifestyles and trends.3.2 ethnic and Mindanao   o o • • • • • • • • o o o • • • • 3 Cuisine 4 Martial arts 2. Tribal art 2.3 Traditional holiday 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Way of life About two-fifths of the Philippines live in urban areas.4 Islamic art 2.5 Architecture 5 Education in the Philippines 6 Sports in the Philippines 7 Traditional Filipino games 8 Tribal groups 9 Philippine diaspora 10 Celebrations 10.1 Regular holiday Kut-kut art 2.2 Nationwide holiday 10. although the proportion of people living in towns and cities is steadily increasing. while three-fifths of the people live in rural areas. Religion in the Philippines Main articles: Religion in the Philippines and Philippine mythology .

and accept it as an alternative healing method. The Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Asia-Pacific. Philippine literature is written in Spanish. written in both Indigenous and Hispanic writing system. Performing Arts Music Main article: Music in the Philippines . the other being East Timor. Filipino. and the introduction of Roman Catholicism and Western culturein the 16th century. Believers accept it as true.[3] Superstition Before the arrival of the Spaniards. who are people who appear to remove tumors and diseased tissue by sticking their hands into a patient's body and extracting human flesh and blood. Indigenous gods and goddesses include "Araw" (Sun) and "Buwan" (moon). Most of the traditional literatures of the Philippines were written during the Mexican and Spanish period. and a way to take advantage of the placebo effect. Islam. Some see this performance as a sleight of hand false interpretation. Over 90% of the Philippine population are Christians.The Manila Cathedral in Luzon is one of many Christian churches in the country. English and other native Philippine languages. the indigenous Malayo-Polynesian people of what is now called the Philippines were adherents of a mixture of Animism. Folk art and Primitive art consist of classic and modern features that flourished as a result of European and Indigenous influences. Literature Main article: Literature of the Philippines The literature of the Philippines illustrates the Prehistory and European colonial legacy of the Philippines. but leaving the patient scar free. About 5% Muslims and the rest either practice other religions or practice no religion at all. Tagalog. Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism. Arts of the Philippines Main article: Arts of the Philippines Arts of the Philippines cover a variety of forms of entertainment.

Modern day Philippine music features several styles. Many Filipino musicians have risen prominence such as the composer and conductorAntonio J. Spanish settlers and Filipinos played a variety of musical instruments. Some of the groups that perform these folk songs and dances are the Bayanihan. de Leon. Singkil is a popular dance showcasing the story of a prince and princess in the forest. guitar. The early music of the Philippines featured a mixture of Indigenous. ukelele. By the 21st century.The Philippine Palabuniyan Kulintang musicians performing the Kulintang instruments which is the music of theMaguindanao people. Hariraya . many of the folk songs and dances have remained intact throughout the Philippines. and Fort Santiago theatres. Most music genres are contemporary such as Filipino rock. known for his nationalistic themes and the opera singer Jovita Fuentes. In the southern region of Mindanao. trumpets and drums. Barangay-Barrio. Bamboo poles are arranged in a tic-tac-toe pattern in which the dancers exploit every position of these clashing poles. Filipino hip hop and other musical styles.[4] Guide to Philippine Cultural and Folk Dances Visual arts Painting . violin. including flutes. and groups associated with the guilds of Manila. They performed songs and dances to celebrate festive occasions. the Karilagan Ensemble. Molina. Filipinescas. Philippine folk dances include the Tinikling and Cariñosa. the composer Felipe P. Dance A Chavacano dance in Philippine Hispanic tradition. Some are traditional such as Filipino folk music. Islamic and a variety of Asian sounds that flourished before the European and American colonization in the 16th and 20th century.

. Perhaps. It has been proven that by 5000 BC. as well as engravings.Evidence of Philippine pottery-making dated as early as 6000 BC has been found in Sanga-sanga Cave.[6] The earliest of these paintings were Church frescoes.[5] Various designs referencing flora and fauna with heavenly bodies decorate their bodies in various colored pigmentation. Francisco S. It was Alzina. and signs his name with his own blood on the right side of his paintings. . and light. Legaspi Filipinos began creating paintings in the European tradition during 17th century Spanish period. Cagayan. He uses his own hair to make his paintbrushes. and then over the fresh blood applying a black powder that can never again be erased. In the former times they had to perform a new feat of bravery for each of the parts that were to be painted. in his monograph “Historias de las Islas el Indios de Bisaias…1668” who termed tattooing as “paint”. and 20th century produced a mixture of religious. The women paint the whole of one hand and a part of the other. Most of the paintings and sculptures between the 19th. In the old days. whom the Portugese explorer referred to as Pintados or the 'Painted People' of the Visayas. and secular paintings. In early 80s other unique folk artist exist one of these is Elito Circa as amangpintor the famous Filipino folk painter. He developed his own styles without professional training or guidance from masters."2 1Alzina. not by nature although they are well-built. Children are not painted. the making of pottery was practiced throughout the country. but by painting their entire bodies from head to foot as soon as they are young men with strength and courage enough to endure the torture of painting. that if they brought it to Europe a great deal of money could be made by displaying it. following the design and lines previously marked by the craftsmen in the art.Further evidences of painting are manifested in the tattoo tradition of early Filipinos. dark. The paintings are very elegant. and well proportioned to the members and parts where they are located. While other artist such as Fernando Zóbel used realities and abstract on his work. Early Filipinos started making pottery before their Cambodian neighbors and at about the same time as the Thais as part of what appears to be a widespread Ice Age development of pottery technology. well-featured and white. and landscape art works. nature and harmony. but part by part. “Historias de las Islas y Indios de Bisaias…1668” 2Ib id. I used to say there. they painted themselves when they had performed some brave deed. so that the painting takes many days to complete. Sulu and Laurente Cave.. with qualities of sweetness. They do not paint the whole body at one time. They paint themselves by first drawing blood with pricks from a very sharp point. But it is only one chronicler’s word against the others: "The Bisayans are called Pintados because they are in fact so. captivated and astonished by the appearance of one of these. Early modernist painters such as Damián Domingo was associated with religious. Artist such as Fernando Amorsolo used post-modernism to produce paintings that illustrated Philippine culture.Early Filipino painting can be found in red slip (clay mixed with water) designs embellished on the ritual pottery of the Philippines such as the acclaimed Manunggul Jar. some of the most elaborate painting done by early Filipinos that survive to the present day can be manifested among the arts and architecture of the Maranao who are well known for the Naga Dragons and the Sarimanok carved and painted in the beautiful Panolong of their Torogan or King's House. religious imagery from Biblical sources. The art of Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo showed a trend for political statement. political.J. sculptures and lithographs featuring Christian icons and European nobility.

animal and plant pictorial themes. Considered lost art and highly collectible art form. Kut-kut is an exotic Philippine art form based on early century techniques—sgraffito. and its leaves are used to make fibre known as Manila hemp. Mandaya. similar to the Middle Eastern Islamic art. and is associated with women. Weapons made by Muslim Filipinos such as the kampilan are skillfully carved. The tribes of Mindanao such as the B'laan. The merging of these ancient styles produces a unique artwork characterized by delicate swirling interwoven lines. The Tausug and Sama–Bajau exhibit their okir on elaborate markings with boat-like imagery. Other tribes such as the Ilongot make jewelry from pearl. Ikat textiles are woven into geometric patterns with human. Mansaka and T'boli became skilled in art of dyeing abaca fibre. The binakol is a blanket which features optical illusion designs. plants and metals. Weavings of the Ga'dang tribe usually have bright red tones. Very few known art pieces existed today. encaustic and layering. The technique was practiced by the indigenous tribe of Samar Island between early 1600 and late 1800 A. red hornbill beak.ethnic and Mindanao Tribal art The Itneg tribes are known for their intricate weaving production. The other style is geometric tapestries. The fibre is dyed by a method called ikat.D. multi-layered texture and an illusion of three-dimensional space. This style is associated with men. Kut-kut art A technique combining ancient Oriental and European art process. One is a curved-line woodcarving and metalworking called okir. Islamic art Islamic art in the Philippines have two main artistic styles. The Marananaos make similar carvings on housings called torogan. Cinema and television . Abaca is a plant. Their weaving can also be identified by beaded ornamentation.

drama. however. The 1980s brought the arrival of alternative or independent cinema in the Philippines. In addition.[8] The Philippines. and 200 films a year during the 1980s. Over the years. The 1970s and 1980s were considered turbulent years for the Philippine film industry. As the decade drew to a close. By the 1960s. In the 1940s. The 1990s saw the emerging popularity of drama.Piolo Pascual is one of many talented artist from the Philippines. adult and comedy films developed further in picture quality.[9][10] The 21st century saw the rebirth of independent filmmaking through the use of digital technology and a number of films have once again earned nationwide recognition and prestige. Philippine cinema brought the consciousness of reality in its film industry. and movie themes consisting primarily of war and heroism and proved to be successful with Philippine audiences. Scripts and characterizations in films came from popular theater shows and Philippine literature.[9][10] From a high production rate of 350 films a year in the 1950s. the studio system monopoly came under siege as a result of labor-management conflicts. . The formative years of Philippine cinema. being one of Asia's earliest film industry producers. teen-oriented romantic comedy. starting from the 1930s. and significant improvement in cinematic techniques among filmmakers. Nationalistic films became popular. Award-winning filmmakers and actors were first introduced during this period. bringing both positive and negative changes. the Philippine film industry has registered a steady decline in movie viewership from 131 million in 1996 to 63 million in 2004. adult. The films in this period dealt with more serious topics following the Martial law era. The advent of the Cinema of the Philippines can be traced back to the early days of filmmaking in 1897 when a Spanish theater owner screened imported moving pictures. the artistry established in the previous years was in decline. Architecture Modern day buildings in Makati City in the Philippines. were a time of discovery of film as a new medium of expressing artworks. who has won numerous awards for his role in Dekada'70. This era can be characterized by rampant commercialism in films. comedy and action films. the Philippine film industry production rate declined in 2006 to 2007. western. The 1950s saw the first golden age of Philippine cinema [7][8] with the emergence of more artistic and mature films. remains undisputed in terms of the highest level of theater admission in Asia. The studio system produced frenetic activity in the Philippine film industry as many films were made annually and several local talents started to gain recognition abroad. sound and writing. action.

Islamic and other Asian architecture can also be seen depicted on buildings such as mosques and temples.Jaro and other parts of the Philippines. lumpia (meat or vegetable rolls). The introduction of Christianity brought European churches. and denser roof thatching in mountain areas. The Coconut Palace is an example of Philippine Architecture. A typical Pinoy diet consists at most of six meals a day. and when eating seafood. breakfast. . Cogon grass. It is characterized by use of simple materials such as bamboo and coconut as the main sources of wood. Most primitive homes are built on stilts due to frequent flooding during the rainy season. especially in informal settings. Rice. and popular dishes such as adobo (a meat stew made from either pork or chicken). Eating out is favorite Filipino past time. corn.pancit (noodle dish) and lechón (roasted pig) are served on plates. Some also eat with their hands. Cuisine Main article: Philippine cuisine Filipinos cook a variety of foods influenced by Western and Asian cuisine. Regional variations include the use of thicker. including Manila. Spanish architecture can be found in Intramuros. A roasted pig known as the Lechón. snacks. dinner and again a midnight snack before going to sleep. The architecture of other indigenous tribes may be characterized by an angular wooden roofs. Contemporary architecture has a distinctively Western style although pre-Hispanic housing is still common in rural areas. Nipa palm leaves and coconut fronds are used as roof thatching. one of the Philippines most popular cuisines. bamboo in place of leafy thatching and ornate wooden carvings. The Spaniards introduced stones as housing and building materials. lunch. or longer stilts on coastal areas particularly if the structure is built over water.The Nipa hut (Bahay Kubo) is the mainstream form of housing. Vigan. and the surrounding provinces. Filipinos regularly use spoons together with forks and knives. snacks. and architecture which subsequently became the center of most towns and cities. it is usually eaten together with other dishes. The Philippines is considered a melting pot of Asia. Iloilo. Rice is a staple in Filipino diet. American style suburban-gated communities are popular in the cities.

Popular Philippine beverages include San Miguel Beer. The school year in the Philippines starts in June and ends in March. fish or prawns). starting from Nursery up to Kindergarten. At about seven years of age. . The uniforms of Catholic schools usually have an emblem along with the school colors.Other popular dishes include: afritada. Kali. kare-kare (ox-tail stew). students enter grade school (6 to 7 years). pinakbet (vegetable stew). after which they enter college or university (3 to 5 years).University-preparatory school. Most Catholic schools are unisex. lambanog andtuba. Of these schools. Catholic schools are preferred in the Philippines due to their religious beliefs. Arnis de Máno (blade and stick fighting) and Pananjakman (kicking). Spain and its neighbouring Asian countries. Patis. Philippine students enter public school at about age four. torta (omelette). Western fast food chains such as McDonald's. Students then take the College Entrance Examinations (CEE). puto (white rice cakes). bibingka(rice cake with butter or margarine and salted eggs). polvoron (powder candy) and tsokolate (chocolate) are usually eaten outside the three main meals. chorizo. This is followed by high school (5 years). sisig. ensaymada (sweet roll with grated cheese on top). flan. Pescado frito|pescado (fried or grilled fish). bagoong and banana catsup are the most common condiments found in Filipino homes and restaurants. In Bicol. Martial arts Main article: Filipino martial arts Filipino martial arts is a term used to describe the numerous martial art forms that originated in the Philippines. foods are generally spicier than elsewhere in the Philippines. pan de sal (bread rolls). for example. Wendy's. mani (roasted peanuts). Eskrima. Some delicacies eaten by some Filipinos but may seem unappetizing to the Western palate include Balut (egg) balut (boiled egg with a fertilized duckling inside). longanisa (sweet sausage) and dinuguan (soup made from pork blood). suka. with a two-month summer break from April to May. International school. Popular snacks and desserts such as chicharon (deep fried pork or chicken skin). empanadas. similar to how Silat describes the martial arts practiced in Asia. Pizza Hut are a common sight in the country. paksiw (fish or pork. Education in the Philippines Main articles: Education in the Philippines and Higher education in the Philippines Education in the Philippines has been influenced by Western and Eastern ideology and philosophy from the United States. and sinigang (tamarind soup with a variety of pork. toyo. private Catholic schools are the most famous. Tanduay Rhum. asado. kilawen. Filipino martial arts include Panantukan (empty-handed techniques). Laboratory high school and Science High School. cooked in vinegar and water with some spices like garlic and pepper). Every province has its own specialty and tastes vary in each region. twoweek semestral break in October and Christmas' and New Year's holidays. Other types of schools includes Private school. pinapaitan. and sliced tropical fruits). halo-halo(crushed ice with evaporated milk.

Dodge ball and badminton are also popular. Eugene Torre in chess. The Palarong Pambansa.gymnastics. billiards. and Francisco Bustamante in billiards. Flash Elorde andFrancisco Guilledo in boxing.[11] Sports in the Philippines Main article: Sports in the Philippines A professional basketball game being played in the country. chako. and Universities eventually joined the national event. as one of the most popular sport in the Philippines. The year 2002 event included football (soccer).In 2005. patintero. boxing.582 in Singapore. Basketball is regarded many Filipinos. which became known as the "Palarong Pambansa" in 1976. pusoy and sungka. tennis. piko. chess. Traditional Filipino games Main article: List of traditional Filipino games Traditional Filipino games include yo-yo. These are boxing. track and field. and volleyball. Carlos Loyzaga. Individuals play the game by trying to get rid of all the cards by choosing poker hands wisely. a national sports festival. table tennis. softball. baseball. swimming. has its origin in an annual sporting meet of public schools that started in 1948. and Mark Munoz in MMA. badminton. Efren Reyes. archery. horse racing and cockfighting. and sweeping it circular rotation to make an interesting sound. golf. The "Salagubang gong" is a toy described by Charles . association football. billiards. chess. tong-its is a popular gambling game. The winner is determined by who has the most shells at the point when all small pits become empty. and US$852 in Thailand. the Philippines spent about US$138 per pupil compared to US$1.[12] Other popular sports include basketball. Private schools. Popular sport stars include Manny Pacquiao. ten-pin bowling. Filipinos have gained international success in sports. taekwondo. competing at school and national level contests.[13][13][14] Sungka is played on a board game using small sea shells in which players try to take all shells. It serves as a national Olympic Games for students. Paulino Alcántara in football (soccer). football (soccer).ten-pin bowling and chess.728 in Japan. US$3. volleyball. Rafael Nepomuceno in ten-pin bowling. Robert Jaworski and Ramon Fernandez in basketball. bahay kubo. a form of martial arts is the national sport in the Philippines.[15] Filipinos have created toys using insects such as tying a beetle to string.

weapons and spoons.[16] Tribal groups A Negrito woman is one of a few indigenous tribal groups who is completely different from the Malay population of the Philippines. They are the descendants of the original Austronesian inhabitants of the Philippines. baskets. have as much contact with the outside world. Ifugao. These tribes ranged from various groups of Igorot people. who built the Rice Terraces thousands of years ago. Isneg. the isolated highland tribes have retained their Indigenous cultures. as a group. The highland tribes are a primitive ethnic group like other Filipinos.[17] In 1990. the last remnants of Indigenous traditions that flourished throughout the Philippines before the Islamic and Spanish contacts. a Malay indigenous tribe of Mindoro in the Philippines. The folk arts of these groups were.Brtjes. Main article: Indigenous peoples of the Philippines The Indigenous peoples of the Philippines consist of a large number of Malay ethnic groups. Ibaloi. Kalinga and Kankana-ey. although they did not. Over the centuries. and in the process have retained their Indigenous customs and traditions. These tribes displayed a variety of native cultural expressions and artistic skills. They showed a high degree of creativity such as the production of bowls. They have also covered a wide spectrum in terms of their integration and . who traveled to Negros and discovered a toy using beetles to create a periodic gong effect on a kerosene can as the beetle rotates above the contraption. that settled in the islands thousands of years ago. clothing. Mangyan. in a sense. an American entomologist. a group that includes the Bontoc. more than 100 highland tribes constituted approximately 3% of the Philippine population.

Christmas Day December 30 .[18] Each year. these Filipinos are referred to as Overseas Filipino Workers. Other Indigenous tribes include the Bukidnons. domestic helpers and household maids. who lives outside of the Philippines. resulting in what has been referred to as brain drain. These groups have remained isolated from Western and Eastern influences. technicians.acculturation with Christian Filipinos.Labor Day June 12 . This term is applied to people of Filipino ancestry. Overseas Filipinos often work as doctors. engineers. IT professionals. nurses. who are citizens or residents of a different nation. particularly in the health and education sectors. for example. Often. Also. accountants. students. teachers.[19] entertainers.New year’s Day March or April .National Heroes Day November 1 .Good Friday April 9 . military servicemen. architects. in cases where doctors undergo retraining to become nurses and other employment programs. caregivers. International employment includes an increasing number of skilled Filipino workers taking on unskilled work overseas. There are about 11 million overseas Filipinos living worldwide. thousands of Filipinos migrate to work abroad through overseas employment agencies and other programs.All Saints day November 30 .Araw ng Kagitingan (Bataan.Bonifacio Day December 25 . Other individualsemigrate and become permanent residents of other nations. and Corregidor Day) May 1 . the employment can result in underemployment. equivalent to about 11% of the total population of the Philippines. Philippine diaspora Main article: Overseas Filipino An Overseas Filipino is a person of Philippine origin. Celebrations Main article: Public holidays in the Philippines Regular holiday           January 1 .Philippine Independence Day August 31 .Rizal Day Nationwide holiday .

   August 21 . Crops also accentuate these houses in artistic shapes.Araw ng Pasko. May . a colorful festival in Lucban. Quezon where houses are decorated mainly with dried rice papers in different shapes and colors. followed by parades on the streets.  October 31 to November 2 .Ninoy Aquino Day November 1 . Third Sunday of January . and Souls Day.End of Ramadan Traditional holiday   January 9 . A festival celebrated by farmers as they welcome the fertile season. and styles. fireworks and feasting.    Last Sunday of January . and pay homage to their dearly departed. Año Nuevo (New Year). and Manila. Sinulog in Cebu. During the festivities.New Year's Eve + August 30 .Flores de Mayo. The cemetery becomes a party atmosphere. The Peñafrancia Festival is also celebrated by a fluvial procession in the Bicol River. January 1 . friends and families visit the cemeteries. Leyte  Third Saturday and Sunday of September ."Araw ng mga Patay". March or April .Noche Buena (Christmas Eve). and All Souls Day). Camarines Sur.Bagong Taon.    December 24 . people attend church services. "Día de los Muertos" (Day of the Dead. Bicol Region. . One of the most celebrated festivity is the "Pahiyas".The Dinagyang Festival in Iloilo. Also known as "Undas".The Black Nazarene procession in Quiapo. All Saints Day. food and delicacies. Celebrations around towns showcase crops.The Fiesta del Santo Niño de Cebu (Festival of the Child Jesus of Cebu). During All Saints. rather than a solemn celebration. Navidad (Christmas). Aklan. Ati-Atihan Festival inKalibo.  Last week of May .The Peñafrancia Festival in Naga City.Pintados-Kasadyaan Festival (A Festival honoring Santo Niño de Leyte) in Tacloban City.All Saints Day December 31 .Semana Santa (Holy Week). December 25 .