DRINKING WATER INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION

High quality water is more than the dream of the conservationists, more than a political slogan; high quality water, in the right quantity at the right place at the right time, is essential to health, recreation, and economic growth.
Edmund S. Muskie, U.S. Senator; speech, March 1, 1966

Drinking water can be produced from any natural sources like groundwater, lakes and rivers (surface waters) or seawater. Drinking water standards are set by the World Health organisation or by the European Union. Drinking water must be free of suspended solids, microorganisms and toxic chemicals. Mineral concentration recommendation vary from country to country but most of the minerals have a maximum concentration recommended to ensure safe, equilibrated and pleasant water to drink. For municipal drinking water, a special focus is carried on the corrosivity and scaling potential of the water to maintain distribution piping in good shape. Typical pH 8, TAC 8 and TH 8 are applied, when possible. For bottled water, taste can vary upon calcium, magnesium, sulfate and iron content. Drinking water, like every other substance, contains small amounts of bacteria. Most of these bacteria are common ones and they are generally not harmful. Chlorine is usually added to drinking water to prevent bacterial growth while the water streams through pipelines. This is why drinking water also contains minimal amounts of chlorine. Water mostly consists of minerals and other inorganic compounds, such as calcium. Drinking water can come from different resources. For one, it can be pumped from the ground through wells. This groundwater is than purified, so that it will contain no more contaminants and is suited to drink. Drinking water can also be prepared directly from surface water resources, such as rivers, lakes and streams. Usually surface water has to undergo many more purification steps than groundwater to become suited to drink. Preparing drinking water out of surface water is much more expensive due to this. Still 66% of all people are served by a water system that uses surface water. Part of our drinking water is pumped from the ground, usually under sand dunes. In sand dunes water can also be infiltrated. As it sinks into the ground through the dunes it is naturally purified. This costs much less money than the purification of surface water. Part of our drinking water originates from dune water.

Treating water to make it suitable to drink is much like wastewater treatment. In areas that depend on surface water it is usually stored in a reservoir for several days, in order to improve clarity and taste by allowing more oxygen from the air to dissolve in it and allowing suspended matter to settle out. The water is then pumped to a purification plant through pipelines, where it is treated, so that is will meet government treatment standards. Usually the water runs through sand filters first and sometimes through activated charcoal, before it is disinfected. Disinfection can be done by bacteria or by means of adding substances to remove contaminants from the water. The number of purification steps that are taken depend on the quality of the water that enters the purification plant. In areas with very pure sources of groundwater little treatment is needed. There are several problems that can endanger the quality of drinking water. Someone can detect coliform bacteria in drinking water. Coliform bacteria are a group of microrganisms that are normally found in the intestinal tract of humans and other warmblooded animals, and in surface water. When these organisms are detected in drinking water this suggests contamination from a subsurface source such as barnyard run-off. The presence of these bacteria indicates that disease-causing microrganisms, known as pathogens, may enter the drinking water supply in the same way if one does not take preventive action. Drinking water should be free from coliform. Yeasts and viruses can also endanger the quality of drinking water. They are microbial contaminants that are usually found in surface water. Examples are Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia is a single cell organism that causes gastrointestinal symptoms. Cryptosporidium is a parasite that is considered to be one of the most significant causes of diarrhoeal disease in humans. In individuals with a normal immune system the disease lasts for several days causing diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach cramps and fever. People with weakened immune systems can suffer from far worse symptoms, caused by cryptosporidium, such as cholera-like illnesses. Nitrate in drinking water can cause cyanosis, a reduction of the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. This is particularly dangerous to infants under six months of age. Lead can enter the water supply as it leaches from copper pipelines. As the water streams through the pipes, small amounts of lead will dissolve in the water, so that it becomes contaminated. Lead is a toxic substance that can be quickly absorbed in the human systems, particularly those of small children. It causes lead poisoning. Legionella is a bacterium that grows rapidly when water is maintained at a temperature between 30 and 40 degrees for a longer period of time. This bacterium can be inhaled when water evaporates as it enters the human body with aerosols. The bacteria can cause a sort of flue, known as Pontiac fever, but it can also cause the more serious deathly illness known as legionellosis. All countries have their own legal drinking water standards. These prescribe which substances can be in drinking water and what the maximum amounts of these

substances are. The standards are called maximum contaminant levels. They are formulated for any contaminant that may have adverse effects on human health and each company that prepares drinking water has to follow them up. If water will be purified to make it suitable to drink it will be tested for a number of dangerous pollutants, in order to establish the present concentrations. After that, one can determine how much of the contaminants have to be removed and if necessary purification steps can be progressed. Many people worry about getting sick from tap water, because of articles on the news and in the papers, for instance about Legionella outbreaks. They may either drink bottled water or install expensive water purification systems as a result of this. However, studies have indicated that many of these consumers are being ripped off due to the expenses of bottled water and in some cases they may end up drinking water that is dirtier then they can get from their taps. To be safe, consumers that buy bottled water should determine wheather the company that supplies them with water belongs to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) and lives up to the testing requirements of drinking water. The IBWA sends inspectors to its companies annually, to ensure that a plant produces safe drinking water. People can also spare themselves the costs of bottled water and have their tap water tested by local health authorities or private labs. If any contaminants are discovered they can buy a unit that removes the contaminant in concern, but for most households this is not necessary because their tap water is safe enough.

ADVANTAGES OF DRINKING WATER
1. Lose weight: Drinking water helps you lose weight because it flushes down the by-

products of fat breakdown. Drinking water reduces hunger, it’s an effective appetite suppressant so you’ll eat less. Plus, water has zero calories.
2. Natural Remedy for Headache: Helps to relieve headache and back pains due to

dehydration. Although many reasons contribute to headache, dehydration is the common one.
3. Look Younger with Healthier Skin: You’ll look younger when your skin is

properly hydrated. Water helps to replenish skin tissues, moisturizes skin and increases skin elasticity.
4. Better Productivity at Work: Your brain is mostly made up of water, thus drinking

water helps you think better, be more alert and more concentrated.
5. Better Exercise: Drinking water regulates your body temperature. That means you’ll

feel more energetic when doing exercises. Water also helps to fuel your muscle.

6. Helps in Digestion and Constipation: Drinking water raises your metabolism

because it helps in digestion. Fiber and water goes hand in hand so that you can have your daily bowel movement.
7. Less Cramps and Sprains: Proper hydration helps keep your joints and muscles

lubricated, so you’ll less likely get cramps and sprains.
8. Less Likely to Get Sick and Feel Healthy: Drinking plenty of water helps fight

against flu and other ailments like kidney stones and heart attack. Water adds with lemon is used for ailments like respiratory disease, intestinal problems, rheumatism and arthritis etc. In another words one of the benefits of drinking water is that it can improve your immune system.
9. Relieves Fatigue: Water is used by the body to help flush out toxins and waste

products from the body. If your body lacks water, your heart, for instance, needs to work harder to pump out the oxygenated blood to all cells, so are the rest of the vital organs, your organs will be exhausted and so will you.
10. Good Mood: Your body feels very good and that’s why you feel happy. 11. Reduce the Risk of Cancer: Related to the digestive system, some studies show that

drinking a healthy amount of water may reduce the risks of bladder cancer and colon cancer. Water dilutes the concentration of cancer-causing agents in the urine and shortens the time in which they are in contact with bladder lining.

MATERIALS DISSOLVED IN WATER Inorganic Compounds - Compounds that typically do not contain the element Carbon. They can become dissolved in water from natural sources or as the result of human activity. 1 Dissolved gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, radon, methane, hydrogen sulfide, . etc.) - no appreciable health effects, except for hydrogen sulfide and dissolved radioactive gases like radon. Both methane and hydrogen sulfide can be inflammable. Carbon dioxide dissolved in water creates carbonic acid - a weak acid that gives carbonated water its "bite" and plays an important role in the weathering of limestone and other carbonate rocks. Caverns are a product of eons of erosion by carbonic acid laced water. 2 Metal and metalloid positive ions - (aluminum, arsenic {MCL=0.05}, lead

0}. Many synthetic organic chemicals.Radon is a radioactive gas which comes from the natural breakdown . vaporize easily in air and are grouped under the category of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). and potassium) are essential to human health . zinc.005} carbon tetrachloride. copper {MCL=1.005}. In January 2000 it received national notariety on . particularly in children. Although their presence in drinking water is actually a health benefit.3}. they are the prime culprits in most hard water. nitrate {MCL=10. and vinyl chloride {MCL=0. Although there are many exceptions. some of these negative ions are necessary to life in proper concentrations (chloride and carbonate). formed by natural processes acting on the organic chemicals of once living organisms. magnesium.) are synthesized in the cells of living organisms. 3 Negative ions . The primary source of radon in homes is from the underlying soil and bedrock.002}. mercury. naturally occurring organic compounds (sugars.. Synthetic Organic Chemicals . which is itself a decay product of uranium. cyanide {MCL=0. or like raw petroleum and coal.(fluoride {MCL=4.0}. others can be dangerous to health at moderate concentrations (nitrates and nitrites . Calcium and magnesium are interesting ions. {MCL=0. proteins. gasoline additives like MTBE. phosphate. dyes. Some. etc.look at the ingredients in the next slice of ham. mercury {MCL=0. However. like benzene {MCL=0. A growing number of these synthetic organic compounds are being produced. have raised quite a controversy over its safety as an additive (in many areas) to drinking water in an effort to lessen tooth decay.002}. sulfate. an additional source could be the water supply. 1.0}. bacon. and many other chemicals. and others are dangerous at even small concentrations (cyanide). carbonate.in the correct amounts. like fluoride. or hot dog you eat). particularly if the house is served by a private well or a small community water system. calcium. magnesium.These compounds all contain the element Carbon. solvents like carbon tetrachloride {MCL=0. nitrite . sodium. Other ions in this group (for example. (radioactive decay) of radium. chloride. potassium. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a common synthetic organic chemical used for a number of years as a gasoline additive. calcium. Organic Compounds . alcohol's. and arsenic) are dangerous at extremely low concentrations and can be introduced into drinking water either though natural processes or as a result of human activity. They can include pesticides used in agriculture.015}. 4 Radon .2}) As with the positive ions. etc.Organic chemicals can also be synthesized in laboratories and by chemical companies.) Some of these ions (lead. sodium. and are considered undesirable contaminants by those who must live with scaly deposits of calcium carbonate on their faucets (and in their pipes and water heaters) or who can not get their soap to lather. {MCL=1. plastics. synthetic fabrics.

THMs are formed when the chlorine that is added to the water interacts with organic material also in the water. even drinking water with THM levels below 100 microgram per liter over a 40-50 year period might increase the risk of certain cancers. Chloroform is usually the most common THM. Evidence has also been reported that disinfection byproducts can cause adverse reproductive outcomes. many of them are presumed to increase the risk of various cancers in humans. often after many years of low-level exposure. because their formation and presence in drinking water is a direct result of the most common and economical process used to kill harmful pathogens. These are not nice chemicals to have in your water. The level of THMs in water is usually greater in water systems where surface water is the source. The potential for water contamination by synthetic organic chemicals can be understood by the fact that Denver Water (the company that supplies municipal water to much of the metro Denver area) tests for 54 VOCs (21 with MCLs established by the EPA).1} There is a class of organic compounds that is important . and levels typically vary seasonally with the organic content of the source water supply. Most laboratory tests of the effects of these chemicals are done using a single chemical. and 7 as non-specific organics. Some researchers are reporting that yet other synthetic chemicals can cause hormonal disruptions. . and in Denver for instance. 2 Trihalomethanes {MCL=0. like leaf fragments. it varies from about 10 micrograms per liter in the winter to about 50 micrograms per liter in the summer with an average around 20-25 micrograms per liter. chlorination. This chemical group is the trihalomethanes (THMs). Nearly all of these chemicals tested below the levels of detectability. etc. but there may be several organic contaminants together in a water source. and the EPA has established MCLs for even fewer.CBS' 60 Minutes because of its ability to contaminate water supplies after leaking from storage tanks. others may affect the nervous system. These levels are well below the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 100 micrograms per liter. 25 different chemicals classified as synthetic organic compounds (5 with MCLs). It somewhat disconcerting to realize that Denver water tests for only 150 or so of the thousands of the synthetic organic chemicals manufactured. 73 different pesticides (23 with MCLs).

or any worse than water from other facilities that chloronate surface water. The red line on the graph is the EPA MCL level of 0.10 milligram or 100 micrograms per liter.The graph above was created using published data from the The Santa Clara Valley Water District's Water Quality Laboratory reports for an eight month period in 1997. they produce a quatity product.0001 0. DRINKING WATER STANDARDS EU's ( The European Union ) drinking water standards Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intented for human consumption. in fact. like Denver Water. THMs were reported and graphed here as milligrams per liter. The intent here is not to imply that the water from this particular water treatment facility is bad. that it is important to understand that a fairly large percentage of people in the United States and in other countries that chlorinate their water are drinking small quantities of chloroform and related substances on an ongoing basis. Adopted by the Council. on 3 November 1998: Chemical parameters Parameter Acrylamide Antimony Symbol/formula C3H5NO Sb Parametric value (mg/l) 0.005 . unsafe. Though.

003 0.0001 0.01 0.01 0.02 50 0.1 Tetrachloroethene and C2Cl4/C2HCl3 trichloroethene Trihalomethanes Total .0001 1.Total PAHs Selenium As C6H6 C20H12 B Br Cd Cr Cu CN = Cl CH2 CH2 Cl C3H5OCl F Pb Hg Ni NO3 NO2 0.00001 1.50 0.01 0.05 0.Arsenic Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Boron Bromate Cadmium Chromium Copper Cyanide 1.0001 0.00 0.01 0.5 0.001 0.01 0.005 0.0 0.2-dichloroethane Epichlorohydrin Fluoride Lead Mercury Nickel Nitrate Nitrite Pesticides Pesticides .001 0.0005 C2 H3 N1 O5 P1 3 Se 0.05 2.

5 and ≤ 9.05 mg/l Acceptable to consumers and no abnormal change 5.2 mg/l 0.Vinyl chloride C2H3Cl 0.0 mg/l O2 250 mg/l 200 mg/l Acceptable to consumers and no abnormal change No abnormal change 0/100 ml No abnormal change .2 mg/l 0.5 0.0005 Indicator parameters Parameter Aluminium Ammonium Chloride Clostridium perfringens (including spores) Colour Conductivity Hydrogen ion concentration Iron Manganese Odour Oxidisability Sulfate Sodium Taste Colony count 22o Coliform bacteria Total organic carbon (TOC) SO4 Na [H+] Fe Mn Symbol/ formula Al NH4 Cl Parametric value 0.50 mg/l 250 mg/l 0/100 ml Acceptable to consumers and no abnormal change 2500 μS/cm @ 20oC ≥ 6.

the fluid containing the lower concentration will move through the membrane into the fluid containing the higher concentration of dissolved solids.10 mSv/year Microbiological parameters Parameter Escherichia coli (E. while dissolved solids stay behind. REVERSE OSMOSIS (RO) Osmosis is based upon the fundamental pursuit for balance. The difference in height is called the osmotic pressure. Two fluids containing different concentrations of dissolved solids that come in contact with each other will mix until the concentration is uniform. while dissolved solids stay behind).Turbidity Tritium Total indicative dose H3 Acceptable to consumers and no abnormal change 100 Bq/l 0. the natural osmosis effect must . By applying a pressure that exceeds the osmotic pressure. the reverse effect occurs. coli) Enterococci Pseudomonas aeruginosa Colony count 22oC Colony count 37oC Parametric value 0 in 250 ml 0 in 250 ml 0 in 250 ml 100/ml 20/ml DRINKING WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1. After a while the water level will be higher on one side of the membrane. When these two fluids are separated by a semi permeable membrane (which lets the fluid flow through. Fluids are pressed back through the membrane. To purify water by Reverse Osmosis membrane.

the water must be pressurized at an operating pressure greater than the osmotic pressure. 1. Osmotic pressure is the pressure that is used to stop the water from flowing through the membrane. water flows from the column with a high dissolved solids content to the column with a low dissolved solids content The advantages of Reverse Osmosis include: Reverse osmosis significantly reduces salt. The operating pressure of seawater is around 60 bar. the brine side will get more concentrated. As a result. in order to create balance 3. By pursuing pressure that exceeds the osmotic pressure. the water flow will be reversed. most other inorganic material present .be reversed. Water flows from a column with a low dissolved solids content to a column with a high dissolved solids content 2. In order to force the water of the brine stream (high salt concentration) to flow towards the fresh stream (low salt concentration).

chemical properties of the contaminants. Damaged membranes are not easily detected. The pre and post filters and the reverse osmosis membranes must be changed according to the manufacturer's recommendation. Though slower than a carbon or sediment water filter. the membrane type and condition. RO systems can typically purify more water per day than distillers and are less expensive to operate and maintain. These include the contaminant concentration. they depend on a relatively high water pressure to force the water molecules through the membrane. it could probably be disconnected and used to siphon water through in an emergency to reduce many contaminants. RO systems waste water. With a quality carbon filter to remove any organic materials that get through the filter. these systems will not function.in the water. and the storage tank must be cleaned periodically. and operating conditions (like pH. RO systems require maintenance.they are not recommended for use on biologically unsafe water. the purity of the treated water approaches that produced by distillation. and some organic compounds. . so it is hard to tell if the system is functioning normally and safely. A good activated carbon post filter is recommended to reduce these contaminants. The disadvantages of Reverse Osmosis include: Point of Use RO units make only a few gallons of treated water a day for drinking or cooking. Reverse Osmosis systems also do not use electricity. water temperature. Microscopic parasites (including viruses) are usually removed by properly functioning RO units. solvents and other volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) are not completely removed by RO. and water pressure). they may not work well in some emergency situations. although because they require relatively high water pressure to operate. Many conditions affect the RO membrane's efficiency in reducing the amount of contaminant in the water. Although RO filters do not use electricity. if a high quality activated carbon filter is used for the post filter. Some pesticides. * However. but any defect in the membrane would allow these organisms to flow undetected into the "filtered" water . In an emergency situation where water pressure has been lost. Two to four gallons of "waste" water are flushed down the drain for each gallon of filtered water produced.

VI. When the filters are loaded with particles. Sand Filtration Sand filtration is a frequently used very robust method to remove suspended solids from water. the flow direction is reversed and the flow is to ean the increased t clean the filter again. VII. III.2. A sand filter has a dirt holding capacity of 3 to 6 kg TSS / m2 of sand surface. V. The filtration medium consists of a multiple layer of sand with a variety in size and specific gravity. Applications for sand filtration: I. II. This step is called a backwash. FILTRATION A. IV. Preparation of cooling water Treatment of waste water Production of drinking water Filtration in swimming pools Pre filtration for membrane systems Filtration of grey or surface water Removal of iron .

1500 m2/g). Activated carbon is produced specifically so as to achieve a very big internal surface (between 500 . The efficiency of the active carbon decreases by 5 . Active carbon comes in two variations: Powder Activated Carbon (PAC) and Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). If you work with different columns . A used filter can be regenerated in different ways. Br.10% 1). This big internal surface makes active carbon ideal for adsorption. it can adsorb the following soluble substances: Datasheet Active Carbon • • • • • • • Adsorption of organic. In this process active carbon is the solid. A small part of the active carbon is destroyed during the regeneration process and must be replaced. Absorption / Activated Carbon Adsorption is a process where a solid is used for removing a soluble substance from the water.Diagram for Sand Filtration B. this water leaves the column through a draining system. The activity of an active carbon column depends on the temperature and the nature of the substances. For that reason the filter needs to be replace periodically. granular carbon can be regenerated easily by oxidizing the organic matter. Water goes through the column constantly. H en F Odor Taste Yeasts Various fermentation products Non-polar substances (Substances which are non soluble in water) Examples from active carbon in different processes: • • • • Ground water purification The de-chlorination of process water Water purification for swimming pools The polishing of treated effluent Water is pumped in a column which contains active carbon. non-polar substances such as: o Mineral oil o BTEX o Poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PACs) o (Chloride) phenol Adsorption of halogenated substance: I. The GAC version is mostly used in water treatment. which gives an accumulation of substances in the filter. Cl.

a non-polar substance can be removed totally by active carbon. The carbon source is a variety of materials. coconut husks. Molecules from gas or liquid phase will be attached in a physical way to a surface. A polar substance (= a substance which is good soluble in water) cannot or is badly removed by active carbon. . is this case the substance is attached to the internal surface of active carbon.in series. the temperature and the polarity of the substance. The adsorption process takes place in three steps: • • • Macro transport: The movement of organic material through the macro-pore system of the active carbon (macro-pore >50nm) Micro transport: The movement of organic material through the meso-pore and micro-pore system of the active carbon (micro-pore <2nm. in this case the surface is from the active carbon. n = specific constants The second curve from active carbon (see figure 2) shows the exhausting of a filter. The carbon is activated by passing oxidizing gases through the material at extremely high temperatures. When a substance is absorbed in a different medium it is called absorption. Every kind of carbon has its own adsorption isotherm (see figure 1) and in the water treatment business this isotherm is definite by the function of Freundlich. you can assure that you will not have a total exhaustion of your purification system. Normally we place a UV-disinfections unit after the active carbon column. such as peanut shells. The raw carbon source is slowly heated in the absence of air to produce a high carbon material. meso-pore 2-50nm) Sorption: The physical attachment of organic material on the surface of active carbon in the meso-pores and micro-pores of the active carbon The activity level of adsorption is based on the concentration of substance in the water. The function of Freundlich: x/m = adsorbed substance per gram active carbon Ce = concentration difference (between before and after) Kf. When a gas is taken in a solution it is called absorption. or coal. AC is made of tiny clusters of carbon atoms stacked upon one another. The activation process produces the pores that result in such high adsorptive properties. When a substance is attached to a surface is is called adsorption.

the higher the carbon consumption. On the horizontal axis you can find the concentration and on the vertical axis you can find the necessary quantity of carbon. The concentration of the compound to be removed.4-D Alachlor Aldrin Deisopropyltatrazine Desethylatrazine Demeton-O Linuron Malathion MCPA . You can use this kind of figures to optimize you column.Figure 1 gives a specific adsorption isotherm for active carbon. Between point C3 and C4 you need to regenerate you column. acidic compounds are better removed at lower pH. The higher the concentration. For example. Presence of other organic compounds which will compete for the available adsorption sites. According to this we can classify some chemicals by their probability of being efficiently adsorbed by active carbon in water: 1. Compounds with high molecular weight and low solubility are better absorbed. Chemicals with very high probability of being adsorbed by active carbon: 2. Point C3 the column starts to break trough and near C4 your column is not purifying anymore. The pH of the waste stream. Figure 2 tells about the exhaustion during usage of you column. Factors that influence the performance of active carbon in water: • • • • The type of compound to be removed.

it can be regenerated by sodium hypochlorite. Iron removal Iron removal is based on the precipitation of dissolved iron (Fe2+) into its oxidized form (Fe3+). but other techniques exist as well: Oxidation + sand filtration (physical chemical way) Oxidation + sand filtration + MnO2 filter Oxidation + green sand For water with pH > 7.C. When all MnO2 has been consumed. can be very difficult to remove. Manganese removal by physical-chemical way (aeration and sand filtration) can also be . complex bound with humic acids. Complex bound iron and manganese. causing unwanted precipitation and color. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is used as an adsorbent according to the following reaction: Mn + MnO2 (s) --> 2 MnO (s) Manganese oxides are then adsorbed on MnO2 grains. Iron removal by physical-chemical way consists in iron oxidation by air followed by sand filtration. In this case oxidation with ozone can be a solution. ozone but is mostly done by compressed air. e.g. as Fe(OH)3 or Fe2O3. Manganese removal For manganese removal only. low iron content (< 3mg/L) For higher iron content and/or manganese More efficient than sand filtration but required KMnO4 regeneration For acidic water with low redox potential. IRON AND MANGANESE REMOVAL Iron and manganese are unaesthetic parameters present mostly in groundwater. low redox potential. the limestone contactor increases aggressive water pH by binding CO2 Recommended for continuous process with low iron content. Not pH dependent Oxidation + Limestone contactor Ion exchange Oxidation can be carried out by various chemicals like chlorine.

i. Iron removal plant flow diagram D. This type of filter can reduce asbestos fibers. Fiber filters are often used as pre-filters to reduce the suspended contaminants that could clog carbon or RO filters.0.cysts (if the pores are one micron or smaller). trihalomethanes or other organic compounds. rayon or some other material spun into a mesh with small pores. some bacteria (with pore sizes in the 0. ii. lead.2 . The finer the filter. like chlorine.8 micron range**) and other particulate matter. trihalomethanes or other organic compounds. like chlorine. the more particles are trapped and the more often the filter must be changed. Fiber filters will not remove contaminants that are dissolved in the water. Ceramic Filters: Ceramic filters are much like fiber filters and use a process where water is forced through the pores of a ceramic filtration media. Suspended sediment (or turbidity) is removed as water pressure forces water through tightly wrapped fibers. with the lower micron rating being the finer. These filters come in a variety of sizes and meshes from fine to coarse. This provides mechanical filtration only. mercury. nor will they . mercury. Fiber Filters: These filters contain cellulose.used but manganese oxidation kinetics are too slow at pH< 9. SEDIMENT FITERS Solid Particles are Strained Out of the Water. Some small organic particles that cause disagreeable odors and taste may also be removed. Ceramic filters will not remove contaminants that are dissolved in the water. lead.

boiling is the best way to disinfect water that is unsafe because of the presence of protozoan parasites or bacteria. arsenic.000 feet above sea level. or a cotton plug in a funnel are effective ways to filter cloudy water. In this process. but because of the inconvenience.000 feet). Boiled water should be kept covered while cooling. you must increase the boiling time to at least 5 minutes (plus about a minute for every additional 1. ACTIVATED ALUMINA Activated Alumina is a granulated form of aluminum oxide. These filters may be used as a back-end to an activated carbon filter to provide a more thorough removal of contaminants. boiling is not routinely used to treat drinking water except in emergencies. towels (paper or cotton). Activated alumina devices can accumulate bacteria. E. it should be filtered before boiling. Boiling will also drive out some of the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) that might also be in the water.remove viruses. BOILING In an emergency. The cartridge of activated alumina must be replaced periodically. coffee filters. If the water is cloudy. water containing the contaminant is passed through a cartridge or canister of activated alumina which adsorbs the contaminant. If you are more than 5. This method works well to make water that is contaminated with living organisms safe to drink. and selenium The disadvantages of Activated Alumina filters include: The use of other treatment methods would be necessary to reduce levels of other contaminants of health concern 3. Filters designed for use when camping. so treated water may have higher bacteria counts than raw water. The advantages of Boiling Water include: Pathogens that might be lurking in your water will be killed if the water is boiled long enough. The advantages of Activated Alumina filters include: An effective way to reduce levels of fluoride. . Place the water in a clean container and bring it to a full boil and continue boiling for at least 3 minutes (covering the container will help reduce evaporation). cheesecloth.

). The resulting distillate drips into a storage container. asbestos. carbon filter. This is one of the few practical ways to remove heavy metals. nitrates. Boiling may concentrate any harmful contaminants that do not vaporize as the relatively pure water vapor boils off. . chemicals (lead.anything that won't boil or evaporate . or heated just short of boiling. No filter cartridges to replace. Energy is needed to boil the water 4. pesticides. The steam moves to a different part of the unit and is cooled until it condenses back into liquid water.remain in the distiller and must be removed. metals . unless a carbon filter is used to remove volatile organic compounds. A vapor trap. and the pure (or mostly pure) steam leaves the non volatile contaminants behind. sediment. mostly by killing and leaving them behind when the water vapor evaporates. Distillation also removes pathogens in the water. pathogens would also be killed. DISTILLATION In many ways. or other device must be used along with a distiller to ensure the more complete removal of contaminants. solvents.no drop in quality over time. mercury. distillation is the reverse of boiling. or nitrates have contaminated the water. the water is usually boiled in a chamber causing water to vaporize. chloride. etc. The advantages of Distillation include: A good distillation unit produces very pure water. As long as the distiller is kept clean and is working properly the high quality of treated water will be very consistent regardless of the incoming water . To remove impurities from water by distillation.The disadvantages of Boiling Water include: Boiling should not be used when toxic metals. If the water is boiled. Salts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a good example of a contaminant that will evaporate and condense with the water vapor. and other salts that carbon filtration can not remove.

Distillers uses electricity all the time the unit is operating Distillers requires periodic cleaning of the boiler. The ozone molecule contains three oxygen atoms whereas the normal oxygen molecule contains only two. using $0. In the home. mold and yeast spores. Ozone is a very reactive and unstable gas with a short half-life before it reverts back to oxygen. by lightning. it vanishes without trace once it has been used.25 to $0. It can take two to five hours to make a gallon of distilled water. condensation compartment. Ozone is the most powerful and rapid acting oxidizer man can produce. but when . and will oxidize all bacteria. The advantages of using Ozone include: Ozone is primarily a disinfectant that effectively kills biological contaminants. ozone may also be made through electrolytic and chemical reactions. In addition to these commercial methods. this does not matter much. 5. Ozone will oxidize and break down many organic chemicals including many that cause odor and taste problems. and will not function in an emergency situation when electrical power is not available. OZONATION The formation of oxygen into ozone occurs with the use of energy. Most home distillation units require electricity.35 of electrical energy per gallon of distilled water produced . sulfur. and storage tank.The disadvantages of Distillation include: Distillation takes time to purify the water. Ozone also oxidizes and precipitates iron. DISINFECTION A. or by ultraviolet radiation as in UV-type ozone generators (simulation of the ultra-violet rays from the sun). and manganese so they can be filtered out of solution. It can be produced by the ultraviolet rays of the sun reacting with the Earth's upper atmosphere (which creates a protective ozone layer). organic material and viruses given sufficient exposure. Ozonation produces no taste or odor in the water. This process is carried out by an electric discharge field as in the CD-type ozone generators (corona discharge simulation of the lightning). Ozone is a naturally occurring component of fresh air. Countertop Distillation is one of the more expensive home water treatment methods.depending on local electricity costs. Since ozone is made of oxygen and reverts to pure oxygen. or it can be created artificially with an ozone generator.

The effectiveness of the process is dependent. If the energy dose is not high enough. ozone is often combined with activated carbon filtration to achieve a more complete water treatment.. . protecting them from the light. The disadvantages of using Ozone include: Ozone treatment can create undesirable byproducts that can be harmful to health if they are not controlled (e. Does not affect minerals in water The disadvantages of using UV include: UV radiation is not suitable for water with high levels of suspended solids. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT (UV) Water passes through a clear chamber where it is exposed to Ultra Violet (UV) Light. UV light effectively destroys bacteria and viruses. asbestos. In the home. B.water companies use ozone to disinfect the water there is no residual disinfectant. chlorine. how well the UV system works depends on the energy dose that the organism absorbs. this treatment will not work. on good mixing of ozone with the water. However. formaldehyde and bromate). Turbidity makes it difficult for radiation to penetrate water and pathogens can be 'shadowed'. and ozone does not dissolve particularly well. so chlorine or another disinfectant must be added to minimize microbial growth during storage and distribution. or soluble organic matter. UV light is not effective against any non-living contaminant. Caution . turbidity.g. In an emergency with loss of power. the organism’s genetic material may only be damaged rather than disrupted. etc. The process of creating ozone in the home requires electricity. so a well designed system that exposes all the water to the ozone is important. Ozone is not effective at removing dissolved minerals and salts. These materials can react with UV radiation. The advantages of using UV include: No known toxic or significant nontoxic byproducts introduced Removes some organic contaminants Leaves no smell or taste in the treated water Requires very little contact time (seconds versus minutes for chemical disinfection) Improves the taste of water because some organic contaminants and nuisance microorganisms are destroyed Many pathogenic microorganisms are killed or rendered inactive. color. and reduce disinfection performance. lead. many organic chemicals.

Disinfection . Sedimentation.The heavy particles (floc) settle to the bottom and the clear water moves to filtration.Tough cryptosporidia cysts are fairly resistant to UV light. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS Coagulation removes dirt and other particles suspended in water. In an emergency situation when the power is out. Alum and other chemicals are added to water to form tiny sticky particles called "floc" which attract the dirt particles. A small amount of chlorine is added or some other disinfection method is used to kill any bacteria or microorganisims that may be in the water. gravel. Filtration. some made of layers of sand. Requires electricity to operate. The water passes through filters. . The combined weight of the dirt and the alum (floc) become heavy enough to sink to the bottom during sedimentation. and charcoal that help remove even smaller particles. the purification will not work.

For instance. 5) Softening in a reservoir. Usually ozonation would be preferred. through natural aeration or with sodium hydroxide. c: Natural filtration 6) Drinking water preparation step that is specific for the Netherlands: Infiltration of the water in sand dunes for natural purification. if necessary with the addition of an extra flocculation aid. because ozone not only kills bacteria and viruses. Aeration of groundwater and natural treatment of surface water usually take place in the reservoirs. 4) FeCl3 addition to induce flocculation for the removal of humic acids and suspended particulate matter. As soon as it is needed for drinking water preparation. 2) Rapid sand filtration or in some cases microfiltration in drum filters. in case natural filtration will be applied. This is not applied on all locations The water will enter the saturated zone where the groundwater is located and it will undergo further biological purification. it will be extracted through drains. It destroys . Water is placed in a closed tank or reservoir in order for disinfection to take place. Ozone diffuses through the water as small bubbles and enters microrganisms cells by diffusion through cell walls. b: Addition of chemicals 3) pH adjustment through addition of calcium oxide and sodium hydroxide. it also improves taste and odour properties and breaks down micro pollutants. Flocs are than settled and removed through lamellae separators. on to 8. After that the flocs are concentrated in sludge and pumped to the exterior for safe removal of the particulates and sludge dewatering. The water then flows through pipes to homes and businesses in the community DRINKING WATER PURIFICATION PROCESS a: Prefiltration 1) The uptake of water from surface waters or groundwater and storage in reservoirs. softening takes place naturally. Often softening and pH-adjustments already happen during these natural processes. This is not always necessary.5 o D.Storage. d: Disinfection 7) Disinfection with sodium hypochlorite or ozone.

9) Active carbon filtration for further removal of matter affecting taste and odour and remaining micro pollutants. Backwash is required regularly due to silting up and reactivation of an active carbon filter should be done once a year.microrganisms either by disturbance of growth or by disturbance of respiratory functions and energy transfers of their cells. e: Fine filtration 8) Slow sand (media) filtration for the removal of the residual turbidity and harmful bacteria.3 mg/L sodium hypochlorite to guarantee the preservation of the obtained quality. During these processes ozone is lost according to the reaction O3 -> O2 +(O). The water will eventually be distributed to users through pipelines and distribution pumps. Not all companies chlorinate drinking water. 12) Remaining water can be stored in drinking water reservoirs. Sand filters are backwashed with water and air every day. This is not always applied. In the following schematic representation of the drinking water preparation process dotted arrows represent the incoming chemicals and red arrows represent the outgoing flows. This takes place when water streams through a granular activated carbon layer in a filter. . f: Preservation and storage 10) Addition of 0. 11) Aeration for recovery oxygen supply of the water prior to storage.

Water that is distributed in cities or communities is treated extensively. physical/ chemical treatment of colloids and biological treatment. All these treatment methods have several different applications. Purification methods can be divided up into settling of suspended matter. Specific water purification steps are taken. Physical water purification Physical water purification is primarily concerned with filtration techniques. Filtration is . 1. in order to make the water meet current water standards.

1 microns. proteins and other impurities within its range. .1 microns. the techniques of membrane filtration are clarified.a purification instrument to remove solids from liquids.5 microns. the suspended solids precipitate in the sand layers as residue and the water. the filter media and a controller to enable backflow. 1) Microfiltration Microfiltration is a membrane separation technique in which very fine particles or other suspended matters. Smaller suspended solids have the ability to pass through a sand filter. A typical filter consists of a tank. Screens Filtration through screens is usually done at the beginning of the water purification process. these are: micro filtration. Below. flows out of the filter.2 microns. are separated from a liquid. Sand filtration Sand filtration is a frequently used. 2) Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration is a membrane separation technique in which very fine particles or other suspended matters. so that secondary filtration is often required. The remaining concentrate flows along across the membrane and out of the system and the permeate is removed as it flows along the other side of the membrane. When water flows through the filter. Ultrafiltration membranes have a nominal pore size of 0. When the filters are loaded with particles the flow-direction is reversed. using a permeable membrane that only permeates the contaminants. There are several different membrane filtration techniques. with a particle size in the range of 0. with a particle size in the range of 0. Microfiltration membranes have a nominal pore size of 0. Which one of these techniques is implemented depends upon the kind of compounds that needs to be removed and their particle size. are separated from a liquid. in order to regenerate it. which is reduced in suspended solids. There are several different filtration techniques.1 to 1. Cross flow filtration Cross flow membrane filtration removes both salts and dissolved organic matter. It is capable of removing suspended solids. nano filtration and Reversed Osmosis (RO). bacteria or other impurities. very robust method to remove suspended solids from water. It is capable of removing salts.005 to 0. ultra filtration.0025 to 0. The shape of the screens depends on the particles that have to be removed. The filter medium consists of a multiple layer of sand with a variety in size and specific gravity.

They also help prevent the degradation of purification membranes. 2. .Oxidizing agents are added to act as a biocide. Chemical water purification Chemical water purification is concerned with a lot of different methods. or to neutralize reducing agents. For heavier contamination applications. cartridges are normally used as final polishing filters. from a liquid. caused by the deposition of calcium and magnesium. is the finest available membrane separation technique.0001 to 0. pesticides and herbicides. Clarification . in order to prevent negative effects of hardness.001 microns.Reducing agents are added to neutralize oxidizing agents. Which methods are applied depends on the kind of contamination in the (waste)water.005 microns. with a particle size in the range of approximately 0. RO separates very fine particles or other suspended matters. or RO. They generally operate most effectively and economically on applications having contamination levels of less than 100 ppm. many of these chemical purification techniques are summed up. Below. for instance to prevent the formation of certain reaction products. with a particle size up to 0.Chelating agents are often added to water. are separated from a liquid. a few of these additions are summed up: . It is capable of removing metal ions and fully removing aqueous salts. 4) Reversed Osmosis (RO) Reversed Osmosis. Chemical addition There are various situations in which chemicals are added. such as ozone and chlorine. . Cartridge filtration Cartridge filtration units consist of fibres. Below.3) Nanofiltration Nanofiltration is a membrane separation technique in which very fine particles or other suspended matters. It is capable of removing viruses.

poses no significant adverse risk to human health. where ozone generator capacities up to the range of a hundred kilograms per hour are common. by replacing them with other positively charged ions. Particles larger than 25 microns are effectively removed by clarification. The ion-exchanging device than has to be regenerated by suitable chemicals. such as: ozone disinfection.Clarification is a multi-step process to remove suspended solids. The process of ion exchange lasts. until all available spaces are filled up with ions. the extra atom of oxygen destroys them completely by oxidation. Ozone has been used for disinfection of drinking water in the municipal water industry in Europe for over a hundred years and is used by a large number of water companies. The by-product of this reaction is chlorite. therefore disinfectants are often referred to as biocides. which are dangerous carcinogens. Disinfection Disinfection is one of the most important steps in the purification of water from cities and communities. which is treated to selectively absorb certain cations or anions and replace them by counter-ions.1 ppm and over a wide pH range. Chlorine has a downside: it can react to chloramines and chlorinated hydrocarbons. This device removes calcium and magnesium ions from hard water. To prevent this problem chlorine dioxide can be applied. It serves the purpose of killing the present undesired microrganisms in the water. Water that is treated through clarification may still contain some suspended solids and therefore needs further treatment. so that they will accumulate into larger particles called flocs. chlorine disinfection and UV disinfection. Chlorine dioxide is an effective biocide at concentrations as low as 0. The flocs then settle by gravity in settling tanks or are removed as the water flows through a gravity filter. Coagulants reduce the charges of ions. Ozone is not only an effective disinfectant. Toxicological studies have shown that the chlorine dioxide disinfection by-product. it is also particularly safe to use. ClO2 penetrates the bacteria cell wall and reacts with vital amino acids in the cytoplasm of the cell to kill the organism. First. bacteria or viruses. There are a variety of techniques available to disinfect fluids and surfaces. Deionisation and softening Deionisation is commonly processed through ion exchange. chlorite. such as sodium. coagulants are added. . During this process the extra atom of oxygen is destroyed and there are no odours. When ozone faces odours. One of the most commonly used ion exchangers is a water softener. Ion exchange systems consist of a tank with small beds of synthetic resin. bacteria or extra atoms left.

This natural disinfection process can be utilised most effectively by applying UV radiation in a controlled way. The electrodes draw their counter ions through the membranes. after boiling the wastewater. whereas anaerobic systems run under oxygen free conditions. Membranes that permeate cations and membranes that permeate anions are placed alternately. When exposed to sunlight. in case of an acidic liquid. and electrodes are placed on each side of the membranes.5. Biological water purification Biological water purification is performed to lower the organic load of dissolved organic compounds. mainly bacteria. with flow channels between them. because most contaminants do not vaporize.UV-radiation is also used for disinfection nowadays. or natrium hydroxide. Microrganisms. so that these are removed from the water. 3. The organics will fill up the resin and when it is loaded it is regenerated with high concentrations of sodium chloride. which are semi permeable to ions. do the decomposition of these compounds. . Organic scavenging is done by addition of strong-base anion resin. There are two main categories of biological treatment: aerobic treatment and anaerobic treatment. The pH will be converted to approximately 7 to 7. based on their charge. Water will than pass to the condensate and the contaminants will remain in the evaporation unit. The pH is brought up or down through addition of hydrogen chloride. Scavenging Most naturally occurring organics have a slightly negative charge. The Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) defines the organic load. In aerobic systems the water is aerated with compressed air (in some cases merely oxygen). Distillation Distillation is the collection of water vapour. With a properly designed system removal of organic and inorganic contaminants and biological impurities can be obtained. germs are killed and bacteria and fungi are prevented from spreading. after addition of certain concentrations of these substances. in case of a basic liquid. in order to prevent corrosion from pipes and to prevent dissolution of lead into water supplies. pH-adjustment Municipal water is often pH-adjusted. Electro dialysis Electro dialysis is a technique that employs an electrical current and special membranes.

Reverse osmosis and distillation are effective POU treatment methods Cloudy. Cloudiness from these contaminants will not clear Very fine dirt or clay particles.WATER PROBLEM TABLE Color of Water Water Problem Contaminant Source of Contaminant Health Effect(s) Treatment(s) Blue to Bluegreen Copper Much of copper contamination comes from home plumbing and fixtures when the water is corrosive. If contamination is from natural sources. Bubbles will eventually rise to the surface and disappear Methane bubbles Methane is odorless. although In fairly high doses copper can cause gastrointestinal problems. if present. or Milky Small air bubbles Air dissolved in the water before or during pumping Harmless or treatment. However. may naturally be in well water. from soil. More important as an indicator of possible lead contamination consider having your water tested for lead. lead does NOT leave sensory clues at dangerous levels! Essential mineral Mostly a nuisance. methane will be difficult to identify. Acid neutralization of whole house water to minimize corrosion. so unless the water also contains odor-causing chemicals like hydrogen sulfide. rocks. . or organic Naturally. Normally just a nuisance. use ion exchange for whole house (& possibly POU). and living things. If you have copper contamination due to corrosion. The aerator must be vented to the open air to permit the gas to escape into the atmosphere. Methane is extremely flammable or explosive if confined! Bubbles will eventually rise to the surface and disappear For methane. you may also have lead in your water since the conditions responsible for leaching copper out of a pipe or fixture are the same as those that will leach lead. aerate the water prior to use.

from soil & rocks. Naturally. whitish Calcium and deposit on magnesium carbonate fixtures.locate & correct cause of the problem.test the water .water may also have a bitter taste Activated Carbon Filtration Up to 3. magnesium carbonate failure of (Hard water) soap to lather well Scaly. Naturally. Reddish orange Iron Nuisance Iron removal Dark brown to Manganese Black Nuisance Manganese removal Yellow Tannins (humic acid) Naturally. from soil & rocks Essential mineral Nuisance in water over about 5 grains of hardness Standard water softener ion exchange. & Sediment Water Problem Contaminant Source Health Effect(s) Treatment(s) Soap scum and Bathtub Calcium and rings. from soil & rocks on standing like bubbles will.0 ppm: Absorption with an ion exchange resin greater than 3. Treat with sediment filtration unless there are pathogens in the water then disinfect and filter.matter Abnormal cloudiness can be an indication that filtration of more harmful invisible contaminants (like bacteria and cysts) has failed . Naturally. Also.0 ppm: Chlorination followed by filtering Deposits. (Hard water) plumbing lined with Naturally. Clean deposits on the fixtures with a rag soaked in vinegar . sometimes from galvanized pipes if water is corrosive. from organic soil and vegetation Nuisance . from soil & rocks Essential mineral Nuisance in water over about 5 grains of hardness Standard water softener ion exchange. Spots.

Use whole house ion exchange and activated carbon to remove many contaminants. and flatware High levels of Total natural sources Dissolved Solids (TDS) (also hard water) or from human contamination TDS can be a mix of many chemicals. from soil & rocks Standard water softener ion exchange. Sometimes the iron sediment in the distribution system or Nuisance If the problem is caused by dissolved iron in water. mottling. At about 1 mg/l Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay. Typically clears after Iron or Manganese Bacteria The bacteria feed on iron Nuisance . or pitting of teeth Naturally from soil & rocks Fluoride Fluoride can also be added by water treatment companies.can clog or manganese dissolved plumbing and filters in the water Chlorine or permanganate treatment of well Iron Dissolved iron precipitates when oxygen reaches it. Calcium and magnesium carbonate (Hard water) Essential mineral Nuisance in water over about 5 grains of hardness Essential mineral Nuisance in water over about 5 grains of hardness Usually a nuisance. Activated alumina filtration Reverse osmosis and distillation are effective POU treatment methods Red . Spots on clothing Naturally.4 mg/l Fluoride can cause staining of the tooth enamel and other problems.brown or black brown slime in plumbing system Reddish brown sediment. or next to a waste dump) to decide if testing is warranted. Use common sense and your home's location (for instance. from soil & rocks Standard water softener ion exchange. do you live in an agricultural or industrial area. Reverse osmosis and distillation are effective POU treatment methods A solid block. Calcium and magnesium carbonate (Hard water) Naturally. glassware. depending on the contaminant(s) present. Above about 3 .scale. using iron removal method If the problem is caused by disturbed sediment from . activated carbon filter will reliably remove most of the organic TDS Spotting. May be harmful. Spots on dishes.

If you have copper contamination due to corrosion. More important as an indicator of possible lead contamination Acid neutralization of whole house water to minimize corrosion. grit Nuisance Sedimentation or Sediment Filter Staining Water Problem Contaminant Source Health Effect(s) Treatment(s) Blue-green stains on sink Copper or brass and porcelain fixtures Much of copper contamination comes from home plumbing and fixtures when the water is corrosive. Reverse osmosis and distillation are effective POU treatment methods Brown-red stains. from soil & rocks. Mostly a Nuisance Neurological effects at very high levels Manganese removal Hydrogen sulfide (gas) Naturally occurring. more common in wells than surface water. you probably also have lead contamination Essential mineral Mostly a nuisance. Also. although In fairly high doses copper can cause gastrointestinal problems. use ion exchange for whole house (& possibly POU). Mostly a Nuisance Neurological effects at very high levels Iron removal Manganese Naturally. The sediment can be filtered as well. and it should clear. the water can get really "thick" with sediment for a while. If contamination is from natural sources. and sediments at the bottom of tubs and sinks Fine sand.use weak acid. sometimes from galvanized pipes if water is corrosive. abrasiveness of water. from soil & rocks.running the water for a few minutes home pipes is disturbed when this happens. Sand or very fine sediments that gets through the filtering screens in wells or resists the coagulation stage during water treatment. its oxidizing filter followed by presence in the air carbon filter . Grittiness. run the water for a while. Usually present in Promotes corrosion Low to moderate due to its activity as a concentrations . pipes. and discolored clothing Black stains on fixtures and laundry Blackening and pitting of metal sinks Iron Naturally.

from organic Nuisance . etc. "soda" Carbonates and taste) Bicarbonates Bicarbonates are the Nuisance most common sources of alkalinity.and fixtures water with high levels of iron and a low pH. illness and in extreme cases. Although there was some concern several years ago that Reverse osmosis or aluminum contributed Distillation to Alzheimer's disease. pH correction using either a neutralizing filter or chemical feed pump to . Tannins (humic acid) Naturally. Probably just a nusianc. research does not seem to have supported that idea.water materials in soil and from may also have a vegetation bitter taste Taste Water Problem Contaminant Source Health Effect(s) Treatment(s) Alkaline taste Hydroxides.use chlorination followed by activated carbon Gray stains Aluminum The primary source of aluminum in drinking water is from the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a coagulant in water treatment plants. Activated Carbon Filtration Up to 3. (bitter. china dishes and sinks.0 ppm: Chlorination followed by filtering Yellow stains on fabrics. death. While such concentrations are rare. Aeration followed by filtration medium to high concentrations . causes silver to tarnish in a matter of seconds High hydrogen sulphide concentrations are both inflammable and poisonous. fixtures. their presence in drinking water has been known to cause nausea.0 ppm: Absorption with an ion exchange resin greater than 3.

depending on metal Cation exchange for whole house treatment. but dangerous. degree in all natural Sulfate can cause waters. distillation. Reverse osmosis. brackish taste Sodium. or specialized ion exchange resin for POU treatment Salty. Possible cancer risk from nickel. A high quality. water . Chloramines Disinfection chemicals. arsenic. improper disposal.5 to 8. or other metals Almost all natural supplies have a measurable amount of this ion. chloride. or specialized ion exchange resin for POU treatment Sharp chemical taste or odor. agricultural organ system down significantly. Sodium can cause Sodium salts are present problems for people to a greater or lesser with hypertension. copper.High pH water Recommended pH levels 6. arsenic. manganese.probably shouldn't Contamination of water Risk of cancer. and pitting of sulfate. concentration of these chemicals that might be present even after public water treatment. Nervous system disorders from lead. gastrointestinal problems. mercury. Could bathe in it either . or "oily" consistency Pesticides or semivolatile compounds If these contaminants are present in levels that can be easily tasted or smelled. lead. lower the pH Metallic taste wide range of possible sources. inorganic salts fixtures.until the supply from storage tank affect any bodily contaminant level goes leaks. etc. applications. Odor Water Problem Chlorine smell (like bleach or Contaminant Source Health Effect(s) Treatment(s) Chlorine. activated carbon filter will remove undetectable. distillation. Chlorine does not Some "residual appear to cause disinfectant" must remain health problems at in the water during Activated Carbon Filtration for whole house reduction of chlorine . dumping. immediately STOP using the water for drinking and All are synthetic cooking and drink bottled organic compounds. chromium.5 Iron. Reverse osmosis. solid block.

dilute sewage Discharges from the septic system into sources of underground water supply. solid block. but dangerous. industrial waste or fertilizer contamination For wells. or central can be easily tasted or nervous system. or find a new source of water. Cadmium makes its way into the water supplies as a result of deterioration of galvanized plumbing. it could mean problems with the treatment system. All are synthetic organic compounds. A POU. smelled. levels normally used for disinfection. are ingested Reverse Osmosis Distillation . volatile) organic perfume odor compounds like MTBE Find and remove source of contamination if it is from a single source. concentration of these chemicals that might be present even after public water treatment. solid block. Accidental presence of Risk of disease if detergent in the water bacteria are present. If these contaminants Could affect kidney. Cadmium Barium is highly toxic Standard water softener when its soluble salts ion exchange. are present in levels that liver. Smells like fish Barium. locate and eliminate source followed by strong dose of chlorine An activated charcoal filter absorbs small amounts of detergent Volatile (or semiSweet. high quality. Barium is a naturally occurring metal found primarily in the Midwest. Detergent smell (foamy water) Foaming agents. supply or wells Could harm infants. Contamination of water supply is from storage tank leaks. A high quality. If this occurs with municipal water. activated carbon filter will remove undetectable. activated carbon filter will remove chlorine and. STOP using the water for drinking and cooking immediately and drink bottled water until the level is reduced. Risk of cancer.swimming pool) distribution to prevent reinfection of the water. etc. dumping. The possible health problems result from the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) discussed elsewhere. Distillation and RO will also remove these contaminants. disinfection byproducts from drinking and cooking water. more importantly. improper disposal.

dumping.use oxidizing filter followed by carbon filter Aeration followed by filtration medium to high concentrations . While such concentrations are rare. Risk of cancer. The concentration found Essential mineral Find and remove source of contamination if it is from a single source. death. Contamination of water supply is from storage tank leaks. immediately STOP using the water for drinking and cooking and drink bottled water until the level is reduced. If these contaminants liver. or find a new source of water.use chlorination followed by activated carbon Methane Wells that contain methane are generally located in areas where gas and oil wells are common sights Danger of fire or explosion Aerate water prior to use. their presence in drinking water has been known to cause nausea. Also. Could affect kidney. but dangerous. or central are present in levels that nervous system. Promotes corrosion due to its activity as a weak acid. its presence in the air causes silver to tarnish in a matter of seconds High hydrogen sulphide concentrations are both inflammable and poisonous. The aerator must be vented to the open air to permit the gas to escape into the atmosphere. concentration of these chemicals that might be present even after public water treatment. Oil or gas smell Gasoline or semivolatile organic compounds All are distilled or synthetic organic compounds. solid block. improper disposal. Nuisance Activated Carbon Filtration Chloramine Nuisance Activated Carbon Filtration Smells like rotten eggs Hydrogen sulfide (gas) Naturally occurring. more common in wells than surface water. activated carbon filter will remove undetectable. A high quality. illness and in extreme cases. can be easily tasted or smelled. Low to moderate concentrations . Smells like Selenium Ion exchange .Organic matter Naturally occurring Traces of chlorine and ammonia compounds used for desinfection of wastewater. etc. Usually present in water with high levels of iron and a low pH.

Can be toxic at high levels of exposure Reverse Osmosis Distillation sewage Sewage Leakage from a septic system. usually in surface or shallow wells Nuisance. Activated carbon filtration for whole house treatment. algae) Naturally occurring. If raw sewage is present in levels that can be easily High probability of smelled. distillation. immediately contamination with E. feed lot. problem has been identified and fixed. etc. STOP using the water for coli and other drinking and cooking and pathogens as well as drink bottled water until the nitrates. and comes from natural sources. Combine with sediment filter if particulates are present. farmyard. A nuisance if it effects water odor. RO. usually CONCLUSION . earthy Decaying Organic smell matter (leaves. or Activated carbon filtration for POU treatment Musty.in drinking water is usually low. waste treatment plant.

cfm 7.pdf 3.htm .html#concern 4.gov/drink/index.com/. http://www.html 9. http://www.com 11.emersonprocess.html 6.lenntech. precipitation. http://www. Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms. in some developing regions of the world. Approximately 70% of the fresh water used by humans goes to agriculture.org/scientificjournals/pharmscitech/volume2issue1/ 056/manuscript.epa. http://www. http://water.. There is a clear correlation between access to safe water and GDP per capita. as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation. http://en.activated-carbon. Water plays an important role in the world economy. Access to safe drinking water has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world..htm#ixzz1e9ey9SD3 10.htm 8. However.cyber-nook.cfm 5. http://www. http://www.Water on Earth moves continually through the hydrological cycle of evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration).com/benefits-of-drinking-water. usually reaching the sea.epa.mangosteen-natural-remedies.aapspharmscitech.gov/learn/kids/drinkingwater/watertreatmentplant_index.cyber-nook. and runoff. www2. condensation.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation. water demand will exceed supply by 50%. but approximately one billion people still lack access to safe water and over 2.org/wiki/Industry 2./Liq_Brochure_91-6030. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land.com/applications/drinking/drinkingwater. REFERENCES 1. some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability.com/applications/drinking/standards/who-s-drinking-waterstandards.com/water/tbl_gene. http://www.wikipedia.lenntech. http://water. A recent report (November 2009) suggests that by 2030.com/water/concerns.

wikipedia.12. http://en.org/wiki/Water .