March 2005 – VoIP Overview

QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE

VoIP on 1xEV-DO rev. A
QUALCOMM, March 2005

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March 2005 – VoIP Overview

QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE

Agenda

• • • • •

Executive Summary Telco-Quality VoIP Requirements Network Architecture for VoIP over EV-DO rev A Voice over Wireless IP: performance enhancing features Capacity Simulation Results

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March 2005 – VoIP Overview

QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE

Executive Summary
• • VoIP capacity of 48 users per sector can be achieved on EV-DO rev A with dual-diversity handsets Capacity is comparable to 1x circuit-switched voice capacity if similar assumptions were made (e.g. 3GPP2 evaluation framework, smart blanking, MSO model, etc) Additional capacity gains can be achieved by introducing interference cancellation techniques. In this case, DO rev A can support up to 58 users per sector The VoIP over DO rev A system is reverse link limited, leaving a significant amount of unused forward link capacity. This “free” capacity can be used for forward link centric applications such as Gold or Platinum multicast. In order to successfully implement VoIP over DO rev A, some standards need to be revised and the corresponding features implemented. E.g. IS835-D, IS-878-A and TIA-1054

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March 2005 – VoIP Overview

QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE

Wireless VoIP Requirements
• VoIP calls must have at least similar quality as circuit-switched voice calls
• End-to-end delays for mobile-to-land and mobile-to-mobile calls should be similar to existing networks (e.g. 280 msec) • Frame error rate should be controlled to no more than 2% • Voice quality degradation should be minimal during handoffs

• Need to support existing vocoders and possibly new enhanced ones • Capacity of the wireless VoIP system must be comparable or better than existing wireless circuit-switched systems • Backend solutions need to be in place to support equivalent functions as in today’s systems
• Authorization, Accounting, Roaming, etc

• VoIP implementation should allow for the development of new integrated media services in addition to existing voice services

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March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Network Architecture and Protocols Page 5 .

call setup and control Gateway for PSTN calls Codec transcoding SIP Registrar Location Server PSTN SS7 SIP Proxy MGW 3. SIP-based VoIP core elements • • • Registration. IS-878-A and RoHC 2.March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Wireless VoIP Network Elements 1. EV-DO rev A devices • • VoIP application SIP support R-P Interface Internet PDSN Edge Router QoS Domain Page 6 VoIP App BSC EV-DO Rev A BTS A12 AAA . 1xEV-DO rev A RAN • • • Provides delay-sensitive QoS support and admission control Provides QoS reservation and activation based on enhanced multi-flow packet application (EMFPA) protocol Supports IS-835-D.

Expected publication: 1Q 2005 QoS 1 IP IP Flow Flow Header / Payload Compression QoS 2 QoS 3 IP Flow IP Flow IP Flow IP Flow IP Flow PPP in HDLC .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Required RAN Features for VoIP 1. PDSN sends IP packets to BSC without PPP encapsulation • Eliminates PPP overhead and allows for efficient air interface header compression • Improves packet dropping efficiency and allows for seamless make-before-break handoffs between RANs • One A10 between PDSN and RAN carrying PPP traffic for control functions • One or more A10s between the PDSN and RAN carrying IP traffic for different QoS flows • New service option introduced allowing the PDSN to send IP packets to the RAN • IS-835-D in ballot resolution.like Framing CDMA Flow CDMA Flow ROHC Channel CDMA Flow ROHC Channel CDMA Flow ROHC Channel CDMA Flow RAN Existing architecture Proposed architecture PDSN IP Flow Page 7 .

frame bundling could lower overhead but leads to increased delays and burst error rates • A robust and efficient header compression scheme requires state full operation with error recovery and acknowledgement mechanisms • RAN based RoHC allows for efficient implementation • Compression algorithm can take advantage of air interface error and timing recovery • Packet dropping based on air interface information done prior to header compression • Simplified connected-state BSC-BSC handoff with two independents ROHC contexts Page 8 . header compression needed to reduce RTP/UDP/IP header overhead of voice frames • • • • RTP Header: 12 bytes UDP Header: 8 bytes IP Header: 20 bytes (IPv4) or 40 bytes (IPv6) Full rate frame size is only 22 bytes.March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Why Air Interface Header Compression? • First. Overhead even more dominant for 1/2 and 1/4 rates • Alternatively.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Header Compression System View (mobile to mobile) Uplink Header Decompressor RAN Core VoIP Network Downlink Header Compressor RAN RL • Typical RoHC header sizes with timer-based compression mode • 2 or 4 bytes on IPv4 (UDP checksum enabled or disabled) • 4 bytes on IPv6 (UDP checksum must be enabled) FL AT_1 AT_2 Uplink Header Compressor Downlink Header Decompressor Page 9 .

AN initiates QoS configuration • Upon successful configuration. Requires appropriate QoS support in IS-835-D. Page 10 . etc. • Configuration • After session and PPP establishment upon power-up. Port numbers. IS-878-A and IS-1878-A. AT instantiates the required IP filters at the PDSN – Filters are classifiers based on source/destination IP addresses.March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Required RAN Features for VoIP (cont’d) 2. VoIP application (AT) sends reservation request to setup the appropriate QoS • After authorization. QoS configuration and activation using the Enhanced Multi-Flow Packet Application (EMFPA) Protocol • Streamlined process to minimize setup delays while consuming no resources until activation • TIA-1054 published in January 2005.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Registration / QoS Configuration AT Power up Session establishment App starts RAN PDSN AAA SIP Reg PPP carrying A10 setup and Sub QoS Profile Authentication and Sub QoS Profile RAN performs authorization by checking requested ProfileIDs wrt subscriber QoS profile downloaded from AAA Could be Part of Session Establishme nt. ReservationLabel binds to A10 and RLP flow Resv (TFT) ResvConfirm SIP Registration VoIP app ready to place or receive calls Access to QoS for VoIP calls can be restricted to authorized subscribers and valid applications Page 11 . repeated for each codec EMFPA: AttributeUpdateRequest (ReservationKKQoSRequest for audio. media traffic FL IP filters sent to PDSN. control) Authorization wrt Sub QoS Profile EMFPA: AttributeUpdateAccept EMFPA: AttributeUpdateRequest (ReservationKKQoSResponse) EMFPA: AttributeUpdateAccept EMFPA: AttributeUpdateRequest (Link Flow Configuration) EMFPA: AttributeUpdateAccept RTCMAC SubType 3: AttributeUpdateRequest (MAC Configuration) RTCMAC SubType 3: AttributeUpdateAccept Set up A10s for carrying control.

SIP call setup starts.March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE VoIP Call Setup • QoS activation using EMFPA Protocol (TIA-1054) • AT requests the audio flow to be activated by sending a ReservationOnRequest • Control flows (SIP signaling) may be activated by default since they consume minimal resources • AN performs admission control by checking BS available resources • If successful. AN configures FL scheduler resources and RTCMAC resources if not already done • AN sends ReservationAccept to AT. • SIP signaling used to setup and tear down VoIP calls • SIP compression may be used to reduce amount of signaling overhead and reduce latency • RAN sends GrantedQoS indication to PDSN upon allocation and deallocation of resources to a VoIP call • Can be used to generate AAA records allowing for time-based billing • If one A10 is dedicated to a VoIP flow. byte accounting may also be generated as per IS-835-D Page 12 .

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Call Setup (same QoSProfileID at the end points) AT1 Call Initated RAN PDSN SIP Proxy PDSN RAN AT2 RUP: ConnectionRequest EMFPA: ReservationOnRequest (Default Codec) Connection Setup Admission Control EMFPA: ReservationAccept Granted QoS SIP: Invite (Codec List) Connection Setup SIP: Invite (Codec List) SIP: 100 Trying EMFPA: ReservationOnRequest (Default Codec) Admission Control Granted QoS EMFPA: ReservationAccept SIP: Invite (Codec List) Call Setup Delay SIP: 100 Trying SIP: 180 Ringing SIP: 180 Ringing SIP: PRACK SIP: PRACK User Picks SIP: 200 OK SIP: ACK Media Traffic SIP: 200 OK Ring User Call Setup Time = 2 * Conn Setup + RTD + QoS Activation Page 13 .

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Voice over Wireless IP: Speech quality enhancing techniques Page 14 .

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Speech Basics: Talk spurts and silence intervals Silence intervals are produced when the user goes silence and the speech vocoder uses only 1/8 rate frames for communication of the background noise Talk spurts are produced when the user is speaking and the vocoder uses frames different than 1/8 rate frame for communication of the speech • In a packet-switched network capacity can be improved by reducing the amount of frames used for background noise information Page 15 .

114) 285ms • Maximum acceptable end-to-end delay of 285ms for user satisfaction • Commercial 3G 1x networks have 260-270ms delay • Packet-switched networks allow for capacity-delay tradeoff optimization Page 16 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Mouth-to-Ear Delay (ITU-T G.

• A de-jitter buffer is needed to allow evenly delivery of voice frames to decoder 400 • Sources of jitter in a 1xEV-DO network • • • • • Reverse link MAC Forward link scheduler RF channel conditions Handoff Core network Voice Frame Delay (ms) 350 Different jitter. The variance in the inter-arrival time is know as delay jitter. Different End2End Delay 300 250 200 150 End2end Packet Delay 100 Running Average (20) 50 MAX Delay (20) MIN Delay (20) 0 1 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 901 1001 1101 Frame Count Page 17 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Voice Frame Delay Jitter • The decoder ideally receives and plays one voice frame every 20ms • However. the voice frame inter-arrival time is not constant. Different End2End Delay Same jitter.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Voice Quality Enhancing Features of VoIP over EV-DO Decoder Time Warping Smart Noise De-jitter Buffer Lower Layers Smart Blanking • Smart blanking • Smart background noise • Adaptive de-jitter buffer • Speech time warping • Enhanced error concealment Lower Layers Smart Blanking De-jitter Buffer Smart Noise Encoder 1xEV-DO Rev A Decoder Time Warping Encoder Page 18 .

update prototype 1/8 rate frame • To avoid “flatness” of reconstructed background noise. erasures are puncture with some probability Page 19 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Smart Blanking / Background Noise • Current vocoders introduce unnecessary overhead by using a sequence of 1/8 rate frames for background noise information during silence periods • Even with RoHC. When in silence state. IP Packet overhead is twice the size of the payload • A single prototype 1/8 rate frame can be repeatedly played back if it has similar statistical properties as the background noise • Transmitter (Smart Blanking) • Transmits the first 1/8 rate frame after the end of a talk spurt – the prototype frame • If background noise changes significantly during silence. sends a new 1/8 rate prototype frame • Receiver (Smart Background Noise) • Transitions to Silence state when a 1/8 rate frame is received (or time out). playback prototype 1/8 rate frame • If a 1/8 rate frame is received during silence state.

dB 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 1 2 3 4 Few first frames do not represent the average background noise 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frame number • Updates triggered by noise energy change • Updates triggered by noise frequency content change • Adaptive update algorithms optimize tradeoff between 1/8 rate overhead and noise quality reconstruction Page 20 . first 1/8 frames during silence interval are not representative of background noise Example: Noise from a rack of computers Beginning of several silence periods shown 50 Frame energy delta with respect to average.March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Prototype 1/8 Rate Frame Update • Sometimes.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Speech Samples • Harvard sentences with background noise generated by an electric motor • Original recording • EVRC (Silence periods only) • Sending one 1/8 rate frame (Silence periods only) • Smart Blanking (Silence periods only) • Counting with background noise generated by a Rack of computers • Original recording • EVRC • Sending one 1/8 rate frame • Smart Blanking Page 21 .

end-toend delay is increased • If there are no frames in the buffer.March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Adaptive De-jitter Buffer • The de-jitter buffer is an adaptive buffer that restores constant inter-packet timing prior to decoding • The required amount of buffer changes dynamically for each talkspurt. an erasure has to be fed to the decoder Page 22 . It represents a tradeoff between additional end-to-end delay and frame erasure rate Traditional de-jitter/decoder implementation In-order delivery not guaranteed Even delivery of voice frames 20ms of voice per frame 20ms De-jitter buffer Variable Inter-arrival times Decoder 20ms • If there are too many frames in the buffer.

playback time increases Page 23 . playback time reduces • If there are few frames in the buffer. reducing the overall latency of the de-jitter operation for same target PER De-jitter/decoder/time warping implementation In-order delivery not guaranteed Un-even delivery of voice frames 10-35ms of voice per frame (when required) 20ms Variable Inter-arrival times De-jitter buffer Decoder & TW 20ms • If there are too many frames in the buffer.March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Adaptive De-jitter Buffer with Time Warping Operation • Time Warping adjusts the playback duration of a speech segment without changing its pitch • Time expansion or compression allows the de-jitter buffer size change during a talk spurt • Use of Speech Time Warping greatly enhances the system ability to track variable delay and jitter.

long-term similarities of the human speech must be found among samples • Maximum auto-correlation algorithm determines a set of suitable samples to execute time warping 1 pitch • Small speech segments are merged to achieve compression or repeated to achieve expansion Page 24 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Time Warping Operation • In order to preserve pitch during time-warping.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Additional Features of De-jitter Buffer/Time Warping • Playback time of buffered frames can be expanded prior to certain known periods of air-link unavailability • Forward link handoffs • Reverse link silence periods • Reduction of conversational roundtrip delay (RTD) • The perceived RTD is defined by the delay segment of the first and last packet of speech segments Conversational RTD • First packets in a talkspurt can be timeexpanded when played back • No need to wait until de-jitter buffer fills up with the target number of frames • Last packets in a talkspurt can be timecompressed when played back Speech User1 User2 One way delay Conversational RTD Page 25 .

future packets may be available for improved voice quality Circuit Good Erasure Good VoIP Playback Time line • Simulations show that future frame is available for enhanced concealment approximately 40% of the time • A good portion of the lost information can be linearly interpolated with increased accuracy • Pitch estimation • Minimal dampening or fading of the speech during erasure concealment can be achieved Page 26 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Enhanced Erasure Concealment • Vocoders designed for circuit-switched networks perform extrapolation of erased packets purely based on the last packet • For packet-switched networks. where a de-jitter buffer is present.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Capacity Simulation Results Page 27 .

etc. Page 28 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Simulation Framework • QUALCOMM developed a complete network simulation model representing 19 cells / 57 sectors • The model follows the 3GPP2 Simulation Strawman with minor modifications to closely match practical implementations • All EV-DO rev A terminals are assumed to have dual receive diversity • Voice frames are simulated from source to destination including all possible impairments • Capacity is determined based on collected statistics: mouth-to-ear delay. rise-over-thermal (ROT). frame error rate (FER).

demod.005ms/km for long distance calls [TIA/EIA TSB116] ** Additional delay is assumed for circuit network depending on characteristics (e.March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Model Assumptions • Source traffic is modeled based on MSO model IS-871. 1xRTT to DO) Page 29 . Blanked: 54% • There is exactly one vocoder frame per IP packet (no bundling) • Packet overheads: • 4 bytes of RTP/UDP/IP overhead is assumed with RoHC • 2 bytes of RLP and Stream layers • 4 bytes of MAC trail. 1/8 rate: 6%. ½ rate: 4%. FCS and tail bits • Constant delay components: Delay component Vocoder (alg. proc. decod. MAC) RAN (BTS-PDSN) Core IP Network or PSTN * Voice frame decoding (not including de-jitter/time warper) TOTAL Circuit-to-DO or DO-to-Circuit** 35ms 5ms 10ms 15ms 3ms 68ms DO to DO 35ms 10ms 20ms 15ms 3ms 83ms * Additional propogation delay can be added as 0..) Packet Processing (turbo encod.. • Full rate: 29%.g. ¼ rate: 7%.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE VoIP Capacity of 1xEV-DO rev A • System capacity of 48 VoIP users per sector can be achieved given maximum reverse link load criterion • Reverse link ROT should not exceed 7dB by more than 1% of time • Approximately 89 MAC channels are allocated per sector • Similar capacity figure could be achieved by 1xRTT circuit-switched voice if dual diversity handsets and smart blanking were employed Page 30 .

99% of packet delays are better than typical circuit-switched delay * 3G1x delay values are based on field measurements from commercial 1xRTT networks commercial Page 31 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Mouth-to-Ear Delay Statistics (mobile to mobile) • Average end to end delay is approximately 100ms lower than in existing 1xRTT deployments • Even at capacity.

tandem (+133ms) DO to 1xRTT w/o Tandem (+95ms) • Note DO to land delays are not affected by sector load • Reverse link load (RoT) and not delays are affected by increasing number of users Page 32 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Mouth-to-Ear Delay Statistics (2) Land to DO • End-to-end delays of land to DO calls are within ITU’s Very Satisfied rank (<200ms) • Additional delays if calling party is 1x handset • Similar to GSM to 1xRTT case 1xRTT to DO wt. tandem (+133ms) 1xRTT to DO w/o Tandem (+95ms) DO to Land DO to 1xRTT wt.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Capacity Enhancements: Pilot Interference Cancellation • A significant portion of reverse link interference is due to Pilot signal transmissions when a large number of VoIP users are present • Hence VoIP capacity can be improved by removing this pilot interference at the base station • System capacity of 58 VoIP users per sector can be achieved for 1%@7dB RoT • Approximately 100 MAC channels are allocated per sector • PIC increases VoIP capacity by 20% • QUALCOMM is offering Pilot Interference Cancellation (PIC) as an optional FPGA feature supported by the CSM6800 solution Page 33 .

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Mouth-to-Ear Delay Statistics with PIC Page 34 .

A 1xEV-DO rev A with dual-antenna handsets provides a competitive alternative for wireless VoIP services Page 35 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Summary of VoIP Capacity over EV-DO Rev.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Mixed VoIP and Platinum Multicast • Platinum Channel at 187kbps • 1/8 interlace • Platinum Channel at 328kbps • 1/4 interlace (minus control channel) Excess Forward Link Capacity Allows Operators to Introduce Multicast with Minimal End-to-End Delay Impact Page 36 .

95 Percentile End-to-End Delays is Below 300ms • Additional Multicast Channel Capacity Can Be Available During Non Busy Hours • Every DO rev A Carrier Used for VoIP Can Provide “Free” Multicast Capacity Page 37 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Mixed VoIP and Platinum Multicast (2) • Even at Voice Capacity.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Future Simulation Work • Evaluate capacity vs. BE and Multicast • New update in 4-6 weeks Page 38 . delay tradeoffs for the following scenarios • Mixed VoIP and Best Effort users • Mixed VoIP.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Thank You! Page 39 .

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Backup Slides Page 40 .

. each IP packet is sent in one MAC packet when power headroom allows (max AT TX power is 23dBm). MAC layer does not limit data rate • No retransmission of failed packets (RLP disabled) • DRC length of 8 slots. RPC. 1% PER target after 3 sub-packets) • For VoIP flow.e. RRI. ACK. H-ARQ channel performance also modeled • Parameters: • -6dB DRC-to-pilot • -9dB / -15dB DSC-to-pilot (sho / no sho) • -6dB RRI-to-pilot • ACK channel load on RL is modeled as constant load Page 41 .March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Reverse Link Modeling • Reverse Link is operated in a manner optimized for voice service • 12-slot termination mode (i. DSC. independent of handoff state • The AT does not drop any packets due to delay • Overhead and Feedback Channels • Pilot. overheads are modeled • RAB. DRC.

March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Forward Link Modeling • Each IP packet gets a timestamp at the access network (AN) and scheduled on FL • Multi-user (MU) scheduler minimizes packet delay while increasing link utilization • Uses both single-user and multi-user packets as appropriate • Multi-user packets can carry data for up to 8 different users • Uses the packet arrival timestamp (no knowledge of prior traffic delay) • MU scheduler may drop some packets that have experienced excessive delay (e.. 200ms) at the FL transmission queue • No retransmission of failed packets (RLP disabled) • H-ARQ and D-ARQ* are modeled • The DRC and ACK channels are modeled • DRC and ACK errors and erasures are taken into account • DRC erasure mapping algorithm is implemented • 76.g.8kbps Control Channel and other packet overheads are modeled Page 42 .

Page 43 ..g. DO to 1xRTT) DO AT Encoder DO RAN De-jitter PSTN* Circuit RAN Circuit Phone * PSTN and tandem encoding may not be required if both circuit and VoIP networks use same vocoder (e..g. 1xRTT to DO) Circuit Phone Circuit RAN PSTN* DO RAN DO AT De-jitter DO to Circuit (e. EVRC).g.March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Simulation Configurations (mobile to mobile) DO to DO DO AT Encoder DO RAN Core IP Ntwk.. DO RAN DO AT De-jitter Circuit to DO (e.

.g. Land VoIP Phone De-Jitter Core IP Ntwk. PC client to DO) Land VoIP Phone DO to Land VoIP (e.March 2005 – VoIP Overview QUALCOMM PROPRIETARY – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Simulation Configurations (land to/from mobile) Circuit to DO (e.g.g.g.. POTS to DO) Circuit Phone DO to Circuit (e. DO to PC client) DO AT Encoder DO RAN Core IP Ntwk... DO RAN DO AT De-jitter Page 44 . DO to POTS) DO AT Encoder DO RAN De-jitter PSTN Circuit Phone PSTN DO RAN DO AT De-jitter Land VoIP to DO (e.