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WHO1  78  6 7
NOTES ON THE 1978 S M E STUDY PROGRAM U MR ON DYNAMO MODELS OF GEOMAGNETISM IN GEOPHYSICAL FLUID DYNAMICS AT THE W O S HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION OD
Willem V. R . Malkus, D i r e c t o r and Mary Thayer, E d i t o r
8
WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
02543
November 1978
TECHNICAL REPORT
Prepared for the Office of Naval Research under Contract NO001 4 78G0072. Reproduction i n whoZe or i n part i s permitted for any purpose of the United States Government. This report should be c i t e d as: Woods Hole Oceanographic I n s t i t u t i o n TechnicaZ Report
WHOI7867.
Approved for pub l i e re lease; distribution un 2i m i t e d.
Approved f o r D i s t r i b u t i o n :
Robert W. Morse Dean o f Graduate S t u d i e s
(ZfLJ? b . , / i ,
The oxymoronic role of molecular diffusivity in the dynamo process
H.K. Hoffatt
Ab s tract
The delicate question concerning the behaviour of the regeneration coefficient
Q
and the turbulent diffusivity
B
in the limit of
vanishing molecular diffusivity
(n
+
0 in helical turbulence is )
&
discussed, in the light of an exact result of Bondi viz. when q
= 0
Gold (1950)
the external dipole moment of a current
distribution in a sphere is permanently bounded.
§1.
The oxymoron is a figure of speech which embodies an apparent contradiction; e.g. triviality, etc.
(= (p0o)')
creative destruction, relaxed tension, devastating
rl
The oxymoronic role of molecular diffusivity that while nonzero diffusivity
(rl >
is this:
0 is directly )
responsible for the natural ohmic processes of dissipation and decay, it is also indirectly responsible for the means of regeneration of the magnetic field; the dynamo process may be described as a process of 'regenerative decay', or perhaps better 'reinvigorating dissipation'.
§2.
Consider the dipole moment p(t) distribution d(x,t)

associated with a current
<

= polV
, ,
in a conducting sphere V:r
a.
This is given by various alternative expressions:
where S
is the surface r = a ; and its rate of change is given by
With
=
AB +
S
rlV
, and
n.u = 0
5 
on S, this gives
The first term on the right describes the mechanism identified by Bondi Gold (1950) for increase of the dipole moment:
&
field sweeping towards the
p )
magnetic poles (defined by the instantaneous direction of the vector can increase
1p I
, but,
as emphasised by Bondi
0, since
&
Gold, this mechanism is
strictly limited when when all the flux of
rl =
Ipl
then attains a finite maximum
is concentrated at opposite ends of a diameter To see this explicitly
of the sphere (as in an elementary bar magnet).
from the above equations, .let S denote those parts of S on which ,
n.!
>
or < 0 respectively, and let
c
 2 
so
that y = !+
+
F
We then have
where
@ =
1
s+
(.3d gJ)S
=

I
s
(.3d. gl)S
Now, when
rl =
0, @
is constant, since flux through every closed material
circuit is conserved, and so
Ill1
5
Iy+l
+
1Fl
i a@ 4.rr
3
(7)
the maximum being attained only when the flux is entirely concentrated at the poles, as mentioned above.
§3.
, There can therefore be no doubt that, when 17 = 0 exponential
increase of the dipole moment is impossible, no matter what the complexity (laminar or turbulent) of the velocity field in V The situation is transformed if
r)
may be.
> 0, because then diffusive increase
in the dipole moment (represented by the second term of (3) is possible, provided the velocity field is such as to maintain a field with a suitably negative gradient near the boundary r=a.
§4.
The impossibility of sustained dynamo action (in the sense of an exponentially increasing external dipole moment) applied equally to such basic systems as the homopolar disc dynamo. If the disc conductivity is
0
infinite, then the magnetic flux across it cannot change with time, and exponential growth of the magnetic field associated with the device is impossible no matter how fast we rotate the disc or how ingeniously we twist the wire, and whatever conventional wisdom may tell us to the contrary. In terms of growth rate, if, in general, B
Q.
ept, then p
must depend on the disc Reynolds number Rm figure 1.
in the manner indicated in
It is reasonable to conjecture that fluid dynamos also must
behave in this manner.
c
 3 
Figure 1 .
Possible dependence of p on Rm for homopolar disc dynamo. () a: wire,resistance zero; () b: wire resistance nonzero.
In either case, p
+
0 as Rm
+
.
§S.
Consider now the situation in meanfield electrodynamics, in which, in conventional notation, i where
b = BB
=
<!!pi ijBoj + =
~1
Bljk a Bo j ..
/ a t +
0 . .
(8)
Bo(x,t)
0
=
<g(x,t)>
is the largescale (mean) field, and

.
Under firstorder smoothing theory (Moffatt 1978
 hereafter
referred to as Mchap.7) we have the results
where F k w , (,)
E(k,w)
are the helicity and energy spectrum functions of If E(k,o)
O(u2)
the random ufield. F(k,u) then clearly
f
= O(w2),
as w
+
0 ,
(11)
cc
a.
rl
,
B
5
~ ~ ' r l as
n
+
0,
> 0. )
(12)
where
oo'
and
i3,'
are in general nonzero constants (B0'
This
is clearly t h e situation when the yfield is a field of random waves with
no zerofrequency ingredients.
In this case, the regenerative process
rl
normally associated with the pseudoscalar a vanishes as
* 0,
 4 
consistent with the remarks of of Bragniskii (M,
81.
It may be noted t h a t t h e theory
chap.8) gives an expression.for t h e regenerative
c o e f f i c i e n t very s i m i l a r t o (9), and again with t h e property a = O ( Q ) as
Q
F
0.
86.
D i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e however i f the ?field has nonzero s p e c t r a l density a t
w = 0, as
i s the case f o r conventional turbulence.
*
The
zerofrequency
ingredients of the turbulence a r e p r e c i s e l y those t h a t
a r e responsible f o r the dispersion of p a r t i c l e s i n a turbulent flow, and they are of v i t a l importance a l s o i n the fieldlinestretching context.
It must be noted however t h a t r e s u l t s such a s < & >

2
Q
2Dt
f o r the r e l a t i v e dispersion of two p a r t i c l e s separated by vector distance S(t)

i s ultimately limited by the physical dimensions of
and care may then be needed i n carrying over
the f l u i d domain;
asymptotic r e s u l t s from s t r i c t l y homogeneous turbulence t o turbulence i n a f i n i t e domain, p a r t i c u l a r l y when these r e s u l t s are s e n s i t i v e t o the l i m i t i n g ( t
+
=) behaviour.
§7.
When rl = 0, there i s an a l t e r n a t i v e approach t o the determination of the c o e f f i c i e n t s instant
t=O,
a
U
and and
b
8
using Lagrangian averages. f i e l d s a r e uncorrelated, then t=O).
I f a t some
a
the
t


and
B
are functions of
(which c l e a r l y vanish a t leads t o t h e expressions
The Lagrangian
procedure
(M, g7.10) t
0 0
where
v(t)
i s the velocity of the f l u i d p a r t i c l e i n i t i a l l y a t
 5 
position
a.

The d i f f i c u l t y h e r e i s t o determine how t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s
t
+ a .
behave f o r a t y p i c a l f i e l d of homogeneous t u r b u l e n c e as
Kraichan (1976 a , b ) has argued t h a t , i n t h e case of t u r b u l e n c e w i t h nonzero h e l i c i t y , a(t)
't
a.
y
B(t)
,l4
B,
as
t + 
,
(15)
t h e a p p a r e n t p o s i t i v e d i v e r g e n c e i n t h e second term of (14) b e i n g c a n c e l l e d by an e q u a l n e g a t i v e divergence i n t h e t h i r d term, which i n v o l v e s t h e awkward t r i p l e Lagrangian c o r r e l a t i o n s . Kraichnan's
arguments r e s t i n p a r t on comparison w i t h t h e r e s u l t s of f i r s t  o r d e r smoothing t h e o r y i n s i t u a t i o n s where b o t h approaches ( f i r s t o r d e r smoothing and Lagrangian) may b e expected t o b e v a l i d , and i n p a r t on numerical e v a l u a t i o n of a(t) and
B(t)
f o r velocity f i e l d s with
prescribed Eulerian statistics.
F u r t h e r numerical e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n
i s needed however, b e f o r e t h e r e s u l t s (15) can b e regarded as
a b s o l u t e l y and d e f i n i t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d .
Let u s n e v e r t h e l e s s a c c e p t
a2 and
(15), and pursue t h e consequences
dynamo m d e l s .
88.
i n t h e c o n t e x t of
au
For an a2dynam i n a s p h e r e
r < a
(M. chap.9), t h e growth
rates have t h e form
where
"e
a " + @ ,
and
R
a
= I a [ a2 / q e
,
F(R,)
> 0.
and dynamo a c t i o n o c c u r s when
This g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s
f o r t h e s i m p l e s t mode of d i p o l e symmetry when
where
Rac i s a p o s i t i v e number of o r d e r u n i t y which depends on t h e
p r e c i s e assumption made about any l a r g e  s c a l e v a r i a t i o n of throughout t h e s p h e r e . L e t u s suppose t h a t , as q
+
a
0, t h e r e l e v a n t
c
 6 
behaviour of a and
a % a
0 ,
B
%
Xcf 15) is
8,
B
as
T I
+O.
Then (16) becomes B P ‘L FGa a The condition Ra and then p
*
L
Ra
=
bob2
60
’
is certainly satisfied if a is large enough,
TI
f

tends to a strictly positive value as
0, implying
exponential increase of the mean field, and in particular of the external dipole moment.. This appears to be in fundamental conflict with the Bondi
&
Gold result (7), which applies when
rl
= 0 whatever
the complications of the velocity field, and whether laminar or turbulent. The conflict does not arise under the alternative limiting behaviour (12). In this case,
and the dipole mement does not grow exponentially in the limit
§9.
rl =
0 .
For dynanros of aotype, growth rates are generally given by
where rotation.
is a measure of the shear associated with differential
The condition for dynamo action is now of the form
v
X’XC
(23)
where Xc is modeldependent, but generally of order unity. under the behaviour (19), as
rl
t
Again
0,
and we encounter the same fundamental conflict with the Bondi & Gold
result
.
Under the alternative behaviour (12),
 7 
To determine the behaviour of p behaviour of F X () p
+
as
q
+
0, we need to know the
=
as X
+
0. 0
If F X ()
oX ()
as X *
00,
then The
0 as
r)
+
0, and conflict with Bondi & Gold is avoided.
asymptotic behaviour of F X ()
as X
+
Q)
does not appear to have been A clue is
investigated for awdynamos in a spherical geometry.
however provided by the results for an awdynamo in a Cartesian geometry (modelling the galactic disc). solved completely (M, §9.9), fX () and so
§lO.
For this case, which can be
log X
rl +
as
X
+ 00
p * 0 as
0 as required.
It is hard to escape the conclusion that the result (19) cannot be
correct, or that, if it is correct in homogeneous turbulence, it is, for some deep reason, not applicable when the turbulence is confined to a
6. finite region (see the remarks of $ )
References Bondi H. & Gold T (1950) . Kraichnan R H .. Moffatt H.K. (1976a,b) (1978) Mon.Not.R.Astr.Soc. 110, 60711.

J. Fluid Mech. 75, 65776 and 77, 75368. Magnetic field generation in electrically conducting fluids (C.U.P.)

Acknowledgement
I am grateful to John Chapman who helped me to sort out the argument of 52.