The history of the scientific method is a fascinating and long one, covering thousands of years of history.
by Martyn Shuttleworth (2009)

The development of the scientific method involves some of the most enlightened cultures in history, as well as some great scientists, philosophers and theologians. As well as looking at the changes in the philosophy underpinning scientific discovery, we cannot forget some of the tools that make science possible, including library indexing and peer reviewed scientific journals. From the observations of the Ancient Greeks and Zoroastrians, to the Hubble Space Telescope, the history of the scientific method underlies the development of all science and technology, and we owe our modern technology to some great and innovative minds. It is a cliché, but we really are standing on the shoulders of giants.

At the time when the two great cultures of Ancient Greece and Ancient Persia were seeking dominance and fighting wars at Thermopylae and Platea, it is easy to forget that these two cultures also had a deep mutual respect, and traded ideas and knowledge. Unsurprisingly, and fittingly, our history of the scientific method will start here, although we must point out that knowledge knows no boundaries. Whilst Babylonian, Indian and Egyptian astronomers, physicians and mathematicians developed some empirical ideas, the Greeks were the first to develop what we recognize as the scientific method. Initially, the Ancient Greek philosophers did not believe in empiricism, and saw measurements, such as geometry, as the domain of craftsmen and artisans. Philosophers, such as Plato, believed that all knowledge could be obtained through pure reasoning, and that there was no need to actually go out and measure anything. This does sound strange to us, but there were some good reasons for this; however, discussing Platonism would take an entire website in itself, so the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is a great source for those interested in learning more.

Aristotle‟s methods can be summed up as follows. He proposed the idea of induction as a tool for gaining knowledge. Study what others have written about the subject. 1. See also: Aristotle‟s Zoology Alchemy and the Philosopher's Stone Ancient Medicine Ancient Physics Aristotle‟s Psychology THE MUSLIM INFLUENCE ON THE HISTORY OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD . of course. he studied the constitutions of 158 Greek city-states. poetry! In about 200 BC. politics. were Aristotle‟s contribution. His „proto-scientific method‟ involved making meticulous observations about everything. and understood that abstract thought and reasoning must be supported by real world findings. biology. with literature reviews. 2. zoology and. This is the first sign of a scientific method. was the first to realize the importance of empirical measurement. Look for the general consensus about the subject 3. believing that knowledge could only be gained by building upon what is already known. Perform a systematic study of everything even partially related to the topic. he scrutinized over 500 species and. consensus and measurement. The Greeks were the first to subdivide and name branches of science in a recognizable way. in a treatise about politics. He applied his methods to almost everything.Aristotle. Measurement and observation. essential for any scholar conducting a peer review. from poetry and politics to astronomy and natural history. To study the natural world. a mammoth undertaking and a direct contrast to Plato. including physics. whose idea of a perfect republic was based upon his idea of perfection rather than upon existing systems. the famous library at Alexandria saw the first introduction of library cataloguing. the foundations upon which science is built. regarded as the father of science.

before a „common sense‟ average was possible. and were the catalyst for the formation of a scientific method recognizable to modern scientists and philosophers. best known for his wonderful work on light and vision. Other Muslim scholars further contributed to this scientific method. 4. through induction and experimentation. State an explicit problem. Test or criticize a hypothesis through experimentation. Publish the findings Ibn al-Haytham. His other additions were the idea that science is a quest for ultimate truth and that one of the only ways to reach that goal was through skepticism and questioning everything. he developed peer review process to ensure that physicians documented their procedures and lay them open for scrutiny. including Aristotle. Ibn Sina (Avicenna). one of the titans in the history of science. They preserved the knowledge of the Ancient Greeks. ideally using mathematics. based upon observation and experimentation. Interpret the data and come to a conclusion. refining it and preserving it. Ethics of the Physician. In his book. and dragged alchemy away from the world of superstition into one of empirical measurement. but also added to it. known as Geber (721 . Al-Biruni understood that measuring instruments and human observers were prone to error and bias. was Ibn al-Haytham. and the history of the scientific method must pay a great deal of respect to some of the brilliant Muslim philosophers of Baghdad and Al-Andalus. Other physicians would review the processes and make a decision in cases of suspected malpractice. brilliantly. Abu Jābir. and possibly greatest Islamic scholar. many times.815). called „The Book of Optics.‟ He developed a scientific method very similar to our own: 1. proposed that there were two ways of arriving at the first principles of science. Al-Rahwi (851 – 934) was the first scholar to use a recognizable peer review process.The early Islamic ages were a golden age for knowledge. an Islamic scientist often referred to as the father of chemistry. so proposed that experiments needed replication. The first. Only through these methods could the first principles needed for deduction be discovered . understood that controlled and systematic experimentation and measurement were essential to discovering new knowledge. built upon existing knowledge. 3. 2. was the first scholar to introduce controlled experiments.

In addition. and added to it. and to the tools required to follow them. you could deduce how anything will act. with the decline in the Islamic Houses of Knowledge. The great philosopher and mathematician Descartes (1596 – 1650). but there are some names that stand out in any narration of the history of the scientific method. firmly believed that the universe was like a huge machine.1626). it is impossible to list every single scholar. where European scholars took the knowledge of the Greeks and the Muslims. the history of the scientific method passed into Europe and the Renaissance. These contributions to the scientific method. by contrast. he documented his experiments meticulously so that other scientists could repeat his experiments and verify his results. hypothesizing and then experimenting to test the hypothesis. However. He developed the idea of making observations. made this into an Islamic Golden Age of science. He reiterated the importance of induction as part of the scientific method. if you understood the basic laws of the universe. He also believed that experimental evidence could be used to eliminate conflicting theories and move closer to the truth. Therefore. Francis Bacon (1561 . experimentation. . Roger Bacon (1214 . was one of the greatest movers behind the development of the scientific method.1294) was one of the earliest European scholars to refine the scientific methods. believing that all scientific discovery should proceed through a process of observation. Again. analysis and inductive reasoning.Other Islamic scholars contributed the idea of consensus in science as a means of filtering out fringe science and allowing open reviews. to apply the findings to the universe as a whole. See also: Islamic Scholars and Biology Islamic Ophthalmology Islamic Alchemy Islamic Medicine Islamic Psychology THE RENAISSANCE AND THE HISTORY OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD The renaissance was another turning point for the scientific method.

which were the origins of the split between science and religion. the installing of a panel of experts and the founding of journals also led to genuine peer review. for example. He was the first to really understand that the scientific method needed both deduction and induction. In fact. This body ruled that experimental evidence always supersedes theoretical evidence. Galileo theorized that mass had no effect upon gravitational acceleration. His methods. The Scientific Revolution reached its zenith with Isaac Newton. This period. but he also contributed greatly to the scientific method.Galileo (1564 – 1642) is generally remembered for his famous gravity experiment. physicists such as Einstein and Hawking proclaimed him as the father of modern science. establishing a journal to aid this process. No experiment could ever hope to measure this perfectly. providing a panel of experts to advise and guide. who made perhaps the greatest contribution to the history of the scientific method. his methodology shaped physics and other fields relying upon mathematical theorems. THE HISTORY OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND THE TWENTIETH CENTURY . In the world of physics. repetition by independent researchers could build up a body of evidence that allowed an extrapolation to the general theory to be made. friction and inaccuracies with timing devices and methods. is often referred to as the Scientific Revolution. He believed that it would be impossible for an experimenter to take into account every single variable. included a standardization of measurements allowing experimental results to be checked anywhere. because of air resistance. and threw out some more elements required for the scientific method. The Royal Society was set up. Certainly. However. a process adapted from the Muslim practices. Galileo used a heavily inductive scientific method because he understood that no empirical evidence could perfectly match theoretical predictions. Naturally. one of the foundations of modern science. as well as oversee the spreading of information. covering the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. in 1660.

working in many scientific fields and also understanding philosophy and theology. even if they could not follow the scientific method perfectly. Popper‟s main point of attack was establishing that science was not infallible. However. the increasing complexity of science and the increase in both breadth and depth made it impossible for a scholar to work across disciplines. biology and the proto-scientific psychology. physics. POPPER’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Documenting Karl Popper‟s contribution to the history of the scientific method took up an entire book. This led him to question the very definition of science itself. the Twentieth Century saw a huge change in the scientific method as philosophers of science attempted to address this. as psychology and social sciences were at the start of the Twentieth Century. This definition did not address the development of new disciplines. Previously. and so he tried to develop a scientific method that addressed the limitations. Science gradually began to move away from those areas and developed into a separate area of study. the history of the scientific method became much more complex. their ideas were based at a time where most scientists were polymaths. Well-established scientific disciplines often followed the wrong path and generated incorrect theories. often found the right answer. but psychologists began to find this increasingly difficult when dealing with the extreme variability of the human mind and man-made constructs.The scientific method. who understood the limitations of the old scientific ways. so it is only possible to cover the main points. continued to be the main driver of scientific discovery for three centuries. the definition between science and non-science revolved around empirical techniques and the inductive method. Physicists could remain true to the Baconian inductive methods. On the other hand. as developed by Bacon and Newton. As science began to split into chemistry. and did not properly unite the increasing complexity of theoretical science with practical science. . pseudoscience. As a result. In addition. Probably the most famous of these was Karl Popper.

and many scientists developed ways to empirically test relativity. often very stubbornly. Kuhn christened this a „scientific paradigm. Scientists would then adopt the new paradigm and begin working within its constraints. the discipline was regarded as more pseudoscientific. the theory had to be „falsifiable‟. whilst a psychologist‟s theories were regarded as pseudoscientific? Popper postulated that science advances through a process of “conjecture and refutations. For example. some physicists believed that electrons were particles. why were Einstein‟s theories regarded as scientific. staunch Popperians cast doubt upon the falsifiability and therefore usefulness of psychology and the social sciences.‟ He believed that a group of scientists would hold to a particular paradigm. Experimentation would lead to one of these theories becoming dominant and accepted by the scientific community. although two paradigms were not necessarily mutually exclusive. although this is driven by a little scientific snobbery! KUHN’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Thomas Kuhn was the next of the Twentieth Century to add to the history of the scientific method. Because of this.” that a theoretical scientist would develop a theory and an empirical scientist would attempt to test it to destruction. physicists found that they acted as both and so the paradigms overlapped. This particular idea was built around the idea that science developed conflicting theories about how everything worked. therefore. psychological theories were extremely difficult to falsify because there were few quantitative methods available. until the body of evidence became so great that a „paradigm shift‟ became unavoidable. others believed that electrons were waves. For this to happen. it could be falsified and the scientific method applied. Eventually. Even now. For example. If the theory could not be properly tested by science. .For example. by introducing the idea of paradigms. Until the time of Pavlov and Skinner. physics theory was open to empirical testing. then it could not be scientific.

quantum physics is opening up new definitions and the paradigm is shifting again. Darwin. He pointed to physics as an example of this. As Popper had realized that science had split into many differing disciplines. Psychology provides another perfect example of paradigm shift. Some psychologists argued that all behavior was inbuilt and dictated at birth. Feyerabend realized that these disciplines had become too complex to define by one overarching method. . He believed that scientists often had to make up rules as they went along. the current paradigm is that both have an important influence. He pointed out that scientific discovery progressed unevenly and that the greatest scientific leaps ignored the scientific method. FEYERABEND’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD The last of the three great philosophers behind the history of the scientific method is Paul Feyerabend. pointing to the work of Galileo and Copernicus. by arguing that scientists should not be influenced by „arcane‟ philosophies. they would never have published their theories and instead they would have become stuck in an endless loop of observation and experiment. In fact. arguing that if they did not understand it. Einstein or Wegener had stuck with the strict scientific method. creating false restrictions and barriers to progress. lamenting the abundance of physicists who had no grasp of philosophy. Currently. where all programming was the result of upbringing. Feyerabend believed that trying to force all scientific disciplines to follow a set of rules actually hampered science. His famous philosophy of „Anything Goes‟ was an attempt to address this. how could they be constrained by it? His strongest argument against the scientific method was that. many great discoveries would not have been made if constrained by the strict limitations of the scientific method. and psychology and physiology seem to support this paradigm. the scientific anarchist. environmental stimuli and education. If Copernicus.Now. a clean slate mind. in the form of the nature vs. whilst others believed in the Tabula Rasa. historically. adapting their methods to tackle new discoveries that could not be examined without breaking the established rules. of course. nurture debate.

Perhaps the best way to look at the scientific method is on a disciplinary basis. A single article cannot possibly do justice to this development and you will need to dig much more deeply if you wish to really understand the complexities. whereas social scientists and behavioral biologists tend to line up behind Feyerabendian philosophy. passing from the Greeks. the scientific method is built upon a long and ancient history and some of the greatest minds in the history of humanity have contributed to it.experiment-resources.They would have been consigned to making small scientific leaps without ever gaining enough momentum and evidence to propose a grand and sweeping theory. For now. Whatever method is accepted. the ideal scientific method does not work for all disciplines and they have to adapt and modify it. if you understand the basic principles affecting your discipline. where does the modern scientific method stand? Certainly.com/history-of-the-scientificmethod. your research will be perfectly acceptable and valid. Read more: http://www. the Muslims and the Renaissance. Physicists can follow Popperian ideas of method and falsification.html#ixzz1bjmvluE9 . THE HISTORY OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD – MOVING INTO THE FUTURE After the long history of the scientific method. as every scientific field seems to have developed its own philosophy.

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