LEARNING What type of learner are you?

Mostly A’s : VISUAL LEARNER Mostly B’s : AUDITORY LEARNER Mostly C’ : KINESTHETIC LEARNER What is Learning? Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience. Types of Learning: o Classical Conditioning o Operant Conditioning o Observational Learning CLASSICAL CONDITIONING o A neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. o

OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING o Observational learning (imitation or modeling) occurs when a person observes and imitates someone’s behavior.  FOUR MAIN PROCESSES OL: o Attention: a person must attend to what the model is doing or saying. o Retention: the observer must code and retain the model’s behavior in memory. o Motor reproduction: the observer must be capable of reproducing the behavior. o Reinforcement: reproducing the behavior requires the appropriate incentive.

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CONCEPTS: UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (UCS) produces a response with no prior learning. UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UCR) is an unlearned response automatically elicited by the UCS. NEUTRAL STIMULUS does not elicit any response. CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) is a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits the CR after being associated with the UCS. CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR) is a learned response to the CS that occurs after CS-UCS pairing.

GENERALIZATION is the tendency of a new stimulus (similar to the original) to elicit a response similar to the CR. DISCRIMINATION is the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to others. EXTINCTION is the weakening of the CR in the absence of the UCS over time. example: Little Albert and the white rat OPERANT CONDITIONING o A form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence. o Shaping is the process of rewarding approximations of the desired behavior. o

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CONCEPTS: Positive reinforcement: The frequency of the response increases because the behavior is followed by a rewarding stimulus. Negative reinforcement: The frequency of the response increases because the behavior is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. PUNISHMENT is a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur. CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT: The response is rewarded every time it occurs PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT: The response is reinforced only a portion of the time. Ratio (fixed or variable) – number of responses Interval (fixed or variable) – length of time

Retrieval How Do I Remember? 1. we still tend to forget? .       Meaning-making Failure in encoding Decay with time and failure in retrieval Displaced by new learned items Interference – associating different items with the same cue Emotional factors Some TRICKS in REMEMBERING:  METHOD OF LOCI – “loci” is the Latin word for place. “magic number 7”  Hierarchy – from general to specific and vice versa  Semantic Networks – we tend to remember information that are typical Why is it that despite using the same ways of coding and remembering data or information. . a.find a part of the foreign word that sounds like another familiar English word example: Korean “Anyong” means “hello”  “yong” sounds like “young”  imagine an image of a young girl waving “hello” Try “BLOKE. Relate it to an emotional experience. 3: Form an image that relates the first word that you are going to memorize to the first location.”  Some TRICKS in REMEMBERING:     ACRONYMS – taking the first letters as cues and forming a significant word out of it. How?  Chunking – grouping information to higher order units that can be remembered as a single unit. 4: Recall by taking your mental walk again.attending to sound properties of the information 3. This is how it’s done: Step 1: Take a mental walk to a place that is organized 2: Take a mental picture of it. FLASHBULB MEMORY – memories with emotional content are generally more vivid and accurate.reliving the experience or the moment when you learned the concept Tell me about the time when you learned about the Twin Towers tragedy. Count the number of things that must be remembered. like “taking a picture” of that moment ORGANIZATION – the more we organize the material we encode.MEMORY  language KEYWORD METHOD – most helpful in learning a new  The retention of information over time that involves 3 processes: 1. Encoding 2. and so on and so forth. REHEARSAL – repetitive coding of information until it is retained in memory 4. Storage 3. 5. VISUAL CODING – attending to the physical properties of the information 2. CONTEXT . the easier it is to retrieve. ACOUSTIC CODING . Sleep on it.

Famous BDI: MICHAEL JORDAN TIGER WOODS HARRY HOUDINI DAVID COPPERFIELD Spatial intelligence This involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. Instead. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches. Famous SI: MICHAELANGELO DA VINCI Interpersonal intelligence It is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions. to detect patterns. the ability to learn languages. the experiential aspect of intelligence PRACTICAL : ability to grasp. Famous InterI: GHANDI OPRAH WINFREY MARTIN LUTHER KING What is intelligence? CHARLES SPEARMAN’S 2-FACTOR THEORY Intelligence can be explained by two factors: SPECIFIC and GENERAL FACTORS (g) SPECIFIC : particular to an individual mental task GENERAL (g) : factor that governs performance on all cognitive tasks What is intelligence? • – LOUIS THURSTONE’S MULTIPLE FACTORS THEORY Intelligence arises from 7 independent factors he called Primary Abilities: • Verbal Comprehension • • • • • • Numerical Ability Spatial Relations Perceptual Speed Word Fluency Memory Reasoning What is intelligence? • – – – – ROBERT STERNBERG’S TRIARCHIC THEORY Intelligence has 3 facets: ANALYTICAL : academic problem solving. integrate emotion to facilitate thought. and rhythms. Famous MI: MOZART BEETHOVEN STEVIE WONDER JOHN LENNON Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence This entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. Gardner proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. motivations and desires of other people. religious and political leaders and counselors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. poets.K. Famous LMI: ARCHIMEDIES SIR ISAAC NEWTON GALILEO EINSTEIN Musical intelligence This involves skill in the performance. Educators. ROWLING Logical-mathematical intelligence This consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically. synthesis. understand and deal with everyday tasks. These are true for athletes and people involved in the performing arts.Q. It suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence. testing. These intelligences are: Linguistic Intelligence This involves sensitivity to spoken and written language. to solve problems and to adapt to everyday life experiences What contributes to the development of intelligence? Genes Parenting Schooling/Training • HOWARD GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES HOWARD GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES The theory of multiple intelligences was developed in 1983 by Dr. tones. Howard Gardner. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. the ability to react to novel situations and stimuli. It allows people to work effectively with others. the componential aspect of intelligence CREATIVE : involves insights. to understand emotions. based on I. or the way a chess player or sculptor represents a more circumscribed spatial world. the contextual aspect of intelligence What is intelligence? • – – – – – – SALOVEY and MAYER’S EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE EQ is the ability to perceive emotion. carry out mathematical operations. and appreciation of musical patterns. and language as a means to remember information. 4 TYPES of ABILITIES: Perceiving emotions Using emotions Understanding emotions Managing emotions . and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically. salespeople. reason deductively and think logically and investigate issues scientifically. lawyers and speakers are among those having high linguistic intelligence. and to promote personal growth. professor of education at Harvard University. The ability to represent the spatial world internally in your mind – the way a sailor or airplane pilot navigates the large spatial world. Famous LI: SHAKESPEARE AGATHA CHRISTIE MARK TWAIN STEINBECK J.INTELLIGENCE What is intelligence? What is intelligence? • • • • • – – – The ability to learn. Writers. is far too limited. composition. Dr.

Or they may show unusual interest in subjects like biology. shells. feathers. zoology. death. fossils. differences and changes in their surroundings more rapidly than others. Famous IntraI: HELEN KELLER COLUMBUS Naturalist Intelligence Naturalist intelligence deals with sensing patterns in and making connections to elements in nature. Children possessing this type of intelligence may have a strong affinity to the outside world or to animals. Often this is due to their highly-developed levels of sensory perception. As children these people often like to collect. or read about things from nature -. They may enjoy subjects. They tend to know what they can’t do. and this interest often begins at an early age. paleontology. Frequently. geology.Intrapersonal intelligence This entails the capacity to understand oneself. And they tend to know where to go if they need help. they may notice things others might not be aware of. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves.rocks. meteorology. or in the environment and the earth. people possessing enhanced levels of this intelligence may also be very interested in other species. even if these changes are at minute or subtle levels. People possessing nature smarts are keenly aware of their surroundings and changes in their environment. and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives. Famous ExI: ARISTOTLE CONFUCIUS PLATO . to appreciate one's feelings. Famous NI: GALILEO STEVE IRWIN Existential Intelligence Individuals who exhibit the proclivity to pose (and ponder) questions about life. Using this same intelligence. classify. and ultimate realities. or astronomy. shows and stories that deal with animals or natural phenomena. fears and motivations. butterflies. People with naturalistic intelligence may be able to categorize or catalogue things easily too. Their heightened senses may help them notice similarities. botany. and the like.

REPRESSION : unconscious forgetting 2. chewing and swallowing become prototype of later character traits PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) Oral stage… example : swallowing  taking-in. REACTION FORMATION : expressing the opposite reaction PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) 4. RATIONALIZATION : ego replaces less acceptable motive or impulse with a more acceptable one : sour-graping and sweet-lemonizing 3. DISPLACEMENT: negative feelings or thoughts are displaced or directed to a safer target PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) 7. & feelings 2. ANAL STAGE : discharge eases discomfort and provides relief : this stage focuses on toilet training and their 1st decisive experience of external regulation example : strict toilet training  RETENTIVE strict toilet training  EXPULSIVE praising toilet training  CREATIVITY PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) 3. GENITAL STAGE : energy is once again focused on the genitals : heterosexual relationships : the less energy the child has left for unresolved sexual conflicts. PHALLIC STAGE : sexual and aggressive feelings are associated to the functioning of the genital organs : Genitals are the source of pleasure : OEDIPUS COMPLEX – among boys. INTELLECTUALIZATION : using reasoning to block emotional distress 9. forgotten or ignored.trina What is… How do we acquire our… PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) • • the satisfaction of the sexual urges at a specific developmental stage drives the acquisition of psychological characteristics ORAL STAGE (1st 18 months) : the MOUTH is the source of pleasure : satisfaction of oral activities (eating. too weak to make a conscious impression . the greater capacity he has to develop relationships with the opposite sex.g. natural love for the mother becomes sexual .Complexes • • • • • • Unconscious Structures of Personality Defense Mechanisms Psychosexual Stages UNCONSCIOUS is the key to understanding our personality Personality is represented in symbols example: dream interpretation PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) STRUCTURES of PERSONALITY • ID : unconscious : DRIVES and INSTINCTS : operates on “pleasure principle” 2.boy experiences CASTRATION ANXIETY or the fear of having his penis cut by the father PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) Phallic stage… : ELEKTRA COMPLEX – among girls. EGO : mediator : operates on “reality principle” : the “executive branch” of the psyche example: hunger & suicidal thoughts * When the ego cannot resolve the conflict between the id and superego  DEFENSE MECHANISMS PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) DEFENSE MECHANISMS • • Unconscious process Healthy or unhealthy? 1.. SUBLIMATION : diverting an unacceptable impulse to a socially desirable one PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES of DEVELOPMENT . thoughts. arts) PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) 5. school. REGRESSION : seeking the security of an earlier developmental stage 8. ANALYTIC THEORY (Carl Jung) STRUCTURES OF PERSONALITY 1.girl experiences PENIS ENVY or questioning and blaming the mother for having her penis ‘cut’ : IDENTIFICATION – imitating the parent of same sex to vicariously possess the parent of the opposite sex PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) 4. DENIAL : ego refuses to acknowledge anxiety-provoking situations 6. SUPEREGO : operates on “moral principle” : strives for perfection and not pleasure : decides what is right or wrong PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) STRUCTURES of PERSONALITY 3. sucking) and other activities of an infant : biting. suppressed. submissive biting  sarcasm 2.PERSONALITY t. PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS : experiences that were once conscious but have been repressed. natural love for the father becomes sexual . sports. EGO : the conscious mind : made up of conscious perceptions such as memory. LATENCY STAGE : the sexual drive lies dormant : repression of sexual desires and diversion of the sexual energy to other activities (e. PROJECTION : attributing negative thoughts or feelings about the self to the outside world 5.

” • PERSONALITY: – Determined by both INTERNAL and EXTERNAL FORCES • RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM – external determinants (rewards. punishments) and one’s internal system (thoughts.unique.Experience is not in accordance to one’s self-concept or “I” • PERSONALITY: – Depends on ones subjective reality (how one perceives self with the environment) and upon stimulating conditions SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY (Albert Bandura) • “Radical behaviorism is inadequate. IDEAL SELF CONGRUENCE vs. Avoiding type 4.Archetypes Structural components of the Collective Unconscious Examples: PERSONA : our “mask” ANIMUS & ANIMA : humans are bisexual animals SHADOW : our weaknesses. unconscious.Organized group or constellations of feelings. thoughts and perceptions . Getting type 3. repetitive way of responding or avoiding main tasks of living 1. 2. Socially useful type • BIRTH ORDER – personalities of children in the family differ because of their distinctive experiences 1. The organism (individual) has one basic tendency and striving – SELF-ACTUALIZATION – to become developed and complete What would make an individual strive to actualize? Positive Regard Self-Regard SELF – “me”. REAL SELF 2. MIDDLE CHILD – trying to surpass the older and the younger siblings YOUNGEST – the most nurtured BEHAVIORISM (Burrhus Frederic Skinner) • MODIFIABLE BEHAVIOR – the environment can be varied to bring about different patterns of behavior – “Enduring traits? NAH!” • MOTIVATION – influences ones behavior • Personality is demonstrated in a SOCIAL CONTEXT • SOCIAL BEHAVIOR is a very important aspect of human behavior • SOCIAL BEHAVIOR involves an interaction between 2 or more persons “How do you behave when you are in the company of your friends?” “How do you behave when you are in the company of acquaintances?” • PERSONALITY: – Consistency in behavior comes ONLY from consistency in environmental experiences PERSON-CENTERED THEORY (Carl Rogers) . 3.system by which individual personality functions .. FIRST BORN – center of attention then dethroned • • • • 1.Exist in the Personal Unconscious 3. beliefs) affect behavior • People are ACTIVE recipients of environmental influences 2. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from one’s ancestral past : accumulated due to repeated experiences of many generations : we inherit the possibility of reviving the experiences of our ancestors . composed of the characteristics of the “I” 1.When “I” mirrors the experience of what is expected of him INCONGRUENCE . Ruling type 2. shortcomings and instincts INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY (Alfred Adler) Focuses on the uniqueness of one’s personality STRIVING FOR SUPERIORITY – shapes one’s personality • Adler : “Organ inferiority? ◊ Compensation” • Feelings of Inferiority – arise from a sense of incompleteness or imperfection • STYLE OF LIFE . INCONGRUENCE CONGRUENCE .