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CORNELL

UNIVERSITY

LIBRARIES

Mathematics

Library

Whrte

Hall

CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

3 1924 059

Cornell University Library

The

tine

original of

tiiis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924059156616

Production Note

Cornell University Library produced this volume to replace the irreparably deteriorated original. It was scanned using Xerox software and equipment at 600 dots per inch resolution and compressed prior to storage using CCITT Group 4 compression. The digital data were used to create Cornell s replacement volume on paper that meets the ANSI Standard Z39. 48-1984. The production of this volume was supported in part by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Xerox Corporation. 1991.

'

CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND GIVEN IN 1891 BY HENRY WILLIAMS SAGE .

AN ELEMENTAEY TREATISE

ON

MODERN PURE GEOMETRY.

AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE

ON

MODEKN PUKE GEOMETKY

BY

R.

LACHLAN,

TBtNIT'Sr

M.A.

LATE FELLOW OF

COLLEQE, CAMBBISeE.

Uoniion:

MACMILLAN AND

AND NEW TORE.

1893

All Rights reserved

CO.

A- LIjL££^

/CORNELL

!

UNIVtfiSJTY

IBRARY

ffiambriHgt:

PRINIED BY

C. J.

CLAY, M.A.,

AND SONS,

AT TH£ CNIVEBSITY FBESS.

PREFACE.

THE

object of this treatise

is

to supply the

want which

is felt

**by Students of a suitable text-book on geometry.
**

the study of Pure Geometry has been neglected;

Hitherto

chiefly,

no

doubt, because questions bearing on the subject have very rarely

been set in examination papers.

**In the new regulations
**

is

for

the Cambridge Tripos, however, provision

made

for the intro;

duction of a paper on

"

Pure Geometry

;

—namely, Euclid

simple

properties of lines and circles; inversion; the elementary properties

**of conic sections treated geometrically, not excluding the of
**

projections;

reciprocation;

method

**harmonic properties, curvature."
**

all

**In the present
**

propositions

circles

treatise I

**have brought together
**

simple

the important

of

lines

—bearing

on the

properties

smd

—that might

fairly

**be considered within the limits of the
**

I

above regulation.

**At the same time
**

number

have endeavoured to

treat every branch of the subject as completely as possible in

the hope that a

Ifirger

of students than at present

may

be induced to devote themselves to a science which deserves as

much

**attention as any branch of Pure Mathematics.
**

of interesting theorems

Throughout the book a large number

and problems have been introduced as examples to illustrate the principles of the subject. The greater number have been taken

from examination papers set at Cambridge and Dublin

the Educational Times.

;

or from

Some

**are original, while others are taken
**

to Euclid.

from Townsend's

Modem

Geometry, and Casey's Sequel

—

VI

PREFACE,

In their selection and arrangement great care has been taken.

In

fact,

no example has been inserted which does not admit

of a simple

and

direct

proof depending on

the

propositions

immediately preceding.

**To some few examples
**

portance.

solutions have been appended, especially

to such as appeared to involve theorems of

any distinctive im-

This has been done chiefly with a view to indicate

**the great advantage possessed by Pure Geometrical reasoning
**

over the more lengthy methods of Analjrtical Work.

**Although Analysis may be more powerful as an instrument of
**

research, it cannot

be urged too forcibly that a student who wishes

to obtain

will

**an intimate acquaintance with the science of Geometry,
**

real

make no

advance

fact,

if

the use of Pure Geometrical reasoning

be neglected.

In

it

might well be taken as an axiom,

**based upon experience, that every geometrical theorem admits of
**

a simple and direct proof

**—by the principles of Pure Geometry.
**

have made use of the works of Casey,

various papers

In writing

Chasles, and

this treatise I

;

Townsend

by Neuberg and Tarry,

published in Mathesis;

Taylor,

and

Mr

K

Tucker

**—papers by Mr A. Larmor, Mr H. M. —published in the Quarterly Journal,
**

my

friends

Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, or The Educational Times.

I

am

greatly indebted to

Mr

A. Larmor, fellow of

Clare College, and

Mr H.

F. Baker, fellow of St John's College, for

reading the proof sheets, and for

many

valuable suggestions which

have been

incorporated

in

my

work.

To Mr Larmor

I

am

especially indebted for the use

which he has allowed

me

to

make

of his published papers.

R.

LACHLAN.

CAMBBnJGE,

11th February, 1893.

—

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

I.

INTRODUCTION.

PAGE

1

i.

**Definition of a geometrical figure
**

Classification of curves

.

1

5, 6.

7.

3

8. 9, 10.

The The

principle of duality

.

3

4 5

principle of continuity

Points at infinity

CHAPTER

II.

**MEASUREMENT OF GEOMETRICAL MAGNITUDES.
**

11.

12

— 15 —

14. 17.

**Use of the signs + and — Measurement of lengths Measurement of angles
**

Measurement

of areas

in geometry

7 7

18, 19.

Trigonometrical ratios of an angle

20

—22.

8 9 10

CHAPTER

in.

FUNDAMENTAL METRICAL PROPOSITIONS.

— — 32—

23 29

28.

Relations connecting the segments of a line Relations connecting the angles of a pencil

14

31. 38.

16

18

Elementary theorems concerning areas

.

Range in involution The double points Relations between the segments of a range in involution Pencil in involution 37 40 41 — 88.. .VUl CONTENTS. 131 — 129. . CHAPTER SECT. Harmonic Harmonic 24 26 29 31 33 CHAPTER V. 139 156 Definitions 82 85 — 146. 133. 43 . 104 — 109. 51 51 57 61 112 123 — 117. 89 —92. Properties of a tetrastigm 147—155. 71—73. 136—138.. circles Cosine circle Lemoine Brocard CHAPTER VII. Relations between the angles of a pencil in involution 49 CHAPTER VI. Introductory Concurrent lines drawn through the vertices of a triangle CoDinear points on the sides of a triangle Pole and Polar with respect to a triangle Special points connected with a triangle . Theorems relating to harmonic ranges and pencils section of . 128. 66 74 78 —70. 57 — 59. 60—65... 135. — 103. THEORY OF INVOLUTION... 90 Some special cases of polystigms and polygrams . 111. a line section of an angle Relations between the segments of a harmonic range Relations between the angles of a harmonic pencil. 125. 94 110. IV. PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANGLE. HARMONIC RANGES AND PENCILS. The The The The The The Circumcircle nine-point circle inscribed and escribed circle circle . 52 — 56. 62 66 70 72 75 76 78 118—122. — 44. Properties of a tetragram — 159. PAGE 39 45 —51. RECTILINEAR FIGURES. — 77. 93. 134. 97 .. — 126— 130.

. 100 108 113 Relations between two triangles in perapective Pascal's theorem General theory . THE THEORY OF RECIPROCATION. 201 Similar triangles Properties of two figures directly similar . . 255 262 Introduction Poles and Polars X. PROPERTIES OF TWO CIRCLES.. 119 THE THEORY OF SIMILAR FIGURES... 243—254. — 261. 281 — 283. — 312. . 220— 222. — 296. THE THEORY OF PERSPECTIVE. 176—180. PAOE Triangles in perspective 160—175. —290. Conjugate points and lines Conjugate triangles Tetrastigm inscribed in a 157 161 270 276 164 168 171 — 280. Power of a point with respect to a circle Radical axis of two circles Power of . Tetragram circumscribed to a circle Pascal's and Brianchon's theorems CHAPTER 284—287. — 236.CONTENTS. VIII. circle THE CIRCLE. 128 135 138 140 143 213 Properties of two figures inversely similar Properties of three figures directly similar Special cases of three figures directly similar 223 231 —230.. CHAPTER BKCT. 183 185 313—315. The principle of duality Harmonic properties Reciprocation applied to metrical propositions . — 212..178 181 The reciprocal of a circle CHAPTER 300 304 XII. 181—186. 148 151 — 269. CHAPTER 237—242. . CHAPTER IX. 316 two circles 189 191 —322. 174 177 .. . 288 291 XI. —275. 187—200. — 219. Centres of similitude of two circles . —303. 297 — 299..

THEORY OF CROSS RATIO. Convention relating to the sign of the radius of a Circles circle . — 370. SYSTEMS OF CIRCLES. .. THEORY OF INVERSION. Corresponding properties of inverse figures . 220 221 . 283 284 . Cross ratios of ranges and pencils Involution 426. 382. Circular reciprocation 257 CHAPTER 415 428 XVI. COAXAL CIRCLES. Miscellaneous theorems CHAPTER 377 XV. 349—356. circle 244 251 405—414. 372. Inverse points Inverse of a straight line Inverse circles 218 347. Relations between the powers of coaxal circles Poncelet's theorem 200 202 203 209 CHAPTER XIV. SECT. Power relations connecting inverse circles . 427. 327. 348. — 425..CONTENTS. 387 — 396. System of three circles 380.. . 237 238 239 241 Circles cutting three given circles at given angles — 386. —379. Inversion applied to coaxal circles 224 228 233 234 373 — 376. 334—342. 381. 439. . 383 which touch three given circles System of four circles having a common tangent Properties of a circular triangle . . Orthogonal coaxal systems. 357 363 — 362. . Cross ratio properties of a circle 433 Homographic ranges and pencils 272 275 279 Notes Index . The limiting points 328—333. CHAPTER Xm. 371. 326. 343 — 346. FAQE 323—325. 397 — 404. — — 432.

— CHAPTER I. The actual curve which separates the white patch from the rest of the plane surface. iL iii. and at the same distance from a fixed point lines respectively. But it is important to observe that the three things of the are distinct. The assemblage of all the positions of the moving point P. INTRODUCTION. 1 . It is usual to say that the curve is the locus of all the positions moving point. the positions of the moving line The assemblage of all PQ. and then figures are treated as assemblages of points or assemblages of straight consider the case of a that its illustrate this remark let us Imagine a point P to move so is constant. To circle. L. If we suppose move continuously we know that it will describe a we suppose the motion to take place on a plane all OPQ white surface and that part of the plane which the line left PQ passes over to become black. 1. Definition of a Geometrical Figrure. A PLANE geometrical figure may be infinity. and the envelope of all the positions of the moving line. P to if and a right angle. the straight lines being supposed to extend to is Usually either the point or the straight line regarded as the element. defined as an assem- blage of points and straight lines in the same plane. : There are here three things to consider i. time imagine a straight point line PQ to be always turning about the is P so that the angle the point circle. there will be a white patch bounded by the circle which is described by the point P.

Let us consider now the case of any simple plane figure consisting of a single curved line. and we may say that the to describe : the locus of the positions of the point. of a curve as the envelope of positions of a straight 3. let us a straight line in this case the does not exist. and called the tangent at the point. It remains to consider suppose the point straight line let P assemblage of lines is two special cases. Secondly. It is however not always or as curves. every position of P to describe continuously a given P we suppose the tangent to the P. T/ If now we suppose a and if for point curve. Hence we may regard a simple figure as the locus of an assemblage of positions of a moving point. It follows that any plane figure consisting of points. It will be necessary however to define a tangent to a curve. lines treated either as an assemblage of points and an assemblage of straight lines. us suppose the point all P to be fixed: in this case there is no the assemblage of points. as curve to be drawn. let FT be the limiting position which the line PP' assumes P' is when made to approach indefinitely near to is P. The conception may of a curve as an envelope is less obvious. then the is straight line FT said to touch the curve at the point P. as traced out Such a figure may be conceived by the motion of a point.I 2. and Let a point P' be taken on a curve near to a given point P. but it be derived from the conception of it as a locus. may be . NATURE OF A GEOMETRICAL FIGURE. we may evidently regard these straight lines as the positions of a straight line which turns about the point P moves along the curve. it. and we envelope of may say that the point P is the positions of a straight line which turns round 4. Thus we obtain the conception line. Firstly.

Principle of Duality. the other hand first easy to see that every assemblage of lie points of the order must on a straight line. it is On 6. because no straight line can be drawn to cut a given straight line in more than one point.CLASSIFICATION OF CURVES. an assemblage of straight lines of the first must pass through the same point. Thus a point it. or they involve more or less directly the idea of measurement. The 7. regarded as loci. necessary to treat a figure in this way. The propositions contained in . because only one straight line can be drawn from any arbitrary point so as to pass through class. touch a given On class the other hand. six books of Euclid are mostly metrical in fact. Curves. there is not one that can be said to be purely descriptive. are classified according to of their tangents which pass through an arbitrary number The point. which a straight line can cut a curve is called the order of the curve. 5. Geometrical propositions are of two kinds. for not more than two of the points will lie on any lie number of their points which The greatest number of points in arbitrary straight line. is an envelope of the circle is first class. Curves. The assemblage of points lying on two straight lines is of the second order. Classification of Curves. for A a curve of the second two tangents at most can be drawn from a point to circle. are classified according to the on an arbitrary straight line. Thus a straight line is an assemblage of points of the first order. 1—2 . for the A circle is also a locus of the second order same reason. —either they refer to the relative positions of certain points or lines connected with a figure. but an assemblage of straight lines of the second class do not necessarily envelope a circle. in the latter Tnetrical propositions. regarded as envelopes. the first In the former case they are called descriptive. and another part as an assemblage of straight lines. sometimes it is 3 more convenient to consider one part of a figure as an assemblage of points. the number of straight lines which can be drawn from an arbitrary point to touch a given curve is called the class greatest of the curve.

we state that every . universally accepted. Such propositions are said to be reciprocal or dual. may be extended to imaginary . The Principle of Continuity. obvious from general reasoning. Similarly. which is the vital principle of modern geometry. or may coincide. This principle asserts that if from the nature of a particular problem we should expect a certain number of solutions. In fact. and shall reserve for a later chapter a formal proof of the truth of the principle. correspond to the lines of the other. although these imaginary. and afterwards extended by Boscovich but it was not till after the publication of Poncelet's " Traite des Propii^tes Projectives " in 1822 that it was . The principle of continuity. then there be the same number of solutions in all cases. but in the present treatise we shall prove independently reciprocal proposi- tions as they occur. and the truth of the reciprocal proposition may be inferred from what is called the for ' ' ' ' . 'locus' and 'envelope'.' 4 PKINCIPIES OF DUALITY There is a remarkable analogy between descriptive propositions concerning figures regarded as assemblages of points and those concerning corresponding figures regarded as assemblages of straight lines. 'point of intersection of two lines and line of connection of two points &c. 8. the principle of continuity asserts that theorems concerning real points or lines points or lines. It will be found that when a proposition has been proved any figure. a straight line can be drawn to cut a circle in two points hence. For instance. although some of the solutions may be imaginary. was first enunciated by Kepler. a corresponding proposition for the reciprocal figure may be enunciated by merely interchanging the terms point and 'line'. straight line will cut a circle in two points. we state that may be two tangents may be can be drawn from any point to a circle. in which the points of one. The principle of duality plays an important part in geometrical It is investigations. but they imaginary or coincident. principle of duality. and if in anj' particular case will we find this number of solutions. are said to be reciprocal figures. Any two figures.

might be inferred from the principle. trusting that the reader will notice that certain propositions. if a pair of points become imaginary. Then we see that the distance OQ increases from the value zero. they must first coincide that is. be an indefinite straight If line. the point position of the assemblage of points on the line assume every be AA'. O We do not propose to discuss the truth of this principle in the present treatise. Let the position of the point Q when the line PQ is perpendicular to the line AA'. : — become imaginary. when the points coincide. and let a straight line be drawn through a fixed point point in the now we P cutting the given line A A' suppose the line PQ to revolve Q will continuously about the point P. the distance between them must assume a zerovalue. 9. For instance. We merely call attention to it.AND CONTINUITY. and let us suppose that PQ revolves in the direction indicated by the arrow-head in the figure. or an infinite value. Let AOA' Q. which will be proved. and becomes indefinitely great as the angle OPQ becomes nearly a right angle. and afterwards to an imaginary state can only take place . Imagine a straight line drawn through a fixed point to cut a given circle in two real points. When the . It is earlier propositions by the application of important however to observe that the change from a real when some element of a figure passes through either a zero-value. and let the line turn about the fixed point as the line turns. Points at infinity. until the line touches the circle. the two points in which it cuts the circle gradually approach nearer and nearer.

PQ assumes a position parallel to OA. Since every straight line has one situated at infinity. it follows that all the points at infinity in a given plane first constitute an assemblage of points of the order. . to say. angle OPQ is a right angle. This straight line is called the line at infinity in the plane. the linePQ is parallel to OA. that is at an infinite distance from every finite point on the line.b LINE AT INFINITY. and as the line PQ continues to revolve about appears at the opposite extremity of the line A'A. all the points at infinity in a given plane satisfy the condition of lying on a straight line. the line OA must be considered as having one point situated at infinity. is a system of parallel straight point lines. That is on the hypothesis that the line PQ always cuts the line OA in one real point. in the same must be considered as intersecting in a common point at infinity. And conversely every system of straight lines drawn It follows also that through a point at infinity 10. plane. P the point Q We say then that considered when 0. Hence. the point Q may be as situated on the line OA at an infinite distance from the point and may be considered as situated on either side of 0. any system of parallel lines.

angles. is of the perpendicular a straight line represented by drawn from a point A to when it is measured from .AB. as E^h of these.4 a. . and areas. that is AB + BA = 0. It is usual to consider magnitudes measured in some specified direction as positive. The length x. 13. we being measured in two opposite convenient to use the algebraic directions. MEASUREMENT OF GEOMETRICAL MAGNITUDES. or in two points on a straight line. is capable of propositions are concerned with the magnitudes of lengths. is B be When is the segment represented by its length is AB.. CHAPTER II. In plane geometry. and those measured in the opposite direction as negative but it is seldom necessary to specify the positive direction. since it is always possible to use such a notation for any kind of magnitude as shall indicate the direction in which it is measured. the length of measured either in the direction from A the opposite direction from B towards A. lengths. 11. Therefore we have BA=^. Consequently it is between the directions in which such magnitudes as have to be compared are measured. Use of the signs + and — in Geometry. signs to distinguish + and — Measurement of 12. If A and the segment AB may be towards B. and when represented by BA. the two expressions AB and BA represent the same magnitude measured in opposite directions. metrical shall see. measured from A towards B its length it is measured from B towards A Consequently.

different signs when the points are on opposite sides of the 14. the two expressions sign A x. Consequently. or from B towards A. angles. Segments measured on the same or it parallel lines may mag- evidently be compared in respect of both direction and nitude.8 the point the line MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES. Measurement of 15. measured Therefore BOA in opposite directions. Thus the expressions AOB. towards the line. When from the arc is is measured from A towards B. Then the angle AOB is measured by the length of the arc AB. the magnitude of the angle represented by BOA. OB in the points and B. and by xA when x towards the point A. A it is measured from have the same Consequently. . and when the arc is is measured B towards A. let Let AOB be A any angle. represent the same magnitude and therefore have different signs. and line. Bx will when the points A and B are on the same side of the line. but must be noticed that segments of lines which are not parallel can only be compared in respect of magnitude. the magnitude of the angle represented by -405. But the length of this arc may be measured either from A towards B. be described with centre OA. whose radius to cut is equal to the unit of length. ^ 05 + BOA = 0. and a circle. an angle may be considered as capable of measurement in either of two opposite directions.

TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS. b. the ratio of OP OM is called the secant of the angle A OB the ratio of OP MP is called the coseca7it of the angle AOB. . and letters a. Straight lines are often represented by single letters cd>. the ratio of : : : : . and the expressions ha are sometimes used to represent the angles h. PM Let AOB be any angle. it is In propositions concerning angles very often con- venient to use the names which designate in trigonometry certain ratios. between the notation is lines a and But If if since two straight lines form two angles of different magnitudes at their point of intersection. the angles AOB. this objectionable. . 17. OA to be fixed. OM OP is called the cosine of the angle AOB the ratio of MP OM is called the tangent of the angle A OB the ratio of OM MP is called the cotangent of the angle . we the use of the expression ab as OA. : These angle six ratios are called the trigonometrical rutios of the AOB. let any point be dra^vn perpendicular to OA. O'B' in the same direction as OB. however we have a represent the lines series of lines meeting at a point 0. respect of sign as well as magnitude. Ratios of an angle. Angles having different vertices may be compared in For if through any point 0' we draw O'A' parallel to and in the same direction as OA. A'O'B' are evidently equal. called the trigonometrical ratios of an angle. line Let us now consider the revolve round the point 0.4 05.. OB by the meaning the same In this case thing as the expression AOB is free = — ba. and 16. and have the same sign. from ambiguity. P be taken in OB and let M A The ratio of MP OP : is called the sine of the angle AOB. we shall evidently have ab The Trigonometrical 18. and let OB the For different positions of OB .

length OP is taken to be of invariable sign. but the lengths OM and MP will vary in magnitude as well as in sign. 19. The following useful theorems are easily proved.10 TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS. sin . and may be found in any treatise on Trigonometry. the trigonometrical ratios of angles are easily compared in respect of magnitude and sign. Since OB may be drawn so as to make the angle A OB equal to any given angle.

And. OB. 11 ABGD is evidently the sum of the Now and OP. as capable of measurement in either of two opposite directions. Areas may evidently be compared in respect to sign as well as magnitude wherever they may be situated in the same plane. we shall have {ABGD) + (ADGB) = 0. OD be the extreme positions of the revolving line The area enclosed by the contour is now evidently the diflference of the area ODAB traced out by OP as it revolves in one direction from the position OD to the position OB. and by the expression (ADGB) when the point P is supposed to move in the direction ADGB. let suppose the point to lie without the contour ABGD . if we represent the magnitude of the area by the expression (ABGD) when the point P is supposed to move round the contour in the direction ABGD. magnitude of the area elementary areas OPP'. It should be noticed that the expression for the magnitude of . and the area OBCD traced out by OP as it revolves in the opposite direction from the position OB to the position OD. We may thus regard the magnitude of the area enclosed by any contour such as ABGD.MEASUREMENT OF AREAS.

ain BAG.sin BAC. we shall where each of the (ii) {ABC)=^AD.iAI>...e. d.BC^AB.12 AREA OF TRIANGLE.. A K It is proved in Euclid (Book i. .BC. without giving rise to ambiguity.. BC is to be considered as affected by sign.. 41) that the area of the triangle ABC is half the area of the rectangle HBCK. 21. we have {ABC)=iAB. will an area have the same meaning if the letters be interchanged in cyclical order. HAK be drawn parallel to BO.ainABC. prop.smBAC.AC. H Through A let and let AD be drawn perpendicular to BC. (ABC) is Therefore the area equal in magnitude to iIfB. angle AC axe to be considered as of invariable by sign. but the the BAC as affected From theorem these two values for the area of the triangle ABC. provided that {abed) be understood to point 6 mean the area traced out by a point which starting from the da moves along the line a towards the point ab.AC. the magnitude of the area enclosed by them may be represented by the expression (abed. is {ABC) equal in magnitude to ^BA. sign..BC. AC . and then along the line towards the point be.BC. Let ABC be any triangle. shall When several triangles have a common vertex A. 22. . generally cases is It is often necessary to use these expressions for the area of but when the areas of several triangles have to be compared it necessary to be careful that the signs of the areas are preserved. we have AD. That is {ABO = ^ {HBCK). lengths AD. If a closed contour be formed by a series of straight lines a.). c.. or by symmetry to ^AB . where the lengths AB. And the area since DA=BA sin CAB. h.BC. and so on. and let the rectangle BHKC be completed. occiu' frequently (i) : Two When have several triangles are described on the same straight line. a triangle.i.

are aflFected by sign.. OC. Thus let any line cut the lines OA. OA. On the sides AB. . OB. and N. AC.. show that the given straight line... and if BD. DN M (^ABCD)=\ {AM. sin AOB. but the lengths OJV.. ON=OA 0N= OA . and if AM. AOC.. AB. from theorems concerning the segments of a line. MC). .. Then we have. AENC. 1. CK be drawn parallel and equal to HA. show that the sum of the areas {AFMB). where the segments AB. in the points A. &c of the line AB. B.. .. 05.. B. 13 which is very useful for deriving theorems concerning the angles formed by several lines meeting in a point. ND+NB. NE meet in H. Ejl 2... parallelograms {ACNE) will be equal to the area {BBKC). in If A. AC.. If MF. sin AOC. are of invariable sign. OB. and the angles AOB. and let OiV be drawn perpendicular to the line AB. AC oi the triangle ABC are described any AFMB. OC. BN be drawn perpenany given straight line meeting CM. C.. C.AREA OF TRIANGLE. Ex. drawn parallel to dicular to D he any four points in a plane..

C\» any three points on the same straight be the middle point of BC.. it is obvious that positions. 23. Since this a symmetrical relation. \i A.AO. same direction. show that line.+nK+KA=0. K he any number of points on the same straight line. Then AB. show that AB+BC+. it must be true when the points have any other relative fore the relation must hold in all cases. If A. 2. AB are connected by the relation BG+ CA+AB=0. But between the points A and C.B. If A. B.B.CHAPTER III. Ex. and if AB-\-AC='i. (3). AG+GA=0.. and therefore BG+GA+AB = is (1).. This relation There- may also be stated in the forms : BC = AG-AB (2). 1..H. Ex. . G he any three points on the same straight line.. the lengths of the segments BC. Let the point B lie BC. C. BG=BA+AG 24. Relations betvireen the segments of a line. AG represent lengths measured in the AG = AB + BG. FUNDAMENTAL METRICAL PROPOSITIONS. GA.

. A number of points on the same straight line are said to form a range.AD + CA BD + AB . 2.. If {A BCD} be a range such that C is the middle point of AB. Ex. Book II.CA. show that BC. Hence CA. 3. show that BC' = C'A=A'B'.BD+ AB .: METRICAL PROPERTIES OF RANGES. prop. Instead of saying that the points A. li A. D he any four points on . B. we have BD = AI)-AB..CD = 0. AB.BD + AB. of Show CC.CD = CA.. and if A'.. If {ABCD} be any range.GD = 0. C.BD + AB.AD + GA. 4. Ex. B. D he points on the same middle points of AB. CA .CA. CD respectively. 15 if and X. DA.CD^=-BC. B. 1. 3.]. B. B. Therefore BC. By the formulae (2) and (3) of § 23.AD^+CA.AD + AB. the same straight line. show that line.. C. also be very easily proved by means of Euclid.BD'^ + AB.DB = DC^-A CK Show also that DA^-DB:^=iDC. B'. C be respectively the middle points of the segments BC. usual to speak of the range is C . Ex. Ex. that is This result may 1. and C.. Ex.BD + AB.AB. the lengths of the six segments of the line are connected by the relation BG . show that Ex. T be the 'iXY=AC + BD=^AD + BC. are Thus the proposition in the last article the six segments usually stated The lengths of of any range {ABGD} connected by the relation BG. If A. Show that the last result is also true when D is not on the same straight line as A. it is the same straight line.CD = 0. 26.{CA + AB). 27. 4.AD + CA. CD = CA+ AD. are on {ABC . also that the middle point of A'B' coincides with the middle point If -A.AD = AD. CA.CB.CD = AD . C be points on the same hne. 25.

Ax. 28. [Trin. 3. AB = 0.16 Ex. PC. show that PA. M.. METRICAL PROPERTIES OF RANGES If points of the segments {AA'BB'CC'P} be any range. If [ABC] he any range. we have PA PA' = PL^-AL^. . Coll. MN+Cx Ax NL^-Ax . and if x he any straight line.] Relations connecting the angles of a pencil. Bx ZM=0.]. 1. show that If C be the G 2Cx=A:c + Bx. OC. we have . By Ex. M. usually spoken of as the pencil {ABC . OA BC+ OB. N \)s the middle has the same value whatever the position of the point P on the line. N. by § 25. line. 1892. CC. Bx. . 5. But since Ax. and if L.. Hence this expression. . If any straight line x cut . middle point of AB. OB. show that nOx=Ax + Bx + where x denotes any straight Ex. the sides of the triangle ABC in the points L. then Ax. If several straight lines be drawn in the same plane 29. show that Bx. they are said to form a pencil. 2. y/e : : have Ax:Bx:Cx=OA OB Therefore Ex. NL+PC. 3.. Ex..CA+Cx. line AB cut the given straight line x in the Then. and the straight lines are called the rays of the pencil. If be the centre of gravity of equal masses placed at the n points A.. + Kx.CA + OC. . by Ex. Cx are parallel to each other.. LM .BC + Bx. A A'. is independent of the positron of P.K..BC + Bx. MN+ PB PB'. 1. BB'.AB = 0.Cx.. . Let the straight point 0.. through a point 0. is The pencil formed by the rays OA.. B. . The point is called the vertex of the pencil.CA +Cx. OC. PA'.AB=0.

coa BOC +W1 BOO.BD + AB.AD + GA. Substituting these expressions for the segments in the above relation.AB = OA. If {ABC\ be any pencil.OB. . Ei. 2. PENCILS. &c.40Z) = sin (^+AOB\=coaAOB. sin ADD + sin GO A . BOG . . Let OD be drawn at right angles to OB. by § 25. 2 L. and sin COB =sin(^-BOC\=cosBOC. sin AOB. sin GOD = 0. G. {ABCJD} obtained. prove that ^n AOC = sin AOB. sin GOD = 0..GD = 0. 31. Making these substitutions in the general formula for the pencil is the required result Ex. moreover as particular This relation of great use. 1. from NO. we have BC. cos BOC-^nAOB . In the same way deduce that cos AOC=coa AOB. It includes cases several important trigonometrical formulae. Let any straight in the points line A. we obtain the relation . be drawn cutting the rays of the pencil Then. Then we have sin. sin AB. amBOD = l. . sin BOD + sin AOB.AND 30. 17 The six angles of any pencil of four rays {ABCD} are connected by the relation sin BOG . and similar values for NO AD. AG. we have. B. NO CD. cos AOB. But if ON be the perpendicular from the vertex of the pencil § 22. &c. D. sin BOG. sin AOD + sin GO A is sin BOD + sin AOB. on the line AB.

This result evidently follows at once from the definition of an area considered as a magnitude which specified direction. the area {ABC) equal to the sum of the areas any point in the (OBC). am B01)=aia^ COD-ain^AOC. If ABC he any is triangle. merely another form of the previous result.{DGA). c denote any three rays of a pencil. If a. . sin COD = 0. 4. and if he plane. Then the expression {ABGD) sents the area of the quadrilateral ABGD.{GAD) = . prove that sin AOD. may be measured then in a IfA. Pb . cos402?+sin COA cos BOC cos ^ 02) . show that Pa . 33. If in the ELEMENTARY THEOREMS pencU 0{ABCD} the ray OC bisect the angle AOB.G. 32. (i) Let us suppose that the points C and D lie on the same clearly repre- side of the line AB.(BCD) + {CDA) . and sin (6c) if P be any point. BOD+sin AOB. . Ex.B. since {CDA) = . sin (a6) = 0. Elementary theorems concerning areas.3.Dhe any four points in the same plane. . b. 5. If {ABCD} be any prove that cos cos and Ex.cos COA . coa COZ»=0. (OAB).{DAB) = This result is (2). sin^OC. The second relation given in the last article may be obtained otherwise. BOI) + sin A OB . (OCA). (ABC) . sin {ca) + Pc. pencil.+ 18 Ex. That is (ABC) = (OBC) + (OCA) + (OAB) (1).

CA + Gx. If A.{BGD) + {GDA) . B. CONCERNING AREAS. . A That is {ABGD) = {AHD) -{HGB) = {ABD)-{DGB) = {ABD) + {DBG). BG + {BPQ) GA + {GPQ) . show that Ex.AB = 0. let AB is cut GD the point H. line Let X denote the straight PQ. any three points on 35. d be any (a6ccf) four straight lines in the same plane. line.BC + Bx. Hence. If o.. 19 But the up triangles quadrilateral of the two triangles A BCD. Ex. 6.AB = 0. we have Ax. Hence. 2. may be regarded either as made ABC. 1. = (a6c) + (afa). BGD. DAB. c. {ABG) + {GDA) = {ABD) + {DBG) {ABC) . Q any other points in the a straight same plane with them. {APQ) = ^Ax. 2—2 .PQ. GDA or as made up of the two . Similarly we may show that {ABGD) = {ABG) + {GDA). But. that is. by § 21. G and D in lie If the points on opposite sides of the line AB. Show also that (aba) = {dhc) + {dcai) + {dab). and {APQ) .{DAB) = 0. Then the expression {ABGD) triangles clearly equal to the difference of the areas of the {AHD) and {HGB). we have {ABGD) = {ABC) + {GBA) Therefore (ii) = {BGD) + {DAB).{BGD) + {GDA) . G he P. Then. by § 28.{DAB) = 0. as before. 34. {ABG) .

{POO). If A. (PAQ)={()AB)-^{OAD). AC='iAG. 35 (2). and so on. . 2. B. {OACr)=2{0AG). &c. Cx=0. Prove the following construction for finding the sum of any number of triangular areas {POA}.BA {APQ). If A. Ex. show that {OAC) = {p^B) + (PAD).. (3).BC = (BPQ). B.BG^{BPq).K be n points in a plane. Hence. If ABCD be a parallelogram. from B' draw B'C equal and parallel to OC.AG-{GPQ). Ex. show that ^{POA)=n{POG). (APQ) BG + (BPQ) CA + (CPQ) . and so on. But since Ex. {FOB).Ax+{OCA). line. . . and any given point show that {OBC).AB = : : .. From A draw AB' equal and parallel to OB.. C. =^^C by § Let the diagonals meet in G.(1).: 20 Therefore ELEMENTARY THEOEEMS Hence Ax:Bx: Cx = (APQ) (BPQ) (GPQ).Bx+{OAB). . C he any three points on a straight . 1. 3. A This relation B C may also be written in the forms (2). x any other straight line. and if (? be the centroid of equal masses placed at them. Ex.AG + {CPQ). we have 2 Then Q is the middle point of BD. 4.AB 36. Then i^POB') is equal to {POA) + {POB) {POG) is equal to (PO^)+(POjB) + (POC). {APQ). and if be any point in the same plane.

.AF-CD.AE. CA.CE. 9. {BOD}. The sides BC. {BEF) {ABC)=BF. CD. Points P and Q are taken on two straight lines AB. E.CA.^. C.CE. of the areas {PCD). 7.BF B By But and § 35 (3) we have . C. BD meet in 0.{CDA)+PCK{DAB)-PD^. AF. AE BA AC. F are coUinear. {DAB). a triangle. line 5. {ABC)' from this result. [St John's Coll.CD BF. that collinear. AP .AE. sum {QAB)is constant. If three points D. E. point.{ABC)=0. E. D be any four points on a and P be any given show that PA^. {PBE). that BC. to each of the ranges {AOC}. . 4. F. Ex. Ex. find a point P on the such that the area {PAB) shall be equal to the sum of the areas {CAB). E. and apply the theorem given in § 27. . It follows points D. Let AC. Ex. prove that the ratio of the areas {DEF).CONCERNING AREAS. Ex. 6. 21 CD li A. {BCD)-PB^. : : . if this relation the points D. {CEF) {ABC) = CE AF CA AB. B. points D. : . D he any four points in a plane.BF.QD. {CEF) {CAF)=CE CA. i ' {DEF) BC={CEF) BD-{BEF) CD. such that Show that the 8. and conversely. CA. Ex.] circle the areas {PAD).CE. AF=CD.AB when the hold. {CAF) {ABC) = AF AB. F must be BD. {PCF) Ex. Show that a point AB of a triangle meet any straight line in the P can be found in the line DEF such that are equal. B.PB=CQ -. AE : : : : Therefore Similarly **®°*'^ : . {ABC) is equal to F AB of BD. 1889. . be taken on the sides BC. {DEF) _ BD. If .

AO. . {ABC)=iBC .AD Cx+OA BC. Also sin BOD= . C. . . Dx=0. line.22 Ex. {PCD) . prove that .Cx=0. result.Ox + DO. . If A.Bx+OB. Dx=0 DO BC. Let AD cut BC in the point 0.Ax + OA. which moves so that the constant. G. (DAB) = iDA BO siaAOC. . Bx-OB. D he any four points in a plane. and x any straight (BOB) Ax-{CDA) Bx+{DAB) Cx-{ABO Dx=0. the locus Hence we have the required 37. . DO. {BCD) = iDO 5C sin BOD. is sum of the areas {PAB). we have and Hence or But BC. AO. ELEMENTARY THEOREMS li A. . 10.Dx=0. . B.Bx-BO DA Cx-BC. Ax. then.Ox+CO. . by § 28. AD. sin AOC.sin AOC. Ax+DA CO. {CDA)=iDA CO. . . BC. .CO AD. line. of a is point P.0 a straight . D he any four points. B.ainBOD. . . . .

CD meet in £. CD meet in the point 0. B. If ABCD be a quadrilateral circumscribing a circle. I) if AB. and ON=GD. 4. that the line joining the middle points of AD and BC passes through P. the area represented by locus of Let A. 2 (POQ) = (PAB) + (PCD) . B. 2 (POQ) = (POM) + (PON). 3. is a straight line passing through the point of intersection of AB and CD. which moves so that the ratio of the areas (PAB). we have Therefore that is.{PCD)=l {ABDC). BD in F. and let Ex. by § 35 (2). such that N M OM=AB. Let Q be the middle point oi MN. 1. show that the locus of a point P. (PCD) is constant. C. C. BD passes through the centre of the circle. and AC. Dhe any four points. Hence the 38. the middle point of EF. and (PCD) = (PON). 2. If A. Then. Show Then P be the middle point of EF. P is a straight line parallel to OQ. and let be two points on these lines respectively.CONCERNING AREAS. show that {PAB) . Then we have (PAB) = (POM). . show that the line joining the middle points of the diagonals AC. Ex. he any four points. (POQ) is constant. Ex. Ex. 23 and Let the straight lines AB.

PB BQ = AP AQ. AB is divided harmonically AP PB = AQ BQ. When and the segment AB points P the range. in the same ratio. Q. A and B are harmonic conjugate points with respect to P is divided harmonically in the the range {AB. When the straight line joining the points A. P. with respect to the points A and B be harmonically separated by If the segment or. : : Thus. the segment P and Q. Thus. Q. and the pairs of points A. the points Q. the segment PQ divided harmonically in the points B. A and B are P and AB is divided harmonically in is the points P A and and Q. PQ} is called a harmonic range Q. the segment AB is said to be divided harmonically in the points P and Q. B. when The said to 40.B is divided internally in the point P. are called conjugate points of 41. : : in the points points P and Q are said to be harmonic conjugate points . . definition. Harmonic Section of a 39. For by we have and and therefore AP:PB=AQ:BQ. line. CHAPTER IV. HARMONIC RANGES AND PENCILS.. and externally in the point Q.

But C is evidently the middle point of the arc SJVB . OQ be drawn to a circle from any point 0. to find the harmonic conjugate of . circle. Let be the centre of the . N. If [ABP] be P with respect to the points any range. show that {OV. 25 It will be found convenient to use the notation {AB. PQ] for a harmonic range. show that the bisectors of the angle Ex. It ABO be any triangle. R. . therefore SO.VP bisect the angle SNR. the comma being inserted to distinguish the pairs of conjugate points. RS} is a harmonic range. 1. 42. Therefore the points S. Hence {OV. BAC divide the base BO harmonically. A. 2.HARMONIC RANGE. are concychc. 43. B. If tangents OP. Ex. and if any straight line drawn through the point cut the circle in the points B and 5 and the chord PQ in the point I'. J. RS} is a harmonic range. and let 00 cut PQ in the point JW Then we have OR 0S= 0P^= 0i\ 00.

OA.= sin AOQ : sin BOQ. and join FH. Therefore sin POB sin BOQ = sin AOP sin AOQ. When the angle AOB is divided by the rays OP. OB. That is [AB. Harmonic Section 45. Then For J^S' will meet AB in the point Q.26 HARMONIC RANGE. Through A and B draw a pair of parallel lines AF. show that the conjugate Ex. middle point of GH. sin^OP Bin POB = sin AOQ sin BOQ. the rays OA. and if P be the harmonic conjugate of A with respect to B and C. is. said to oe divided harmonically OP. 1. For since OP. 2. PQ] is a harmonic range. OQ so that sin A OP is : sin >&&. it is In this case easy to see that FH is parallel to AB. so that B is the in F and BH in G. that A will be the harmonic conjugate of P with respect to Q and R. If point § is at infinity. to OB are harmonic conjugate rays with respect OP and OQ. OQ divide the angle AOB harmonically. It should be noticed that the solution is unique. BE. If the angle OQ. which will be the point required. The rays OQ are said to be harmonic conjugate rays with respect to the rays 46. by the rays the angle AOB OP. AQ:BQ = AF:BH = AF: GB = AP:PB. the angle : : : : Thus. Q the harmonic conjugate of B with respect to C and A. OQ. be the middle point of AB. Q P which corresponds to a given point P. And through P draw a straight line FPG in any direction meeting AF In BH take the point 5^. OB. . Ex. POQ is divided harmonically by the rays OA. If {ABC} be any range. and R the harmonic conjugate of C with respect to A and B show . A OB he divided harmonically by the rays OP. that is there only one point 44. of an angle.

Hence this theorem follows from the 49. 4. Ex. If the pencil {AB. Ex. OQ bisect the angle AOB. Ex. show that OA. B'.Q. the comma being inserted to distinguish the It will pairs of conjugate rays. . BQ = OB. the tangents B'. OB are the bisectors of the angle POQ. Let any straight line cut the rays of the harmonic pencil {AB. Any straight line is cut harmonically by the rays of a harmonic pencil. NO. and if /" be any point on the same show that P {AB. B. If is . be found convenient to use the notation {AB. the pencil is called a harmonic pencil. OB. 1. CD} be harmonic. 8.HARMONIC PENCIL. and the angle AOB a. OQ are called conjugate rays of the pencil. B. Let ON be drawn perpendicular to the line AB. 47. OQ sin BOQ.PB = OP. AQ = OA. PQ] for a harmonic pencil. CD} the pencil Ex. PQ} 2. PQ] be harmonic. PQ] be harmonic. harmonic. B. NO. APC are equal or supplementary. 3.P. right and if a line be drawn perpendicular to OP meeting OA. last. harmonic.OQ sin AOQ. CD'} will be harmonic It is easy to —where His the centre of the show that the angles A' EC. and the angle 405 be a right angle. 48.4. show that. such that the pencil circle.t A. show if that the pencil {AB. OQ of the pencil [ABPQ] are harmonic conjugates with respect to the rays OA. Ex.AP=OA. then the range [AB. D' respectively. {AB. B. OB in A' and show that the line drawn through perpendicular to OQ will bisect A'B'. C. If the rays is OP. PQ] in the points A. and each pair of rays. OB sin POB. angle. circle. namely OA. OB and OP. if In the same case. 5. then we have . C. NO. the pencil H{A'B'. OP sin AOP. If the pencil {AB. 27 When the rays OP. C and D intersect the tangent at the point P in the points A'. will he five points on a circle. PQ} is harmonic. . NO.

conjugate ray will bisect the segment intercepted by the Ex. Ex. Take any point X on the circle described on AB as BX are the bisectors of each of the angles easily shown that when the pencil diameter. R. B show that when . {AB. Q. R'S'}. sin : : sin BOQ. and the point conjugate to the point at infinity with respect to the points point of the segment A'B'. Q'P' subtend equal or supplementary angles at any point on the circle described on AB as Q diameter. then OQ be the ray conjugate to OP. we may prove that if {AB. pencil. PQ] a harmonic pencil. 2. PQ] will be harmonic. If P. QXQ^. Conversely. and if be any point not on the same line. is conju- a'^ Draw any straight OA. If a straight line be tl}e drawn parallel to any ray of a harmonic show that other two rays. 50. they bisect the angles between the other pair of conjugate rays. 3. &c. Ex. is A'R is the middle the point Q. PQ} a harmonic range. PXP'. 1. that Therefore. Hence show that when a pair of conjugate rays of a harmonic pencil are at right angles. If R'S'}. Hence. . PQ] be a harmonic range. OB. line parallel to the ray OP. Hence it is X {PQ. then the pencil {AB. and if P'. S be any four points on the line S' be their harmonic conjugates with respect to A and AB. meeting the rays OB will in A' and B'.28 HARMONIC PENCIL. show that the segments PQ. so also is the range {PQ'. since But [AB. the range {PQ. 4. is by § 49. RS} is harmonic. For A'B' meets OP at infinity. 51. to gate to the ray OP with respect to the find the ray which rays OA. {ABP] be any pencil. If P'. {AB. Let Q be the middle point of A'B'. RS} is harmonic. Q' be respectively the harmonic conjugate points of P and with respect to A and B. Ex. so also is the T^ncil X{P^. Q'. R'. : A OP is Therefore POB = sin AOQ AP PB = AQ BQ. PQ] sin is : a harmonic pencil. Then AX.

AB~AP'^AQwe may obtain the relations ^ Similarly BA~BP^ BQPQ~PA 2__J_ 1_ A- i_ '^PB' QP-QA'^QBConversely. 2. PQ] is harmonic. show that Ex.BP = 0.BQ + AQ.BP = 0. 3. B. AP(AQ-AB) + AQ(AP-AB) = 0. Ex.BQ + AQ. Conversely. 29 Relations between the segments of a harmonic range. AB.QB = P^. when segments of the range by this relation.PB^QA.PB.BQ = PB.{AQ + AP). 4. I'Q} be a harmonic range. 52. Ex. AP. by § 25. P. If {AB. PQ} be a harmonic range. and if C be the middle AB. Q are four points on the But since A. show that . PQ} is harmonic. since we have Therefore that IS AP.PC. we have. same straight line.PQ + AP.BQ = 2AQ. Show that Show that If PA. that or is AP. 1. 2AP. CP .BP = 0. Again.PB^PQ.QB + AQ.CQ=AP^ lAQK PQ^-\-Am=iCB?. range {AB. it is obvious that the range [ABPQ] are connected [AB. when the segments of the i-ange it {ABPQ} are connected by any one of these four relations. If {AB. follows that the 54 point of Ex. PA . 53. Hence we have AB.METRICAL PROPERTIES. we have by definition AF PB = AQ : : BQ. R be the middle point of PQ.AQ.AQ = AB.PQ = 2AP.

B. AP:PB = Aq:BQ. it is may be easily proved that the range {AB. 6. 1. If {A£. 12 OT § 54. PQ} be a harmonic and if C and B be the middle points of AB and PQ. Ex. If OA OB+OP 0Q=20R . and OP. . OC. 7.GQ = AC'. PQ] be a harmonic range. AC GP = CQ AG : : thatis Conversely. Show also that OA. {AB. 2.AQ+0P. PQ] 56. Then.GQ = GA^ = GB'. R\» the middle points of AB. Q show that of Ex.P^ PQ. prove that Q respectively with PQ. if this relation holds. 55. PQ. and T the harmonic conjugate conjugate of any point with respect to P. show that Ex. .Fq=AP^ : : AP'^. 4.PA=0. 1. 1^ . .OQ~OE. range. AB = 2AC. OA OB^ OP.BP+0B.. PQ} be a harmonic range.QB+OQ.OC. Ex. then CP. Q! be the harmonic conjugates of P. 5. and any point on the same straight line. and if C be the middle point of AB. and B. PQ} be a harmonic range. If . we have this result may be If respect to A F. : CQ.OQ=OT.OR. If [AB. 30 Ex. harmonic. and if . thatis But since C is the middle point of AB. and Therefore AP + BP = 2CP. Let C. AB:AP + BP = AQ^BQ:AB.ff be the harmonic with respect to A. GP. If {AB. AQ + BQ=^ 2CQ. consequently deduced from that in Ex. For since therefore AP + PB:AP-PB=^AQ + BQ:Aq-BQ. show that AB~ AP'^ AQEx. by OA. 3.OB=OE. show that be any point on the same line as the range. METRICAL PROPERTIES OF Show that AP:AQ=CP: AC=AG Ex. 2. Ex.

CQ' = CAK Hence Also Therefore CP CQ = Cq CP = PQ' QP : : : CP: CQ'=PQ:Q'P'. by § 30. CX two touches the circle PXQ . 6. siaAOB. PQ' 3. § 54. 5. finition If {AB. . .AQ' = PQ:Q'P'. Then we have.smBOQ = sin POB we have . PQ} be a harmonic sin pencil. If circles cut orthogonally. If {AB. PQ Whence.. 7. : we have by de- AOP: waPOB = sin A OQ sin BOQ that is sin AOP. sin POQ + sin A OP sin QOB + sin ^ OQ sin BOP = 0. and therefore CXO is a right Ex. then CP. CX^=CA"-=CP. Q is cut orthogonally by the circle described on AB as Let the circle described with centre the circle described on AB § 55.AQ:AP. : QP' qP' = CP^:CQ. then every circle which passes through the points P. But. by Ex. . 57. . diameter. cut X . the result follows. by Therefore angle. Show also that AP. C be the middle point of AB.CP' = CQ. Cq = CP : CP'. . as diameter in the point which passes through and P and let Q. PQ} be a harmonic range. sin A OQ. Let 31 C be the middle point of AB. A HARMONIC RANGE.CQ. show that any diameter of either is divided harmonically by the other. Relations between the angles of a harmonic pencil. Ei. Ex.

5. if Ex. and if Ex. sin AOQ' = sin POQ sinQ'OP' : . PQ} be a harmonic pencil. when this relation holds between the angles of the pencil.sin BOQ tan A OC cot COP = tan COQ cot AOC. . show that sin 2C0P : sin 2C0Q = Biifi AOP : ain' AOQ. cot XOT. and OC bisect the angle AOB. sin Hence A OB . sin i"0§' = sin^ AOP : sin^ AOP'.^ ^OP. it follows that the pencil {AB. Show also that : sin 4 OP. cot X0Q=2 cot XOE. show that XOA If . If OX be any other ray. If OE be the conjugate OX cot with respect to OA. is harmonic. 4. it follows that the pencil is harmonic. OQ. Ex. and OT the conjugate ray to OX with respect to OP. Ex. show that sin POQ .32 PROPERTIES OF A HARMONIC PENCIL. {AB. show that sia BOX _ sm POJ: sin QOX sin AOB~ sin AOP^ sin AOQ' {AB. Conversely. sin AOP + sin P OB _ s in AOQ + sin BOQ iheretore ^. If AOQ. 2.sin POB ~ sin AOQ. cot ZO^+cot XOP . sin POQ' : sin P'OQ . 58. when this relation is true.smP0B. prove that 2 cot AOB =cotAOP+cx. or The same relation is true if OC bisect the angle AOB ' . OB. . OP. exter- nally.40$ sin^Oi". If the rays OP'. {AB. PQ} be a harmonic pencil. For by definition sin AOP: sin FOB = sin AOQ: sin BOQ.t Ex. . If OC tan bisect the angle A OB internally. OQ^ be the conjugate rays respectively of OQ with respect to OA. then COP . sin . 6. OB. tan COQ = tan'' GO A = tan' COB. Ex. sin POQ = 2 sin ^ OP sin BOQ = 2smA0Q. 1. that is tan COP tan COQ = tan" A OC. Conversely. PQ] 59. ray to 3. PQ} be a harmonic pencil.

.4. [AB. PQ} is a harmonic pencil. JS be any given points on a straight line. BB' intersect in 0. {AB\ and the lines BB'. OQ. But OP cuts in P'. two harmmiic ranges on different straight lines. Then since be divided AF Hence to OQ P' with Again. let pencil 0' {AB. then the lines BB'. and suppose we require the harmonic conjugate of the point P with respect to A and B. O'P must pass through 61.PBOPERTY OF TWO RANGES. must cut AB' in Q' the point which is conjugate respect to A. PQ). QQ will he con- current P'Q Oh will he concurrent. O'P. B'. OQ. Let PP'. relating to Harmonic Ranges and P'Q'} he Pencils. PP'. Then the PQ} is harmonic. PQ'. If \AB. Hence it follows as above that Q'. and join O'A. P'Q cut BB' in 0'. Let that . and join OA. 33 Theorems 60. L. This theorem furnishes an easy construction for obtaining the harmonic conjugate of a point with respect to a given pair of points. the line AB' will harmonically by OP.

Let OB. Dhe any four points in a plane. Ex. respectively. By of the last article. and if 63. OQ must cut the line Ab in the point which is the conjugate of p with respect to ^. OB in C and I) respectively. OP. the line joining the harmonic conjugates P with respect to A. In the same way. D. if OA and O'A' are coincident. if we can show that if OP cut O'Q' in q'.34 PROPERTY OF TWO PENCILS. OQ intersect the rays O'B'. BC. conjugate of 62. O'Q' in the points b. q and bp cut 00' in A. the three points in which the rays OB. are collinear. OP. O'P'. must lie on Ab. p. q' will be collinear. if 00' meet AB in Q. are collinear and likewise the three points in which the rays OB. then the two . PQ} is harmonic. O'Q'. the points p. and C. OQ intersect the rays O'B'. 0' {A'B'. must pass through and 0'. Hence q the point of intersection of OQ. respectively . P with respect to A Q must be the harmonic and B. If the pencils {AB. and OQ cut O'P' in p'.e. O'P'. That is. O'P' . OQ let cut O'B'. and O'Q'. F. Similarly O'Q' must cut Ab in the same point. PQ]. q are collinear. Join AD. G. C. 6. Hence. b. and let them intersect in 0'. Let A and B be joined to any point 0. OP. the sis lines joining these points meet in the points E. then p'. B. Show that if A. i. Then because the pencil [AB. 1. b. P'Q'] have one ray common. and let a straight line be drawn through P cutting OA. O'Q' respectively. B.

B and C. . F. Take any point circles X not on the straight line. line. If through a fixed point 0. pair of points P.RY = RA. two fixed lines in the points A. show that the locus and BC is a straight line. RP^ = RZ-^ = RX. and mth centre cutting AB in P and Q. Show how to draw (with the aid of a from a given point which shall pass through the point of intersection of two given straight lines which do not meet on the paper. intersecting again in the point Y. lines 35 the two sides of the triangle which meet in any one of these points are harmonically conjugate with EFO which meet in the same point This follows from § 60. to on a straight Given any two pairs of points A. cut within the draw a tangent a circle divide R and radius RZ describe Then For AB in R. XGD circles. 64. Q which shall be harmonically find a D conjugate with respect to each of the given pairs of points. Deduce from § 62. 3. Ex. B of the point of intersection of AD two straight lines be drawn intersecting and C. 4. Let the lie line joining X. Ex. and describe the XAB.POINTS CONJUGATE TO TWO POINT-PAIRS. Then if R does not RZ to either. cif P and Q will each the segments AB. CD harmonically. 2. ruler only) a straight line Ex. D respectively. the corresponding theorem when four straight lines are given.RD.RB = RC.

C. AB. line. and if 0. be four points taken in order on a straight two points can be found at each of which the segments AB. C. Ex. Ex. and also with respect to the points C. X is any point on the same line. XD + ^HK . then the locus is the circle described on PQ as diameter. 3. NP PM Mjy_ OH'^OK^ OP . § be harmonic conjugates with respect to 4. 2. CD subtend equal Z> a circle. CD subtend If the points P. N be the conjugate points of with respect B and D respectively. The problem only admits without each of the circles. Show that if ^. show that the angles is locus of a point at which the segments AB. Z) Ex. D he four points taken in order on a straight line. and the segments AD. also that if M.XB-XC. B. show that XA . BG supplementary angles. C. ^.X0=0. Let P. Q be harmonically conjiigate with respect to the points A. B. li A.36 PROPERTIES OF A HARMONIC RANGE. K be the middle points of the segments PQ. of a real is that solution when R lies when the segments AB and CD do not overlap. Show C. 4. H. i^ A. CD . 1. and B. 65. D . where Ex. equal angles.

. BB.. Range 66. in Involution. C . C. OB' = 00. B. . show that any straight line drawn through a point on the hne AB will be cut by the circles in points which form a range in involution.MN+PB. OA' = OB. the points are said to form a range in involution. OC = &c. {AA'. It A'. 2..} with respect to the points S.. 3. B' . . show that the range is in involution. Ex. A'. . Nhe the middle points of the segments AA'. CC'.. . If the range {A A'. BB". is {AA'. &c.XL + PC PC LM= 0... where P is any point on the same line. Ex. G.Pff. . THEORY OF INVOLUTION.GG' 67. CC'} be in involution. CHAPTER V. A'. and if Z. lying on a straight line are such that their distances from a fixed point are connected by the relations OA The point points. . such as is . the point being the centre of the involution. are called conjugate points or couples of the involution. B. 1.. The most convenient notation for a range in involution ]. If a system of circles be drawn through two fixed points A and B.BF.. C'. and any pair of corresponding A.. . When several pairs of points A. Ex. called the centre. be respectively the harmonic conjugates of the points A. BB". . B'. CC show that PA PA' . 31. S' .

the centre of a range in involution of which A.38 By § 27. This result follows from the previous result. also that MN+ MB' NL + NC^ LM= . Through A and B draw any two lines AP. . Let PQ meet . OA where is OA' . 68. is OB'. 4. . by applying the theorem of § 27. Lif. B' be two pairs of points on a straight line. Ex. Jm+ OB . . Then we have since AP OA is parallel to B'Q. Q^ Let A. and RC parallel to PA meeting AB in C. the expression on the left-hand side must be equal to . OC .JVL+OC. 3. . LM. and draw A'B. : OB' =OP:OQ=OB: . parallel to A'Q. C on the line by a similar Thus.12 .45 in 0. we can find a point C corresponding to any given point construction. OB' . join CP. Any two pairs of points on a straight line determine a range in involution. and BP OA' . . . {MN+ NL + LiPf = 0. B'Q parallel to BP. B' are conjugate When the centre has been found. the centre of the involution and this expression = 0A. 5. B' draw A'Q. A'.0A'. meeting in Q. Show Z. . B. parallel to OP meeting OP in R. and therefore OA OA' = OB Hence. A' and B. . couples.MN NL . CONSTRUCTION OF A RANGE Ex. BP intersecting in P and through A'. AP respectively. Ex.

OA'. C be the middle Ex. B'. be taken on the hne AB such that CPC is a right angle. CC'} will be a range in involution. OB'. If {AA' BB} be any range such that the circles described on the segments A A'. show that there are two points at which each subtends a right angle. . respectively. points of the segments AA'. drawn passing through the points A. To obtain the conjugate point to any point C. CC'. lies OC Ex. A'. OA'. . 2. show that {AA'. . BB. We may also proceed otherwise. segments A A'.. LAf} will be a range in involution. A'. and the points B.} be a range in involution. show that {AA'. BB.. OA' = OX 0Y= OB . 1. BB. Let any two circles be 69. and if two points C. For 70. we have merely to This circle passing through the points X. CC. C.OY=OA. 39 Then we shall have OG OC = OA . For evidently OA draw the will cut circle . BB] be a harmonic range.. Then if the line meet the given straight line in the point 0.OC' = BR. M . BB' as diameters meet in the point P. AB in C. 3.. If {AA'. Ex. and if L. and let these circles intersect in the points and T. . the required point.IN INVOLUTION. Y. whose centre of the If {A A'. X XY this point will be the centre of the range. between A and Bff. OX.

. BB'. 2. 4. SE. the points constituting a conjugate couple lie on opposite sides of the centre. such as A. one on either side of the centre. PA. and show that where Ex. conjugate couples. B' show that {AA'. . there exist two points. We may also notice that there exists but one pair of points which are at once harmonically conjugate with respect to each pair of conjugate points of a range in involution. Ex. 40 Ex. A. 73. a be drawn cutting AA' in the points S and 0S= S' (see fig. §" be the harmonic P with respect to the point-pairs A. double points of the involution. . middle points oi AA'. Therefore iS and S' are the double points. A' be any pair of conjugate points of a range in involution^ and if the perpendiculars drawn to OA.PS^ . BB' . PA' SS'=PS'^ . § 69)...) be the range. A'. and if §. Ex. Points. §§'} will be a range in involution. B'. S' be the double points of a range in involution if and B. BB'} be a harmonic range. . A'. E.PA'. It is evident that any pair of conjugate points of a range in involution are harmonic conjugates with respect to the double points of the involution. If S. conjugates of any point . . .. When the points constituting any conjugate couple of a range in involution. . P is any point on the line. lie on the same side of the centre. When 72. 3. . If A. and radius OT. PB' SE= PS^ FE. BB'. each of which These points are called the coincides with its own conjugate. Fh% the . DOUBLK If POINTS. where is any point not on the same straight line. . the double points are imaginary. A' B. S'E. show that P lies on a fixed straight line. . OA' at A and A' meet in P. 5. shall have = OS'^' = 01^ = A OA'. 1. we . {A A'. Show also that SA SA' SF= SB SB' SE. OBB'. Show also that PA Ex. the locus of P is a straight line parallel to the line joining the centres of the circles OAA'.FS+PB. If {A A'. let OT be a tangent from circle to any passing through a pair of conjugate points. if Then with centre 0. The Double 71. To circle find the double points.

C. 41 Ex. 2. D and a range in which ^1. Hence the angle FPE the angles bisectors of the HH' equal to the angle angle HPF'. . If M. N and Ex. ff'. . given points. GG'. AB. BO]. B'G . Again. BD.. Hence the angles APB. If that {QR. . C and B. and H. CA = 0. GG'} are harmonic ranges. CC] be any range in involution. the segments of the range are connected by the relation AF . {AD. APD. show AD} will be a range in involution. Relations between the segments of a range in involution. Then OA. 4. . easy to see that each of the angles Hence by § 70. C.CA' + A'B Let be the centre of the range.} and {HH'. a range in which A. 6. Then by § 64. F' and IT.0A'=0B. are the centres of the involutions {AC. PH' are the FPF'.0F. which A. Ex. show that {MA^. B. . BC. be the double points of these three ranges and suppose A. FF'] is a harmonic range. BD} and {PQ. 7. D occur in order. {AC. Let F. BR. and hence {HH'. {RP. but G. Ex. bisects the angle APB. INVOLUTIONS DETERMINED BY FOUR POINTS. 5. D and B. H' are real points. and PF' the angle CPD equal to the angle CPF'. Then we shall have a range in D are conjugate couples. AB. B and Dhe the four C. BD} Ex. Show that any two have one pair of conjugate points common and show how to find them. 2. B. ranges in involution on the same straight line . PH bisects But CPD is are equal. Let A. G' imaginary. we see that F. BPD is a right angle. F' O. are conjugate couples . If {A A'. Then BPC. C are conjugate couples.BC'. 74. CD} be ranges in involution. Ex. Therefore PH. and that the double points of any one range. HH'} is a range in involution and therefore {FF'. PF therefore the angle FPB is and FF' as diameters meet in P. FF'. CA. G' . CD} is a range in involution. are harmonically conjugate with the double points of the other two ranges. Show that foiir given points on a straight line determine three ranges in involution. it is APC. Let the circles described on by § 48.

the range BE. BG G'A = 0.AC. Similarly we shall have OA:OB' = AB:B'A'. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SEGMENTS Therefore OA:OB = OB' OA'. we have 0A. .BG'. .A'G'. . Then if we have given the . BC . G'A = same way. . let a range in involution be formed so that A. GA +AB EG CA' = 0. . OA:OB= OB' -OA:OA'-OB : = AB':BA'. Then as in § 73. Hence. .BG". . 76. then AB AB' A'B A'B' =AG. B'. that is. . equivalent to 0. we have AB' which is .. compounding these ratios.GA'=^. : . . For if not. relation . AB' BG' . A'. Hence OA'' : OB. AB' : BA' . to the point G. if any one of these relations hold. In the AB' . B'C GA' + A'B'. we may deduce the relations : A'B' BC' . : Let be the centre of involution. If [AA'. B'A'. AB' BG G'A' + A'B B'G' GA =0. BB'.GB' . OC:OA=CA':AG'. have the relation Therefore AB' . CC"} in involution. GA' = BA' . .GA' + A'B. are conjugate couples and let C" be the point conjugate .CA' = -A'B. .0B = AE:BA'. and B. BB'. G(J] he any range in involution. : : Hence is G' must coincide with G" {AA'.OE=AB. 42 that is. B'G G"A.BG. .AG' A'G. Conversely. GG'} will be in involution. . B G' G'A = BG" G"A .A'B B'G we shall also G'A. then the range {AA'. AB . Similarly we shall have OB:OG = BC':CB'. 75.

tan ZOC = &c. 4. B'C'} BB'. . 78. involution. Ex. If {AA'. OB' . OB. 2. CC] used in § 75. OX' called the principal rays of the involu- and any pair of corresponding OA. 1. AB} be harmonic ranges. tan X'OA' = tan ai-e X'OB . XOA . then each of the ranges {AA'. GG'}. The notation used for a pencil which is in involution is 0{AA'. are such that the angles which they make with a fixed ray OX are connected by the relation . be a harmonic range. harmonic ranges. . B'C}.]. B'C'} be centres of the ranges in involution {AA'. rays OX. and if Jl^. that {AA'. BC}. {AA'. since : 43 OB have . 3. {A A'. that Show also that if F. BC]. If {AA'. {AA'. OA OA' = AB AB' A'B : A'B'. BB'. FF'}. BC]. . If {AA'. {. show B'C} will be ranges in involution. . . Therefore. OC . they are said to form a pencil in If OX' be the ray tan at right angles to OX. rays. CC) be any range in involution. If {AA'. will be a harmonic range. be harmonic ranges.BB'. it is easy to see that X'OA . 77. such as The tion. {CC. OB' = OA . it is in may be proved that the to that range {AA'.. {Bff. by a similar method Ex. &c.l. Similarly we shall Hence AB . When several pairs of rays OA. AB' A'B A'B' = AG AC A'C A'C. . BC.t&aX'OB' = &c. show that {AA'. G' be the double points of these ranges. Conversely. BB'. iV^ be the CC] and {AA'.OF A RANGE IN INVOLUTION. drawn through a point tan 0. CC'} wiU be in involution. GG'} will be harmonic. BC. B'C] will be a harmonio Ex. : . show that Pencil in involution. CC'} and {AA'. OC. tan XOA' = tan XOB tan XOB' = tan ZOC. if this relation is true. {AA'. OA' are called conjugate rays of the pencil. OA :0A'= AC AC A'C A'C. BE.. and if {AA\ BC] range. OA' . Bff. F' and G. : .. {FF'. OA'. CA]..-l'. show MN] Ex. involution. : .

.. the pencil 0{AA'. vertex. OB.} will OA. BB'. .} will be a pencil OS'. the double rays of show that {AA'. tan XOA tan XOA'= . Show that any two pencils in involution which have a have one pair of conjugate rays in common. 2. If AOA' a right angle... OA'. If OA'. OB. 8.. It should be noticed that the principal rays themselves consti- tute a pair of conjugate rays of a pencil in involution.} will be in involution. If the pencil {AA'. Ex. Ex. pencil.. When the double rays of a pencil in involution are at right angles. then we have tan= XOS = tan'' XOS' = tan XOA § 58. OX..1. show that the pencil 3. 6.. common Ex. show that these lines will also bisect COC.44 79. show that they bisect the angle between each pair of conjugate rays of the Ex. BB'..} be any pencil in involution.. Hence by we see that the double rays form with any pair . BB'. 4. Ex. tan XOA' = &c. Let OS.... is When the double rays of a pencil in involution are real. . 80.. OB'. 81.. Ex... BB'. then whatever the position of the line OX we have. be drawn perpendicular to the rays BB'.. OS' be the double rays. and if through any point 0' rays OA. OB. OB.... be drawn perpendicular to the rays OA. Show is that if rays OA'. O'A'. OB'. such that each of them coincides These rays are called the double rays of the pencil. and bisectors.. 7... with respect to the pair of rays OS. OS'. CC'} be in involution. it easy to see that the rays of the pencil will cut any straight line in points which form a range in involution. 5. Show that the rays drawn at right angles to the rays of a pencil in involution constitute another pencil in involution having the same principal rays. If {AA'. if which are OS and Ex. of conjugate rays a harmonic pencil and also that the principal rays are the bisectors of the angle between the double rays.. in involution. .. Show that any pencil in involution has in general one and only one pair of conjugate rays which are parallel to a pair of conjugate rays of any other pencil in involution. 1.. be the harmonic conjugate rays of OA. the angles AOA'. PENCILS IN If ox does not lie within the angle AOA' formed by any pair of conjugate rays it is evident that there will be two rays lying on opposite sides of with its own conjugate. be in involution. BOB' have the same the angle Ex. 0' {AA'....

For. 0{AA'. OF' and 00. SS'} is a harmonic range. 1. OS' be the be drawn cutting the rays of the pencil in the points and the double rays in the is a harmonic pencil. 0\AA'. then each of the 0{AA'. that {AA'. show that sin AOB' sin BOC .4 PC sm A'OB sin AVB' ~ sinA'OCT^nA'OC' .' INVOLUTION. and follows immedi- theorem nary. A'. BB'..} Ls a range in involution whose double points are S and S".. since the triangles KAB'. CC'} and {AA'. BB'. is often taken as the basis of is By the definition of a pencil in involution. OG'} will be harmonic. sin . and the properties of a pencil in involution are then derived from the properties of a range. BB'. : KA Again. in involution. Similarly {BB'. B'C} \\ill be in involution.g. Ex... OG' be the double rays of these pencils. and deducing the properties of the pencil from the range. 82. s CC] be any pencil in involution show that in^0... Ex. Ex. then . B'. BC]. BB'. GO']. the principle of continuity we could infer that this always true.. points S.. of a circle meet .sin^O^ _ sin . [AA'. and S'. It will be convenient first to prove the follo^ving lemma : If two chords A A'.. § 74. If . pencils if 3. show that the and that pencils OF. KB' A' are similar: therefore KA:KB'=AB:B'A'.} be the pencil. BR. any straight line if OS. therefore KA:KB = AB':BA'. and obtain the properties of a pencil in involution directly from the definition given in § 78. 84 Instead of obtaining the connection between a pencil in involution and a range in involution. BB'. in : K. B. if 45 [AA'. 83. KBA' ai-e similar . SS'} is a harmonic range. SS'} The converse ately from § 49. Hence {A A'. Then since [AA'. it follows from § 49. in fact. EC'} be harmonic pencils. If [A A'. 2. This is easily obtained from the theorem in used in § 49. CC'} be auy pencil . by applying the method If {AA'. Since the KA' = AB AB' A'B A'B'. A. FF'}. {AA'. sin C'OA=0. 0{FF'.400. . of this theorem is also true. sin COA' + sin A'OB sin B'OC . whether the double rays are real or imagiThe converse theorem. triangles KAB. we may proceed otherwise. BC. and let double rays.

KB' = AB AF B'A' BA'. KB KB' = KA KA'. BB'. KSA' are similar. : : . KA:KA' = AB. X'. and therefore KA:KS = AS:SA'. KA KA' = AS' A'S'.. . and if drawn through the point cutting the rays of the pencil points A. B'. the chords AA'. . Again..AB':A'B. . A'.. B. we shall have KA:KA' = AS':A'S\ For the triangles KAS. if KS be drawn to touch the circle. KA:KA' = AB.A'B'.-. . BA'. . : : a circle he in the If \AA' BB'. AB' :B'A'.} be any pencil in involution.KB . . CC'.. : . Let the X. of this circle .. that is But therefore 85.46 CONSTRUCTION OF Hence But Therefore that is KA. will pass through a fixed point. KA' KS" = AS' -S^'^KS' = KA KA'. and circle let cut the principal rays of the pencil in the points in the point XX' meet AA' K. . ..

X^ XA' X'A X'A' = XB. tan XOA tan : KX iT' XOA' = tan X05 tan XOB'. and let the diameter of the which passes through meet the circle in A'. : K and must coincide. sin sin XO.4. are the principal rays. tan XOB'. meet XA" in the point K'. if BR = tan XOA tan XOA'. draw the tangents KS. to the OX. To cii-cle. Off- ^^ sin „ KX 7i. OX' will be the principal rays of the pencil. sinXQ. . Therefore. 47 By § 84. Again. Let OA. B" respectively. we . OB' be the given pairs of conjugate Draw a circle passing through and cutting these rays in the points A. XO. : . Given any two pairs of conjugate rays of a pencil in in- volution.i' ^^' _^ sinXO^'~ sin XOA sin XOA' sin Z'O^ sin Z'O^' XOA _ . to find the principal rays. we have KX : KX' . OA' and OB. is a right angle. KS' By we have KX:KX' = XS':X'S'.X'F.sinX0. circle A A' meet BB' in the point K. rays. . . since XOX' .XB':X'B.B X'OB sin X'OB' . tan therefore XOA tan XOA' = tan XOB . find the double rays. and B. A'. .4' _ ~ sin X'OA sin X'OA' . R be the radius of the circle. But by Therefore that is definition. : .B ' sin " . X'.XA':X'A. shall have Jx JJJ = tan XOB X . we have KX But if : KX' = XA XA' X'A . = XA. tan XOB. Then OX. KX' = K'X ^'X'. . X'A'. OX' § 84. Let K By § 84.THE PRINCIPAL RATS. and the double rays.X'A'. 86.

Ex. of a right angle. is . sin sin . infer from the We above construction that a pencil in case occurs involution has in general one and only one pair of conjugate rays at right angles.. and hence every pair of conjugate rays will be at right angles.48 Therefore that is THE DOUBLE RAYS. in which each of the angles AOA'. or within the circle. only one pair of conjugate rays which are parallel these rays. . will In this case every line through K be a diameter. 88. is a pencil in which any pair of conjugate rays may be considered as the principal rays. is this pair of rays real ? Show that any two pencils in involution have in general one . = tan XOA tan XOA'. Hence. OS. there exists one pair and only one pair of conjugate rays pencil. 2.}.. Similarly we may prove tan^ XOS' that . 1. K lies without or within the circle that is according as AA' intersects BB' without 87. common to each When Ex. Show that if two pencils in involution have the same vertex. and and show how to construct . sin-^0^ _ sin= sin XOA . XOA ' X'OS ~ sin X'OA . involution. The double rays will be real or imaginary according as . when the point K is the centre of the that is when the two given pairs of conju- gate rays are at right angles.. BB'. It follows that any pencil of rays 0'{AA'.. BOB'. OS' are the double rays of the pencil. X'OA' ' tan= XOS = tan XOA tan XOA'. The exceptional circle.

A'OB AOB. sin Hence 90. cutting the rays of the pencil in the points A. A'. CC will meet in the same point K.^ A'OC line a series The rays of any pencil in involution cut any straight of points which form a range in involution. = AG. AOB' _ sin A'OF ~ sin A'OG PC .AF: A'B A'B'. we have by § 89. sin AOB' sin ^05 . . &c. in AOB. AA'. sin AOC ~ sin A'OC sin A'OC sin A'OF . By § 84. sin sin . sin A' OF sin sin A'OG . line be drawn cutting the rays of the pencil {AA'. we have KA Therefore . 49 Show that the straight line joining the feet of the perpendiculars of a pencil in involution from a fixed point.AC:A'G. : AB AB' A'B A'B' = AG AG' A'G But if R be the radius of the circle. 3. 89. G. sin sin ^ C A'OG' . sin ^n AOB A'OB . sin AOB sin AOG.dnAOC' A'OB.A'C'.^ P ' PROPERTIES OF A PENCIL IN INVOLUTION. CC] be any pencil in involution. Ex. . B. If {AA\ sin sin BB'. BR. C. Let any circle be drawn passing through 0. B'. Let any straight Then if the pencil be in involution. GC'} in the points A. BB'. A'G'. : KA' ^AB. . " . B. : . sin AOB' ^ ^nAOG. AB' AB j7=&a 2iJ= . drawn to a pair of conjugate rays passes through another fixed point. Then by § 85. A'.

OB' ' and similar values for sin &c. GG'} in involution.AB _ AG AC ' . If now the points of the range be joined to any . CA. 92. GG'] will be in involution. the range {AA'. GG'} be any range in involution. by § 76. . it A'C. then by . § Let [AA'.OB' NOj_AB' sin AOB' = AOG. CC'] are connected by the AOB' . B'OG sin G'OA = 0. Let OiVbe the perpendicular from on the line AA'. Hence. A'B. and if point parallel to the sides of the square. rays pencil in involution. OY 0{XA. AB. . BB'. 1. Ex. it follows by the method used in the last article that the angles of any pencil in involution relation sin {AA'. BB'. if may be proved in a similar manner that the points of a range in involution be joined to any point not on the same tion. AC. be drawn parallel to the sides BC. Ex. BB'.50 PROPERTIES OF A PENCIL IN INVOLUTION. we obtain the relation AB. BD] is a 0. O OA . OX. sin Conversely. Then we have sin NO.A'B' Conversely. by § 75. 74. and if through any point 2. BB'. these lines will form a system of rays in involu- 91. OY he drawn through any show that 0{Xr. point 0. OZ If ABC be a triangle. . YB. It A BCD be a square. we have AB' BG' GA' + A'B B'G G'A = 0. if this relation holds. straight line. we infer that the . ZC] will be a pencil in involution. sin GOA' + sin A'OB .A'C'is Therefore.AB A OB = OA. show that OX. sin BOG' . pencil 0{AA'.

If the straight lines which connect the vertices A. T. B. Secondly we propose to deal with certain special points which have triangle. that special names have been given them. straight lines which are not concurrent intersect in three points. which are not collinear. PROPERTIES OF TRIANGLES.YA. bounded by three straight lines. is called a triangle. is CY-. reserving for a later chapter the complete discussion of them. a group of three straight lines may also be called a triangle without causing any ambiguity. 4—2 . We shall some theorems relating to lines drawn through the vertices of a triangle which are concurrent.G of 7neet the opposite sides of the triangle a triangle with any point in the points X. Z. Concurrent lines drawn through the vertices of a triangle. In Euclid a triangle is defined to be a plane figure 93. In recent years the geometry of the triangle has received considerable attention. important properties in connection with a circles and the more important connected with a triangle. and also some theorems relating to points taken on the sides of a triangle which are discuss collinear. the product of the ratios BX-. and various circles have been discovered which have so many interesting properties. that is to say. We shall however at present merely consider their more elementary properties.CHAPTER VI. The present chapter may be first divided into two parts.XG. AZ: ZB equal to unity. 94. any group of three Since thi-ee points. a triangle is regarded as an area^ In modern geometry.

Y. CZ meet Then we have AO meet BG in BX' CY AZ X'C YA ZB • Therefore BX' X'C = BX XC. (7Z intersect in 0. . Z are points BX CY AZ_-. CA. CZ will be concurrent. Show that the lines joining the vertices A. line KAM parallel to BC. in J' 3. CY -. If a straight line if be drawn parallel to BC. and let For X'. BX:XC = AM:]!fA. B.52 CONCURRENT LINES DRAWN Through A draw the straight BO. in the point 0. triangle to the middle points of the sides BC. Hence we have. Ex. AB and Z. Ex.YA^BC AM. C o!a. 2. XC YA ZB~ the lines ' AX. and let it cut M B X C By similar triangles. BY. AX must pass through 96. GO in and N. show that AO will bisect BC. on the sides of a triangle such that If X. and BY. or what is the same thing. Ex. Show that the perpendiculars drawn from the vertices of a triangle to the opposite sides are concurrent. AB are concurrent. let BY. 1. X. XCYAZB~ 95. : : Therefore X' must coincide with 0. : AZ ZB = NA : : BG. BX CY AZ_. cutting the sides AC.

CZwill intersect in a point such that Ex. If the escribed circle of the triangle ABC. E.Z' respectively.. EF} harmonic. If the lines connecting the vertices of any triangle ABC to any point 0. Z. 4. that AB ABC. Show that the straight lines drawn through the vertices B and C triangle ABC. BE. X. AX. show that the lines joining the middle points of BC. BO. show that the pencil D{AC. EF] is hai-monic. meet the opposite sides in the points D. then siuBAO sinOAG sin sin GBO UBA ^ CO ^ OCB sin . CA). so also are Ex. BY. AB) be harmonic. if Conversely. Ex. any point. ABC in CA A circle is drawn cutting the sides of a triangle A BC in the points . show that Ex. 5 This follows from Ex. show that the Ex. parallel respectively to the sides CA. points X. Z' AX'. CX~ and sin ' any triangle. Z. If the inscribed circle of a triangle lines touch the sides in the points X. CF 97. are conciurent. If the lines AO. concurrent. : Hence. . 8. {BB'. be in involution. C. P. as before. touch the sides in the points X. BX CY AZ ^7^ yq ZB~ : : • Ex. opposite to the angle A. AB. Ex. AO BC. CZ are concurrent. CZ'. 10. Y. Y. intersect in a point on the line which connects the point A to the middle point of BC. F he three points on the sides of the triangle is ABC. 9. THROUGH THE VERTICES OF A TRIANGLE. 6. BC] CC) . AB to the middle points of AX. Ex. 7. 11. of the 5. show is parallel to BY. If any circle be drawn touching the sides of the triangle the points X. will [CC. Z. 6. Z. BY. show that AD. If the pencils {AA'. . B{AC. We have BX XC={ABO) (AOC) = {AOB) {COA). X' Y. by. show that the pencil 0{AA'. CZ axe. Y. E. BY.. BY. show that if AX. 7. AZ ZB=(COA) (BOC). Y'. The theorem of § 94 may be proved : : otherwise. -lA'. Y. BB'. Ex. are such that the pencil concurrent. Z. show that CO meet the sides of the triangle ABC in the AO If ABC be BO CO AX"^ BX 98. 53 of a triangle If points V and Z be taken on the sides AC. by the aid of 85. CZ are concurrent. CY: YA = {BOC):{AOB). D. BO that CY: YA = BZ:AZ.

points 3. Similarly from the triangles sin : CO A. GZ 100. BY. that the lines AX. Show that the internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent. AOB. BY. sin BAO sin OBA = OB OA. and the external bisectors of the other angles are concurrent. BY. GZ meet in the point 0. GZ will be concurrent. AO . The tangents C. Ex. Y.B^O sin sin OAG : GBY YBA sin " AGZ _ ZGB : sin Therefore sin BA sin AG = sin BAX sin XAG. Z he s in • taken on the sides of a triangle ABG. at the B and meet sin in the point L. 2. If points X. line Hence it is. : '^^' AGO sin OAG = OA OG. Then sin sin by the last article we . Show that the internal bisector of one angle of a triangle. we have CBO : sin 0GB = OG A : OB. Show that : BAL : sin £AC=sm ACB sin CBA. sin BAO sin GB O sin AGO _ ~ sin OAG sin OBA sin 0CJ5 : : " 99. Ex. such that ^nBAX sin XAG the lines sin GBY YBA sin " AGZ ZGB ~ ' sin Let have AX.54 CONCURRENT LINES DRAWN From the triangle sin BOC. follows that the line AX must coincide with the are concurrent. . Ex. to the circle circumscribing the triangle ABC. 1.

show that these lines will be conciurent. be described. Thus point but one value for the angle which satisfies the given condition. triangle lines The A'B'C vertices of a triangle is ABC are joined to constructed having A'. sin'a> = sin(. AX'. GZ be . a point can be found such that the angles BAO. AB of the triangle ABC will also be concurrent.cot a>. BCff are each equal to the 8. If on the sides of a triangle . 0. CN will be con- current. C. show that the lines drawn the sides BC. B. 7. CA. whence by trigonometry. be drawn through C parallel to the corresponding sides of the triangle ABC. drawn from the points A. Ex. N. BY. Ex. BM. CZ be the straight lines connecting the vertices of the triangle ABC to any point and let AX'. CO. If the perpendiculars C'A'. are concurreiit. B. C to sides B'C.THROUGH THE VERTICES OF A TRIANGLE. A'B' of the triangle A'B'C to from A'. its sides parallel to and a any point AO. B. BAO by a>. AGO. ff. CBA by A. ABO'. = cot . be concurrent. we have from § 98.BC similar isosceles triangles LBC. M. meet in the points L. 4. NAB 6. BY. If . BM. MCA. (J to the circle circumlines scribing the triangle. are said to be isogonal Let AX. show that the lines AL. ACB. there is is and consequently only one There obviously another point ff such that the angles CAff. 101. Ex. BO. B. show that the AL.4 — (u)sin(5-<B) sin (C-<a) cot <o . 55 If the tangents at the points A. Show connected with a triangle are equal.il. ABC. C perpendicular that. and the angles BAC.. Ex.4 -(-cot 5-1. Ex. same angle w. CBO Denoting the angle C. CN will 5. Any two lines AX. drawn so that the angle XAX' has the same bisectors as the angle conjugates with respect to the angle BAC BAC.

56 their ISOGONAL CONJUGATE POINTS. M. 1. 2. show that triangle OL. it follows that is equal to unity. ABC. angles If the lines AX. If 0. ON'. O be any isogonal conjugate points. and if OL. Show that the orthocentre of a triangle and the circumcentre are isogonal conjugate points. BY. also concurrent. and ON. and their called isogonal conjugates in the point (J. N. their isogonal conjugates with respect at these vertices are also concurrent. the points 0. M'. E. O'L' be drawn perpendicular to BC OM. ON' perpendicular to AB. GZ Hence by three lines are concurrent. GZ meet 'in the point 0. We have then GBY YBA _sinTAG sinF54 sin BAX sin sin sin ACZ ZGB Z'CB AGZ' ' sinZ^O sin " sin ' ~ sm BAX' • sin GBY' A sin But since AX. F he the middle points of the sides of the triangle to the angle ABG. &M' perpendicular to CA. . Ex. AX'. is show that the isogonal conjugate o{ AD with respect line joining BAG. MN perpendicular to AO'. the latter product § 99. 0' are isogonal conjugate points with respect to the triangle 102. Ex. isogonal conjugates with respect to the angles of the triangle. L'. If D. the A to the point of intersection of the tangents at B and C to the circle circumscribing ABC.(yL'=OM. BY. is N' lie on a circle whose centre is the middle point of 00'. with respect to the . ABG. 0'M'=ON. also that the six points L. and that 3. GZ' are of a triangle to the Thus : when drawn through the vertices are concurrent. BY'. Show Ex.

. 103. X' are called isotomic conjugates with respect to the segment BC. AX. CA. Y. CZ are with respect to BC. show that the isotomic conjugate points with respect to the sides of the triangle. BX:BZ = AX':AZ.T or BX CY AZ = -r^f CXAY'BZ ^FTTi 1. Collinear points on the sides of a triangle. BC 1. is equal to unity. GY-. y. . if Z be any three points on the sides of a triangle ABC. and that [BOC) {BO'C) = {COA) {CaA) = {AOB) {AOB).CX. Y. X' be taken on the line BC so that the segments have the same middle point. the product of the ratios 104. BY'. and respec- X'. {XYZ). AB tively. and 0' are called isotomic conjugate points with respect to the Ex. the points triangle in the point 0. CZ meet ABC.YFZ in the Then by point Z'. If the inscribed circle of the triangle ABC touch the sides in the points X. BY'. 2. equal. In Ex. BY. If a straight line intersect the sides of a the points X. Ex. \X' A C x\ to cut the straight line Through A draw AX' parallel to BC . the points X. triangle ABC in BX-. 3. are points of contact of the escribed circles of the triangle. 1.AY. CZ' in the point G. If o7 two points X. AZ-. and AX'. Y. Z. If X. m. show that the .ISOTOMIC CONJUGATE POINTS. XX'. BY. Therefore CY:GX=AY:AX'. areas . If Z the isotomic conjugate points AX. show that concurrent so also are AX'. similar triangles. Z.BZ. BX CY AY GXBZ = AZ'^ -PT--. {X'Y'Z') are . Ex. CZ'.

Y and Z cut BG in the point By the last we have CY^ BX Hence.4X sin sin^^F' sin^CZ A C5F smACZ = 1.Y. sin BAX ^C CY: AY=BG sin GBY BA AZ:BZ = CA. CAX. line joining the points article. sin ^BF. 106. then line cut the sides of the triangle ABC in ^vaBAX sinC7. This relation is easily deduced from that given in : . BCZ. Z are points on the sides of a triangle ABC such that BX CY AZ_ CX AY' BZ~ ' ' the points X. Z. Z he collinear points on the sides BC.CX^AB.58 This formula TRANSVERSALS OF may also be written BX C7 AZ__ XC YA ZB and should be compared with the formula given in § 94. Y. : sin . sin : . 105. for we have BX-. CA. respectively. If X. that is. the points If any straight X. Therefore X must coincide with X'. of the triangle ABC. Z are collinear. the line on which they lie is referred to as transversal. we must have GX'-AY'BZ 4?=i BX':CX' = BX:CX. When the transversal XTZ. if X. Let the X'. Y. sin ACZ CB . T. . a straight line cuts the aides of a triangle it is often called a Thus. AB. the point X lies on the line YZ. § 104.

If a point F be taken on BC so that [St John's Coll. Ex. Y. The sides BC. so also are X'. Y' and Z. sides in coUinear points. show that DP. that opposite sides in the points if A'. X. meet EF.] BF:FC=AB. BY. E. X' Y. and also that XP. 0^1. E. Y. Ex. The lines drawn through any point perpendicular to the lines OB. YQ. ZX. Y'. Y. 59 BX CY AZ sm BAX sin sin ' GBY sin ' AGZ BCZ ' aXAY'BZ But by § 104. Z are any coUinear. Q. Therefore the theorem 107. sides in coUinear points. Ex. the triangle isogonal conjugates of AX. 9. lines F. CZ. Z' . respectively. If Ex. Ex.AD. F three straight DLOO. The sides AB. Z must ' AGZ _ be collineai-. Show that the external bisectors of the angles of a triangle meet the opposite Ex. AC ol & triangle are produced to D and E. F aie the middle points of the sides of a triangle. If a straight line cut the sides of the triangle ABG in the points X. OC. AF wiU bisect DE. meet the sides of the triangle ABC in three coUinear points. C^" intersect in the points P. Y. Points X. if Conversely. 1887. EQ. ]'. EHOM. so that sin BAX GAX • sinCTF sin sin it ABY " sin follows from § 105. 8.AE:AC. ZR are of the perpendiculars sides. Z. anil drawn from the vertices to the opposite and if YZ. to the circumcirole The tangents of a triangle at the angular points cut the opposite sides of the triangle in three coUinear points. E. FKON having the . 2. 4. 3. points X. Z. BX If Z are taken on the sides A'C= CY YA =AZ : : : of a triangle : ABC. DE in the points P. FD. Z'. BY. AB of a triangle cut a straight line in D. Hence. Ex. BGZ ~ Y. 5. R. Ex. Z the feet XY concurrent. is GAX sin is ABY sin the former product equal to unity. and DE is joined. D. R respectively. FR are concurrent. 10. AX. to . show that Ex. CA. through D._ A TRIANGLE. that the points 108. Ex. show that AQ AR=BR BP= CP : : CQ. the isotomic points with respect to the sides will be coUinear. Z be sin taken on the sides of a ABG. 7. triangle true. so that ZB. 1. I'. The tangents from the vertices of a triangle X. Q. If line cut the sides of the triangle ABC in the points X. any circle meet the Prove . with respect to the angles of the wiU meet the opposite 6. A'.

Ex. OC XC. Q. in AB in L. point TRANSVERSALS. and AD.KE. cutting the sides CA.QZ Ex. show that QX RY PZ RX' PY. CN ~ Ex.] Through the . CA N. BY. 6. E. sin sin sin sin BOX XOC : YOA ' : Hence the theorem follows from If § 94. QY. RZ) a range in involution. X'Y'Z' lines YZ'. _ GD.BY. AX.KF _ LD ME. line in the points P. Tripos. COY smAOZ_ sin ZOB~ BX. and straight line cut the sides of a triangle be any arbitrary point. 3. BE in Show FA'_(CD AE BFy (AC BA[ FB' ~ \BD CE AFJ " \AB' BC ' CBy ' " CA') Mathesis IX. be any arbitrary show that We have Ex.BG. If the lines joining the vertices of a triangle if ABC to any point cut the opposite sides in the points X. : three straight lines AD. 11. Y. show that Ex. vertices of a triangle ABC. If in the last example. 2.CK _ AM. and point. AB in three collinear points. show that the ZX'. NP ~ . 4. G . MF' [Math.] [De Rocquigny. any if X.CZs is in involution. OB=sm BOX sin XOC. CA. and be any point.GF ND . BC. Z he of the triangle ABC. CZ QX RY PZ XRShow Ex.1' CF. that CF are drawn to cut the opposite sides in the CF intersect in . Z aie three points on this straight line.CL ~ AL. If XYZ. are drawn. are concurrent. BY. Z. AB.BH. Y. F. Ex. lines BE. li If AX. K. show that sin sin ABC in the points BOX sin COY sin AOZ COX sin^ioy sin BOZ the points in which any straight line cuts the sides if Ex. XY' will cut the sides BC. Y. _ HD. Prove that AK.BN. CA. YPZQ~is also that {PX.HE. BE. Y. the sides BC. If X. BC in H. Z.CH _ AG. The C.60 common M. 1878. CZc\it AB in collinear points. 1. AD intersect in B' DB' EC^ DC EA' • " ' points D. The sides of the triangle ABC cut any straight and X. . show that the pencil 0{AX. LE. 109. be any two transversals of the triangle ABC. 12. .BM. Prove the converse theorems of those in examples 1 — 5. 5.

CY AZ _ ~ YA ZB ' 1". BO. GY:YA = CY':AY'. Pole and Polar with respect to a triangle. we have by BJC GY AZ CX'.AY. A". Z he points on the sides of the triangle ABC. CO cut the sides of the triangle ABC in the jwints X. If the lines ^0. if 7. Z' be the harmonic conjugate points . the sides of tlie triangle XYZ ivill meet the sides of the triangle ABC in collinear points. AZ:ZB = AZ':BZ: BX' GY' AZ'_BX CX' -AY'. Let YZ. Y.POLAR WITH RESPKCT TO A TRIANGLE. Z. If XYZ. . GZ are concin-rent. Y'. we have by § 94. XY meet BC. Ex. 1. Z'.XC^BX' iGX'. X'Y'Z' in YZ'. Since X'. Es. BQ. Z are collinear CA. BY. AB respectively § 104. we shall have and Consequently. ZX'. Y'Z meet P . Therefore Similarly. 1". ZX. AB in three collinear points. BX GY AZ_ XG YA ZB~ BX -. Z'X in Q and XY'.BZ' ~ XC Hence. such that AX.BZ~ But since AX. GZ are • concurrent. in the points X. 110. If X. 61 and be any two transversals of the triangle ADC. . Y. Z' are collinear points.Y. Cli cut the sides BC. CA. and if the points X'. BY. X'Y in R show that AP.

XYcwt AB in Ex. which lie on the polar of Given any straight line X'Y'Z' to find its pole with respect to ABC let P. GR will meet in a point (§ 110. BY'. . If the inscribed circle of the triangle ABC touch the sides in the sides BC. AX. CZ'. Z' are coUinear. prove that :— (i) (ii) (iii) The points X'. BY'. C. Z with respect to B. Y. Y. 3. by joining AO. 2. show that the lines YZ. POLAR WITH RESPECT TO A TRIANGLE. Z. Y. If XYZ be AX. collinear points. GZ meet is called . The medians of a triangle. C. is 1). and if the lines PQR. BQ. B. 112. CZ' Ex. and A. show that the lines AP. If X denote the polar of the point . be the vertices of the triangle formed by the lines AX'. the points X. with respect to the triangle . The The points lines X\ F. A . CZ form concurrent. respectively. Special points connected with a triangle. CR are 111. The point in which they intersect called the median point of the The isogonal conjugates point in which they intersect of the medians with respect to the angles of a triangle are called the symmedians of the triangle. 0. will cut XY the corresponding sides of the triangle in the points X'. ZX. Q. Z in which these lines cut The lines YZ. 3) which will be the pole of the line X'Y'Z'. triangle are concurrent (§ 96. Ex. Ex. a triangle . (§ The 101) is called the symmedian point. Y'. are concurrent. BO. ABC. . CA.62 of X. in the point 0. R Ex. the sides of the triangle ABC. Given any point we can find its polar CO. Z'. BY. Y'. and then joining the points X. Z are collinear. show that (OBC) Ax={OCA) Bx={OAB) Cx. BY. the triangle any transversal of the triangle ABC. The lines bisect the opposite sides are called the drawn through the vertices of a triangle to medians of the triangle. Then AP. ZX. BQ. If the lines § AX. the line X'Y'Z' (see figure 110) the polar of the point is with respect to the triangle ABC and the point called the pole of the line X'Y'Z' with respect to the triangle.

areas 2.V. {AOB) If A' be the symmedian point of the triangle ABC. {AKB) are in the ratio of the squares on BC. {CO A). triangle the areas (BGC). B. and triangles which have the same symmedian lines are said to be co-symmedian. any line YZ which is cuts AG ia. 63 . and the symmedian Tiiangles which have the same median lines are called comedian triangles . what is meant by a line antiparallel to a side of a If ABG be any triangle. G are concyclic and that the line through A antiparallel to BG is 114. Ex. said to be antiparallel to the side It is obvious that 1". show that Ex. when YZ . in the points M and be drawn through B and C cutting the show that AK will bisect if. In connection with the sjrmmedian point convenient to define here triangle. and AB. so that the angle A YZ is equal to the angle the angle AZY equal to the angle BOA. of a triangle is usually denoted by (!. . the tangent at 1. A to the circum circle of ABG. AB . point The median point by A'. Ex. If (? be the median point of the are equal. BG. CA. 3. show that the (BKC). is antiparallel to BG. If any circle 3'. and AB in Z. The median point of a triangle is also called the centroid of the triangle but the name median point is preferred in geometry from the important connection of the point with its isogonal conjugate. the symmedian point. {CKA). ABC.Y and GBA. the points Z. sides AC. it is 113.SYMMEDIAN POINT.

BV. that the median point of the triangle points of the triangles ABC. The perpendiculars from the vertices of a triangle on 2). the sides AB. Show . 9. and PA'. 5. X'PZ a. middle point of AB to the BC of the triangle ABC. BB'.. B. B. m n. : 115. CC connecting the vertices of two triangles : ABC. AB=BC. the sides AC. Show PQR divides the line joining the median A'B'C in the ratio m n. show that AX.KC. 11. Cto the ABC. 14.Te drawn parallel to AC of the triangle ABC. the by the other three.AB. and the orthocentre.symmedian point of the triangle Es. AD be drawn perpendicular to line joining the show that the Ex.] of the triangle ABC. Ex. SYMMEDIAN POINT.64 Ex. Y. Ex. It in the same ratio. show that If K is the median point of the triangle the side XYZ. If the inscribed circle touch the sides of the triangle . diculars be their feet are perpendicular to Ex. the orthocentre of the triangle. If which is called ABC be the triangle. Zslts concyclic Through a point P is a straight line. If KX. show that the lines drawn from A. Ex. X'. Show that A 'P intersects B'C in a point on the median line which passes through A. Ex. the opposite sides meet in a point (§ 90. cutting the side BC in the points X. it is evident is from the figure that each of the four points A. . GA KA BC+OB KB. 7. middle point of BC triangle. CA + GC. Q. E. . AB in Y and Z. FO. of concurrence is the symmedian point. 12. that if lines Show Ex. Z. CZ'will meet in the . 8. 4. that if ff be the median point. are drawn perpendicular to the sides PC of the triangle. orthocentre of the triangle formed C. If the points X. Y. and K the symmedian point [St John's Coll. A'B'C are divided in the points P. Ex. If from the symmedian (or median) point of a drawn to the sides. PB'. Any point P is taken on the line which bisects the angle BAC of a triangle internally. symmedian point of the triangle ABC. Flxi the opposite sides of the triangle to the middle points from A. DE are concurrent. Ex. The perpendiculars from K on the sides of the triangle are proportional to the sides. KZ be drawn perpendicular to the sides of the triangle. perpen- passes through the 10. If D. the segments intercepted on them are equal. XYZ. X' and show that the locus of the point P the lines XPY. 13. B.^l^Ciu the points X. the lines joining the medians (or symmedians) of the triangle. The lines AA'. . KY. 1886. 6. CA. C of EF. feet of the perpendiculars The point Ex. be drawn through the symmedian point of a triangle antiparallel to the sides.

GZ. the lines in make 7). 1. D' be the orthocentres of the triangles BCD. CR be the perpendiculars on the ABC. CDA. 7. the triangle Show that if AP. Ex. B'. DAB. triangle Show ABC. AGY. 4. PQC are each similar to the that C. If O.. B. and usually denoted byfi. Ex. Show that the circles circumscribing the triangles BOC. li' is also called a Brocard point of the triangle AB C. The point a Brocard point of the triangle ABC. . ABn'. drawn BAX. H'AG is equal to m. that the triangles AQR. C. are equal. the angles AX. PBR. 65 A Ex. so as to (§ ABC be any triangle. and if A'. If A. show that AA'.' be the point such that the angles GAn'. ABC 3. Ex. we see that each of the angles BAD.' are equal. COA. QR will be antiparallel to BC. Show 5. Ex. CC. Ex. m = cot -4 + cot -B + cot G. D be any four points on a circle. sides of Ex. By § 100. are concurrent which these lines intersect is called is 100. AOB. 116. where cot L. ABC.THE BROCARD POINTS. Bff. BQ. BY. will AP bisects the angle QPR. GBZ equal. BGD. 2. DD' If be concurrent.

Since SA is perpendicular to the tangent at ^. III. 32). From I 101. . are equal. 1. Q and Q'. this circle is called the circumcentre. 3. Show that the Show Show triangles AQ'B. Ex. Ex. Ca'A Cq'. 4. .. AB at B. and that the circumscribing the triangle This theorem gives a simple construction for finding Ex. ABC be the lines the triangle. E. 117. middle points of the to the sides drawn through D. F the Prop. and D. Ex.66 THE CIECUMCIECLE The angle to is called the follows Brocard angle of the that triangle.4 is antiparallel to the side BC. Circumcircle. Show that the circle circle circumscribing the triangle BqC BQ'C touches touches AC at C. AB respectively (Euclid Prop. Bq' . AqC are similar. follows that the tangent at . F perpendicular 5). Since the tangent at A AB. it the Brocard points O. is we see that SA is perpendicular to any line which antiparallel to the side BC. . the side it BC makes the same angles with the lines makes with AC. AC. The 118. If sides. O' are isogonal conjugate points with respect to the triangle.. that the areas of the triangles that AQB. The circle angle is called the circumcircle of the triangle which passes through the vertices of a triand the centre of . as. E. Aq Ba Ca=AQ' . meet in the circumcentre (Euclid IV. 2.

P ABC. A0 = 2SJ). R be the feet of the perpendiculars from A. show that in JP. and the orthocentre 119. the angle BAS is equal to the angle PAG. 26. therefore the angle BAS the complement of the angle AGB. Z so that PK~ px^pt^ pr [d'Ocagne. T. C on the opposite sides of the triangle. RP. p. PQ respectively are concurrent. 1. show Ex. If from any point P on the circumcirole be drawn perpendicular to PA.OF A TRIANGLE. then the perpendiculars from A. Thus AS and AP are isogonal conjugates with respect to the angle BAG. B. N lie on a straight meet BC. forming another triangle. C to QR.] If from any point P on the circumcircle of the triangle ABC. 4. 9. 6. If i) be the middle point of BC. PY. 8. 67 III. If that the isogonal conjugate point will be on the line at infinity. Y. The angle Hence if ASB is double the angle is AGB (Euclid Prop. PL. PX. 7. 120. which passes through the circumcentre of the triangle. 1889. Show Show that the line joining the circumcentre to the orthocentre passes through the median point of the triangle. AP be perpendicular to BG. If AO meet the circumcirole show that OP" bisected hjBC. Hence the circumcentre and the with respect to the orthocentre are isogonal conjugate points triangle. [St John's CoU. Perpendiculars are drawn to the symmedians of a triangle. The circumcentre by 0. Q. PB.. 5. Vol.. Ex. Ex. 20). at its angular points. xlii. Z will he collinear. Ex. E. If P X. Ex. 2. of the triangle ABC. the points X.] be any point on the circumcircle of the triangle Ex. jS and are isogonal conjugate points Ex. PM. 2). X . Ex.. respectively to line AB in L. show that L. B. Eeprmt. of a triangle is usually denoted by S. PC M. is Ex. Show that if P. that the circle which passes through the middle points of the sides of a triangle passes through the feet of the perpendiculars from the opposite vertices on the sides. 5—2 . P3^ CA. PZ be drawn perpendicular to the sides. show that PK will cut the sides of the triangle T. Show that the circumcentre of the former is the median point of the latter. M. 3. This follows from the fact that (§ 102. Ex. symmedian point in the points be any point on the circumcircle of a triangle whose is K.

m. B'..68 Join PROPERTIES OF THE ZX. the angle YXP the supplement of the angle YCP.] I. Show that the Simson line of PI. to C'A'. when measured in the same sense. lines of Show that if PQ be any diameter P and Q are perpendicular. fore Hence the angles PXZ. Show that if the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from a on the sides of a triangle be coUinear. 1890. the angle PXZ is the supplement of the angle is ABP. If any point 3. Simson [Trinity CoU. with respect to the triangle A'B'C [St John's CoU. Ex. B are concyclic. B. MPnx. If PL. YX. 6. 5. Pn be drawn meeting the sides in m. and is equal to the angle ABP. n will be collinear. . Z. 1889. meeting C . line XYZ is called the Simson line P with respect to the triangle ABC. 1890.. and if straight lines Ex. XY are in the same straight line. Pm. AB of an inscribed triangle. Ex. A'B' respectively. the Ex. X. C.] isogonal conjugate line to any point P is perpendicular to the AP with respect to the angle BAG. X are concyclic. Then since the points P. because P. Ex. be the orthocentre of the triangle ABC. point P Ex. CA. PN be the perpendiculars drawn from a point P on a circle to the sides BC. 1. n and making the angles NPn equal. of the circumcircle. PM. B are concyclic. the locus of P is the circum- circle of the triangle. drawn perpendicular AG. 4. then the points I. AB' B'E. and there- The point or the pedal line of the 121. Y. [Trinity CoU. line of 2. show that the Simson P on the circumcircle bisects the line OP. C. And since P. YXP are supplementary ZX. C'F are in and ^• E Show that the pedal line of the point A bisects EF. C to the opposite sides meet the circle in A'. LPl. A triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle and the perpendiculars from A. A..] .

E lie on a the linear dimensions. 9. E. and OX. § be opposite extremities of a diameter of the circumcircle of a triangle.SIMSON LINE. 8. CDEA. T. M. Vol. 1. If A. [Math. C. C. COB are similiir. and if any fifth point on the Simson lines of the tetrastigms BCDE. on the Simson lines of the point with respect to the triangles BCD. the perpendiculars on the sides of the triangle OZ be then the triangles A'B'C. show that the on the circle.. 1886. Show that the theorem may be [E.. li A.] 122. 77. XYZ are similar. prove that the pedal lines of each point with respect to the triangle formed by the other three meet in a point If 0. DAB. YXZ are each equal to the Hence the theorem follows at once. . . the point with respect to the be taken on the circle. C. the lines drawn from P respectively will intersect in a point and Q perpendicular to their pedal R on the circle. li.] Ex. EABC. If this line be called the CDA. the projections of Simson E DEAB. Reprint. B. Langley. ABCD also he on a straight extended. fifth a point five E circle. line. Ex. If the lines connecting the vertices of a triangle if ABC to any point cut the circumcircle in the points A'. 7. five points belonging to the circle of half groups of four points formed from A. have Since the triangles BOC. B'. Ex. D jH-ojections of any point he any four points on a circle. prove that the C. 1889. D. ABC. [Clare Coll. Tripos. lines Show also that the pedal line of the point R will be parallel to PQ. show that tetrastigm ABCD. 69 If P. we EC: OB=BC: CO.] Ex. D be four points on a be taken on the circle. OT. B. B'A'C. BAC. line of lie on a straight hne. It is easy to prove that the angles difiference of the angles BOC. p. B.

Then the median point of the triangle Therefore (Ex. Ex. of the the middle points of the sides P. R . since V. (2). if p TZ = sin (a -J.B0. of the triangle A'.70 THE NINE-POINT CIRCLE ™ Therefore . from Ex. 2) (§ 114.BC+BO. Z.AB. KY. m-os^ and (7 Hence this AO'. Show If that the point XTZ corresponds to the isogonal conjugate point of for the triangle A'B'C.(I)- Again.AB = BC. 1 the point is antiparallel to be the orthocentre of the triangle ABC.CA am(fi-B) CO.BO.AB sin(y-e) 2R. 1. C. Ex. its radius. and S be isogonal conjugate points with resjiect to the be the circumcentre. Show If that the Brocard points C.BC AO. See Ex.CO'~ R^-OS'^' Ex.) „ OA. and if AE. If 8 . 2.„. Ex. KZ K K XYZ It is evident that the medians of the triangle A'B'C are proportional to KX. 2.CO. Ex. we know that if perpendiculars be drawn from lie to the sides of the triangle result follows ABC. and if 0' ABC. 0. their feet on the same circle.BC sin(a-^) BO. we have 2p TZ=OA sin j4. . circle.BC U j^= O^. § 117. OB. and ABC. show that the is is Let KX. From (1) and (2) we have A O. AO. we have and if we AO. show that AO. Hence. CO A.CO'. 5. A are concyclic we have be the radius of the circle XYZ. Therefore ^ J. therefore they are proportional to the sides of the triangle The Nine-Point 123.B&. the symmedian point of the triangle A'B'C. 8). KY.sin^ sin(a — ^) _. a' are equidistant from S. If A' be the symmedian point BK. . the side BC.£0'. AOB by a.CA ^-— ^ = ^— AB ^^ — sin(y-(7) . be drawn perpendicular to the sides of ABC. CK ABC. and C be a pair of isogonal conjugate points with respect to a triangle ABC. B'. if ^S be the centre of the oircumcircle. and R denote the angles BOC.„.A0. Ex.BO __=____. 4. KZ. (3). 7.Aa. sm(ji-B) 00. ipR=^—.CO By § 102.E. triangle 3. show that B'C Ex. ft y.CO for the triangle . show that AO. Ex. triangle ABC B. Q. meet the oircumcircle of the triangle in triangles ABC.C0 IP-OS^ . Hence.CA.F be the circumcentre. A'EC are co-symmedian.CA+CO.BO. 6. '^ sin(a-^) . and the orthocentre. 3. If in Ex.

Ex. D. ZRF are right X. If D.OF A TRIANGLE. Again. Z. [Trin. N will be the middle point of SO of the last article (§ 102. R. 1. orthocentre of the triangle F (§ 102. /S Since and are isogonal conjugate points. circle. 2. 4. since P. the show that the nine-point respectively. 71 the feet of the perpendiculars from the vertices on the opposite sides. CAO. since A is the BOO (^ AOG. circle D lie on the same circle. 1889. CDE touch EF. TQE. F. nine-point circle of the triangle DEF at the middle points of DE . the centre of the nine-point circle 124. Ex. B is the orthocentre of the triangle it follows that X lies on the PQR. BFD. AEF. The theorem as follows. Ex. Show that the Simson hnes of the extremities of any diameter of the circumcircle of a triangle intersect at right angles on the nine-poiot circle of the triangle. Ex. Ex. the middle point of OS. 2). Z. P. circumcircle of a triangle. F. Q. The nine-point circle of the triangle ABC is also the nine-point circle of each of the triangles SCO. FD. R. Z the middle points of AO. B. E. are isogonal conjugate points with respect to it follows that a circle can be drawn through the points P. F. E. T. that the diameter of the nine-point circle is 125. E. F be the middle points of the sides circles of the triangles of the triangle ABC. Q. GO. H-i). Since the triangle S and ABC. ABO. since XPD. 5. And XZDF and XEDT are rectangles. E. Z lie on the same which is called the nine-point circle of the triangle. R. It is easy to show that having the it common diagonal DX. Y.] Ex. Q. the nine points D. Y. P. Q. ColL. and X. follows at once that the nine points is R he on equal to a circle. BO. 2). Show that if P be any point on the OP bisected by the nine-point circle. Show the radius of the circumcircle. is 3. whose centre Ex. X. may be proved iu a more elementary manner angles. it follows that the points Similarly.

. 4). BLi =BNi=s-c. b. A B If L. BL CL 127. This circle is called an To distinguish it from the other escribed circles it escribed circle. Hi be the points of contact at once that circle. in which they a circle is often called the A -escribed circle. perimeter by Hence. L C sides. ACB. AM = AN=s-a. and the external are concurrent. BAG. is This circle Its centre is called the inscribed circle. Ex. It is evident that the point in which they meet equidistant from the sides of the triangle. of the sides with this If Li. M. The is internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle are 1). c. =CM = s-c. or briefly the in-circle. CLi =GMi = s-b. Mi. This point is the centre of which can be drawn to touch the sides of the triangle. often called the in-centre. CL = CM. Prop. but it is on the side of BC remote to A. The internal bisector of the angle bisectors of the angles ABC. Let the point meet be denoted by /. denoting the lengths of the sides by 2s. inscribed and escribed circles.. Therefore the circle which has this point for centre and which touches one side will touch the other sides (Euclid IV. =^B]V = s-b. . we have a. N be the points of contact of the we have and the AM=AN'.72 THE INSCRIBED AND ESCRIBED The 126. concuiTent (§ 100. it follows AMi = ANi = s. BL = BN.

if the internal bisector of the angle 73 ABC meet the external bisectors of the other angles in the point I. And. and let SD meet the circumcircle in O from Ex. will 128. Ex. Ex. Let D and S.r. Therefore middle point of /j/. 4iJ = 2ir<? = rj + rJ + r. circles. SJ)0 = r^ . . that (? is the middle point of //i. r. that the circumcircle of the triangle ABC is the nine- point circle of the triangle /j/j/s. I. 1. Similarly.CIRCLES OF A TRIANGLE. r^ be the radii of the inscribed and escribed and R the radius of the circumcircle.-r='iR. 1.+r„+r!. - r.. Show that if r. and 5" the Hence iHJD ^r^+r^. circle. Tj. It follows . 2. /\. be the middle point of £C. if the internal bisector AGB meet the external bisectors of be the centre of the C-escribed Show the other angles circle. I« will be the centre of the 5-escribed of the angle in Is.

and let it cut the inscribed circle in T. 5. and and the circumcircle in G. and let XL' be the other tangent drawn from to this circle. p._ 74 Ex. Ex. it is be drawn perpendicular to AC. that to the angle HDB. Nhe the points of contact of the inscribed circle with the sides Let D be the middle point of BC. M.IG=IM. Show that the nine-point circle of a triangle touches each of the escribed circles. 8.I)P. and the two circles will touch at T. is parallel to XL'.3. sp = 2Rr. 58). Show that SI^=B?-iRr. P the foot of the perpendicular from A. X. Hence the points P. Mr J. and P the foot of the perpendicular from A. GH. Ex. T are is Ex. HCG are similar. Let the line joining A to the centre of the inscribed circle cut BC in X. Therefore T is a point on the nine-point circle. show that I)L^=I)X. and L the point of contact of the inscribed circle with BC. L'. ll. But GC= GI. and therefore the angle is equal to the angle L'XD. 6. coney clic. DTP TD Also a line through T. This proof was given by Reprint. circle.GA. Therefore is . SIi^=R^ + '2Rr^. .4. show that / if AI cut BC in X Ex. T. L'XB . that AI. Show that the nine-point circle of a triangle touches the inscribed A Let L. Young in the Educational Times (see E. Then 7* is a point on the nine-point circle. If 7Jf PEOPERTIES OF THE INSCRIBED CIRCLE. X The tangent to the nine-point circle at D. is a proving that the circles touch at T. If -D be the middle point of GP=GX. DH suppose. an angle HTD equal to TBH. ACB. Hence be the in-centre of the triangle ABC. 7. Vol. is equal to the difference of the angles CBA. we have DP=DI?=DL' DT. By DX . since each of the angles HDB. Join DL'. Show If that IM\AI=GC: GH. BC. of the triangle. 6. Ex. Ex.ff^ easy to show that the triangles AIM. making with tangent to both circles.

130. Z. ABC. Z'X'Y' are each similar to the triangle Ex. ZZ'. show that the the cosine circle of the triangle formed by the lines XX'. If through the circle. Show that the triangles TZX. of a triangle lines be symmedian point circle. ZX'. Y. If the tangents at Ex. B and C to the circumcircle of the triangle ABC intersect in ^i. XT' be any three diameters of a circle. ZZ are proportional to the hence the name cosine circle. the six points is in which they the cosine intersect the sides lie on a which called of the triangle. X'. circle . The angles therefore KXX'. and KX KZ=KZ'. diameter. = KX'. X. CA. A ^x' x^ Let be the symmedian point of the YKZ'. centre of this circle is The the symmedian point. circle is 2. therefore whose KY= KZ'. and KX = KY'. Z' lie Hence the six points on a circle It is evident that the cosines of the opposite angles is segments XX'. YT'. XKY' be drawn antiparallel B C triangle K ABC. The cosine circle : the only circle which possesses the property of cutting the sides of the triangle at the extremities of three diameters. all lines But AK bisects K. YT'. AB respectively. KX'X are each equal to the angle BAG. and let to the sides BG. KZ = KX'. Y' .THE COSINE CIRCLE. Similarly we have KY= KY'. antiparallel to the side BG. ZKX'. JC in two points which are extremities of a has been called an ex-cosine circle. 3. Ex. through This B show that the circle whose centre is K-^ and which passes and C wiU cut AB. If TZ'. drawn circle antiparallel to the sides. centre is Similarly. 1. 75 The Cosine 129.

since ZK is parallel is to AG. CA. show that the chords Y'Z. Let S be the circumcentre of the triangle. the six points in lie the sides triangle. Y. is perpendicular to ZY'. Then since KY'AZ is a parallelo- the middle point of AK. K Let gram. it follows that ZY' equal to the radius of the cosine Hence we have where cosine circle. XKY' be drawn parallel to the sides BG. which which they intersect called the Lemoine oirde of the Let be the symmedian point of the triangle ABC. and L the middle point of SK. Z' lie on a circle whose centre 132. Y'. Hence Again.flf a is be drawn parallel to the sides. the middle point of SK. show that : BX XX' X'C=BA^ BG^ CA\ : . Ex. and ZY' is antiparallel to circle. The Lemoine 131. If the Lemoine : circle : cut BC in X and X'. In the figure. triangle. and p by symmetry that X. It follows ^LY'^ = B?^ + p^. SA = ILA'. Z'X. L. bisects ZY'. therefore ZY' is antiparallel to the BC. side . A' AK is meet T'Z in A'. which is parallel to SA. X'. lines If through the symmedian point . the radius of the R is the radius of the circumcircle. BG. and let YKZ'. 2. AB respectively. X'F are equal. 1. Z. and therefore (§ 118) SA is perpendicular to ZY' Hence LA'. circle. is Ex. AK Again. on a circle. ZKX'.76 THE LEMOINE CIRCLE.

when T is the middle point of SK. SD be drawn perpendicular to YZ'. respectively. KG respectively.CA^: circle ABK account of this property the by Mr Tucker. B'. SB.— THE TUCKER CIRCLES. cii-cles whose centre include as particular cases The circumcircle. The cosine circle. . the line The system of circles obtained by taking different KS is known as Tucker's system of circles. 5. six points lie on a circle. when T coincides with S. has been called the triplicate ratio Ex. C be taken on the lines KA. 133. 4. and if points that A'. X'Fare is T. If on the line SK joining the circumcentre of a triangle ABC to its symmedian point any point T : be taken. AB. G' antiparallel to BG. CA. SG Hence. will meet the sides of the triangle in six points which lie on a circle. 3. ZX. The Lemoine circle. The proof that the six points lie points T on on a circle is very similar to is that given in § 131. : evidently equal. the Also. to ZY'. the chords Y'Z. : : : : : then lines drawn through A'. TF. show that Z'D is equal to KY. If that the triangles ZXY. KB. so KA' KB' KC KT = KA KB KG KS. TC' are proportional to SA. T'Z'X' are each similar to the Ex. B'. triangle Show ABC. and are proportional Tucker's (i) (ii) (iii) to the radius of the cosine circle. when T coincides with K. Ex. It is easy to see that TA' perpendicular and that TA'. 77 Show that XX' Ou circle : rr : ZZ' = BC^ -.

AB. It is easy to show that Y'Z passes through the middle points of the sides BE. Draw SX. The circle whose diameter is the line joining the circumis called centre of a triangle to the circle of symmedian point the Brocard the triangle. BY' that the six and EX. AC. BE. CK in the points B'. Ex. and that the sides A"B"C" will meet the non-corresponding sides of the triangle a Tucker circle. PROPERTIES OF THE TUCKER CIRCLES. Z' are concyclic. ABC in six points which lie on Ex. . show that B'C will be parallel to BC. the lines Y'Z. The Brocard 134. tnangle 8 be the circumcentre. AC. Z. 7. C. meeting the symmedians BK.). points X. CA. M. Show that the ABC. Ex. lines be drawn AB. Y. SY. ABC. XT' are parallel to the sides of the Ex. CF are to BC Show drawn to the opposite sides . Vol. Y'. circle. that the vertices of the triangle formed by the sides YZ'. BK. meeting Ex. From the vertices of the triangle . EZ' perpendicular to AB. xv. lines ZX'. C" . If through AB. CK. If through any point antiparallel to the sides points B". XY' 3. 2. BK.78 Ex. These points obviously lie on the symmedians BK. on the symmedian AK. 5. and K the symmedian point of the ABC. X'. Ex. X'YYlb on the symmedian lines AK. C. Show lie lines YZ'. and that the sides of the triangle A' B'C will meet the sides of the triangle ABC in six points which lie on a Tucker circle. Y'. CK in the show that B"C" will be antiparallel to BC. parallel to the sides any point A' on the symmedian AK. FX' are drawn perpendicular perpendicular to CA and DZ. CK. 5. the points X. 4. Z. 6. FY. It was first mentioned in a paper by Mr H. Z' lie on a Tucker circle. and let them meet the circle described on SK as diameter Let in the points A'. ZX'. CK. of the triangle A" on the symmedian AK. B'. DF of the triangle BEF. X'. lines be drawn the symmedians BK. This particular Tucker circle is usually called Taylor's circle. SZ perpendicular to the sides BC. Hence. Taylor {Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. . Show that the centre of Taylor's circle triangle is the in-centre of the triangle formed by the middle points of the BEF. perpendiculars AD. Y. The triangle A'B'C is called Brocard' s first triangle. Show that the vertices of the triangle formed by Z'X. triangle 1. by Ex.

'. 12 is XBA'. Ex. the angles And since the aAB. the BXA'. Therefore. points U. G' lie on a circle whose diameter SK.. Afl' respectively in the . A' .GA are Brocard Hence one of the Brocard points 116). (§ D. BG'. 79 Let BA'. BA'X is equal to the angle GB'Y. A'.THE BROCAED CIRCLE. BA' meets AG' on the Brocard that in the point lines Thus the triangles AG'. B'. ABC are proportional to those sides (§114. the five points is O. Therefore the on the circle circumscribing the triangle A' SB'. BA'. We shall find that fl is one of the Brocard points (§ 116) and lies on the Brocard circle. Therefore the angle the angle ilB'S. 7) that is A'X:B'Y=BG: GA. Similarly we may show and that AB'. Similarly circle. B'.BG. GB' meet in fl. we can show is that fl. defined as in Hence if 11 and if AD. Bil. that point D. are similar. fi'. ZAG' equal. § 116. GYB' is are right angles. The perpendiculars from K on the sides of the triangle . YGB. cut BD! GO. . since the angles triangles BXA'. GB' are concurrent. fi' he the Brocard points. GO. GYB' lies are similar. D. GA' intersect on the circle in the other Brocard point.

AP Ex. CC meet in the point which is the isotomic conjugate of K with respect to the triangle Ex. Show that Brocard's first triaDgle is similar to the triangle ABC. R. Since the Lemoine circle which passes through X^. Z^. GK meet A"B"G" the Brocard circle in the points A". Co. BK.. Y^. 4. BK. Fj. AK. Show that if KA'. ABC in the points Xi. AK. Ba'. X^. X^. Ex. Y^. KB'. KG' meet the sides of the triangle Y^. it Z^. Let the symmedian since lines AK. and that Q and K are the Brocard points of the triangle Z-^X^Y^ K are the Brocard points of the triangle Y^^-^i- Show O' and that . it the circumcircle of the triangle GK be produced to meet ABC in the points P. Bq. 1. Ex. Show that the lines AA'. BB'. ABC. is B" G". 2. the triangle called Brocard' s second triangle. parallel to AQ. will Hence it follows that AA'. CC are concurrent. Then follows that SA" is perpendicular to A" is the middle point of 135. is follows that A' and K are isotomic conjugates with respect to Tj and Z2. Z-^. Z^. 80 li THE BEOCARD TRIANGLES. Q.. .'. BB'. concentric with the Brocard circle. 3.. Cq the sides of the triangle Z^X^Y-^^ are and the sides of the triangle Y^Z^X^ are parallel to Aa'.

7. Ex. Ex. If point. Show that the lines drawn through the vertices of a triangle ABC parallel to the corresponding sides of the Brocard's first triangle intersect in a point on the cii'cumcircle of ABC. 5. Z{G'BC) = {KBC) + {ABK)+{AKC) = {ABC). {ABB'). 11. 12. point. we have (§ 36. Therefore by the theorem of Ex. of the triangle median point A'B'C. 13. Therefore G' coincides with the median point of the triangle ABC. show that the areas {A'BC). that the perpendiculars from the vertices of the triangle first triangle ABC on the corresponding sides of Brocard's lies are concurrent. Show A'BC coincides with the median point of the triangle If O' denote the ABC. Show extremity of the diameter of the circumcircle which passes through Tarry's that the point of concurrence in the last case point. are that the median point of the triangle each equal to the area {KBC). 9. 12. 4). R. . The point Ex. 8. 3 {G'BC) = {A'BC) + {BBC) + {C'BC). 6. Ex.PROPERTIES OF THE BROCARD TRIANGLES. Ex. and that their point of concurrence on the circumcircle of ABC. Ex. in which these perpendiculars meet is called Tarr/s point. Show Show that the line QQ' is perpendicular to SE. and K the symmedian ABC. If the in the points P. is Show that the Simson-line corresponding to Tarry's point perpendicular to SK. Q. Ex. Ex. 10. of the triangle A'B'C be the first Brocard triangle. symmedian lines of the triangle ABC cut the circumcircle show that the triangles ABC. is the opposite Ex. 81 Show that X1X2 ^2 fi = sin {A — m) : : sin m. symmedian Ex. (AC'C). L. PQR have the same and the same Brocard circle.

RECTILINEAR FIGURES. . and a system . a system of four points is often called a quadrangle. pose to consider the properties of figures consisting of finite groups of points. or of finite groups of call rectilinear figures. it will from these considerations that be convenient to use names for rectilinear figures which will distinguish figures consisting of points from figures consisting of straight lines. It is easy to see that three points may be connected by three points is lines. a rectilinear figure regarded as an area. Four points may evidently be connected by And shall similarly. four lines. Now let us consider the case of a figure consisting six of four points.CHAPTER VII.' or as systems of straight In the present chapter we prolines. Definitions. so that to have given a system of three equivalent to having given a system of three lines. 136. But in ' modem geometry. or by three straight lines. We may therefore use the name triangle for either figure without ambiguity. Such a figure has as many sides as vertices. we have that although four lines may It is obvious be considered as a special case of a figure consisting of six points. figures are regarded as 'systems of points' lines. straight lines. a plane rectilinear figure is defined to be a bounded by straight lines that is to say. figure is In Euclid. Thus. six points will in general be con- nected by fifteen straight It is evident lines. in the case of a figure consisting of six points of intersection. And such figures we shall The simplest rectilinear figure is that defined by three points.

the word opposite as applied to a pair of connectors can only be used in reference to a complete set of conrwctors. ii A. it is often convenient to use the word opposite. a set of n connectors selected in several ways so that : . CD. when the geometrical figure But instead of these names it for preferable to use the terms tetrastigm and tetragram these the two kinds of figures. If a polystigm consist of n points.. the primary points are called and the lines joining them are called connectors. consisting of more than four vertices. BD. and for any number of straight lines.. of four lines a quadrilateral. as figures consisting names are more of points concise.RECTILINEAR FIGURES.ArAr+u—^n^i. GD are called is said to be opposite to the connector AB . the pair of connectors A^A. 6—2 . it and CD are opposite connectors in each of the is obvious that AB two complete sets in which they occur. G. in the tetrastigm ABGD the connector GD and AB. It evident that the six connectors In the case of a polystigm.. tetrastigm. DA. A^. A^. 83 tionable from the fact that it is is The latter name however is objeccommonly used to mean an area. we shall have three complete sets of connectors. vertices . and in only four of these sets opposite to is AB DE.A:„ .In the case of the tetrastigm ABGD. customary to speak of a complete consisting of four lines is and is to avoid confusion it quadrilateral meant.. The connectors of a polystigm will in general intersect in certain points other than the vertices. If the vertices of the polystigm be A^. is of opposite connectors. BG.. An+i may be called opposite connectors of the A^A3. B. Such points are called centres. may be two and not more than two pass through each of the n vertices such a set of connectors will be For instance in the case of a called a complete set of connectors. and then only when the number of vertices is even. CB. AB. Thus. complete set. In the case of a tetrastigm. DA AB. 137. BD. the name polygram. A^A^. CA.. AB will occur as a member of twenty-four complete sets of connectors. and AG. DC. a pair of a tetrastigm consist of three pairs of opposite connectors. but in the case of the hexastigm ABCDEF. shall use For the of any number figures we of consisting name polystigm . In the case of a polystigm. A„+-. viz. D be the vertices.

Show that a set of vertices of a polygram of selected in 1 3. a group of n vertices such that one.1) ways. up a complete set may be called complementary sets. of the set of connectors AB. group of connectors may be called a set of connectors. and may Show that a complete set of connectors of a polystigm of n points 2.3) diagonals. the points of intersection of the primai-y lines are called vertices of the figure. ! Ex. Ex.(2ji. in the case of a hexastigm Such a two sets ABGDEF. A polygram of n lines Jre (n.1 ) (» . has ^(n—l) vertices. mine the These lines are called diagonals. 2?i Ex. vertex lies on each line of the figure. Ex. 5. Jm (m Ex. EF will be 1. 2re lines may be . 1) ! Show that any set of connectors of a polystigm of complementary sets. n points has \n{n—\) connectors. CD.2) ways. Show that a complete set of vertices of a polygram of n lines 1) ! may be selected in J (m- Ex.1) ways. 1. 5. and . 3. vertices. Show that a set of connectors of a polystigm of 2?i points may be selected in 1.. And when the polygram consists of an vertices. is called of even number of lines. And any two sets which together make is called a set of vertices. It is obvious that any For instance particular set will have several complementary sets.. points has 138.2) (w .84 RECTILINEAR FIGURES. Ex. it is sometimes necessary to consider a group of n connectors which are such that one. A group complete set of vertices of a polygram which are such that two lie and a not more than two on each of the lines of the figure..3) centres. The vertices may be connected by certain lines other than those which deterfigure. the two sets may be called complementary sets. . 2.. in the case of a polystigm of 2n points. If of connectors together make up a complete set of connectors. and only one. 1) (m Show that a polystigm . In the case of a polygram. and only one. be selected in ^ (» . complementary to eight sets. passes through each of the vertices. the word opposite may be applied to a pair of vertices in the same way as in the case of a pair of connectors of a Thus a tetragram will have three pairs of opposite polystigm. 3. In the case of a polygram of 2« lines.3.(2ra - 1) ways. Again. 2''(m- 4. (n .

Show that the bisectors of the angles of a triangle are the six connectors of a tetrastigm. no three of which are collinear. Y' respectively. and if ^B cut CD in F. Ex. show that FA. G A B F be any four points. BG in G. DA cos a.CD''-+AD^ BC^ -iAB BC CD where a> is the difference of the angles BAD. and the connectors AD.GC: This result follows at once by considering GCB as a transversal of the triangle FAD. X' be the middle points of AG.BD^ = Am .FC:FB. . D ABGD. BC. Each pair of opposite connectors intersect in a centre. Z' the middle points of AD. D be any four points in a plane. or rather three pairs of opposite connectors. show that the XX'. Then E. If these points are joined we have six con- nectors. li A. B. in G. AB. is 85 A called a tetrastigm. . 3. 1. 5. 139. ZZ' are concurrent. F. CD If Ex.PROPERTIES OF A TETRASTIGM. . . and ODA as a transverstd of the triangle FBC. BD Y. CD in F. X'. If . are the centres of the tetrastigm Let A. CD. Properties of a Tetrastigm. points 4. Y. triangle EFG is called the central triangle of the tetra- points of lines X. Ex. BCD. Y' the middle and Z. the connectors AB. so that there are three centres. and let the connectors AG. 2. AC. C. CD. YY'. The stigm. A BCD be a tetrastigm. Ex. show that . . BD meet in E. B. DA in the X. system of four points. C. .FD=OA. and AD out BC OB. and bisect each other. BC. 140. If any straight line cut the connectors AB. show that AX BY Cr XB YC X'D • • DY' Y'A Ex.

. AF':F'B = AF:BF. and F'B'CGDA Also since FCD is a transversal of the triangle GAB (§ 104). {FF'. Therefore G {EF. EFG its central triangle. BF-GC'AD' Therefore that is. D and since E is the harmonic conjugate of the point in which AC intersects FG. C. GF. AD. BG are The theorem may vertices also is be stated thus : The line joining any two of a tetrastigm passes. we have (§ 94) AF' BC GD = 1. AF BG GD = 1. B. divided harmonically in the centre through which it and in the point of intersection with the line joining the other two centres. with respect to the points A. AB] is a harmonic pencil. A F' B let Let A BCD be the tetrastigm. then the four points A. GE meet AB in F. Thus the theorem of this article is a generalisation of the theorem are the vertices of a parallelogram : The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. GE are concurrent. and harmonic conjugate rays with respect to GE. Since A G. PROPERTIES OF of opposite connectors of a tetrastigm are harmonically conjugate with respect to the sides of the central Any pair triangle which meet at their point of intersection. AB] is a harmonic range. If we suppose the line PG to be at .— 86 141. C. BD. it follows that E is the middle point of ^C. infinity.

2.. and AD. BZ' CY' DZ if YB' Z'C. we may show that y'/ passes through X'. are B{CA. it . . Fy} and {AD. I/:. respectively. Through F a straight line X . . be the harmonic conjugate points of X. AB. foUows Similarly. 5. [Sarah Marks. 6. since {AB. C to the opposite sides of the triangle ABC PQR are P. BC in Q and q. DA respectively of a tetrastigm. The mid-points of the perpendiculars drawn from A. S. are harmonic. 1. through X' In the same figure show that AY Ex. Z:} are harmonic ranges. and BD are concurrent and that XY'. and X the other meeting CD. and that the points Z. will intersect CX^ DY' ' XB' YC' X'D. with respect to the point-pairs A. in the points L. BD in P and F. 87 cutting {i^T^'.. Ex. BC in Z and Z'.X'D. Let cutting AC. Y. 4. BD.AB.ZA~ If ABCD be any tetrastigm. B . E. If four points X. CD. B. The connectors AB. Ex.V. C{AB. and E6 in F'. X'Y'. R. A. BD in X and X'. Let X. BC.. T. in X'. XLvm. show that PQ.A TETRA. and if through F a line be drawn AC. . P'Q) will be a range in involution. DEF X 143. CA. Y. that Then by § 60. and AC are concurrent. YZ are concurrent . X'Y' on BD. 7.y. Vol. 142. 3. X'.Y'A~ on AC. J/. p.Y'D. intersect the corresponding sides of the If the sides of the triangle triangle M. one meeting AB. Reprint. X'Y. Show that XY. and is drawn meeting AD and BC in Fand F'. CD of the tetrastigm ABCD the connectors AD.. X'. that is. Ex. and D. and through G a line is drawn meeting AB and CD in and X'. CD in Y and Y'. ABCD are CD AB in F and in F'. show that Ex. A"I' wiU intersect meet in F. D. AD in X' and F' respectively AX BY CX^ ^'_i XB. and let any straight line be drawn.STIGM. and that uz'.Y'A~ . 3f. show that the pencils A {BC. Y' be taken on the connectors AB. GEmes&tB G FG meets AC and EF meets ^i) Show that YZ' and ZF' pass through X. Ex. R^}. ABCD be any tetrastigm.YC. E. BC meet in G. in Z'. PL]. and straight lines be drawn. If AB. F are the mid- points of 5C. CD meet in F. F. Qif).. in in The centres of the tetrastigm Zand BD ^^ and BC Ex.] collinear. B. yz passes through .. F'Z' E. and rZ. Q.. AD. BC in from any point in ^iC two and F respectively. 121. such that AX BY show that XY.. xfz intersect in the point X. and that XY'. C.

Ex. we can show that T. if xx'. yy\ zi are concurrent. Any opposite connectors of straight live is cut in involution hy the three pairs of any tetrastigm. 144. Deduce the theorem given by considering the line XX' to be the line at infinity. each of the segments xx'. and XX' x:xfzz'. X . each segment such as xx' in the point is divided harmonically and the point where it cuts the line in § 140. Ex. . 88 Hence. and in the point where It follows that the lines xx'. zz' intersect in 0. Similarly Therefore. XX'.. 1. and that if be the point in which they intersect. INVOLUTION PROPERTY therefore and X' are two of the centres of the tetrastigm yi/z^ the segment ytf is divided harmonically by z^ and and likewise the segment zz' is divided harmonically by yy' and XX'. by § 141. z^ is divided it harmonically in the point 0. Y' are two centres of the tetrastigm cuts YY'.

2. C. P'. Let the 89 line cut the ABGD BD. line be drawn through one of the centres of a show that the locus of the centre of the range in involution determined by the connectors of the tetrastigm. be any tetrastigm. QR'. Q'R R'P = . the connectors BG. C. and let any straight connectors AG in P. QQ'. show that and & are Ex. Given any point. WPP^WR^^'' RP'+TQ . AD in R. RR'} will be in involution. cuts the sides of the triangle § 104. is in involution. RR'] 145. F. so that it the given point shall be a double point of the range in involution in which is cut by the connectors of a given tetrastigm. F. Therefore by § 75. This follows by considering the range formed by the intersection of the six connectors with the line at infinity. and any point. since R'D ' AD~ Q^P^qBAD ABR'D- R'P DC cuts we have the sides of the triangle AR'F in the points Q. AB in Q. B. O be the centres of the tetrastigm ABCD. If 0' be the point of concurrence in the last case. D. 5. The straight lines drawn through any point pairs of opposite connectors of a tetrastigm form a pencil in involution. will be a straight line.OF A TETRASTIGM. 0. and Then the range [PP'. the double points of the range in involution formed by the points of intersection of 00' with the connectors of the tetrastigm. RQ^KD AC P'Q ADTGAP'Q' in the points And since BC cuts the sides of the triangle R. the range {PP". Ex. 00 with respect to the pairs of connectors which intersect in E. D. AQ'R' in the we have by AB QT Q'B'EPthatis Similarly.Q'. 3. O respectively. we have PrR_PV AB Q'R~ AC'Q'B^^""'^ that is „ Q'P R'Q P'R PQ'. . B. parallel to the Ex. R'. the rays conjugate to EO. QQ'. FO. Ex. find a straight hne passing through it. 1. If E. are concurrent. Since the line points P. Ex. BD connectors CD. If a straight tetrastigm. . 4.

then TS it. If points Q. and B. Q. PQ} shall be harmonic. will If point in which intei-sect OA cuts BG. so that we have three pairs of opposite vertices. will meet AB in P'. no three of which are concurrent. he taken on CA. is A system of four lines. points on For in the tetrastigm QRST. in show that lie OG will intersect PY. such that the pencils {AB. BB'. These four lines intersect in six points. show that the corresponding lines passing through B and G will intersect on the straight line which passes through A. Let any straight hne PQR be drawn through P. and let Q. A' . {BB'. CR} are harmonic. are known.90 Ex. {CG'. BQ] and 146. R {CA. The theorem the corresponding point P' of the point of § 144 suggests a simple construction for determining in a range in involution. ABC. BB'. . P'ST. when two P conjugate couples A. If {AA'. B' . A'RT. PP'} Ex. QR]. Properties of a Tetragram. Therefore by § 144. RP]. of the a. R such that each of the ranges {AA'. CC'} be any range in involution show how to determine three points P. 6. Rhe any two Let AQ meet B'R in S. . the range {A A'. is in involution. The lines connecting each pair of opposite vertices are the diagonals. called a tetragram. and let BQ meet A'R in T. and line that OB PZ points which on a fixed straight passing through A. BQT. and PQR. PROPERTIES OF given triangle is taken on a transversal XYZ oi Any point P be the harmonic conjugate point with respect to B and C. The triangle formed by the diagonals is called the diagonal triangle. so that there are three diagonals. the three pairs of opposite connectors are AQS. 147. AB respectively. B'RS.

A'B'C. h. and the line joining them. . of the four triangles ABC. C.4' B. If ARC. d be the four lines forming the tetragram. it it is 91 convenient to denote the lines forming a letters. is a diagonal. B C. triangles A'BC. C he the pairs of : opposite vertices of a tetragram. .AB'=A'C. A'BC. A'C A'B. B. AC AB. A'BC meet in a point. denoted by C. Ex. the lines of the tetragram are 148. A'. be the three pairs of opposite vertices. the points ac. Show that the ciroumcircles 2. bd are a pair of opposite vertices. and then by on the four Unes that the feet of the perpendiculars from Hence the circumcircles of the constituting the tetragram are coUinear.A TETRAGRAM. : Ex. it follows ABC. . If A. Let the circumcircles of § 120. e in the figure. . ABC. ABC meet in the point 0. show that AC. lie Show also that the orthocentres of the four triangles are colhnear. line They feet on a hne which is parallel to the of the perpendiculars drawn from 0.4. A'BC must also pass through the point 0. which passes through the . and A'B'C. c.A'B'. K. tetragram by single is and the vertices by double letters and more convenient to use letters to denote the Thus if a. Ex. . 3. Sometimes sometimes vertices. 1. ACff.

and the diagonals by e.f{ac. of the tetragram. d. 1890. See Ex. and A'. liv. 6. [Trin. Let A. it follows that BB'. C. h. ge]. Ex. a line be drawn bisecting perpendicularly the distance between the circumcentre and the orthocentre. 5. T. B'C. d will show that the lines meet the lines c. by § 141. respectively in four collinear points.] Ex. the four bisecting lines will be concurrent. If ahcd be any tetragram. If the lines of the tetragram be denoted by a. B'. g. § 142. h . 4. Coll. c. he in the point drawn through parallel to the lines a. § 147) that each of the ranges e [ad. .92 PROPERTIES OF Ex. and if the line joining the points ah.] 149. 2. Hence. d.fe] is harmonic. sect the opposite sides of the central triangle in six points In every tetrastigm. B. a. E. other two diagonals are The points in which any diagonal of a tetragram cuts the harmonic conjugate points with respect to the vertices pair of opposite which it connects. cut AA' in two points which are harmonic conjugates with respect to A f. we see (fig. the three pairs of opposite connectors interwhich lie three by three on four straight lines. Prove that. [Hervey. if.. gf}. c. A'. G'\ be the three pairs of opposite vertices Then evidently A and A' are a pair of centres of the tetrastigm BC. and GC. g {ah. for each of the four triangles formed by four lines. Vol. b. thus determining the three pairs of opposite vertices of a tetragram. Reprint. cd intersect the line joining the points ad.

C. 5. that the lines which join h. If BB'. Ex. 93 Ex. d. by six lines which pass three by three through four points. C.) B'. and be any point on AA'. and if the diagonal which connects the be. Ex. b respectively in four colliuear Ex. 2. and . M. then the middle points of AA'. show that {AE.E. which any transversal cuts the lines a. meet the diagonal which connects the points ad. B. c. are the opposite vertices of a tetragram. X. 2. Y. collinear. Z the middle points of ^^'. A' . be the vertices of the diagonal triangle Let L. CC are collinear. (See § 38. The points A. PB' are drawn to B'C and BC in H and K respectively. Prove the theorem of § 149 directly by means of §§ 98. N . CC. '^. the diagonals of a tetragram are If A. 106. be the pairs of opposite vertices of a tetragram. 151. C" . If abed be any tetragram. is CC intersect in E. BC. in points ab. 4. a. A'. BB'. B. The middle points of Show that EC and EC intersect meet on the line AA'.A TETRAGRAM. will L to the points in c. cut the lines d. From any point P in AA'. Ex. 3. points. 1. B'C'} a pencil in involution. if Ex. thus determining the three pairs of opposite connectors of a tetrastigm. Show that the three pairs of opposite vertices of a tetragram connect with the opposite vertices of the diagonal triangle. C. the point L show . cd. BB. 150. the lines PB.

Ex. MN) § 56. T'. M. and also the range {AA'. Ex. lines lie collinear. Ex. BE'. MZ' = LC^ MC\ . The orthocentres of the four triangles formed by four straight line on a straight which perpendicular to the line which bisects the diagonals of the tetragram formed by the given straight lines. show that the five lines which bisect the diagonals of these tetragrams respectively. . tetragram in the points X. 153. 4. iW L7. MX. BL CM AN'_ Hence CLAM-BN' MX NY LZ NX' LY' MZ~ Z are is Therefore by § 105. If five tetragrams be formed by excluding in succession each of given lines.GM\ : But since ABC is a transversal of the triangle LMN. show that the lines joining the middle points of corresponding sides of the two triangles intersect in the point which bisects CO'. The theorem maybe thus generalised : If any straight line cut the diagonals X'.Ji/X' = MA^ that : : NA^. If Q. Y. Show that the middle points of any pair of opposite sides of a tetrastigm are collinear with the middle point of one of the sides of the triangle formed by the centres of § 151 of the tetrastigm. Since the range {AA'. N be is the vertices of the diagonal triangle then by § 149. the range {AA'. five 2. MX' In the same way we : iVX. the points X'. A A'] we have by § is a harmonic range. and if Z' be the harmonic conjugate points with respect to the corresponding A A'. Ex. may show : and Xr. and if A'B'C be Brocard's first triangle.— 94 Since of AA'. harmonic. : . MN}. Z' will he collinear. y. we have by Ex. X. . Y. CC of a Z pairs of opposite vertices. are concurrent. 4. and X the middle point 54.LY' = Nm LB^ LZ LZ' MZ. we have by §104. 152. Let L. MX:NX = AM':AN\ Similarly we shall have NY: LY=BN' BL\ LZ: MZ=GL' . C' be the Brocard points of the triangle ABC. 1. : . XX'} is harmonic. Ex. 3. 3. PROPERTIES OF [MN.

Y'.A TETRAGRAM. !• yz the points J".LZ MX' NY' LZ NX . we have by § 104.MZNX'. a pencil in involution. Z are collinear. . . since the points X. BB'. Hence MA NB LC_ NA LB MC MX.NY. the points X'. CC and thus we have the theorem of § 151.LY'. 154.LY. MZ = . we take the line at infinity instead of the line XYZ. Y. The lines connecting any point with the vertices of a tetra- gram form. so also are Y\ Z'. . Z' become respectively the middle points of AAI. But since 95 ABC is a transversal of the triangle LM\. If Y X Therefore by § 105.

C .BB'.CC'}. XYZ meet 0{AA'. CC'} will be in involution. Therefore since § 87.96 INVOLUTION PROPERTY OF A TETRAGRAM. 1. we have BA' CB' Hence as in § 109. 2. 6. BB. Ex. show that these lines will be the double lines of the pencil in involution 3. show that the line joining F to the gate of the point point of intersection of OC and AX'. If A" be the harmonic conjuwith respect to B. Ex. as diameters. Y. Ex. Show that the circles described on the diagonals AA'. B'. the line X'Y'Z' in the point 0. 2. the pencil 155. show that YZ. ZX. Z' be the and A. B' . [Jesus Coll. BB'. CC . C. BB'. BB'. G. 7. Let A. Ex. a triangle and the Ex. and the line joining Z\x> the point of intersection of OB and AX'. C. . CC'} will be in involution. be the pairs of opposite vertices of a tetragram. If A. 1890. CC. CC'} in involution. and let be any point. be the opposite vertices of a tetragram. Ex. Through a fixed point sides of a triangle ABC in the points X harmonic conjugate points of Y and Z with respect to C. AA'^+ZX. lines OA'. AOC _ is {AA'. Apply the theorem in § 154 to obtain a construction for finding a ray which shall be the conjugate of a given ray in a pencU in involution. CPC are right angles. BB'. Z. Z the middle points of AA'. A' B. A if /* be the point in which the line joining Y to the point of intersection of OC and AX' cuts BC . the pencil 0{AA'. AC _ ' CA'-AB'-BC'~ sinSO^' sin COB sin sm COA" sin AOB" sin BOC Therefore by § 91. A'. Ex. from the theorem of the last article. APA' \ a right angle by C. Since A'B'C is a transversal of the triangle ABC. have two Let the circle described common points. Deduce the theorem If in § 153 the line of § 153. and X. BB'^+XY. Then the pencil [AA'. any straight Hne is drawn intersecting the X.XY. 4. on BB' cut the is circle described Then BPB'. This is proved by considering the tetragram formed by the three sides of line at infinity. OC be drawn parallel to the sides of a triangle ABC. on CC in P and P'. CC} is a pencil in involution. 5. CC^= -4YZ. Q the point in which the line If Y'.] Ex. Y. B respectively . BB'. B. P {AA'. Show that if through any point 0. of a tetragram. will pass through the same fixed point on BC. Off.

joining 97 Z to the point of intersection of OA and BY' cuts CA . (§ 111-) Special cases of polystlgms and polygrams. BA'Z are transversals of the triangle PQR. 156. C'A respectively in three points A B C BC. these lie . B'C intersect in X.SPECIAL CASE OF A HEXASTIGM. ' PYQA-RC PZ QB RA'_ ''"^ ' QZ-RB'PA' . The most important of is the case of the hexastigm in which three of the points on one straight line. interest Consequently we shall merely discuss the few special cases of which have been discovered. and R the . If {ABG\ \A'B'G'\ which are he AB'. The properties of figures consisting of more than four points or straight lines have not been systematically investigated. A'B in AF. R are collinear. C'YA. The line PQR is the polar of the point §. CA'. BC. and AR. Then since XCB'. any two ranges. 157. Let Z. and let QX RG PB' RX-PC-QE~ RY PA QC^. point in which the line joining X to the point of intersection of OB and CZ' with respect to the triangle show that P. CA' intersect the three lines collinear. ABC. BC. and the remaining three on another straight line and the correlative case of the hexagram which consists of two pencils of three rays. CA' form the triangle PQR. the straight lines A'B. we have by § 104. C'A in Y. B'C.

respectively in three collinear points. In A'B'G' in we may interchange the order of every possible way. QX RY PZ X. „ Hence. Z are collinear. the points 158. G'G. ^ 1 • Therefore by § 105. BA'. BB'. GA' intersect the lines A'B. If we use the notation ( „. Thus we shall have fact. QB RG PA ^'^^ RBPG-QA~' QG' RA' PR _.j : to represent the exhibit these point of intersection of the lines AB'. Y. we have ^-^ ^y. q^ = • . RG'-PA'-QR . In the same way we may show B'A that the lines AG'.98 SPECIAL CASES OF HEXASTIGMS are also transversals of the triangle But since BCA. PQR. the letters six sets of collinear points. G'A'B' we have by § 104. six sets of collinear points in the tabular wc may form [a'BJ' .

and similar a'. b'. b. pencil. any other pencil of three rays may be connected by eighteen lines which pass three by three through sis points. intersects If a. c' the rays of the other we may show by a very method to that used in §§ 157.: AND HEXAGRAMS. 99 three pairs of opposite connectors. Show that the nine points in which any pencil of three rays 1. 159. that the following triads of lines are concurrent a . in each of the six complete sets of a hexastigm consisting of two triads of collinear points. intersect in three collinear points. Ex. c denote the rays of one pencil. 158.

A'B'C be two triangles in perspective. BE'. GC meet in the point 0. 161. If lines ABC.CHAPTER VIII. of the two triangles. the vertices A and A' are are called called corresponding vertices. . THE THEORY OF PERSPECTIVE. The point called the centre of perspective When two triangles are in perspective. Two triangles are said to be in perspective when the lines connecting the vertices of one triangle to the corresponding vertices of the other triangle are concurrent. the corresponding intersect in three collinear points. is B'C corresponding sides. 160. such that the AA'. Triangles in perspective. and the sides BC.

have. since ^ GAG. A. the centre of pei-spective being called the pole. we have by §104. ZBB' are in perapective.. the triangles are in perspective. the point A' being their centre of pei-spective. A' respectively (see . BB' OA' ^ BZ-OB'AA' BX GY AZ = j^p^ G Jl . are sometimes called homologous the centre of perspective being called the centre of homology. . Therefore the triangles YCG'. A'B' in Z. so that AA' CC intersect in BG and the point 0. Let YGC'. Let BE'. 101 ABC. Since Then X. is section of the corresponding sides of called the axis of perspective. ZB' in the points 0. ZB. fig. a transversal of the triangle GY AA/ OG' _ AY. the points X. and AB. Then it may be proved.OA"GG~'~ and since ' A'B'Z is a ti-ansversal of the triangle BAG. Z will be collinear. AZ ^ a. -tt^ IS/i 1. as in § 161. two triangles Triangles in perspective triangles. Triangles in pei-spective are also said to be copolar. If corresponding sides of two triangles intersect in col- linear points. that BC. „ . § 105. Hence we Therefore by 162. 163. Y. ZBB' be any two such triangles and let GG'. intersect in Let B'C is X . I -r-fy. Y. The line XYZ which passes through the points of interin perspective. TRIANGLES IN PERSPECTIVE. BX A'G'Y is CG^ OB' GX'OG'' BB'~ Similarly. Z are collinear. YG. B'Q'X a transversal of the triangle GBO. § 161). YG' meet BB". CA. C'A' in Y. B'G' intersect YZ in the same point X. A'B'C be two triangles in perspective. and the axis of perspective the aids of hotiiology.

Inscribe a triangle in a given triangle. and the three which are concurrent show that the . If the symmedian lines AK. C" The two planes ABC. Hence the corresponding coUinear points. BC and B"C' will intersect on the line L. respectively. § 159. . Let and let the normals at A'. A"B"C". 8. and therefore will B"C" in the point in which the latter cuts the plane ABC. Ex. 3. Ex. Ex. A'B'C intersect in Ex. Consequently B'C will intersect BC in a point on the line L. in perspective with the triangles Brocard triangle of the triangle A'B'C. must lie in the line of intersection of these planes. point. are in perspective. If the triangle ABC be in perspective with the triangle it is B'CA'. Also the lines BC. O'C in the points A".102 TRIANGLES IN PERSPECTIVE. : 164. Ex. If the centre of perspective be on the line at infinity. CC meet in the point 0. A'B'C be any two triangles in the same plane so situated that AA'. BK. which being common to each of the planes ABC. 3. the axis of perspective passes through G. so that its three sides may pass through three given points which are coUinear. through fixed points. 9. Similarly CA. sides of the triangles ABC. two triangles. Ex. 7. their axis of perspective passes through Show that if A'B'C be the first ABC. If the lines joining the vertices of which have a common median the median point. be parallel. O'B. B'. AB will intersect C'A'. then See § 135. The theorem in § 161 may also be proved as follows Let ABC. ABC is Ex. ABC in the points A'. and also with the triangle CA'B'. and the three sides pass through three fixed points. B"C" being in the same plane OBCvi'iW meet in a point. B'C A' and CA'B'. B'. Ei A'B'C. 1. 0' B'. . show that in perspective with the triangle See 6. be any point on the normal to the plane at 0. Two sides of a triangle pass vertices lie on three fixed straight lines. intersect But B'C is evidently the orthogonal projection of B"C". Ex. C meet O'A. find the locus Ex. 4. 5. third side will always pass through a fixed point. Show first that the triangle formed by the middle points of the sides of is Brocard's triangle in perspective with the original triangle. CK meet the circumcircle of the triangle circle at A'. A'B' respectively in points which lie on L. 2. 5. Ex. B". that is. show that the tangents to the C will form a triangle in perspective with the triangle ABC. A"B"C" will intersect in a line (Z say). Two vertices of a triangle move on fixed straight lines. which are coUinear of the third vertex. 165. Two triangles having the same median point G. C. BB'.

c'a. and if A". intei-sects we may show that C"A" GA in Y. and AB'. ab' to the points b'c. ABG'. GA'. respectively in coUinear points (§ 161) that is. A A'. concurrent.. A'BG are in perspective UA. TRIANGLES IN PERSPECTIVE. G'A in B". B". Thus B"C" Similarly intersects BG in the point X. A"B"G" will he in perspective with each of the given and the three triangles will have the same axis of per- Let XYZ be the axis of perspective of the given triangles ABG. 166. and that A"B" intei-sects AB in Z. spective. A"B"G" is in perspective with each of and the three triangles have a common axis of Therefore the triangle the given triangles. Since the given triangles are in perspective. G" are collinear. A'B in C" the triangle triangles. AB' will intei-sect BG. 103 BC. EG intersect in If ABC. a'b respectively form a triangle u'hich is in perspective ivith each of the given . A'ffG' be two triangles in perspective. Hence the triangles and therefore the lines B'G'. ca'. the lines joining the points be. perspective. CA'. a'b'c be any two triangles in perspective. BR. the points X. 167. If abc. A'B . A'B'C'. CG' are .

h'c'. triangles. and the sides AiBi. h'c.104 triangles. Hence. THEOREMS RELATING TO and the three triangles have the same centre of per- o~'------ Let be the centre of perspective of the given he.^. Let a" denote the joining the points ab'. When three triangles are in perspective two by two. the points be. to the points be. Similarly. ca. c"a" are and that the points ah. cc are collinear. b" the line ca'. and they lie on a we may show that the points ca. collinear. a'h'c' . he'. c'a'. Hence by § 163. ahc are and therefore the lines joining the points h'c'. such that the sides BfJi. ca'. the points om. h'c . Y. the sides C^A^. ah' That is. A^Bfi^ be three triangles in perspective two and two. spective. c'a'. and the line joining the points he. the triangle a"b"c" triangles ahc. then a'V the lines joining the points intersect in 0. in perspective.Z being collinear points. are concurrent. a'b. G^A. a'b'. c'a. and c" the line joining the points Since the triangles ahc. h"c'' are collinear. . A3B3 in the point Z. ab to the points b'c. AA. hb'. X. their three centres of perspective are collinear. AJB^Ci. line which passes through 0. 168. and have the same axis of perspective. in perspective with each of the and the three triangles have a common centre of perspective. c". Let AiBfii. Bfi^ meet in the point X. line joining the points c'a. the lines h". ah are concurrent. BjO^. is Therefore. the triangles ab'c'. G^A^ in the point Y. a"h" are collinear. dh'c are in perspective.

A^BjO^. the centres of perspective of the three triangles are collinear. C^GnG. 170.e aaeis of perspective and the axis of perspective of either set of triangles passes through : the centres of perspective of the other set. A^BJH. X being the centre of perspective.. Thus we have the theorem When three triangles are in and have the same axis of perspective. A3B3C3 be the three triangles having the Let Oj.. perspective two by two. and have the same axis of perline of collinearity of the centres of perspective namely the of the triangles A^Bfii. are the centres of perspective of the given triangles taken two at a time. N. the triangles opposite to the vertices A^. B^B^Bs.. It is are in perspective two spective. Hence. denote the sides of centre of perspective 0. common Let ^i^iCi... B. 105 Then the triangles B^B^B. which are But these points collinear. the triangles formed by the corresponding vertices of the triangles are also in perspective two by two and have the sam. A^BXJ^. TRIANGLES IN PERSPECTIVE.. When three triangles are in perspective two by tivo. by two.Bs. evident that the triangles ^i^^^s. 61. . M...G^ are in perspective.B^. BjB„ intersect the lines C^G^. their three axes of perspective are concurrent.. and have the same centre of perspective. C^C.. G^Gi. 5i. G^G^ respectively in three points L. Therefore the lines B. 169.

Therefore the lines joining their vertices are concurrent the lines joining the points C2C3. A^B^C^ obviously meet in A. 6162 respectively to the points are concurrent. Consequently. B3. C2. which is the common centre of perspective may Thus also be easily proved let 616063. AnB.B^C^ be any three coplanar triangles having a common centre of perspective 0. &c.fii. ffB^. having the line OA-^A-. Then it is evident that the triangles 616063. Let be any point in the normal to the plane at 0. as their axis of perspective. 6361. a. line joining the point 6263 to the point C2C3 is But the the axis of perspective of the triangles A^B/J^. 171. . since they lie in the plane A-fi-fi^. B2. O A^. Afi^^ are the orthogonal projections of the lines of intersection of the planes. Hence.. the axes of perspective of the three triangles AiB^Ci. 6263. Then the lines of intersection of the planes Afi^C-^^. and let the normals to the plane at that was used in § 164. A3B3C3. their three axes of perspective will intersect in a point a^aMa. A^Bfi^. CiC^Ca whose three axes of perspective meet in 0. they must be concurrent. asbsCs are in perspective and have a common centre of of the triangles perspective 0. It follows from the above proof. that if the triangles cti6iCi. These theorems AiB^C^. 0'. C3 meet (^A^. A. A. A3B3C3 are concurrent. But the axes of perspective of the triangles A-JB-fi^^. Aj.^Cn. by the same method 172.IB^C{^ the point of intersection of the three planes.A. in the points A^.106 TRIANGLES IN PERSPECTIVE. C1C2 . C3C1. that is. &c. B{. respectively. CiC^c^ are in per- spective.h.fifi^.

formed by the lines ^4. ( .lis on six lines that is to say. CC is in perspective with the triangle formed by the lines BC. and also with the triangle formed by the lines CB'. 1. We are now in a position to complete the discussion of the properties § 157. Show that the three triangles in the last theorem have a common centre of perspective. AC. and likewise the second . of the figvire which was discussed in We will use the same notation as in that namely : let {AB') repre- sent the line joining the points A and B" { _. . In § 158 we showed that the eighteen points .„)) ( j. § 167. BA'. each of the following triads are coUinear (AC\ /AA'\ fBA'\ ^CB'\ (BE\ \A'c)' (BB'\ (B( BC'\ ' (CC\ \B\iJ (CA'\ \Cb)' (AC\ I'N \BB) fAB\ \CBJ' \AVJ fBA'\ ' (CR \CA fCC\ \a'a) -)' Kbc Let us represent the line joining the points (::?). 107 {ABC). Ex.^1'. BB'. AB'. 158. {BC). This follows from 174. »/>. 173. 2..\ \ \ ' A SPECIAL CASE OF PASCAL'S THEOREM. 1 Then the six lines will be represented by ( ' / ABC ABC ' ABC rABC\ \ca-b) ( ' ' \A'BC) ( \BCA') \A'Cb) ABC \EAC) ( ABC\ \CB-A-J We three. (A'B'C) be two ranges on different straight lines. shall show that the first three are concurrent. /ABC\ ( . If show that the triangle This theorem follows from §§ 15". \B-CJ' \CaJ by the expression ./i)i : i^c. * . article. Ex. j the point of intersection of the Unes {AB').. CA'.

six points. Ex. CA'. CO'). Show intersect three other concurrent lines may which pass three by three through other straight lines. 176. and the remaining This theorem Pascal's theorem. BC. A'B'C be two triangles in perspective. Hence we have the theorem : lines collinear points intersect in eighteen points which lie in threes on six lines. be connected by eighteen lines which lie three by three on two This theorem chon's theorem. BB'. be Therefore by § 170. By § 171. it follows that 0' will be the common in 0. AC). 2). centre of perspective of the . CA'. {CB'. and if . 175. their point of intersection being the point 0. AC. a particular case of a more general theorem known as that the nine points in which any three concurrent lines Ex. {BC. and {CC. {BB'. these axes of perspective are concurrent. triangles {AA'. AB').108 CONDITIONS SATISFIED BY The first three are the axes of perspective of the triangles (A A'. If ABC. BA') which have a common centre of perspective (§ 173. and 0' the point of concurrence of the axes of perspective. three of which pass through one point. AB'. BA') meet and the axes of perspective of these triangles will That is. is a particular case of a more general theorem known as Brian§ 174. Let the centre of perspective. the three lines (ABC\ \A'C'B'J ' ( ABC\ ' fABC\ \ffA'c) which connect two triads of \CB'A') The nine are concurrent. is three through another point. It may be proved in a similar way to the theorem in Relations between two triangles in perspective. CB').

G'X'" A'Y' . Z. and let us assume that relation (i) holds. we may deduce the RX'. in the points Let the sides RG'. GA. and X YZ. GA Y. we have BX GX' AX" transversals of the GXAX'BX' BY'^ = 1. . GY AY' GY"'AY' BY' • . Y.AZ"~ In a similar manner by considering the lines ^^^' BGX. (ii) hold.BX"' GY" . G'A'. ZZ'Z" are also transversals of the triangle AY' BY^ OF BY'-GY"AY~'' BZ^ GZ^ But AZ_ therefore GZ'-AZ"BZ~ XYZ is also a transversal of the triangle ABG BX CY AZ GX-AY-BZ~ AY'.FZ" ~ ' ^"''" Conversely.FX" 177. Y" respectively.BZ' CX'. respectively. BA.AB X. it may be shown that the triangles are in perspective. Y.A'Z" C'X' .G'Y" A'Z'.GZ" _ Mence BY' .A'Y" B'Z" . AX" BY". X" respectively. GA. Then triangle since XX'X". in BG in the points Y'. YY'Y". a transversal of the triangle ABG AX^ BX since CX_ BX"'GXAX'~ And ABC. if either of the relations (i). as transvei-sals of the triangle A'B'G'._ ' TRIANGLES IN PERSPECTIVE. is Then because XX'X" (§ 104). Y"YY'. Z" respectively then AX' BY' GX' in the points GZ' AX" BY' GZ" AY"BZ'~ BX" GY^' 'AZ" Let the axis of perspective of the two triangles cut BG. GA the points Z'. AB X.GZ" AX' . G'Y'. Z. ABZ. relation. and if A'B' cuts GB. 109 if C'A' cuts B'C cuts AG. A'B' intersect the sides BG. and Z'Z"Z are ABG. AB in the points X'.

triangles When two ABC. Two B'. sin BAC sin CBC sin = 1. Z are collinear. equal to unity. sin A'B'C' sinECB.AZ'''-BY'.BZ' CX'.BX"-'CZ'. sin^'C"^ A' B'A. (Ca' : Ch').GZ^^ ~AX'. CC are concurrent. Therefore BX CY AZ CZ-ZF-M=^^ Therefore X. the triangles ABC. C are any points in the plane of the triangle ABC.sinABC we may prove the relation. are in perspective. sin Similarly. Y. Since A'. sin CBC CAB' sinABA' . and Ah' represents the perpendicular from A on b'.^' sin sin sin CBB B'BA ' sin sin ACC _ C'CB ACB'. AA'. the product of the ratios {AV is : Ac'). A'AC sm A'BA sin A'CB ' sin CBB' " sin ACB' B'CB C'CB B'AC sin B'BA. that the lines if either of these relations hold it may be proved is. sin^^. BCB'. = 1. therefore by § 98. sin sin sin sin we have BAA' BAB' sin CB A' sin^C^' = 1. CC are concurrent. c' denote the sides of the triangle A'B'C. § 163. (Be' b'. sin B'C A .110 CONDITIONS SATISFIED BY and BZ' GZ^ 4/^ ' CZ'-AZ"'~B'Z AY'. sin^AC'_^in sin CAC. Hence by 178. A'B'C : are in perspective. AX" BY". ' sin ' sin sin AC A' ^ BCA' sin sin B'A'C. Conversely. sin sin C'^C" sin C'BA ACC = " sin But since the triangles are in perspective. BB'. BAB' sin CBA'.GY" „. 1. similar relations proved by using the theorem of § 98. we have. A'B'C 179. A A'. A'AC Hence. Ba'). sin B'A'B sinC'^'C. where a. BB'. . A'B'C may be are in perspective. .sinC'^'5' sin sin C'B'A sin C'B'C sin A'CB. that the triangles ABC.

Z. Conversely.D-'l=. x'y. BJ£ CY AZ_ . z'x. are in perspective with the triangle abc . T' Z. Ab' = GY:AY. 3. If from the vertices of the triangle ahc. Ba' Gb' Ac' m-AF-Bc' = ^' ^. circle . Z' perspective. is show that the triangle formed by the lines YZ\ ZX\ XY' in perspective with the triangle ABC. . ABC in the points X. }'. X'Y. Z'X. 180. ZX\ XY'. . .'. F. it follows that A'. be drawn to a circle. § 177. Y.i-'. This follows at once from Ex. and that the three triangles have a common axis of perspective. when this relation holds. GX'AYBZ~„ ^'''''' . and the triangle formed by the points //'. Ex.y! . Bc' = AZ:BZ. Ga' : y But since A".TRIANGLES IN PERSPECTIVE. X' show that the triangles formed by the lines Y'Z. Z'. 2. Y' . and that the three triangles have a common centre of If a circle cut the sides of the triangle . Z are colliDear. 1. and the triangle formed by the lines YZ'. Ab' Be' Ca' IS. respectively.. Ac Ba r^' Gb • that . Z and therefore that the If triangles are in perspective. Ex. are in perspective with the triangle ABC. :. x' \ y. A''. z.z'. xy'. Ba' : Then we have Gb': Ac': = BX CX. tangents x. be drawn cutting the sides of a triangle ABC in the points J. any 1'. show that the triangles formed by the points u:'. Let Ill XYZ be the axis of perspective of the two triangles. are collinear.-.

and PQ will intersect EF. CR are also concurrent. Ex. X'. See the figure of Ex. AB. X'Y'. C'A" in Y. meet the circumcircle in the points A'. CA'. R respectively. ED. Fhe the middle points of the sides of the triangle ABC. by the lines Y'Z. 11. If J). such that the triangle XYZ is in perspective with each of the triangles ABC. X. 4. Q. CA. xy' it is easy to prove that sin. ZX. If XYZ be any transversal of the triangle ABC. parallels are drawn If B'C. Ex. X"YY'.] Ex. and P. Y. A"B" in Z show that the B"C" intersect in triangle . and having the point triangles formed by the lines Y"Z'.R^ is the centre of the circle. AB in P. Z On the sides BC. ABC be . DF in the points X. R the feet of the perpendiculars from the vertices on the opposite sides. ABC. . triangle in perspective with the triangle ABC. Through the vertices of the triangle j1. and likewise AA". A"B"C". Z. show that the lines joining the corresponding vertices of the given triangles will form a triangle which is in perspective with each of the given triangles. [St John's Coll. In the same figure. 10. Ex. K for centre of perspective.8in. Ex. CR 5. X . show that AP. Ex. and R its radius. . perspective with the triangle ABC. X' Y will form a § 131.g^C" sin where CAC ~ Ob^ . to the opposite sides to C'A'. and A'B'. show that A'P. PQR. triangles If the points of intersection of corresponding sides of two given form a triangle in perspective with each of them. RP. CC". E. AB of a triangle are taken the points and the circumcircle of the triangle XYZ is drawn cutting the sides . Show that the ZX. Q. A'B'C the triangle formed by the points yz'. A'B'C. show that QR. Y'. Through the lines YKZ'. If B'C. Two triangles so that AA'. BQ. centre of perspective. C are concurrent. A'B'C. Y.STK^^will be in perspective with each of the triangles ABC. Z. 8. the given triangle.' 112 If zx'. X. will be in centre of perspective. are concurrent. TRIANGLES IN PERSPECTIVE. show that the triangle formed Z'X'. and have a common Ex. CC . CA.SJ^'. the triangle formed by the Unes YZ'. 12. K the symmedian ZKX'. parallel point of the triangle respectively to the sides and cutting the other and having sides in the points Y. _ Oc^-R^ sin The second part Ex. 7. Z'. X'Y"Z be show that the three other transversals passing through the point Z"X'. of the theorem follows from § 166. 6. BEE. A"B"C" are inscribed in the triangle ABC. In the last case. BB'. XY and 9.BC. are drawn BC. B'. BB". 1890. BQ. CA. XKY'. lines Y'Z. CAB' . and also with the triangle formed by the points of intersection of their corresponding sides. and if XY'Z". X"Y' wiU form a for triangle in perspective with the triangle ABC. A'B meet BC.

PASCALS THEOREM.

of the triangle

113

ABC in A", Y', Z'. The lines YZ', ZX', XY' form a triangle the lines F'Z, Z' X, X' J' form a triangle A"B"C". Show that the triangles ABC, A'BC, A"B"C" are copolar, and that when the triangle is of constant shape the common pole of these triangles is a fixed point.

A'BC, and

[H. M. Taylor, L.M.S. Proc. Vol. xv.]

XYZ

Pascal's theorem.

181.

To

illustrate the use of the

**preceding theorems relating
**

to discuss briefly the chief

to triangles in perspective,

we propose

hexastigm inscribed in a circle. The simplest property is due to Pascal, and is called Pascal's theorem. It is usually quoted in the form The opposite sides of any hexagon inscribed in a circle intersect in three coUinear points. The more

properties of a

:

precise statement of the theorem would be

:

The three pairs of

opposite connectors in every complete set 0/ connectors of a hexastigm inscribed in a circle intei~sect in three collinear points ; which is

**equivalent to the following
**

three on sixty lines.

:

The

fifteen connectors

of a hexastigm

inscribed in a circle intersect in forty-five points which lie three by

A

hexastigm evidently has

fifteen connectors.

To

find the

number

. .

of

points in which these intersect, apart from the vertices of the hexastigm, let

us group the vertices in sets of four. This may be done in 6 5 4 3/24, i.e. 15 ways. Now each group of four points forms a tetrastigm, which has three

.

centres.

Hence, the connectors of a hexastigm will intersect in 3

.

15,

i.e.

45

points or centres.

182.

Let A, B,

C,

D, E,

F be

any

six points

on a

circle.

Let

AD, BE, CF form the triangle XYZ; BF, CD, X'TZ'; and CE, AF, BD the triangle X"7"Z".

AE

the triangle

shall prove

We

L.

114

that the triangles

pascal's theorem.

XYZ,

X'Y'Z',

X"Y"Z"

are copolar, that

is,

are in

perspective two and two, and have the same centre of perspective.

**Since the points A, B, C, D, E,
**

Euclid, Bk.

III.,

F

are coney clic,

we have by

Prop. 35,

XE.XB = XG.XF,

YG.

YF^YA.YD,

.

**ZA.ZD=ZB ZE. XE.XB YC. YF ZA.ZD_ iheretore XG .XF' YA .YDZB.ZE Therefore by § 177, the triangle XYZ is in perspective with each
**

of the triangles

By

§ 167,

X'Y'Z and X"Y"Z". we infer that these three

triangles have the

same

centre of perspective.

**Hence, by § 170, the axes of perspective of the three triangles
**

are concurrent.

Let be the common centre of perspective of the triangles, and 0' the point of intersection of their axes of perspective. Then by § 171, we see that the triangles formed by the lines AD, BF,

their

GE; BE, DC, AF; GF, AE, BD are also common centre of perspective, and

copolar,

having 0' for

for the point of con-

**currence of their axes of perspective.
**

183.

**Let us use the notation
**

(

pp)

to represent the point of

intersection of the lines

XYZ,

and BF. Then, since the triangles X'Y'Z' are in perspective, the points

AD

(AD\ (BE\ I CF\ [bfj' \GD)' \AE)

are coUinear.

**In the same way we could show that the pairs of opposite
**

connectors in any other complete set of connectors of the hexastigm

intersect in three collinear points.

The

line.

line of coUinearity of three such points is called a

Pascal

**Since there are sixty complete sets of connectors
**

it

(§

137, Ex.

2),

follows that there are sixty Pascal lines.

**Again, since the triangles
**

it

XYZ, X'Y'Z, X"Y"Z"

I

are copolar,

follows that the Pascal lines

AD\ /BE\ BF}' \GDI'

CF\

\AE)''

THE STEINER

POINTS.

115

fAD\

fBE\

fCF

(CD\ fBF\ [CEJ' \Af)'

are concurrent.

(AE \BD

is

The point

Steiner point

;

**of concurrence of three such Pascal lines
**

it

called a

may

**conveniently be represented by the notation
**

I

AD, BE, CF^

There

is

**evidently one Steiner point on each Pascal
**

§ 182,

line.

Again, from

we

see that the

common

is

pole of the three

triangles corresponding to this Steiner point,

the Steiner point

(ABC\ [dfej

D, E, F, we can select three such when we combine this group \vith the complementary triad D, E, F, we have only ten different arrangements but we see above that we can take one group such Hence we infer that as {DEF) in either of two cyclic orders. from six points A, B,

C,

Now

as A, B, G, in twenty ways, and

;

there are in

all

**twenty Steiner points belonging to the
**

infer that there are sixty Pascal lines.

figure.

And

since

there are three Pascal lines passing through every

Steiner point,

we

It is easy to see that a point

such

lines

eis

(

„_

j

will occur

on four

different Pascal lines,

namely the

**/AD\ (BE\ (CF\ [bfJ' \CD}' \AE)' /AD\ (BG\ (EF\ [bfj' [eb)' \AG)'
**

(FES (GBy 'AIX [bfj- \GD)' \AE)'

(AD\ /BE\ (GF\ \BF)' \AG)' \EDJHence, since three of the forty-five points of intersection of the connectors of the hexastigm lie on each Pascal line, we infer that

there are 4 x 45/3 Pascal lines

;

that

is

sixty Pascal lines.

8—2

116

kirkman's theorem.

The sixty Pascal lines pass three by three through each Steiner point, and four by four through the forty-five points of intersection of the connectors of

the hesastigm.

referred to a

It follows that the Pascal lines will intersect one another in

**points other than these.
**

is

For further information on this subject, the reader Note at the end of Salmon's Conies, where there is a complete

discussion of the question.

Steiner

was the

first

[Gergonne Annates de

**attention to the properties of the complete figure.
**

fully

MaMm., Vol. xviii.) to draw And the subject has been

**worked out by Kirkman and Cayley.
**

Ex.

1.

184.

Show

that the sixty Pascal lines pass three by three through

sixty points besides the twenty Steiner points.

[Kirkman.]

**Let us consider the triangle formed by the lines
**

triangle

AB, CD,

EF

and the

formed by the three Pascal lines

(S.

PASCAL HEXASTIGM.

Ex.

4.

117

lie

Show

Show

**that the sixty points mentioned in the last example
**

lines,

three

**by three on twenty
**

Ex.

5.

which pass four by four through

fifteen points.

lie

that the sixty points mentioned in Ex. 3 also

three by

three on sixty lines, which pass three by three through twenty other points.

185.

The

properties which exist for a hexastigm inscribed in

a

circle are also true of

**any hexastigm formed by the points of
**

is

**intersection of non-corresponding sides of two triangles which are
**

in perspective.

Such a hexastigm

**called a Pascal hexastigm.
**

let

Let

XYZ, X'Y Z'

B, E,

be any two triangles in perspective, and

A, B,

C,

F be

the points of intersection of n on- corresponding

sides of these triangles.

By

§

176,

we have

XE.XB YG.JF ZA^D

xc.xFya:.

YDZB.ZE~

Hence by

will also

§

177, the triangle formed

by the

lines

GE, AF,

BD

Also

be in perspective with the triangles

XYZ,

X'Y'Z'.

from

§ 167, it follows that these three triangles are copolsu-. §

Again by

177, it follows that the triangle

XYZ

is

copolar

with the triangles formed by the lines

BF,CA,DE;

GE, DF, BA.

Also, for the

same

reason, the triangle

XYZ

will

be copolar

with the triangles formed by the lines

EF,CD,AB;

CB, AF,

ED

;

118

**PROPERTIES OF A PASCAL HEXASTIGM
**

triangles formed

and with the

by the

lines

BG,FD,AE;

FE, AG, BD.

In the same way we can find three pairs of triangles copolar with the triangles X' Y'Z', and the triangle formed by the lines

GE, AF, BD.

We

Now

shall

thus obtain ten different triads of triangles

—each

triad having a

let

common

centre of perspective.

**us consider any one of these triads of triangles, say the
**

X'Y'Z', and the triangle formed by the lines CE,

triangles

XYZ,

that

is

AF, BD,

the triangles whose sides are

AD, BE, GF;

BF,GD,AE;

GE. AF, BD.

The axes

(§

of perspective of these triangles will be concurrent

/A TiG\

170); the point of concurrence being the Steiner point

I

T^pl^T)

•

have evidently obtained the same arrangement by this method as we obtained in § 183, when the six points were points on a

circle.

We

Hence we may

;

infer that if

we make a

list

of the ten

triads of triangles, as indicated above, each triangle will occur in

four different triads

**so that the
**

§ 182,

list

would be complete.

By

proceeding as in

we

shall find

by means of

§ 171,

ten

other triads of triangles, each triad producing three Pascal lines, which co-intersect in a Steiner point.

connectors in

**Hence we have the theorem If the three pairs of any complete set of connectors of a hexastigm
**

:

opposite

intersect

**in three collinear points, the three pairs of opposite connectors in
**

every complete set will also intersect in three collinear points.

Ei

lines

1.

Show

that any two triads of collinear points on different straight

**determine a Pascal hexastigm.
**

2.

Ex.

Any

**transversal cuts the sides of the triangle
**

is

ABC in the points

X, Y, Z; and

hexastigm.

186.

any

fixed point.

Show

in

six

the sides of the triangle

ABC

**OZ ynW cut points which determine a Pascal
**

that the lines OX, OY,

vertices of

The

1.

lines

**which join non-corresponding
**

is

two triangles in

perspective form a hexagram which

called a Brianchon hexagram.

Ex.

lie

Show

**that every triad of opposite vertices of a Brianchon hexagram
**

lines.

on three concurrent

. XC.) (CA\ \DE)'' (CA\ \FD)' (AB\ \ef)' which meet in a lines are three Pascal lines of the hexastigm. Y'. Ex. It is easy to see that a triad of diagonals of this hexagram are the (AB\ \de)' But these (BC\ \fd)' (§ 184. 3. a pair of lines be taken. t^*-i The opposite . Suppose we have any figure . figure i. Z' are the vertices of a Pascal hexastigm. hexastigm. intersect on the as. Y. ZA. EF. harmonically conjugate with the connectors of the tetrastigm which intersect in that centre. and the the point figure F\ plane of F' 188. BB'. XB. (S). ZZ') are harmonic. Let us consider more particularly the case when the ^ is a plane figure. we have at once a proof of the theorem that the sixty Kirkman points of a Pascal hexastigm Ex. forming the The figure F' is said to be the 'projection of the given figure F'. in the points A'. (§ 184. Ex.. General theory. Show that the lines Ex. . . Hence. B' C. 187.1. Let any plane be drawn cutting points be the lines OA. CC. is called the vertex of projection. OB. Z' are taken X. Show that vertices of a tetragram are A. DE. YA. A' Z. FD will determine a Brianchon hexagram. that if ABCDEF be any ( Pascal hexastigm. 2. B. Y.) Show ^1. Z. Z. 4. Ex. Y' that the ranges {. C joined to any point 0. . {BB'. lines CA. 119 Any point OA. is called the plane of projection. show that these six lines will form a Brianchon hexagram. If through each centre of a tetrastigm. OC. the lines ABCDEF be any Pascal AB. Kirkman point.. Ex. ZB determine Show if a Brianchon hexagram. and the a given straight line in the points ^r.1'. . C. and vice versa. points X. (BC\ \ef)' 1. F consisting of any number not necessarily in one plane. OC cut that is joined to the vertices of a triangle ABC. YY'). lines 2. so XX'}. lie three by three on twenty hnes. fpp) respectively. X'. C". the hnes joining the points Pascal line D to the points ij^jp).AND A BBIANCHON HEXAGRAM. i'. It is evident that to any point of A oi F corresponds one point and only one point A' F. Ex. BC. by applying Brianchon's theorem to this hexagram. B.. OB.. YC. ©. X'. B'. 5. let these of points A. and on the diagonals A A'. {CC. 6.

and A'B' in the plane a' hence the point of intersection oi AB and A'B' must be a point in the line of intersection of the two planes a and a'. If . will be harmonic. they must intersect.120 ii. Let A and B be any two points in a plane figure F. . C must be collinear. B. CD] be any harmonic range in the figure F. iii. 190. {A'B'. to every straight one and only one straight line of F'. OA. CD] is a harmonic pencil. coincides with the corresponding point of F'. CD'] will be a harmonic pencil in the projected figure F'. Ex. Let the planes of F and F' be denoted by a and a'. P' {A'B'. iv. and F on any plane. 189. Then since AB. OB. B' . Show that any range in involution will project into a range in involution. Similarly any straight line X oi F will intersect the corresponding line x' of F' in a point lying on the line of intersection of the planes a. C oi F are collinear. C of F' will be OC must lie collinear. line of F corresponds in the point If two straight lines of the figure F intersect A. that i{ 1. the vertex of projection being any point 0. B. a'. For since A. the corre- sponding points A'. 2. CD) be a harmonic pencil in the figure F. Now suppose we have a plane figure F. C which can only is cut the plane of projection in a straight line that A'. It is evident that every point on it considered as belonging to the figure F. Show P{AB. F any plane. . F' on some plane. B' be the corresponding points in F' the projection of . it is evident that the corresponding lines of F' will intersect in the corresponding point A'. 191. since [AB. GENERAL THEORY If any three points A. Let us take any other point P not lying on either of the planes containing and F' and with P as vertex let us project the whole figure on . let A'. A'B' are two straight lines in the same plane OAB. o' is called the self-projected line. and its projection being the vertex of projection. of lines of Hence it follows that if any system F are concurrent. in one plane. then {AB. But AB lies in the plane «. Hence. the corresponding lines of F' will be concurrent. The line of intersection of the two planes a. CD'} Ex. it follows that the corresponding points of F' will form a harmonic range that is to say. B'. are collinear. for simplicity the plane of F.

cut the plane of in the points A". C'. F and F" The : — between the line joining any point of F to the corresponding point of F" passes For 0.. . F" which correspond to A. C are collinear points of F'.. and therefore 0'. . the corresponding points of F'. B'. B". . iii. A.. 121 Let A.. any other figure last article (viz.. B". A" are collinear. 188. It is evident that the following relations will exist figures i. B. straight line of PA' lie in the To any let F corresponds a straight § line of F". C. plane. is is said to be in perspective with F.. F" are concurrent. line of F" in a point lying on a fixed straight This follows at once from planes of 192. then A'.o{ F. PA.C'bQ three collinear points of F. A". and therefore by collinear points of F".. C". be any points o{ F A'. For by F' form a harmonic range. and A". the straight line in which corresponding lines intersect being the line of intersection of the F and Any F'. the corresponding points of points of F" will form a harmonic range. : F" by obtained in the manner explained in the first projecting i^ on a plane and then with a different vertex projecting the new figure on the plane of F).) connecting corresponding points called the centre of . PC. same ii. may be called the . V. Let PO cut the plane of F in 0'. § 190. B'. The fixed point through which pass all lines (§ i. For A. PR. A' are coUinear. C" are If any system of lines of F are are also concurrent. since the plane of F" is the same as that of F.. Every straight line of F intersects the corresponding straight line. Let PA'.OF PERSPECTIVE. A. B". B. and therefore the corresponding lines of iv. . therefore also do the corresponding points of F". 191. plane figure F being given. the corresponding lines of F' ai-e concurrent. therefore PO. § concurrent the corresponding lines of F" For by 188. C. If any points of F form a harmonic range the corresponding § 188. C" These points will form a figure F" in the F points of same plane as F. through a Jixed point....B.

which coincide with their corresponding points. It is however unnecessary to go through the process of projection in order to construct a figure which shall be in perspective with a given figure. must be noticed point on the axis Q be the corresponding point of F. CONSTRUCTION OF FIGURES and the fixed line which (§ is the locus of the points of intersection of corresponding lines perspective. to F. x the axis of perspective. v. let be the centre of perspective. Then since AB.122 perspective . Let AB cut the axis x in the point X. perspective. B' the corresponding point of F'. since we might have taken the plane of of F' passing through the axis of perspective.) is called the axis of 193. unless P be a of perspective in which case Q and P' coincide . we might select the centre of perspective. If F and F' be two figures in perspective . . they must intersect on the axis X. In the same way the point corresponding to any other point may be constructed. and let A' be the point corresponding to the point A. Hence to obtain the figure in perspective with a given figure F. 191. we may select any point A' as the point corresponding to a given point A. The axis of perspective of the two figures may thus be regarded as the locus of points (other than the centre of perspective). It is clear that if we were proceeding as in § 191. Then A'X will intersect OB in required point B'. Let B be any other point of F. let Considered as belonging . and any assumed point. and the axis Then again. A'B' are corresponding lines. P be the corresponding point of F' let and considered as belonging to F'. with P. Then it that Q and P' will not coincide. any point P may be considered as belonging to either figure.

^^. BB'. a'j. they are triply in perspective. G'A'B'. 4. a' in J. if . AX.-.2 Then because P lies on . and j4'. Thus. their three axes of perspective are concm-rent. F^ be three figures in perspective two and two in the same plane. it let be the point of intersection of . that A' . and also AC.('3. it is evident line be drawn through Again. or coincide '> with 0. It Fy. A'B'C be two and if A'.1. . . belonging to F^. 1. Ex.^ and suppose that a. Show that all triangles formed by corresponding points of F^. two triangles are doubly in perspective. or coincide with axes of perspective x^^. .^IF be will be the corresponding point to A. Ex. BY. If any cutting a. shown Hence (§ if 165. 195. P being their common centre of perspective.j.IN PERSPECTIVE. a' are a pair of corresponding lines. Another method of constructing a figure with a given figure F. . F^.(3. F^.3 that Q must He on a. is to suppose that the corresponds to a given line of -f is known.i. Ex. 3.. Ex. the triangles . coincides with the corresponding point of Similarly because P lies on x^^. P. Let be the common Let centre of perspective intersect in P. Y.. 5) that AA'. C'iTwill be concurrent.rj.s of -fj- Hence P must lie on x. 194 Ex. x-^^^ their three axes of perspective. Z be three points on the axis of perspective. Two figures may be in perspective in more than one way. CZ are concurrent. F^ be three figures in perspective. 2. line of F' in perspective F' which Thus let be the centre of perspective. are in perspective. such that show that A'X. x the axis of perspective. show that if they have a common centre of perspective. CC must also be concurrent. In this case the triangle ABC may be said to be in perspective with the triangles B'C'A'. If ABC. B'Y. But when this is so it may be easily instance.^ it coincides with the corresponding point a. in either case the three x^^^ ^""6 concurrent.^^^. x^_-^. having a common axis of perspective. Q then as before may be proved 0.r^. considered ^'3. F-^. For ABC. BG\ CA' are concurrent. In the latter case.j. A'B'C may be so situated that AB'. BA' CB'. ''2. show that the three centres of perapective are coUinear. F^ in the last Ex. -x. triangles in perepective. If Fy. 123 be regarded as the lines Likewise the centre of perspective point through which pass all may self-corresponding straight except one —the axis of perspective.

OP will cut A'Y in P'.124 CONSTRUCTION OF FIGURES line of F. The construction of F' is very similar to the previous a' is construction. so that P' is that point of F' which corresponds to P. then the corresponding point A oi F ]s at infinity. then line a line parallel to the axis of perspective. Draw any through cutting a' in A'. If we suppose P and P' given in the last figure. And if P be any point on AY. take the line at infinity in either figure as one of our given Then any line in the other figure which is parallel to the axis of perspective may be taken as the corresponding line. cutting the axis of perspective in F. cutting the axis of perspective in Y. we can easily find the line of F' which corresponds to the line at infinity . any and the line a in A. We may lines. Draw any line A Y parallel to OA'. Then YA' will be the corresponding line of F'. Then A'Y will be the line of F' which corresponds to A Y. Thus let a be the line at infinity. 197. 196.

125 perspective in Thus we have only to draw any line P F to meet the axis of F. be that line of F' which corresponds Ex. are be inscribed in one Its three diagonals intersect in the point 0. B' . it is evident that XX' to the line at infinity will be that line of the figure in the figure It BCB'C. to the axis of perspective will to the line at infinity in F. and AA' for the axis of perspective.IN PERSPECTIVE. and let BB'. in F. the lines and BC. C be the pairs of opposite vertices of the tetragram . C . which will at infinity on the line OA'. AB drawn through in perspective with the triangle B'C. then P'F will cut the line through parallel to be the point of P' corresponding to the point Therefore the line through A' parallel PY in A'. and circumscribed about and Unes are drawn Show that the points in which these lines parallel to the sides. I'. 1890. [Triu. another.Show that CA AB. 198. may 2.1. the sides opposite to those to which they are parallel. 2. be noticed that XX' is parallel to A A'. B'C'BC which corresponds Hence the theorem is proved. we may consider the figure B'C'BC as in perspective with the figure BCB'C If OA' be and if OA'' be drawn parallel to B'C drawn parallel to BC to meet B'C in X. form a triangle which is the'lines AX. BY.. A' . A hexagon can Ex. 3. BC. CC intersect in 0. that these four points of intersection on a straight line. CA' A'B' in A'. through intersect collinear. B. formed by . CA. Coll. gram lines are Through the point of intersection of two diagonals of a tetradrawn respectively parallel to the four sides and intersecting Prove lie respectively the sides opposite to those to which they are parallel. B'. C.] Let A. Taking for centre of perspective. CZ. to meet BC in A''. circle Ex. The lines joining the vertices of the triangle ABC to any point intersect i»rallel to intersect the opposite sides in A'.

so that F' shall be a simpler figure. lines a'. Ex. 1. we take for our centre of perspective. it is new figure will be a parallelogram. and the axis of perspective. c. d' are parallel to the line joining to the point bd. has the diagonal joining the points figure bd for a diameter. Ex. . us take for our axis of perspective a line parallel to the diagonal joining the points easy to see that the if bd. Further. Show that the middle points of the diagonals of a tetragram are coUinear. 2. b'. we can often form a figure F' which shall be in perspective with a given figure F. The advantage gained by so doing is that we are able to discover properties of the figure of the simpler figure F'. d be the four sides of any tetragram. Then if we suppose the line corre- sponding to this diagonal in the new figure to be at infinity. For the ac. b. the new becomes a rectangle. Show that the lines joining any point to the opposite vertices of a tetragram form a pencil in involution. and ac. F by transforming known properties let Thus let a. THEOREMS EXTENDED BY By suitably choosing the centre of perspective. c' are parallel to the line joining to the point and 200.126 199. a point on the circle which ac.

Ex.THE METHOD OF PERSPECTIVE. and be similar to another given triangle. Any line cuts the opposite pairs of connectors of a tetrastigm in a range in involution. Ex. 3. 6. corresponding theorem for any tetragram. 5. Ex. Prove this theorem by forming a figure in perspective. such that one connector of the given figure becomes the line at infinity in the new figure. Show that a triangle can always be constructed which shall be in perspective with one given triangle. Generalise the theorem in Ex. Ex. 2. . 127 Obtain the The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. 4.

ADC BAC. however. It is. A'C'B'. Two triangles are said to be similar when they are equiangular. triangle 2. If ABC AA'. It is proved in Euclid (Bk.4 Z) be the perpendicular from the right angle on the hypotenuse. BB'. let BAC be a right-angled triangle. G'A'B'. Then the triangles BDA. CC be the perpendiculars from the vertices of the on the opposite sides. BOA. or corre- sponding. GAB when are respectively equal to the angles triangles A'B'C. 4) that the sides of one triangle are proportional to the homologous. 1. but.. Similar triangles. sides of the other. 202. are directly similar. the similar . Prop. As an illustration. BOA. show that they are Ex. to the same triangle. the triangles are said to be inversely similar. A'B'C be two similar triangles: then. THE THEORY OF SIMILAR FIGURES. If two triangles be inversely similar directly similar to each other. the angles are said to be directly ABC. 201. B'C'A'.CHAPTEK IX. show that the triangles AB'C\ A'BC. but each is inversely similar to the triangle Ex. . and let . vi. CAB are respectively equal to the angles C'B'A'. from the case senses. necessary to distinare measured in opposite guish the case when the angles of the triangles are measured in the same sense. B'A'C. when the angles ABC. when they Let ABC.

9 . 5. PBQ Ex. A'BC be inversely similar. 203. at once that OA' L. X / o*'^-:. cutting one circle in P. B. 3. that the triangles APQ. evident that they are directly are also in perspective. Two circles cut in and through B two lines Q'. and that their point of intersection will lie on the C circumcircle of the triangle A'B'C ABC. for their axis of perspective consequently the lines joining corre- sponding vertices are concurrent. If the triangles show that {A'BC)+{B'CA) + {C'AB) = {ABC). having the line at infinity . : OR OG'=OA OB : : : 00. 4. 7. E. Show are drawn. F be the middle points of the points A. If D. show that the Ex. Let A'BC be any triangle having its sides parallel to the and let be the centre corresponding sides of the triangle of perspective. A'B'C are directly similar to each other. parallel respectively to BC. PBQ. show that the AB will drawn through A'. Triangles so situated are said to be hoviotketic. Ex. The first Brocard triangle of any triangle is inversely similar to it. 6. Since the corresponding sides are parallel. it follows ABC . Ex. Ex. P' and the other in Q. and the centre of perspective is called their homothetic centre. 129 but inversely similar to the triangle ABC. B . be concurrent. When They two triangles are placed so that their correparallel. AP'Qf are directly similar. If the triangle lines A'B'C be inversely similar to the triangle ABC. it is sponding sides are similar. CA.SIMILAR FIGURES. the sides of the triangle ABC. triangle DBF is directly similar to the triangle ABC.

it appears the point has to the triangle ABC. . A'B'C' be any two triangles which are directly Let BG. It is obvious that the triangles similar. Hence. We into such a position as to be homothetic with the other triangle. which can be easily found. so as to come A"B"G". It is evident that the triangles similar to the triangles that whatever relation AOB. BOG. Let ABC. A"B"C". C"OA". and let A'B'C be turned about into the position the homothetic centre 0. shall now show that any two triangles which are directly have a centre of similitude. it has ABC. COA are directly A" OB". To find the centre of similitude of two triangles which are directly similar. CXC intersect in the point 0. called the centre The triangles point is of similitude of the two ABC. all and the angles at which the corresponding sides intersect are equal. B"OC". A"B"C". It will be perceived that when the centre of similitude is known. it is easy to see that the angles AOA". CENTRE OF SIMILITUDE OF TWO Let ABC. by turning one of the triangles about the centre it may be brought similar. the orthocentre of the triangle centre of the triangle For instance.130 204. 205. it a similar relation to the triangle A"B"G". B'C intersect in the point X. then. and let the of circumcircles the triangles BXB'. if were would also be the ortho- A"B"C". BOB". COG". A'BC be two homothetic triangles. similar. ABC are directly and that OA" OB" OC" = OA:OB : : : OC. Further.

then the locus of C will also circle. also that if the locus of 5 be a circle. Hence coincide with OG. ABG. Show be a Ex. in points which form a triangle directly similar to each of them. A'B'C be two triangles which are directly similar. If two directly similar triangles be inscribed in the same show that the centre of the circle is their centre of similitude. OB' shall if GXG'. show that their centres of similitude are the feet of the perpendiculars from the orthocentre on the medians of the triangle. OB. It is evident that the triangles 131 BOG. show that the locus of the centre of similitude wiU be a circle.DIRECTLY SIMILAK TRIANGLES. its it is easy to see that the triangle A'B'G' in new position will be homothetic to the triangle is ABG. Exam. B move on a fixed straight line. The construction given intersection of in § 205 requires a sUght modification when X. EC coincides with B or C. 4. and if . the centre of similitude of the two triangles Ex. 1885. Let us 9—2 . AOB are directly similar to the triangles A'OC. BOG' are directly similar. BOB' are each equal to the angle the triangle A'B'G' be turned about the point through an angle equal to G'OG. circle. 207. If if ABC be show that the vertex a triangle of constant shape. A' OB'. Sch. 2. If triangles directly similar to a given triangle be described on the perpendiculars of anotber triangle. also that the pairs of Show homologous sides of the triangles intersect [Trinity Coll. Hence the triangles j4 OC. the point of BC. so that the lines OG'. and if A'B'C be turned about any point in its plane. the vertex C will move along another straight Une. 206. 3. Further. the angles GOG'. 1.] Ex.i be a fixed point. Ex. Thus A'B'G'. If the triangle ABC.

Ex. show that Ex.^ meet the circumcircle of the triangle ABD H. the centre of similitude will be the at and touches point of intersection of the circle which passes through Again. triangle of the triangle ABC. C be taken on the sides AB. Ex. BC. CA of the A . Then. In the show that the circumcentre of the ABC coincides with the orthocentre of the triangle A'BC. and the circle which passes through C and touches B BC at B. 6. If triangles be described on the sides of the triangle ABC. 3. CA. show triangle ABB. DAE. Ex. the circle which passes through BC B C" coincide with the point B. show that the three centres of similitude of these triangles taken two at a time. If points A'. If triangles the ABC. if B. in In the same case. show that the its positions is centre of similitude of the triangle A'B'C in any two of the circumcentre of the triangle last case ABC. be the centre of similitude of the directly similar that AO passes through the symmedian point of Ex. B. 4. 1. AH is bisected in the point 0. 5. if . so as to be directly similar to each other.132 suppose that CENTRE OF SIMILITUDE will be passes through B. BC 208. triangle Ex. 2. A'B of the triangle ABC. If points A'. C be taken on the sides BC. B. are the vertices of the second Brocard See § 134. so that the triangle A'B'C is directly similar to the triangle ABC. the centre of similitude the point of intersection of the circle circumscribing the triangle BCC\ and and touches BC at B.

is C be taken on the sides CA. respectively. Q AA'C. B'. If a triangle A'BC be inscribed in a given triangle ABC. in Show that the is centre of similitude 0' of the triangle A" B'C" any two of its positions Ex.] to the triangle Show that ABC. which form another triangle of constant shape. new position of A'B'C. CC'B. at the points A'. so that 7. triangle A'B'C directly similar to the triangle AB. X . O is the same Brocard point of the triangle A'B'C. show that the centre of similitude is a fixed point. [Townsend. triangle 133 to the triangle ABC. and it follows by § 116. and let a triangle be constructed so as to be homothetic to the triangle A'B'C ABC. Taylor. so that its plane coinLet A"E'C" be the cides with the plane of the triangle ABC. a fixed point. 0. and the circles It is easily seen that the angles QA'B'. will touch A'B'. show that the centre of similitude is the other Brocard point. & are Let ABC be any given triangle.] Ex. M. qBC. QBC. Then.] isogonal conjugates with respect [Casey. Ex. [H. show that the centre of simili- tude of the triangle A'B'C. and C. If a triangle A'BC of constant shape be inscribed in a given triangle ABC. Suppose the triangle A'B'C to be turned about the line OX through an angle equal to two right angles. Hence. BB'Q. Ex. 8. BB'A'. 9. the angles QAB. so as to be always directly similar to a given triangle. B'. triangle ABC the ciroumcircle of the triangle A'BC meets the sides of the in three points A". in any two of its positions is a fixed point. will lie a be the centre of similitude. QCA are equal.OF SIMILAR TRIANGLES. B'C. so that the ABC. B". CC'Q. C". 10. is one of the Brocard points of the triangle ABC. If points A'. Let scribing the triangles on the circles circumAA'Q. and OX any line through 209. QC'A' are each equal to qAB. BC. the points 0. so that the triangle A'B'C is directly similar ABC. that Q. Let be the homothetic centre. C'A'.

if we divide the lines BB'. if would also be the orthocentre of the triangle A"B"C". KL must be the axis of similitude. COO" OC. Hence. PQ" be drawn then Thus in the let P be any arbitrary point. Since the triangles similar to the triangles F'OG". A"OB" are BOC. OCA. be the centre of similitude. A"B"C". are bisected OX : and that OA" OB" OC" = OA:OB: Further. COC. C'OA". triangles The point is called the centre of similitude of the ABC. so that the perpendiculars from BC BC. To find the centre and axis of similitude of two triangles which are inversely similar. CO A. and the line OX the axis of similitude of the triangles. AOA". A OB. if are inversely similar. OX will be parallel to the internal bisector of the angle QPQ". A"B"C". Let ABC. OA"B" line : from the figure that the are inversely similar to the OBG. B"C" respectively. B'OC on BC. same BC. and an axis of similitude. L. by the OCA". A"B"C". 211. We similar. it follows that the axis of similitude must bisect the angles BOB'. OAB. ABC. : Consequently B'C must be in BC. CC in the points K. It is evident that when the axis of similitude is known. BOB". the line XO will divide the angle BXB whose sines are as . 210. that the angles . : : : Again the as triangles BOC. so that If it is evident that BK KB = CL LC = BG B'C. A'B'C be two triangles which are inversely similar. one of the triangles may be rotated about it so as to be brought into a position in which it is homothetic to the other triangle.134 CENTRE OF SIMILITUDE OF TWO It is obvious that the triangle A"B"C" is inversely similar to the triangle triangles triangles ABC. shall now show that any two triangles which are inversely have a centre of similitude. and directions as let PQ. it were the orthocentre of the triangle For instance. we see that the line OX is parallel to the internal bisector of the angles between corresponding sides of the triangles ABC. B'C intersect into parts the same ratio in X. the point inversely will have the same relative position with respect to the triangles ABC. It is also evident OB"C".

OB. Ex. C. ABC. triangles ABC.] Ex. be taken so that OA' : OA = OB' OB = OG' : : 0(7= &c. the last example. Hence the and Ex. show that the axis of perspective of the triangles passes through the centre of the circle. sponding points in the same Ex. the axis of similitude of the triangles. Ex. 5.. Thus a point can be found so that the triangles BOG. Sch. B... is OAG. Let F denote any figure consisting of the system of points A. that KL bisects the angle AOA'. similar. 13a BG : B'C.INVERSELY SIMILAR TRIANGLES.. the triangles OA'B'. and if A A'. two figures directly similar. B'. CC be drawn parallel to any given straight line meeting the circle in the points A'. 212. 4. show that the triangles ABC. C. Show that the If axis of similitude divides the lines joining correratio. 2. triangles A'B'C when S'C Ex. B. Find the centre and axis of similitude of the coincide. points to any point On the lines OA. KL ] . OA'C are inversely similar to the triangles OAB. A'B'C when B and C 3. B'OC are inversely similar.. G'. two triangles be inscribed in the same circle so as to be inversely show that the In triangles are in perspective. It is obvious that when has been found in this way. If ABC be any triangle inscribed in a circle. BB.. . and that their axis of perspective will pass through the centre of the circle. OG. [Trinity Coll. Find the centre and axis of similitude of the passes through B. let points A'. Exam. and centre. A'B'C will be inversely similar. 6. Properties of 213. 1885. connecting these in the same plane.

. JS. 214. the triangles triangles OA'B'. be the corresponding points of F'. the corresponding points A'. . a. that the straight lines C of F' are also collinear. . BOB'. F and and F' be two homothetic let figures. ABC. OBC. also evident that is any three points A. Hence. and the point is called the homothetic centre. .136 PROPERTIES OF TWO Then the figure F'. B'. are directly similar to the OB'C. Also equal to it is a. . This also follows by considering that the two figures in perspective. . A'B'C are parallel.. . is and that each such as AB. of the figure F form a triangle which homothetic to the triangle formed by the corresponding points A'.. C'. that two figures similar F and F' in the same plane : will be directly when a correspondence can be established between the (i) To each point of F (ii) The distance between every pair of corresponding points subtends the same angle at a fixed point 0. consisting of the points A'. . through an angle a.. B.. is called the centre of similitude of the two 215. C. B. the homothetic F' be turned about the point 0. : Then we have : : OA' OA = OB' OB = OC 00= kc. such that corresponds one point and only one point of F'.is said to be komothetic to the figure F.. It is evident that if ^. (iii) The distance of each point of F points of the two figures.. be any points of F. if If two figures be homothetic. and let A'. two figures are said to be directly similar. C oi F'.. B'. B'. so that the position of with respect exactly similar to its position with respect to the other figure. C be any three collinear points of F. B'... and. C. to every straight line of the figure F corresponds a parallel straight line of the figure F'.. from the definition given in the last article. evident that each of the angles line of F. AOA'. It follows. This point figures. the. to one figure is OAB. so that the theorems of § 191 hold for F and F' are homothetic It is figures. and one of them be turned through any angle about the homothetic centre. . makes with the corresponding line A'B' of F' an angle equal to Again. Let A. Let centre. ..

Id applying this criterion to any two figures it is necessary to be careful as which angle is taken as the angle between two conesponding lines. F and F' will be Two maps is directly similar. so that the lines OA. It follows at once that if two maps of the same country be placed on a table. A'. Then the angle between the to corresponding lines AB. table.FIGURES DIRECTLY SIMILAR. and a pin circle. Show that through any given point one and only one pair of corresponding lines of two similar figures can be drawn. let A. circles are directly similar figures. A'B' is to be taken as equal to XOX'. If P. two coplanar similar figures be show that the locus of the centre of similitude will be a Ex. Hence show that any two of the same country. points 0'. .. Through any arbitrary point draw OX parallel to and in the same direction as AB. 216. whose centre of similitude is show that will pass if the locus of P be a circle passing through 0. 2. fixed 4. . Ex. Again two each line of line of F'. B' the corresponding points of F'. P" he a. A'. OA = 0'B' OB = &c. 1. If a pair of corresponding points of figures and the moved about circle.. Ex. B'... and OX' in the same direction as A'B'. in their plane. B. points 0. OB. from 137 bears a constant ratio to the distance of the corresponding point of F' from 0. pair of corresponding points of two similar figures . on diflFerenf scales. are equally inclined to the lines O'A'. Thus. For in this case we can by proceeding as in § 205. C. F and F' will be directly similar.. Ex. Show : that &A' the figures Ex. 217. A. 6. . B ha any two points of F. are placed on a put through both maps at a given point If one of the maps be moved about show that the locus of the centre of similitude will be a 3. 5. O'B".. Ex. which same place on the two maps. The of a figure F if correspond to the .. the line Pi" through a fixed point. Directly similar figures might also have been defined to be diagrams of the same figure drawn to different scales in the same plane. and ouly one point. of another figure F'. when (i) makes a constant angle with the corresponding and (ii) the triangle formed by every three points of figures F F is directly similar to the triangle formed by the corresponding find the centre of similitude points of F'. there will indicate the is one point. C".

if ABC. similar points. through an angle equal to two right angles. and the circumcentre of the latter is the orthocentre of the former. if O. 2. and AA'. E. R. the median point of the triangle E'aa' coincides with the median if point of the given triangle. If ABC be the triangle. Brocard triangle are conciirrent. BB'. PROPERTIES OF TWO FIGURES If A. 219. line and the homothetic centre. Q. it directly similar figures. that. C' denote the and E' denote the isotomic conjugate point of the symmedian point of the triangle. 1. and D. of a triangle Ex. and if P. D. B. A'B'C be the two triangles. Show that Show the lines which connect the middle points of the corre- sponding sides of a triangle and Ex. (e. Brocard points of a given triangle. OX. two figures inversely similar. DEF are median point of the ABC. the triangle DEF is homothetic to the triangle ABC. similar. Then. ABC. it is Given any two triangles which are directly easy to see that similar points of the two triangles will correspond. triangle F be the middle points of the sides. and the median point of any triangle are collinear. 7. F the middle points of the sides. C. show that the figure PQRS is directly 218. 4. That is to say. F' in its new is figure F. D be any four points on a circle.138 Ex. Let F and plane. DAB. CC are the perpendiculars on the sides of the '. the circumoentre.g. in its F' be any two homothetic figures in the same Let F' be turned about any plane. the figure the position is said to be inversely siviilar to so that its plane coincides with the plane of F. 5. What meant by inverse similarity is easily understood by considering F and F' to be drawings of the same map on different . similar to the figure ABCD. S be the orthocentres of the triangles BCD. JCC meet in a point which and orthocentre of the triangle ABC. Ex. its first Ex. the symmedian points of the triangles collinear with the ABC. centre of similitude of the two figures. 3. E. Show that the lines collinear with the circumcentre LA MB'. When follows that the line joining the two triangles two similar points such as P and P' must pass through the Ex. Show that if ABC be any triangle. ABC. CDA. then P and P' any ABCP and A'B'CP' are are homothetic. the orthocentres of the triangles). Properties of 220. Show that the orthocentre. The tangents to the circumoircle ABC form the is triangle triangle LMN.

lines correspond to the line through . 7) of the triangle centi-e of similitude of ABC. A'OC. 2. will it is evident that the triangles A' OB'.. which was originally the homothetic centre is and OX is called the axis of similitude. : : OX will bisect each of the angles A OA' BOB'. if be the centre of similitude and OX the axis of Then similitude. Ex. Hence follows that the centre of similitude will have similar relations to the 222. 139 Let us suppose F' to be drawn on transparent paper. 1. C on show that the circumceutre of ABC is that point ABC. T is called Tarry's point (§ 135.. Ex. B.r be the symmedian point of the first Brocard triangle of the if S be the circumcentre. Further. then the reverse side of F' is inversely similar to the figure F. the through the vertices of each parallel to the sides of the other are concurrent. in 3. . . and A'.. and T Tarry's point of the triangle ABC. P If be the points of concurrence. INVERSELY SIMILAR. and if A'B'C intersect of A'B'C which corresponds to the point T.. . two figures. called the centre of similitude of the inversely similar figures. Let ^ jB. show that LK" is parallel to TS. . L the Lemoine centre. If P. If A are inversely similar. and and A' be corresponding points of two figures which u. show that the line drawn will through A' parallel to a Ex. Ex. The point Ex. and its face do^vnwa^ds on the face of F. show that P and P are corre- sponding points.. . and will be parallel to the internal bisectors of the angles between the corresponding lines of the two figures. laid with The point the line 221.. the corresponding points of an inversely similar figure F'.1 parallel to a. B'. G' . C. : OA' Also the axis . . and . is any triangle and its first The Ex. a corresponding lines. . Find the axis of similitude and Brocard triangle.. Ex. COC . A'BC be the first Brocard triangle of the triangle the sides of the triangle the perpendiculars from A. OA = OB' OB = OC 0C= &c. A'B'C be two triangles which are inversely similar. be any points of a figure F. we clearly have as in § 209. scales. 5. 4. If ABC. B'OC.. If triangle ABC. 13). . T. be inversely similar to the triangles it AOB. centre of similitude the median point of the triangles (§ 135. AOC. BOG.

on which the figures are drawn the constant angles at which corresponding The scales be lines of the figures intersect will be denoted by aj . Then we have. circumeircle of this triangle It will be convenient to explain here the notation which will be used in will the following articles. so . SiKS^ are constant and therefore the point K must lie on the Since three corresponding lines form a triangle in perthat the centre of spective with the triangle of similitude.140 PROPERTIES OF THREE Properties of three figures directly similar.F. circle SiS^Ss. ^u<^ corresponding lines by x^. x^. and the called the circle of similitude. X3KX1. That is. the triangle formed by the lines a^i. In evei-y system of three directly similar figures. F^. The perpen- dicular distance of any point P from a line x will be denoted by Px. t^. iCj. X3 be any three corresponding lines. The is triangle formed called the triangle of similitude of the figures is by the three centres of similitude S^. W/2 • -**- ^3 ^ ''^l • "'2 • "^3 • Now since x^. denoted by l\. corresponding points will be denoted by P^. they intersect each Oj. let . are kno\\Ti. .. X2. Oo^g 02"?1 ^~ ATg • tC-y J Therefore S^^3_^. similar . If. x. F^.. F3 and ^1 and S^ that of F-^ and F„. X3. 02. it is evident that Ji £Ci I ji. Let Xi. X^KX. x^. S3. and the locus of the centre of perspective is 224. the triangle formed by three corresponding lines is in perspective with the triangle of similitude. other at angles equal to Hence the angles of the triangle X1X2X3 X1KX2 225. the angles SJiISs. F^ be any three figures which are directly S^ that of S-^ be the centre of similitude of F^ and F^ . a^.K'bethe centre of perspective of the triangles SiS^S. is in perspective with the triangle of similitude SiS^S^. the circle of similitude. and therefore the angles are constant. forming the triangle X^.F^. Mj. S^. x^. k^. 03 . are corresponding lines.^ ^ O1X3 02^2 ^3X2 Hence by § 179. . Pji A. S3KS1. Let ^1. 223. X^.X^X^Xs. ajj.

Xj. perspective is 141 it a point on the circle of similitude. /i. and the triangle formed by them is called the Ex.2KS1.2. that the angles I3KS2. X3 cut the circle of similitude in the points it x^. 226. : Thus we have the theorem Every triad of corresponding lines which are concurrent pass through three fixed points on the circle of similitude. 1. circle of similitude are called the invariable points. These fixed points on the invariable triangle. IiKS. T3. . Show that the invariable points of a system of three similar figures are corresponding points. X. X2. and let K be the point of intersection. Let Xi. *^1 Then we have 2 " ^^1^3 ^~ "'2 "^S • Hence S^K whose sines are Let Since is divides the angle between x^ and x^ into parts in a constant ratio. follows that if three corresponding lines are concurrent their point of intersection is a point on the circle of similitude. follows that the angles I.FIGURES DIRECTLY SIMILAR. /j.. X3 be any three corresponding lines which are concurrent. /j. tt follows that the angle equal to — Oi. I3 are fixed points on the circle of similitude. Hence it I^KSi are constant. I1KS3. /s-fiT/. And similarly we can show constant. and IiKSi are Therefore Jj. x^ are corresponding lines.

If three corresponding points he collinear. Is the triangles P1P2P3. Pj. KI^. Ex. Hence 7i. 228. K. 7. 4. show that /iT/i.142 Ex. But these lines intersect on the circle of similitude. and Let Pi. P3 be any three corresponding points. The triangle formed hy any three corresponding points of three directly similar figures. is a point on the circle of simihtude. the locus of their centre of perspective is the circle of similitude. x^. x-[x{x^. be in perspective. I2. distances of proportional to k^. Ex. If K be the centre of perspective of the triangle formed by three corresponding lines x^. x^ respectively.. /j. Pi be three corresponding points which are collinear. Show that the centre of similitude of the triangles formed by two triads of corresponding lines. 81828^'.1. KI3 are parallel to x^. 1-J-Ji are in perspective. 3. If iSj' be that point of F-^ which corresponds to /j are coUinear. Let Pi. are points . 2. 6. If two triangles. F^. x. show that 8^. is in perspective with the invariable triangle. and IiI^Iz are copolar. if and K directly similar triangles 0:1^2^3 . Ex.^. /2P2. show that the from the sides of the invariable triangle are inversely Ic^. KI2. ^21 ^3 ^'^^ ^11 ^ii ^i ^^ *^o triads of corresponding lines. the lines /jP. I3P3 are corresponding lines. formed by two triads of corresponding points. [Tarry. i^. their line of collinearity will pass through the centre of perspective of the triangle of similitude and the invariable triangle. 5. 8( and Ex. Pi. PROPERTIES OF THREE Show that the triangle formed by any three corresponding lines is inversely similar to the invariable triangle. If ^1. 3. show that the triangles 8^828^. Since Jj. Then if be the invariable points. show that and K' are corresponding points of the Ex. K Show that the invariable triangle is in perspective with the If be the centre of perspective. Ex.^ or F^.] 229. P. KI^ are corresponding lines of the figures F^. If be any point on the circle of similitude. I3 be the invariable points. 2. show that KI^. K' be the centres of perspective of the triangles x-^x^^. since they pass through the invariable points. triangle of similitude. Ex. let Ii. 8^' be similar points corresponding to 8^ and 8^. S-^ considered as a point of F. 227. x-l^x{x^ and the triangle of similitude. If 8. x^ and the triangle of similitude. Ex. and the centre of perspective is a point on the circle of similitude. F^. 1.

of ^1 and triangles /S3P1P2 is /o. S^PiP. circumcircle of the triangle S^OSs. the angle SiP^O fore to the angle SsP^P^. Ex. the corresponding points of F«. follows that the S3I1I. each of them lies on a fixed circle. and P3 on the circle SfiS^. P. the angle equal to the angle /SsZi/j. fig^ures. The sides of the triangle ABC wiW be corresponding lines. and the circle of similitude will be the Brocard circle of the triangle. and there- Therefore the line PiP-Ps must pass through the point 0. 3) . considered as It is evident then that S^' must lie on the a point of Pa or F3. and . Therefore..FIGURES DIRECTLY SIMILAR. Pi will coincide with the point /S/ of the figure Pi which corresponds to the point S.2. is equal to the angle S^SM. the angle S^SsO. and therefore to the angle S3S2O. the triangle of similitude of the figures will be the second Brocard triangle of the ABC triangle ABC (§ 208. Similarly. S-iOS^. It is evident from the last article that when three corresponding points Pi. Hence. Pj lies on the circumcircle of the triangle S^OSs. we can show that the angle S^PiP^ is equal to Hence the angle SiPiSs is equal to the angle lie Therefore Pj must on the circuincircle of S2OS3. 230. on the circumcircle of the triangle S^OS^. are directly similar. If Pa and P3 coincide with Si. P. That is. Special cases of three directly similar 231. Pj. are collinear. If three figures be described on the sides of the triangle so as to be directly similar to each other. 143 it P.

it follows from § 226. and that K' will be the symmedian point of the triangle PQR. so that B'G' : : = BG GA AB. For A". 5). AB. : : . G" are the centres of similitude. A"B"G" are in perspective. Ex. G'A' But the A'B' triangles A'B'G'. the triangle of similitude. and A"B"G" the second Brocard triangle of the triangle ABG. and A'. the triangles A'B'G'. ABG are inversely similar. B'B". it G from the sides of the triangle ABG are inversely proportional to KT^. follows that the distances of Let A'A". and A"B"C". GA. 6. G'C" are concurrent. B'. Hence A'. Hence by § 226. G'G" intersect in 0. be the triangle formed by any three corresponding K' be the centre of perspective of the triangles PQR. Ex. Thus If three directly similar figures be described on the sides a triangle. the lines A' A". GA. any three corresponding lines form a triangle whose of symmedian point lies on the Brocard circle of the given triangle.Ki. C be the first Brocard triangle. and therefore are inversely proportional to BG. If lines.144 PROPERTIES OF SIMILAR FIGURES of the centre of perspective of this triangle and the triangle similitude will be the symmedian point of A BC. be the symmedian point of the triangle ABC. KB'. B". G' are the respectively. G' the invariable points of three directly similar figures described on the sides of the triangle ABG. Let K AB invariable points of the system (§ 226.K^. parallel to BC. If A'B'G' be the first Brocard triangle. 4. B'. 4. Ex. and let Then KA'. B'B". B'. KG' are A'. that the triangle PQR will be directly similar to ABC. PQR and if : 232. Ex. then by § 226.

. A'C. directly similar to each other show that their vertices form a triangle in perspective with the firat Brocard triangle of the triangle ABC. where the orthocentre. A'BC.3. henoe BA'.A'B. If the triangle AB". B". be denoted by F^. and intersect on the Brocard The lines. also that each vertex lies on a circle. CO. the perpendiculars at the middle points of L.2. be coUinear. Ex. If in the last case the vertices collinearity passes through the Show If circle . similar to the triangle ABC and therefore The centres of similitude of these directly similar to each other. F. F be the middle points of the sides of the triangle and A". . F^ respectively. F^ is SQQ' formed by the circumcentre and the Brocard points of the triangle ABC. the triangle whose sides are whose sides are A'B. tria. [Neuberg. Ex. CR be parallel. Similar isosceles triangles sides of a triangle ABC. B'. also that the Show symmedian points of the triangles are the invariable points of the system. 10 . Q. triangle 145 is of 4). CB'. ARB are described on the ABC. e\-identh' the points A'. show that their median point of the triangle ABC.igle show that the triangle of similitude of F^. AC are concurrent. Triangles are described on the sides of a triangle . B". 233. and if two of the lines AP. Then the perpendiculars at the middle points of AB. AC. and the triangle BPC. C. A are corresponding points of three directly similar figures described on the sides of ABC.] drawn perpendicular A'B'C are inversely AA'. A"B"G. C'A"G. Ex. CA'. 5. This point also the Ex. the lines BA'. triangles are 234 Let ABC be any triangle.CONNECTED WITH A TRIANGLE. These are called McCay's circles. the BC. E. C" the middle points of AO. If P. BQ. 1. BO.figures described on the sides of the triangle ABC. A'R But these lines meet in the point F. line of Ex. CB'. Then the triangles ABC. C. G be the median point lie the vertices three circles A". is Let D. CQA. points B. CC be A B'C. A'B'C. § 225. Similarly. and let to the sides. show that the three are parallel. Hence G is the median point median point oi ABC (§ 222. B'C. are corresponding lines. CA. F^. so as to be and the theorem follows from 2. circle. Show that if A'B'C be the first Brocard triangle of the ABC. 4. Ex. AC are corresponding ABC. BR. C" the vertices of the second Brocard on the circumcircles of B"CG. R be corresponding points of three directly similai.

A ^« corresponding points of the triangles ABC. 6. by that is. C" to the in-centres of the AB'C. by three corre- sponding lines Ex. 3. Ex. in points Every line which passes through the orthocentre of the triangle ABC meets the Ex. ABC. Therefore A" is one of the invariable points of the sj'stem. C"P^ meet the nine-point circle in the point which is the isogonal conjugate. E. and the perpenB'C. CA'B' respectively cointersect in the point of contact of the nine-point circle of the triangle ABC with its inscribed circle. BC'A'. D. D. Show that three corresponding lines of the triangles A B'C. F are points on the circle of similitude . B". Ex. 4. 235. § 225. 5. on the nine-point The three lines joining A". E. 1. B'C which meet in D A Hence. . Pji for the three triangles. lie on the circle of similitude. F. A'BC which are corresponding points If P. C" to corresponding points of the three triangles cointersect on the nine-point circle of Ex. A'BC. A'BC. B". circle. Hence the nine points C. the perpendiculars at the middle points of B'C. B". A'BC. diculars at the middle points of lines. 2. C C are the other invariable points. A'. A' B'C form a triangle in perspective with the triangle A'B'C. A". B". triangles Show that the lines joining A". show that ^"Pj. A B' Hence lie meet in A". with respect to the of the point at infinity on the line joining triangle A'B'C. B'. the circle A' B'C Again. Show that lies the circumcentre of the triangle formed circle. AB'C. B"P^. Similarly B". AC. BC. on a Ex. A". of ABC A'B'C. C. circumcircles of the triangles AB'C. P to the cir- cumcentre of ABC.146 PROPERTIES OF SIMILAR FIGURES in A'C which meet are corresponding E are corresponding lines. Pi.

Ex. 5. 147 Ex. If directly similar triangles be described on the perpendiculars of a given triangle. passes through the and G symmedian point of the triangle. 3. AO that the line joining the feet of the perpendiculars from respectively. show on AG. show that the is triangle LMX is inversely similar to the triangle ABC. If (7 be the median point. and that the centre of the symmedian point of each. show that the line of coUinearity will pass through the symmedian point of the given triangle. 236. and the orthocentre of the triangle ABC. similitude of these triangles Ex. so that their three vertices are coUinear.CONNECTED WITH A TRIANGLE. 4. 2. If X. 1. Ex. N be the invariable points of these figures. If directly similar figures be described on the perpendiculars of a triangle A BC. is the line joining the median point of the triangle to the orthocentre. show that the circle of similitude will bo the circle whose diameter Ex. Show lies that any three corresponding lines form a triangle whose median point on the circle of similitude. J/. 10—2 .

237. . case. and no straight line can be drawn to cut a circle in more than two points. A straight In this points. A CIRCLE is defined to be the locus of a point which moves in one plane so as to be always at a constant distance from a fixed point. This definition of a tangent : may be extended to include the case of any curve The chord joining two consecutive on a curve is (i. indefinitely near) points said to touch the curve.CHAPTER THE CIRCLE. line may meet is a circle in apparently only one point.e. When a straight line does not cut a circle in real points. for. the line said to cut the circle in two coincident and is called a tangent to the circle. A circle is a curve of the second order . Introduction. 238. X. every straight line which cuts a circle meets it in two points. it is said to cut it in two imaginary points.

tangent can be drawn through are coincident. 2. circle. Ex. about the point P. we see that. Show that the Show that envelope of the third side Ex. or Id the case of a any curve of the second order. until the position PT. Hence a circle is a curve of the second class. the tangent at any point will in general cut the curve again. the tangent at any point cannot cut the curve again. circle. 239. Q coincides is the point Q move Then the line PQ turns with P. the two tangents when a circle is treated as a curve of the second any point on it is to be regarded as the point of intersection More generally. A triangle given in species and magnitude is turned about in a plane.: A CIRCLE CONSIDERED AS AN ENVELOPE. It follows that class. It is left to the reader to show that the definition of a tangent to a circle. that is. If we consider the assemblage of lines formed by drawing circle. as given in Euclid. no real tangents can be drawm to . Now along the curve towards the point P. is the envelope of the third side a circle. a Two sides of a given triangle touch two fixed circles. Let 149 P be any point on a curve. only one it . is equivalent to the definition givea above. and let Q be a near point. point are imaginary. The simplest definition of a circle regarded as a curve of is the second class the following to The envelope of a str-aight line tuhich -moves in one plane so as be always at a constant distance from a fixed point is a circle. it is the tangents at every point of a easy to see that two of these lines will pass through any given point. but in the case of curves of order greater than the second. at a finite distance from P. Join PQ. in the of two consecutive tangents. when the latter is turned about so as to coincide with the given line. 240. when PQ Avill have let Thus PT the limiting position of the chord PQ. so that two of its sides is pass through two fixed points. the point of contact of any tangent line is the limiting position of the point in which it intersects a near tangent. I. the tangent lines which pass through such a If the given point be on the circle. . case of a curve of any class. From the circle a point within a circle. that is to say. that is PT is the tangent to the given curve at the point P.

Ex. in the points A circle touches the sides of the triangle 242. and from a point circle in the points P Q on one and R. Then we know that the line joining the middle point of BC to the middle point of AP passes through the centre of this circle (§ 38. will become the P point of contact of the circle with BC. SPECIAL CASES OF GENERAL THEOREMS. of them PA. Q. 4). P. Any point D is taken on the side BC of the triangle ABC. On the other hand a theorem may sometimes be easily recognised as a special case of a general theorem by taking a slightly more particular complicated figure. triangle ABC is perpendicular to the line which joins the middle points of BC. CR are concurrent. Hence the theorem is proved. Show that these circles meet in a point P. 5. and drawn passing through B and touching AB. very often instructive to consider how the enunciation of a theorem requires modification when two or more points. Ex. It is its circumcircle. Ex. position. 2. AC of the triangle. and let the other tangents which can be drawn from B and C meet in P. R. and if its perimeter be given in magnitude. Ex. the envelope of its circumoircle is a Ex. The inscribed circle of the triangle ABC touches the side point P. BC in the AP passes Consider any circle touching the sides AB. Two circles intersect in the points A and B. 3. BQ. or lines. 2. If now we suppose the circle to be drawn smaller and smaller until it touches BC.150 Ex. PB are drawn cutting the other Show that the envelope of QR is a circle. This Ex. show that the lines AP. AC respectively at B and C. two sides of a triangle and its inscribed circle be given in circle. . See § 148. and AD. If two sides of a triangle be given in position. find the envelope of 241. If 4. of a figure coincide. 1. Ex. ABC may be deduced from Pascal's theorem (§ 181). which lies on the circumand that the Simson line of P with respect to the circle of the triangle ABC circles are . show that the Une joining the middle points of BC and through the centre of the circle.

CD}. with respect to the two points in which the line cuts a given circle. where C is the centre. that the angle follows ONR is a right angle. {AB. Ex. CD]. Ex.POLES AND POLARS. If the tangent at B meet CD in T'. show that the chord of contact of the tangents from A will pass through B. Poles and Polars. Hence T and T' coincide. Then we have (§ 54. By § 48. R be which Let P. C. is harmonic. the pencil A Ex. But therefore 0A. OE. that is the pencil A {TB.OQ = OE. ON. circle. Hence it Therefore the points C. and N the the diameter of the cii-cle which passes through with respect to A and B. If a straight line be drawn through a fixed point is the 0. the tangents at A and B intersect on CD.0B = 0P. Therefore the range {TV. and let AB cut CD in V.0Q. R. 243. Ex. the locus of the point R will be a straight line. . Ex. such that the pencil harmonic. Q let and E be the points in which the straight line cuts the be the middle point of PQ. Let the tangent at 4.1) OP. Also if A OB be have 0. N&re concyclic.ob=oc. cut any tangent harmonically. CD} is a harmonic range. we can prove in the same way that {7" V. where P is any other point on the circle show that . is P {AB. A meet CD in T. See § 48. and harmonic conjugate of 0. hamionic conjugate of we shall also oa. 4. 151 If A. 5. CD} D be four points on a circle. B. If the pairs of tangents fifth drawn to a circle from two points.on. A and B. E.OR. if the point taken on it. 3. CD} is harmonic.OR = OC.

and let a circle be drawn through the points C. 244. Then it follows since 00 .0N=OP.OQ = 0A. Consequently. that RNC must be a right angle. the locus of the point jR is the straight line which passes through This straight line to the circle . NR must be the other bisector of the angle PNQ. Q. But in this case the foot of the perpendicular from C may still be regarded as the middle point of PQ. point of the arc Now G is the middle the angle PNQ. Therefore the point R always lies on the straight line which cuts OC at right angles in the point N. and let It be the harmonic conjugate of with respect to the points P. But fore PCQ. The theorem of the last article may also be proved other- wise thus Let PQ be any chord of a given circle which passes through the given point 0. cutting CO in the point N.OB. is that iV a fixed point. It should if the point is without the circle. . and the proof given above applies. the straight line OR may not intersect the circle in real points.: 152 POLAR OF A POINT. P. N {OR. PQ] is a harmonic pencil. therefore CN bisects Thereis. by hypothesis. is called the polar of the point is with respect and the point be noticed that said to be the pole of the line. N and is at right angles to CO. Q. Let C be the centre of the circle.

P'OQ' . it is easy to see that its polar will pass be an external through the points of contact of the circle. and the polar of in the point R. 153 It is evident that the polar of a point within a circle cuts in imaginary points . P be the point of Q coincide with to say. and let any two chords POQ. To construct the polar of a point with respect a given Let be the given point. so also will the point R. circle. line will ultimately coincide with them. so as to make the points Q and Q' approach one another. P is a point to on the polar of 246. Hence. two tangents which can be drawn from to the Let any chord be drawn through the point cutting the circle in Q and Q. if of an external point cuts the circle in real points. when Q and That is the point P. Then if this be turned about the point 0. the point R. which lies between them.CONSTRUCTION OF THE POLAR OF A POINT. 0. the cii-cle and that the polar Further. point. if contact of one of the tangents from 0. 245.

We infer that the polars of every point circle. on the polar of 0. in S'. of intersection of the polars of the points what is the same any two lines is the pole of the two lines. if P'Q' meet SS' in R'. intersect Then since R is on the polar of P. therefore S. 247. MN] is a harmonic range. P is on the Similarly Q is on the polar of R. is the harmonic Thus iJ is a point Similarly. P'Q intersect For 0. the polar of the point or. polar of R. POLAR PROPERTIES. PQ is the in the point R. the point of intersection of line joining the poles of the is . line. {PQ. polar of R. Suppose now that the polars of two points P and Q. S' are the centres of the tetrastigm PP'QQ' . the line joining any two points thing. If the polar of a point through the point Q. it follows that R is a point on the polar of 0. which with respect to P and Q. . Then because PMN cuts P in Q. and POQ conjugate of meets SS' in a point jR. the polar of P Q with respect to a circle pass will pass through P Let the polar of PQ cut the circle in M and N. Hence. . must lie 248. on any straight with respect to a pass through the same point. Therefore P on the polar of Q. Hence SS' is the polar of 0. namely the pole of the straight line.154 be drawn. and let PQ'. Let PP' intersect QQ' in S Then SS' is the polar of 0. Thus.

Let through R be any point on the It. YZ\ is a harmonic range. Q be any two Q each pass is R . 6. and draw their polars the point in which they intersect will be the pole of the given line. If any three points be collinear. If PM. Ex. Q respectively. point in The tangents at the points B and C on a circle intersect in the and the tangent at any point P cuts the sides of the triangle ABC the points X. with on the corresponding sides of the triangle. This theorem furnishes us with a simple method for constructing the pole of a given straight line. . B. A'B'C. a circle. 155 249. A Ex. [Salmon. 4. For take any two points on the line. Ex. 10. That R the pole with respect to the circle of the tangent at R to the circle.] & circle form the triangle A'B'C The tangents at three Show that the centre of points A.. 8. symmedian lines of a triangle. QN be drawn perpendicular to the polars of Q and P. respect to a circle whose centre show that : PM QX=OP Ex. . 1. 5. OQ. circle. Show that the poles with respect to a circle of three concurrent lines are coUinear. POLAR PROPERTIES. and Show that the range {AB. Ex. 2. Ex. 3. let P P and points on the tangent at The polars of and is. show that the line PO will be the harmonic conjugate of the polar of with respect to the tangents from P to the circle. If P be any point on the polar of 0. show that their polars with respect to a circle will be concurrent. is the pole with respect to the circle of the axis of perspective of the triangles. with is : . show that the diagonals of the tetragram formed by them will intersect in the pole of the given line. 9. It follows from § 247 that the polar of circle is the tangent to the is its circle. Y. in involution. If from any two points on a given straight Une. If a chord of a circle pass through a ftxed point. any point on a and that the pole of any tangent and to the circle point of contact. Show that the poles of the lie respect to the circumcircle. 250. Ex. hence R is the pole of PQ. Ex. 7. Ex. Show that {PX. Z. Any two points the polars of P and Q cut §§'} is P and Q are taken on a chord AB of AB in the points P. C on perspective of the triangles ABC. pairs of tangents be drawn to a circle. the point of intersection of the tangents at its extremities is the polar of the point with respect to the circle. Ex. the locus of 251. PF.

156 POLAR OF THE CENTRE OF A CIRCLE. two imaginary points in which the circle cuts the line at infinity are harmonic conjugates with respect to P and P'Again.. it Since every diameter of a circle is bisected at the centre. 13. 253.. we infer that the centre of any follows that the circle is the pole of the line at infinity. such that the conjugate rays intersect at angles. Let be the centre of a circle. it follows in the same way that the imaginary points in which the circle cuts the line at infinity are also harmonic conjugates with respect to Q and Q'. the two triangles ABC. P' are harmonic conjugates with respect to the two imaginary points in which the circle cuts the line at infinity or. It also follows that the pole of is any diameter is the point at infinity on the diameter which perpendicular to the given diameter. harmonic conjugate of the centre of any circle with respect to the extremities of any diameter is the point at infinity on that diameter. and let P. if Hence show that symmedian. triangle. if another pair of diameters at right angles be drawn cutting the line at infinity in the points Q and Q'. thing. Then P is the pole of OP'.. the symmedian lines of the triangle C". circle. what is the same in . Hence. we clearly have a A{PP'. and ROS.. If these points be joined to pencil right any point A. whose circle.} in involution. ABC cut the are co- circumcircle in the points A'. having for double points the points in which the circle cuts the line at infinity. QQ'. P' be the points which two diameters at right angles cut the line at infinity. centre is one extremity of the base. If PR. the Hence.. are H and K. if we draw a series of pairs of diameters at right angles.]. and the lines joining A to the points in which the . QQ'. Given the base and the sum or difference of the sides of a show that the polar of the vertex with respect to a circle. A'B'C Show that the lines drawn from the circumcentre of a triangle perpendicular to the symmedian lines intersect the corresponding sides of the triangle in three points which are collinear. the points in which they meet the line at infinity will form a range [PP'. Through the middle point of a chord AOB of a drawn any other chords POQ. Ex. will always touch a fixed 262. B'. and therefore the points P. 12. Ex. Ex. 11. QS cut AB in show that will be the middle point of HK..

section of two conjugate pencil. form with these lines a harmonic Ex. the point in which the given straight line cuts the polar of the given point. 4. CC'} is a range in . BB'. other. B' .C . It is evident that the polars of a pair of conjugate points are conjugate lines . concentric circles have the same tangents at the circular points. Hence. C. Anj' two points are said to be conjugate points with respect to a circle. when the polar of either passes through the Any two straight lines are said to be conjugate lines with respect to a circle. 1. Ex. Show Show that the line joining any pair of conjugate points circle.. when the pole of either lies on the other. THE CIRCULAR circle POINTS. through a given point we can draw but one line which shall be conjugate to a given straight line. is cut harmonically by the Ex. to touch each other at the circular Corrugate points and 255. It is easy to see that there is in general only one point on a given straight line which is conjugate to a given point namely. Since the centre of a circle it is the pole of the line at follows that the lines joining the centre of a circle to the circular points touch the circle at these points. 157 double rays cuts the line at infinity are the of this pencil. B. 3. line. infinity. Hence. be pairs of conjugate points with respect to a circle. If A. lines. Similarly. They are called the circular points. perpendicular diameters are called conjugate diameters. and that the poles of a pair of conjugate lines are conjugate points. the same two These two imaginary points have many important properties. unless the given point be the pole of the given 257. Hence. on the involution. Show that perpendicular diameters of a circle are conjugate lines with respect to the circle. show that {AA'. 256. and therefore may be said points. A' . 254. we infer that every circle passes through imaginary points on the line at infinity. 2. same straight line. Ex. that the tangents drawn to a circle from the point of interlines with respect to the circle.

and therefore the pencil sua O^C —rrm ~ sinO^D —DTn CAB sm BAD But the angle OAC is CPB. Let be the pole of AB. A. A [OB. cut the circle in the points A. 2. CD] is harmonic. . . Any two conjugate lines ivith respect to a circle. • Similarly we can show that sinO^D sin saiAPD sin Hence. show that the tangents drawn from them to the circle will out any fifth tangent in a harmonic range. a Ex. CD} he five points on a circle. Ex. show that the lines AB. and the angle CAB to the angle ^. CD] Then. Therefore 04 C = sin 4 PC -. Show that the other tangents from P and Q to the circle intersect on the polar of 0. [OH. 5. and any tangent Ex.~ p • 1. CD are conjugate with D respect to the circle. C. . harmonic. p CAB — . D respectively. If AB be any chord of 259. B and C.58 PROPERTIES OF CONJUGATE two conjugate lines are drawn. Therefore the pencil BAD sin APC sin BPD' sin sin is APD BPD circle. such that the pencil harmonic. 258. ^. CD] is a harmonic range is harmonic. show that and if the conjugate line to AC: CB=AD BD. the pencil P [AB. \i P. and let AB intersect CD in H. B. : Ex. UPB sm ^ p sm ^. 3. ^ 1 heretore sin —. if P he any other paint on the circle. is P {AB. AB cut the circle in C and D. 1. " CPB CD] P [AB. Through a point meets them in the points P and Q. If A and £ be a pair of conjugate points with respect to a circle. sin equal to the angle APC.

159 a circle. OC connecting B and C to any point 0. . tangent at any point is Three fixed tangents to a circle form a triangle ABC. and conjugate lines with respect to a circle cut the circle in the on are Through any point C. respectively. points A. meets a circle in A and B. 8. fixed point of a circle chords are drawn equally inclined to a fixed direction. If / be the centre of the inscribed circle of a triangle. show that P and Q on the polar of Ex. show that the pencil Q{RA'. 14. that Q and R are conjugate points with respect to the circle. Show that P and Q are conjugate points with respect to the circle ABC. P AB drawn the CP. Ex. BB'. 5. CC] will be in involution. OB. circle. in points which lie on the polar of the Ex. If the lines OB". cutting AC. that if AA'. 9. D. with ABC. show that the line joining their extremities passes through Ex. touches the Ex. and on the P is taken a point Q such that the pencil Q {PA. The centre chord of which OP cuts AB in Q. BC] is harmonic. A with respect to the circle. show that AB. 10. form the triangle circle in A'BC and A A' cuts the P. Ex.POINTS Ex. the other tangent QR P. 15. If P be any point on the polar of the point A with respect to the that inscribed (or an escribed) circle of the triangle will ABC. BC} harmonic. 7. The tangents to a circle at the points A. of a circle ABC lies on another circle ABP. AND LINES. B. the pencil P {AA'. ABC point 0. CP. any Ex. If from any point § on the tangent at be drawn. PQ} is harmonic. and if BP. Through a point PQ be drawn conjugate to OA and cutting OB in R. If a chord on a circle are drawn any two chords OA. 13. . Two lines B. BI respectively . circle. 12. Ex. AB in the points Q and R. show that the pencil A{BR. respectively.-1 on the AB is drawn a is straight line meeting the tangents at and Bin P and Q show that the other tangents to the circle from a straight line. A C fixed straight line line . lie CQ be drawn perpendicular to CI. meet BC in P and Q. CC be concurrent chords of and if i^ be any other point on the circle. P and Q intersect in a point whose locus The tangent at the point A to the circumcircle of the triangle meets the tangents at JS and C in C" and B'. and through a fixed point . AC intersect B'Q. Ex. BE. C. Show that the locus of the point § is a straight line which Ex. Any Show straight line is respect to the circumcircle of the triangle drawn through the pole of the line BC. fixed point. Deduce from § 258. 4. DP cutting the circle in C and D' : show that C'ly passes through a fixed point on AB. Through a a. Ex. show PB and PC be conjugate lines with respect to the 6. 11.

pair of conjugate points with respect to the SAB. 5. 2. will cut the given circle orthogonally. cuts the latter in points which are conjugate with respect to the former. Show how to draw a straight line which shall cut two of three given circles in pairs of conjugate points with respect to the third. J' Let P. since the polar of PRQ is a right angle. Show that the circles described on the diagonals of a tetragram as diameters. Ex.OP= OiP = 0A\ OA touches the circle PAQ at the point orthogonally. 3. 1. and the circle PAQ cuts the given circle Ex. circle Q he a. Show that any straight line which cuts one circle in a pair of points conjugate with respect to another circle. it follows that QR P with respect to the circle SAB. and therefore Hence. . The circle described on the line joining a pair of conjugate points with respect to a given circle. 4. cut the circumcircle of the triangle formed by the diagonals orthogonally. and the is circle SAB PA Q in R. to them. of a point on the given circle. A. . Ex. show that the extremities of 261. and let the circle whose diameter is PQ let cut the circle SAB in the Let circle in points A and B. and OP cut this Then. any diameter of either are conjugate points with respect to the other. roust be Therefore [PR. OR. PROPERTIES OF CONJUGATE POINTS. be drawn to cut a given circle orthogonally. circle be the centre of the M and N. If two circles cut orthogonally. are Ex. 3IN] a harmonic range. Ex.160 260. If a system of circles show that the polars with respect concurrent. as diameter.

is called the conjugate triangle of the given triangle. through A. we can always construct a triangle having one vertex at A. C. CA. respectively. Show that these circles will cut each other orthogonally. B'. which shall be self-conjugate with respect to a given circle. C will be the polars of BC. 161 Ex. AB. For. ABC is self-conjugate with respect to the circle. B. that when each vertex is the pole of the opposite side. and A'B'C the conjugate that B'C.on the polar of A. A'B' are the polars of A. it triangle. the polar of is B § passes 248. Thus the triangle ABC is the conjugate triangle of A'B'C. that A'. Any pair of conjugate points with respect to a given circle are taken as centres of two circles which cut the given circle orthogonally. Coi^ugate triangles. Therefore of AC AB. follows by § 247. 262. respectively. The triangle formed by the polars of the vertices of a given triangle with respect to a circle. Let any point B be taken on the polar of A. Also by C must be the polar 264. If ABC be any self-conjugate triangle with respect to a 11 . its In the particular case when a triangle is coiricides with conjugate. since Then the triangle B lies .CONJUGATE TRIANGLES. the triangle is said to be self-conjugate. 263. G'A'. Given any point A. If ABC so be the given triangle. and let the polar of 5 cut the polar of Aia the point C. the polar of B. 6.

Show that each side of a triangle cuts the polar circle in two points which are conjugate with respect to the circumcircle. OB. show that BQ.OX. and let r denote the radius of the then we shall have r'=OA. when one angle is of the triangle greater than a right angle. 6. Ex. show that BP. since Similarly. COA. given the triangle 265. Ex. whose centre is 0. CR will intersect on the circle. only when lies outside the triangle is. and joined to any point P on the circle. show that their six vertices form a Pascal hexastigm. cut orthogonally the circles described on the diagonals of the tetragram formed by the lines. AOB are mutually One Ex. is This that circle is called it is real. the two points Q and R. GP will cut ^R will pass through A. If ABG be any triangle and imaginary. the orthocentre is It evident that . 4 If if B and G be circle in ABG be any self-conjugate triangle with respect to a circle. and that their six sides form a Brianchon hexagram. If one angle of a triangle be a right angle. lines. The centre of the circle will be the orthocentre of the triangle. show that PP' wiU Ex. Hence it follows that. of these circles is The polar circles of the four triangles formed by four straight 3. show that the polar orthotomic. Show the circles described on the sides of the triangle as diameters. A is the pole of BC. OG are perpendicular to OA is CA circle. if 5. that the polax circle of a triangle cuts orthogonally Ex. BOG. perpendicular to BG.162 circle PROPERTIES OF SELF-CONJUGATE TRIANGLES. its orthocentre. the polar circle of the triangle. For. the radius of its polar circle 266. such that Ex. 2. and its radius will be determined by the above formula. 267. taken three at a time. 1. circle are in perspective. evanescent. circles of the four triangles ABC. and if BR intersect GQ in P'. A'B'G' the conjugate triangle with . Ex. only one circle can be drawn such that the triangle is self-conjugate with respect to it. and AB respectively. . Let ABG be any triangle. QAR Also If ABC be any self-conjugate triangle with respect to a circle. Two triangles are self-conjugate with respect to a circle. pass through A. Let OA meet BG in X. ABG. as diameters. it is easy to see that must be the ortho- centre of the triangle. if BQ intersect CR in P. 7. and be any chord of this circle.471^ triangle and its conjugate triangle with respect to a given.

its conjugate 269. R is Hence. BY GZ AX = ^ _. But. GG" meet in the centre of perspective of the two lie on the axis of perspective.__. BR. Let AX. § 179. Show that any triangle inscribed in a circle with the triangle formed by the tangents at its vertices. 1. by Ex. Q. . show that whose centre be the in-centre of the triangle A' B'C 11—2 . and P. Similarly. it corresponding sides of the triangle A'BU in the points Q and Then. similarly we shall have. Hence. to a circle will If ABC and A' B'C be a pair of conjugate triangles with respect is the circumcentre of the triangle ABC. since A'B' 8.PROPERTIES OF CONJUGATE TRIANGLES. is in perspective Ei. of AA'. AA'. Therefore GZ:AX'=OG:OA. since A is GG the pole of B'G' and A' the pole of BG. BY-. R. and „. follows that F is the pole R are the poles of BB'. AX' perpendicular to G'A' and A'B'\ BY. is the polar of G.GZ =OB:OG. and respectively. and GZ. AX-. the triangle ABC. Then § 251. A'B'G are in perspective. and A'C the polar of B._ i. respect to a circle whose centre is 163 be drawn to A'B' 0. 2.BT = OA:OB. the axis of perspective of any triangle and the polar of the centre of perspective of the triangles. Q. GZ' perpendicular to B'G' and GA'. by 268. Ex. Let the sides of the triangle ABG cut the P. B7' perpendicular and B'C. triangles .

CD cut GE in P and PF] and P'. FG are is the polars of G and E respectively. Show by the centres of that the circles described on the sides of the triangle formed any tetrastigm inscribed in a given circle. and the lies from any point the P on one of them PA.164 PROPERTIES OF A TETRASTIGM Tetrasti^m inscribed in a 270. as diameters. points 4. are harmonic. it follows by § 141. Two circles intersect orthogonally in the points A and B. PB are drawn cutting the other in QB intersect in a point § and R. EF. A BCD be if be any tetrastigm inscribed in a circle. Ex. Show that AR and which on . in The centres of any tetrastigm inscribed a circle form a self-conjugate triangle. EFG Show a self-conjugate tiiangle with respect to the 271. Ex. Ex. 1. F. 2. Then. that the ranges {AB. Let E. Ex. {CD. cut the given circle orthogonally. If A and B be two fixed points on a circle and PQ any diameter show that the locus of the point of intersection of AP and BQ is a circle which cuts the given circle orthogonally in the points A and B. that the orthocentre of the triangle formed by the centres of a tetrastigm inscribed in a circle coincides with the centre of the circle. 3. circle PAB. circle. Therefore circle. AB. GE is the polar of the point F. P'F] Therefore Similarly. and let G its centres.

Z . and the poles BC and AD on FE. are : Ex. Let A. let E. stigm Hence. Similarly the poles of oi AB and BC will lie on EG. B'E. X' . and A'B'. since A'D. triangle to the triangle ABC. BB'. which is self. F. XYZ. BC) be harmonic. Z. and let EF. C'A'. 5. tetrastigm by the theorem 272. FD. E. to a given circle. P' and Q. DE cut the circle in the points X. which be any tetrastigm inscribed in a circle. it follows that the poles oi AC and BD its centres. so that its sides shall pass respectively through three given points. Ex. 5. CC cut respectively. 6. Y.INSCRIBED IN A CIRCLE. F. B. respectively.conjugate drawn two straight lines cutting the circle in the points P. 11) Therefore A is one of the centres of the in Ex. ABCD must on FG. lie G be E. the tangents to the circle at the vertices of the tetraABCD form a tetragram. C be the given points and let A'B'C be the conjugate circle. concurrent (§ 267). in the points D. Then these points determine two triangles conditions. OF are that D {GA. Ex. Q respectively show that if the pencil A {PQ. with respect to the given B'C. Show how to inscribe a triangle in a given circle. it follows (§ 96. and Then since AC and BD pass through the pole of FG. Let is is harmonic. 165 Through the vertex A of the triangle ABC. EF} TZTZ. F Let AA'. whose vertices lie in pairs on the . . X'YZ which satisfy the given For. then B and C will be the other centres of the tetrastigm PP'QQ^.

SS'\ will be in involution. any straight line mil be cut in involution by the circle and the three pairs of opposite connectors of the tetrastigm. the connectors AD.166 lines INVOLUTION PROPERTY OF EF. Let straight line be ABCD Then the range {PF. BD in P and P'. GE . AG and BD intersect are equal. the diagonals of the tetragram are the lines joining the centres of the tetrastigm. R'BP' ^ Therefore sin RPA = ^' sin BP'R'. FG. Then since the angles PAR. that is. AB in Q and Q'. RR'. If a tetrastigm be inscribed in a circle. the connectors CD. 273. BG in R and R'. Let QQ'. AR FR PE = RP'BR 'EP' 1. and let anydrawn cutting the connectors AG. be a tetrastigm inscribed in a circle. in E. and the circle in S and S'. .

G be the centres of any tetrastigm inscribed in a show that the conjugate rays of EP. Hence. since the angles 167 RDP'. he the centres of a tetrastigm inscribed in a circle EO.RP' : PR'. QQ'. and G will be parallel. F. PP'. FO. RR'} is in Consequently the range 274. the conjugate rays of Ex. they will form a pencil in which are perpendicular. circle. If through any point P. F. the double rays of circle. the lines will intersect on the tangent at P. If in the last example. Similarly. PGR are equal. FP. If the point P be on the circle. PP'. 76. And similarly BR' . If E. the range [SS'. by Similarly involution. the bisectors of the angles formed by the pairs of opposite connectors of a tetrastigm inscribed in a circle are parallel. 3. 1.R'G = 8R'.RI) = SR. But since G --§1 ^— Therefore SR § it . AR. If E. and OP. ARD. : : may be proved that the range {SS'. JgP' RD^PS[ Hence. 2.Q AN INSCRIBED TETRASTIGM. FP. G. RP'R'G'EP~AR. QQ'. is G whose centres 0. RR'} is in involution. i" be the point of intersection of the rays are the double points of conjugate to EP. R'S'. straight lines be drawn parallel to the connectors of a tetrastigm inscribed in a involution. RR'} is in involution. Hence.P'R'. GP with respect to the connectors of the tetrastigm which intersect in E.P'R'. will intersect in a point which lies on the polar of P with and any given point. 00 with respect to the connectors of the tetrastigm which pass through E. F. Ex. show that P and the range in involution in which is cut by the circle and the connectors F PP of the tetrastigm. P respect to the circle.RD: BR'. Ex. F. RP' PR'. {SS'. . RS' SR'. 4. SRS' are chords of a circle. Ex. respectively.RS'.R'S' = RP.R'C = RP.

Let AA' cut CG' in H. HB'] is harmonic. Two them in P Ex. the lines AA'.G' he the three pairs of opposite vertices of a tetragram circumscribed to a circle. the point of intersection of the diagonals AA'. CC' intersect in the pole may be proved BB' AA'. cuts any straight line in a range in involution. CC. passes which passes through two through a fixed point. is the pole of the diagonal Similarly of BE. then the pencil B[AA'. 1. Ex. circles intersect in A and B. Show that if a system of circles be drawn through the points A and B. Tetragram circumscribed 276. Therefore H it is the pole of BB'. That is. GC form a self-conjugate triangle. B'. it follows that a on the system of circles which have two common may be considered as circumscribing the same tetrastigm. to a circle. . BB'. A'\ B. and a common tangent touches and Q. a circle Let A.: 168 275. a self-conjugate triangle with respect to the circle. that BB'. 2. Consequently we have the theorem finite points A system of circles having two common points. to The diagonals of any tetragram circumscribed form. they will cut the line PQ in a range in involution. Hence. and that AA'. Show that the polar of a given point with respect to any circle fixed points. intersect in the pole of GC. PROPERTIES OF A TETRAGRAM Since every circle passes through the same pair of imaginary points line at infinity. G. the double points of which are P and Q.

BA' and the line joining the points of contact of B'A. Show also that the three centres of the tetrastigm connect with the vertices of the tetragram by six lines which constitute the connectors of a tetrastigm. PR. respectively. B Ex. show that the diagonals of the tetragram formed are the vertices of a tetragram. intersect the three pairs of opposite connectors of the tetrastigm in six points which Ex. Q the point of intersection of the tangents can be drawn from from Y and Y' and R the point of intersection of the tangents from Z and If P X . B'A' meet in the point of intersection oi AA'. the pairs of straight lines connecting the point to the three pairs of opposite vertices of a tetragram circumscribed to the circle. . It should be noticed that these theorems might have been inferred from §272. QS are concurrent. Y' Z. (iii) polars of the point of intersection oi AC and BD with respect and to the two circles are coincident. so If ABCD be any tetrastigm inscribed in a that the AB. 1. 4. The tangents drawn from the vertices of a triangle ABC. The tangents drawn from any point to a circle. Z'\ . R. CC Hence. a given circle. Ex. 6. If a tetrastigm be inscribed in a circle. 277. show that the tangents drawn from P and Q to the form a tetragram whose diagonals are the sides of the triangle A BC. 3. ABC are in perspective. That is. Q. X'. it follows that the polars of B and B' must pass through H.— CIRCUMSCKIBED TO A CIRCLE. QS bisect The the angles between AC and BD. BD. 279. If P be any point on the side circle. be the point of intersection of the other tangents which and X' . by the tangents at its vertices. 169 Since H is the pole of BB'. to touch meet the opposite sides in the points X. self-conjugate with respect to a given respect to circle will and if § be the harmonic conjugate of P with and C. 5. the centres of the tetrastigra formed by the points of contact of the tetragram are the points of intersection of the diagonals of the tetragram. Z . and whose vertices shall Ex. show that the Ex. form a pencil in involution. triangles PQR. BC. on three given straight Unes. circle. PR. CD. show that connectors : DA touch another circle in the points P. T. 278. respectively. 2. the lines joining the points of contact of BA. S (i) (ii) The Unes AC. Ex. BC of a triangle ABC. Construct a triangle whose sides shall touch a fixed lie circle.

A'OP' sin OAIB'. =»° If r denote the radius of the circle. C be the pairs of opposite vertices of a circumscribing {PP'.f ." 170 If INVOLUTION PROPERTY OF A OP. B'. AA'. sin OAB sin . this result may be . then we shall have ^'OP. AAIB'. and a the perpendicular from G on AO. sin AOP' _ s in AOB' sin AOB sin A'OP. siuA'AB.r= a'=-r=. sin ^'OP' = a" . written. sin ^ OP' _ sin OAB'. " . sin ^ OP. since GO bisects the angle POP'. tetragram. sin A OP' = sm^ AOG. sin B'AA'. sin A'OB . Hence BA'A sin BA 0.svD. sin AA'B A'AB'. BF. sin sin svnA'OP. sin FOA = -1: BOA and since the lines sin BA. G0\ sin A OP Let a' sin A OP' =0^-7^. A'. then the pencil involution. and i{ A. sin BOA &mBAO.sin^OP': sin : : . sin B'A 0. C. sin sin BA'A .BOA~ ^' smAOP. OP' be the tangents from to the circle. sin OA'B sin^^'P' sin AA'B = a'".sin» POG. then. sin A'OP' ~ sin A'OB'. BO. : . and p the perpendicular on AA'. be in B. CC] will Let G be the centre of the circle . G : denote the perpendicular from on OA'. B'A' are concurrent (§ 98). sin^'^P But since the lines B'A. we have sin A OP . sin B'A'O. sin OA'B'.siaA'AB sin OAB' sin OAB =p''-r' :a'-r^.rl sin^OP . B'O. sinO^'P. are concurrent. BA' . 'r^ : Therefore.smBAA'.

if . that is to A. Pascal's theorem. CD will intersect DE. 4. The theorem may be readily deduced as a consequence of the . If circles described any tetragram be circumscribed to a given circle. 171 A A'. EF. 0. where some further properties of such a hexastigm were investigated. then AB. [PP'. Therefore the pencil [PP'. FA. Show that the hne which bisects the diagonals of a tetragram circumscribed to a circle passes through the centre. in a circle. F be any six points on a circle. T. If any drawn to intersect the diagonals AA'. BB'] is in involution (§ 89). AA'. BO. AA'. E. show that the harmonic conjugates of these points with respect to the pairs of opposite vertices of the tetragram lie line on a straight line which is conjugate to the given with respect to the 2. has already inscribed in a circle intersect in three collinear points say. BB'. circle. show that the on the diagonals of the tetragram will intersect on a fixed with the given circle. Hence. Z. in three collinear points. respectively. circle concentric Ex. (§181). B. Ex. 3. BB'. Ex. such that the pencil in involution determined by a given circle and a circumscribed tetragram will have the given Hne as a double Pascal's and Brianchon's theorems. B. which relates to a hexastigm inscribed been proved in Chapter viii. CC of a tetragram circumscribed to a circle. Given any straight Hne. it. the pencil 280. find the point on line. Ex. CC'} in involution. in the points X. 1.CIRCUMSCRIBED TETRAGRAM. 00'] line be is in involution. In the same is way it may be shown that the pencil [PP". Pascal's theorem asserts that the opposite connectors of a hexastigm 281.

the range [EF. which lie three by three on twenty lines. Pr] a range in involution. and let AB cut DE in X. 282. A BCD is AF cut a tetrastigm inscribed in the is circle. . connect by forty-five lines which pass three by three through sixty points. E. therefore by § 273. Ex. D. P'. Hence we may deduce properties of a hexagram circumscribed to a circle from the properties of a hexastigm inscribed in a circle. ef. Since AD in P. Z must be collinear. CD. Hence which is X. And similarly. Let A. and let us denote these tangents by It follows from § 272. Let us now consider the hexagram formed by drawing a. that the line connecting the points ab.C. let EF cut CD in AB. E. Pascal's theorem. asserts that if a hexagram be is circumscribed to a the three diagonals which connect the pairs of opposite vertices will be concurrent. every diagonal of the hexagram will be the polar of the corresponding centre of the inscribed hexastigm. DE. b. PP'] will be in involution. D.f.172 CONNECTION BETWEEN PASCAL'S § 273. Brianchon's theorem circle. a. B. Y. which pass three by three through twenty points. viz. c. It follows that F W. theorem proved in in involution that any circle and the pairs of opposite connectors of any inscribed tetrastigm determine a range on any straight line. BG. fa. Z. F. six tangents to a circle. will points ab. the tangents to a circle at the six points A. 3. W must coincide with Y. Thus from the theorem : The fifteen connectors of a hexastigm lie inscribed in a circle intersect in forty-five points which three by three on sixty lines. That to say. d. e. B. if e. b. we have the theorem : The fifteen vertices of any hexagram circum- scribed to a circle. circle let . {EF./be any be. cd respectively to the points be con- The theorem follows at once from § 180. YT. Y.. c. F be any six points on a ¥' respectively. § 279. But the connectors of the tetrastigm (§ 144). current. then lines joining the de. G. de is the polar of the point of intersection of the lines AB. EF in a range in involution Therefore AXDZ will cut the line if XZ cut EF in the points W. d. and it may also be deduced from the theorem of 283.

T'. respect to the Lemoine in the points circle. 173 When the points of contact of the hexagram are the vertices of it is the hexastigm. Z'. Show that if the Lemoine circle of the triangle ABC.'Ca. X'. and the triangle formed by the lines T'Z. Z'X.AND BRIANCHON'S THEOREMS. Y. respectively. easy to see that the sixty Brianchon points of the former are respectively the poles of the sixty Pascal lines of the latter. Z. cut the sides X. is the polar of the symmedian point of the triangle ABCwi. . the axis of perspective of the triangle ABC. X'Y. Ex.

A proposition theorem " relating to any geometrical figure and the corre- sponding proposition relating to the reciprocal figure are called The method by which the truth of a reciprocal propositions. and curves. and to each point on any line of . to say. we propose That is to show that that to every descriptive proposition concerning the figure F corresponds a proposition concerning the figure F'. Firstly. is inferred from the reciprocal theorem. when a proposition concerning any figure. regarded as an assemblage . The 284 figure consisting of Principle of Duality. Let us suppose that we have given any geometrical an assemblage of points. These figures are said to be reciprocal figures with respect to the fixed circle. has been proved. figures.F will correspond a line of F' passing through the pole of the line (§ 247). let us consider the composition of two reciprocal Let us suppose that F consists of certain points. F to each line of F regarded as an assemblage of points will corre- . THE THEORY OF RECIPROCATION." 285. In fact it will be seen that the proofs of two such propositions will correspond step for step. Consequently. The polars of each point of the figure with respect to a fixed circle constitute another figure consisting of an assemblage of lines. lines. It is obvious that to each point of will correspond a line of F'. is known as the principle of duality. and vice versa. a corresponding proposition may be of lines inferred for the reciprocal figure. Let F and F' be two such reciprocal figures .CHAPTER XI. regarded as an assemblage of points.

" Secondly. there will be an assemblage of lines of the mth class belonging to F' that is. between the several parts of a figure F' corresponding to given relations between the corresponding parts of a given figure F. we shall have the point of intersection of the corresponding lines oi F'. If certain points of J' lie on a curve of the nth order. For a tangent the line an assemblage of points. it follows from 247. that the corresponding lines oi F' will pass through a pointi. An and the lines of F' corresponding to these points will be concurrent. Hence. the corresponding which corresponds to P Hence. and a point to a curve. corresponding to the tangent at a point P on a curve belonging to F. there will correspond a curve of the nth degree belonging to the figure F'. if several lines of F be concurrent. corresponding to the line joining any two points of F. arbitrary line will cut this curve in n points to F there will be a curve of the nth class belonging to F'. If certain points of F lie Hence. the corresponding points of F' will be collinear. the corresponding lines of F' will be tangents to a curve of the nth class. let us consider what relations will subsist 286. we shall have the point of contact with the corresponding curve of the line of F' which corresponds to the point P. corresponding to a curve of the nth order belonging . spond an assemblage of lines of 175 point. ii. Hence. considered as . is joining two consecutive points of the system. It is evident that if the same process by which F' was obtained shall obtain the original from F. . be applied to the figure F' we figure F. iii. if In the same manner we may show that there be a curve of the nth class belonging to the figure F. of which F' is the reciprocal figure. Now us consider a curve of the wth order as belonging to F. corresponding to an assemblage of points of the nth order belonging to F. § on a straight line. F' passing through a Or. Hence the name " reciprocal figures.RELATIONS BETWEEN RECIPROCAL FIGURES. If two lines lie oiF intersect on the line points of F' will in the point P. we may say that to every line of let F corresponds a point of F' {§ 4).

which pass three by three through two points. three by three on six lines. perspective will be collinear. the corresponding curves of F' may be inferred touch each other. Ex. which are the pairs of opposite vertices of a tetragram.) Ex. two consecutive lines of the system. V. Ex. the corresponding points on the curve belonging to F' will lie on the line which corresponds to the point P. which by three through six lie three by three on (§ 175. If the lines connecting of corresponding vertices two If the points of intersection of the corresponding sides of two triangles triangles be concurrent. (§ 150.) Ex. Thiis.) .) (§ 174. on a curve.) two other 4. of perspective be concurrent. Ex.) tetrastigm. and have a common will and have a common axis of centres centre of perspective. is intersection of iv. three triangles are in pertheir three in perspective. The nine lines which conwhich lie The nine points of intersection of nect two triads of coUinear points intersect in eighteen points two triads of concurrent lines may be connected by eighteen lines which pass three points. Hence. before looking at the reciprocal theorem as given. the 1. 2. Corresponding to a point of intersection of two curves of F. 4. lines. 2. the corresponding vertices of the triangles will lie on concurrent lines.176 RECIPROCAL THEOREMS. any geometrical a corresponding proposition for the reciprocal figure. it appears that to every descriptive proposition concerning figure. If the point of two tangents to a curve belonging to F intersect in a point P. considered as an assemblage of lines. Ex. (§ 161. their three axes of (§ perspective.) no. 3. columns some examples of The reader however is recom- mended to attempt to form the reciprocal theorem for himself. (§ 148. In every tetrastigm the connectors sides of the three pairs of opposite intersect the opposite triangle formed by the centres of the In every tetragram the three pairs of opposite vertices connect with the opposite vertices of the triangle formed by the diagonals of the tetragram. we shall have a common tangent to the corresponding curves oiF'. (§ 168. We propose now to give in parallel descriptive theorems with their reciprocals. the corresponding sides of the triangles will intersect in coUinear points. in six points by six lines which are the pairs of opposite connectors of a tetrastigm. 287.) be coUinear. (§ 163. When three triangles are When spective. will if two curves of F touch.

) Ex. B.) (§ 149. (§144. : Let then a. B. c. a. c. OD. On tetragram are taken a pair of points harmonically conjugate to the vertices of the tetragram which lie on that If three of these points Through each centre of a stigm are drawn a pair of tetra- lines harmonically conjugate to the connectors of the tetrastigm which intersect in that centre.) hnes be concurrent. Ex. the line ABGD (§ d cut this line in points passes through 0. 177 Harmonic 288. following are reciprocal theorems. figure. (§ 154. if four points of a figure form a harmonic range. c. 290. 3. Any straight line is cut The Unes connecting any point to in involution by the pairs of opposite connectorsof any tetrastigm. so also will be the other three lines. Hence. If. and consequently {ab. 0. OD] is a harmonic pencil. (§ 153. corresponding to harmonic properties of the given figure. B. 12 . b. 2) the pencil A. so also wiU be the other three points. h. the corresponding lines of the reciprocal figure form a harmonic pencil. Then {AB. be coUinear. Let A. the corresponding sj'stem reciprocal figure will form a pencil in involution. which he on that that centre. cd] is harmonic. D to d are respectively perpendicular OA. b. reciprocal Properties. The 1. D be four collinear points of a figure F. In the same way we can show that of lines of the if any system of points of one figure form a range in involution. however. If three of these diagonal. d are the polars with respect to this circle of the points A. will subsist for Let us now consider what properties a to a given figure. cd] is a harmonic the lines pencil.DUALITY OF HARMONIC PROPERTIES. a. The joining any The points diagonals are in which any diagonal conjugate centre of a given tetrastigm to the of a given tetragram cuts the other other centres are harmonic conjugate lines with respect to the connectors of the tetrastigm which pass through harmonic points with respect to the vertices of the tetragram diagonal. a. lines Ex. OB. L. 2. c. CD] is a harmonic range. respectively. D respectively. 289.) Ex. Suppose now that {AB.) each diagonal of a the pairs of opposite vertices of a tetragram form a pencil in involution. G. and therefore {ab. 00. which are conjugate to 257. b. (§ 141. and circle of reciprocation let d be the corresponding be the centre of the Therefore lines of the reciprocal figure F'. C.

since a. Xa. 0a. a and b intersect in P. Ex.Oa 293. Bhe the corresponding lines of the reciprocal figure F'.OP AB = Oa. and X the corresponding point of the Then. of these formulae we are able to transform metrical theorem so as to obtain the reciprocal theorem. . and let p denote the perpendicular distance from on the line AB. any In a great many instances it will be found that although the formulae . and let a be the corresponding reciprocal figure. -n r'. Ax = By means OX.178 RECIPROCATION OF Reciprocation applied to metrical propositions.OB. Let A. 7^ — . Let A be any point. and line. any line of a figure . a. we have 251.BmAOB. 291. Then But and Therefore if p. (§ being the centre of the circle of reciprocation. any two points of a figure F.OA = 0b.oysm ab 7^ . b are the polars of A and B.AB = OA. sin A OB = sin ab. and let a. b be Let be the centre of the circle of reciprocation. 8) Ax:Xa=OA: Therefore OX. and 292.OB = r'.

X. cr. ratio 3. denotmg the : line P and A OX by z. sin X. Ex. ^^2' sin ' sin sin Bx. To find the curve which is reciprocal to a circle. in C of a triangle ABC car ABY' in the points triangle to a point 0. we have where x. into parts whose sines are in a constant ratio. XN 12—2 . Y. and let OT. and P the pole of QT with respect to the circle of reciprocation. AZ XC.BD = 0. by the by the sides of a triangle. . 1. any pencil.) sin = CAX sin A CZ BCZ' = 1. the reciprocal curve will be of the second class and second order. P any point on it. 179 is as simple as If {ABCD} be any range.CZ> + BC. . and let A be its Let be the polar of A. Let OX. r.VA.AD+CA. If the straight lines sin ccZ+sin be sin ad + sin CO. 294. AB. Z. definition for such a curve as a locus we be any tangent to the given circle. It follows that the figure reciprocal to a circle may be defined as the envelope of a line x which divides the angle between a fixed line a and a variable line z passing through a fixed point 0. which of a If any straight line cut the sides connect the vertices A. AQhe perpendiculars on TQ. cut the opposite . the straight line which divides one of these angles into parts whose sines have a given ratio. are the lines corresponding to the points cue. (§ 106. we see that the ratio sin ax sin zx will be constant. will pass through a fixed point. For if A be the centre of the given circle. Let TQ centre.ZB' (§ 94. B. and a. the constant locus of a point which divides one of the segments in a given ratio will be a straight line. sin M=0. PiV" be perpendiculars on NX. If {abed} he sin ab . Ex. If we wish to obtain a must proceed otherwise. A circle being a curve of the second order and second class. the reciprocal theorem the original theorem. 2. Z. It will not in general be a circle.METRICAL THEOREMS. 1. are apparently complicated. If a straight line move If a point move so that the sines so as to be divided in a constant of the angles subtended at it sides of a triangle are in ratio. and X denotes the point Hence.) Es.

The 1.180 RECIPROCATION OF THE Then we have (§ 251. the lines which connect scribed in a circle. If a tetragram be circumscribed to a circle. : 8). usual to take the circle itself as the circle of reciprocation for this circle evidently reciprocates into itself 296. If a tetrastigm be inscribed in a circle. its opposite con- nectors intersect in three coUinear points. If a hexastigm be in- If a hexagram be circumscribed to a circle. If of a circle be any system of chords drawn through a fixed If pairs of tangents be a given circle drawn to from points on a fixed . OQ OP circle. pole with respect to the circle of reciprocation constant. it . That is OP:PN= OA A Q. (§ 270. (Brianchon's theorem.) Ex.) the three pairs of opposite vertices will be concurrent. : Thus the reciprocal curve to the given circle is the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from a fixed point varies as its distance from a fixed straight line. (§ 276. its three centres form a self-conjugate triangle with respect form a self-conjugate triangle with respect to the circle. (Pascal's theorem.) to the circle.) Ex. 3. 2. let however the circle of reciprocation be concentric with QT be a tangent to the given circle. : AQ PN= OA OP. following are examples of reciprocal theorems. Ex. When we is wish to reciprocate theorems concerning a circle. its three diagonals Ex. If the given circle. 295. and therefore the locus of P will then we have be a concentric . and let P be its .

) pencil in involution. form Ex. Any tangent to a circle Any point on a conic. Ex. Ex. 1. The section locus of the point of inter- of tangents to a parabola which cut at right angles is the directrix. whose focus Referring to 264. Q and R will be conjugate ABC. point. 298. according as the centre of reciprocation lies within. which is the reciprocal of the centre of the given is Thus the is reciprocal of a given circle a conic section. the lines PB. Ex. § we see that this conic will be an ellipse. or parabola. A class conic is a curve of the second order. If any drawn through the respect to triangle straight line be If any point P be taken on the pole of BC.) (§ 259. with in polar of the point A with respect to the circumcircle of the cutting the inscribed (or escribed) circle of ABC. 259. and the perpendicular to the line joining point of contact to the centre. the centre of reciprocation and directrix the line which corresponds to the centre of reciprocation. 4. hyperbola. Ex. Ex. 4. the directrix. 6. AB and AC to the triangle will Q and R. a 4. was proved in § 294 that the reciprocal curve of a its given circle is the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from the centre of reciprocation varies as distance from the line circle. A circle is a curve of the second order and second class. We propose to derive a few of the properties of conic sections from the corresponding properties of the circle. Every chord of a circle which subtends a right angle at a fixed point on the circle passes through the centre. point where its tangent meets the directrix subtend a right angle at the focus. It of a circle. 181 they will cut any other tangent tremities to any point on the circle will to the circle in a range in involution.) The Reciprocal 297. Ex. . is 2. 5. The diflference of fall the per- The a conic difference of the reciprocals pendiculars let from a fixed point of the segments of any focal chord of is on any pair of parallel tangents to a constant. its Ex. without. The line joining the points The point focal of intersection of the of contact of two parallel tangents to a circle passes through the centre of tangents at the extremities of any chord of a conic intersect on the circle. (§ 285. the lines which join their exline. or on the given circle. 5.) and second Ex. PC be conjugate lines with respect (§ points with respect the circle. to the circle.PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES. 3. (§ 259. circle is constant.

to the extremities a This straight line respect to the conic. the Reciprocating with pole of the line x with respect to the circle. 4. which is self-conjugate with (§ 270. 3. RECIPROCATION OF CIRCLES.' 'conjugate. 6. the locus of its pole is another circle. .182 Ex. Ex. If any point P be taken on a given straight line x. we know that the straight line which is the harmonic conjugate of the line x with respect to the pair of tangents will pass through a fixed point. to the conic. The centres of any tetrastigm inscribed in a circle form a triangle The diagonals angle which is of any tetragram tri- circumscribed to a conic form a respect to the conic. any line with the directrix of a conic to the pole of the line subtends a right angle at the focus. enunciating the reciprocal of a given theorem concerning a we have to interchange the words pole and polar but the words conjugate and self-conjugate will be unchanged. respect to any point he we have the theorem drawn through a fixed point. If we use the words 'pole. the polar of the point of intersection envelopes a conic confocal with the given conic. 2. If two tangents to a conic inter- sect at right angles.) Any triangle and its conjugate with respect to a conic are in perspective. Any triangle and its con- jugate with respect to a circle are in perspective. Ex. (§ 267. Ex. Ex. 1.) self-conjugate with respect to the circle. the locus of : If a chord of a of the chord conic the harmonic conjugate is of the fi^ed point with respect straight line.' and 'self-conjugate' in circle. 5. 299. The line joining any point The line joining the point of intersection of to the centre of a circle is perpendicular to the polar of the point. and a pair of tangents be drawn to a given circle. shall ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' Ex. If a chord of a circle subtend a right angle at a fixed point. the same sense for a conic as in the case of a we see that in circle. The rectangle contained by the segments of any chord of a circle which passes through a fixed point is The rectangle contained by the perpendiculars drawn from the focus of a conic to a pair of parallel tangents is constant. .) respect to the circle. is called the polar of the fixed point with Thus the is definition of the polar of a point (| with respect to a conic for exactly similar to the definition 243) a circle. constant. The diagonals of a tetrato a circle form The which is centres of any tetrastigm gram circumscribed a triangle which is inscribed in a conic form a triangle self-conjugate with respect self-conjugate with (§ 276.

the power of one point with respect to the other and the perpendicular from a point on a straight line. and R its radius. circle. 300.AB.AB=a^-h\ This determines the position of the point uniquely. Find a point on the line joining the centres of two powers with respect to the two circles shall be equaL . If two circles intersect in the points A and B. any straight liae be drawn cutting a given circle in the points P and Q. 2. circles. 35. 301.. the rectangle OP.E be the middle point of AB. Po'^er of a point with respect to a circle. Ex. 1.CHAPTER XII. If through a fixed point 0. so that there is only one such point on the line AB. the power of the point with respect to the line. Then OA^-a^=OB^-bK But if . For convenience we propose to call the square on the distance between two points. . Therefore 'iOE. that the point at infinity may also be considered as a point on the line AB whose powers with respect to the two circles are equal. HI. all positions of the line OP (Euclid. Bk. The value of this rectangle circle. . that its 4. PROPERTIES OF TWO CIRCLES. which is equal to the square the tangent drawn from to the circle.OQ power of of of has the same value for Props. is called the the point If with respect to the the centre of the is C be the point equal to circle. the power 00" — if*. It should be noticed however. line AB with respect to the circles are equal. such Let A and B be the centres of the circles a and b their radii. OA^-Om = 20E. the powers of any point on the Ex. 3. If the sum of the powers of a point with respect to circle) two given a circle. the locus of the point is Ex. 36). The locus of a point whose power with respect to a given circle is constant is a concentric Ex. circles (or a point and a be constant.

THE RADICAL AXIS The locus of a point whose powers with respect is a straight line. its Ex. whose power with respect to power with respect to a point. 2. 4). called the radical axis of the two circles. circle let be drawn cutting each of the circles in real the common chords of this circle and the given Then evidently P is a point whose circles cut in the point P.b\ therefore or OA^-a' = OB'-b\ Thus is a point on -45 whose powers with respect to the two circles are equal But there is only one such point (§ 301. and let a. 1. be a . Show its a circle is equal to that the locus of point. is a straight line.h\ OF' + OA^ -a'=OP'+OB'. A and B be the centres of the circles . straight line through the point which is at right angles to is This straight line 303. Ex. Hence. to two given circles are equal. i be their points Let any and . Ex. PA^-a^ = PB' .184 302. show that the locus of the point wiU circle. the locus of P is the AB. powers with respect to the given circles are equal. If the power of a point with respect to a circle be proportional to power with respect to a straight line. Let radii. Draw PO Then since perpendicular to AB.

axis. Now circles . The radical axes of any three circles taken two at a time are concurrent. Q'.. 185 circles (or If the powers of a point with respect to two given points) be in a constant ratio. the tangents to the circles from any point on the radical axis are equal. R'. show that the locus of the point will be a Ex..OF TWO CIRCLES. is The point of concurrence of the radical axes of three circles called the radical centre of the . But whether the Therefore any circles intersect in real points or not. Therefore the polars of any point on the radical axis intersect on the radical axis.. Then P and P' will be given circles. When the circles intersect in real points. 4. Ex. It in which the radical axis cuts either circle. Hence the polars with respect to the circles of any point on their radical axis will intersect on the radical axis.} And the double points of this range is a range in involution.... evidently the powers of the point equal.. Ex. respectively. 305. 1). 1). circle which has its centre on the radical axis of two and which cuts one of them orthogonally will also cut the other orthogonally. RR'. conjugate points with respect to each of the given circles (§ 261. R. The Radical 304. must be the points follows that the radical axis of two circles passes through their points of intersection. is axis of two is Circles... Q. 3. be any points on the radical axis of two the polars of these points with respect to the circles intersect in P'. The radical axis of two circles the straight line which the locus of a point whose powers with respect to two given circles are equal. Let two of the radical axes meet in the point P with respect to the Therefore P Then circles are P is a point on the third radical circles. Then {Pr. let and let P.. the radical axis passes through these points (§ 301. circle. Let such a circle cut the radical axis of the given circles in the points P and P". QQ'. whether these points be real or imaginary. Ex. Show that the power of any point on the hne at infinity with is respect to any circle constant.

BC in O. Ex. of these circles inter- Then P is a point circle on the radical axis of the given circles. If 2. circles are described with their centres on the sides BC. BC. B. Any . AB of the triangle ABC. that the six radical axes of the inscribed and escribed any triangle are the six connectors of a tetrastigm. Show that the circles EAB. 1886. CF be the perpendiculars on the sides of the triangle ABC. we can construct the radical axis of two which do not intersect in real points. BD intersect in AB. Similarly. respectively. we can find another point Q on the radical The 307. BE. is the orthocentre of the triangle formed by the other three. Hence. in four . Show that the radical axis of the circumoircle of a triangle and is the Lemoine circle of the triangle. show Ex. B.] Ex. 1. and cutting the circumcircle at right angles in A. and let the radical axes. that sect in the point P. CD in circumscribing the triangles F. AC.£^. 6.186 CONSTRUCTION OF THE EADICAL circles 306. is the radical axis of the circumcircles of the triangles. and its nine-point circle have a common radical axis. each vertex of which Ex. D are taken in a circle . ECD intersect the lines AD. C. Ex. the common chords. by drawing another axis. respect to the Lemoine circle. the polar of the symmedian point with Show Three that the circumcircle of a triangle. Ex.. C. 4. its polar circle. Prove that these have a common radical axis. 5. and AD. AD. that the axis of perspective of the triangles ABC. circles of line PQ will Show then be the radical axis of the circles. Draw any circle cutting is the given circles in real points. 3. [St John's Coll. four points A. DEF. circles CA.

Every circle which cuts two given circles orthogonally.AXIS OF TWO CIRCLES. points lying on a fourth circle . is a straight line parallel to the radical axes of the circles. Let A and B be the centres of the given circles and let OP be their radical axis. cutting . passes through two fixed points on the line joining the centres of the given circles. . Let any circle which cuts the circles orthogonally meet AB in L and L'. Tripos.] Ex. 7. The centre is clearly the radical centre of the given circles. OL^ = circle OA'-AQ\ is Hence the whose centre 0.A Q'. [Math. and let be the centre of this circle. . 1887. 309. on the radical axis of the circles. the radius of the circle is equal to the tangent drawn from P to either of the given circles. will cut the given circles orthogonally.^ jB in the point 0. 187 and that if these four circles be taken three at a time. P Then Therefore PL" = P(^ = PA' . and radius OL. The radical axis of two circles might have been defined as the locus of the centre of a circle which cuts each of orthogonally. Hence P must be a point cut three Hence we infer that only one circle can be drawn of this circle -to given circles orthogonally. them For if P be the centre of a circle which cuts two given circles orthogonally. The locus of a point the difference of ia whose powers with respect to two given circles constant. the radical centres of the systems so formed will be the vertices of a pEirallelogram whose diagonals are the line EF and a line parallel to FG. 308.

Ex. . OM their radical Let from P be any point P on OM and AB. C tetragram. is the radical axis of either pair Ex. B. B' . is show that the centre of any one of them the other three. If four circles cut a fifth circle orthogonally. BB'. PN be P the perpendiculars Then the circles is difference of the powers of with respect to the PB? . It is easy to see that these points are real or ing as the given 310.BE''. 1. 311. be the pairs of opposite vertices of a BE. li A. L'. radical 4. The difference is of the powers of any point with respect to to two given circles proportional the power of the point with respect to the radical axis of the circles. show that their six radical axes form a pencil in involution. Let axis. 3. show that the circles described on AA'. 2. If two circles cut two other circles orthogonally. . circles intersect in imaginary accordimaginary or real points. show that Ex. axis. C. It follows that every circle which cuts the given circles ortho- gonally will pass through the points L. PB'-PA^ + AJ> .188 PROPERTIES OF THE RADICAL AXIS. . the orthocentre of the triangle formed by the centres of Show that the points L and L' (§ 309) are conjugate points with respect to each of the given circles. If four circles be mutually orthotomic. the line joining the centres of the other pair. CC have a common triangle which passes through the centre of the circumcircle of the formed by the lines AA'. CC.PQ\ that is. Ex. Ex. A and let B and G be be the centres of the circles the middle point oi AB. 5. equal to and let PM. A' .

or the power of one circle with respect to the other. provided their centres are real points may + be either positive or negative. . 2PM AB. 301. when they touch the power equal to 2rr' according as the contact is external or internal. Ex. Show that the power. . If the powers of ratio. difference of the powers of the point Thus the F with respect to the given circles is equal to 312. POWER OF TWO or. Therefore PB?-P(^==2GN . with respect to a circle. Ex. r.AB. It will be convenient to consider the angle of intersection of two circles to by the line be the angle subtended at either point of intersection which joins the centres of the circles.BE'. 189 But and (§ NB^-NA^ + AD'-BE-. . Ex. is proportional to the power of the point with respect to the radical axis of the circles.AB. denote the distance between the centres of two circles and 6 their angle of intersection the power of the circles d2_^_/2^ or -2r/cos5. so that in the is case of two equal circles. Ex.BA = 2PM. so that the two may coincide. a constant any point with respect to two given circles be in show that the locus of the point is a circle which has a common Ex. The radius of a circle which touches its two given circles bears a constant ratio to the distance of circles.BA = 20N'. NB'-NA' = 2NG. Given any three circles having a common radical axis.= 20G. show that the powers with respect to two of them of any point on the third circle are in a constant ratio. even when the circles are imaginary.BA+IOG. 313.. radical axis with the given circles. r' their radii is equal to The power but it of two circles is always a real magnitude. 4. 2. 3. AIP . CIRCLES. When the circles cut is orthogonally the power vanishes. of a point on another circle. If . the angle of intersection the angle through which one of them must be turned about its point of intersection with the other. BA. The square on the distance between the centres of two is circles less the squares on their radii called the power of the two circles. 4). 1. d . centre from the radical axis of the given Poorer of t^^o circles.

and . 2. a corresponding theorem may be enunciated for a more general figure in which the points and lines are replaced Ex. lines. and circles. (Cf. C denote their centres. If in the definition of the circles be a point-circle. c circle. Ex. the power of two point-circles will be the square of the distance between the points. and a straight line as is a circle is infinitely great. constant =R and let Hence. Hence we may take as the power of a straight line and a circle the perpendicular distance from the centre of the circle on the straight line. be zero. and Z the radii. infinity will line it is easy to see that the powers of any two circles with respect to the line at be in a ratio of equality.) Let X denote the fixed a. If the power of a variable circle with respect to a given circle be constant. either of the power with respect to the other is clearly equal to the square on the tangent which can be drawn from the point to the circle. it is indefinitely small. So that the definition given in § 300 is included in that given in § 313. where r is the radius of the circle. considered as a circle whose radius is infinite. but it will generally be found that if any theorem relating to points.190 POWER OF TWO of CIRCLES. The definitions given in the last article are seldom required. that is The power If is two coincident itself. power of two circles. the power of a circle with respect to equal to — 2r^circles any two circles be denoted by X. is circles. Similarly. let A. Y. can be expressed as a power- theorem (that is a metrical theorem in which the only metrical magnitudes involved are powers). the power is clearly proportional to r cos 6. the variable circle will cut orthogonally a fixed circle concentric with the given circle. 1. Y). When a point treated as a usually referred to as a point-circle. variable circle. by circles. the power of the usually denoted by (X. Similarly we may take as the power of two straight lines the cosine of their angle of intersection. 314. denote their circle if a Then we have AC^ — a?-c^ = X' be described with A for centre. and 9 the angle at which the circle cuts the line. § 301. its In the case of a circle and a straight line. but the power of a straight it will with respect to 315. It is often convenient to consider a point as a circle is whose radius whose radius circle. Considering the case of the line at infinity.

If the sum of the powers of a variable circle and two given circles circle will be constant. § 312.CENTRES OF SIMILITUDE. § 312. Ex. circles may be considered as directly similar figures : Let P be any point on one circle tben we may obviously take any point P' on the other circle as the point which corresponds to P The correspondence will then be determined. 316. them in points which are opposite ends of diameters. the variable 3. circles. 4. Ex. the former is circle which cuts only the given circles orthogonally. 3. (§ Hence two 216). The difference of the powers of a circle with respect to two given circles is proportional to the power of that circle with respect to the radical (Cf. If a circle be drawn cutting orthogonally one of two given circles. of the Any two figure circles may evidently be regarded as diagrams same drawn to different scales. § 301. a real circle when the latter is imaginary. two given circles it must cut orthogonally one or other of two fixed Ex. § 311. the circle Z will cut X' orthogonally. its Ex. This circle is concentric with. power with respect to the other given circle is proportional to its power circles. that is 7. Ex. 2. 3. Ex.) cut orthogonally a fixed circle. cuts The locus of the centre of a circle which bisects two given circles. . 191 circles given by a'^ = a^ + k\ . It follows that there will be an number of positions for the centre of similitude. and construct 9. if the points Q. 6. If a circle touch circles. with respect to the radical axis of the given Ex. Es. and cuts orthogonally the Hence. (Cf. (Cf.) powers of a variable circle with respect to two given circles be in a constant ratio. Ex. 8. Show that one circle can be drawn which shall bisect three given it.) If the Ex. radius a'. Let us suppose that we have given a pair of corresponding points on the two circles. it is clear that the power of the Z and X' will be zero that is. Q' be any other pair of corresponding points.) axis of the given circles. (Cf. For. Ex. Centres of similitude of two circles. 1. Show that one circle can be drawn which shall be bisected by three given circles. 5. is a straight line parallel to the radical axis of the circles. the variable circle will cut orthogonally a fixed circle which has a common radical axis with the given circles. the arcs PQ> Q' must subtend at the centres of the circles equal angles P measured infinite in the same sense.

C (§ 319. TCC will C intersect in the centre of similitude. pairs of tangents be drawn to both the angle between one pair will be equal to the angle between the other Ex. pair. This circle is called the circle of similitude of the given circles. the theorem follows from Ex. given 2. 5. the circles which circumscribe the triangles TPF'. Hence. To find the centre of similitude we must proceed as in § 205. Ex. Ex. 80 Hence the circle : SC = SF:SF = CP: G'F'. Show that the three circles of similitude of three given circles cut orthogonally the circumcircle of the triangle formed circles. Let that S be the centre of similitude. Ex. Ex. Prove that there are two points. Show that the circle of similitude of two given circles has 317. Then SC : SC' = r : r' therefore the powers of the point ratio of the squares S with respect to the given circles are in the § 312. then it follows from § 214. two circles. Show that if from any point on the circle of similitude of circles. 1. Show that the three circles of similitude of three circles taken in pairs have a common radical axis. Let 8 be any point on the circle of similitude. Thus let P and F' be the given points which correspond. given 4. Then if OF meet G'F' in T. 192 CIRCLE OF SIMILITUDE. 3. on their radii. and let C and be the centres of the circles. with them a common radical axis. by the centres of the Ex.. each of which has the property that its distances from the angular points of a triangle are proportional to the . 3. locus of the centre of similitude of two circles is a which has a common radical axis with the point-circles C and 3).

G.HOMOTHETIC CENTRES. 193 centre of and that the also true line joining them passes through the the circumcircle. B. Let the circle of similitude cut the line joining the C in the points H and H'. D be any four points on a circle. show 318. opposite sides . If be the orthocentre. [Math. shall call that point of the circles. the correon the other circle will be such that the angles GSP. 319. 13 . Oiven a centre of similitude of two given circles corresponding points on the circles. 1888. 6. S the given centre of similitude. P and P" will be collinear with That is. the circles will have these points for homothetic centres (§ 213). any point on the circle whose centre is C. the points S. intersect in E: AC. L. when the distances from the angular points are If ^. on the circle of similitude. and lie the point which lies between the centres the anti-homothetic centre to distinguish these points. ABC. CB in G show that the circle .] in This theorem is any given ratio. centres C. C be the centres of the giveu circles. G'SP' are equal and measured in the same sense (§ 214). Tripos. and G the median point of the triangle that the circle described on OG as diameter is the circle of similitude of the circumcircle and nine-point circle of the triangle. described on FG as diameter is on AB and Ex. and AD. and if AB. we Then when it is necessary which does not between the centres the homothetic centre of the circles. Hence S coincide with either of the points in which the circle of simi- litude cuts the line CO'. the circle of similitude of the circles described CD. Es. to find the Let C. CD BD in F. 7. If P be sponding point P Also the angle if PSP' will be equal to the angle CSC.

1. Q'. p. Q'q' will intersect on the radical axis of the given Since Therefore HP. B' respectively. Q'. so that P HP. a line be drawn to cut the circles in the points P. two circles.HP'. P'. H and range. Hence r is a point on the if Pp meet Qq' in T. 4. since anjpoint on the circle of similitude may be considered as a centre of similitude. If H centres are C and If and H' be the homothetic centres of two circles whose C". is cut them in B 6. Q' . 5. and show that {KK'. circles. Ex. but these names are clearly inappropriate.Tp= Tq Tq'. q. Ex.H^ (Ex. in A. Ex. two circles. If through either homothetic centre of . HH') is a harmonic Ex. q' are concyclic. Ex. q' show cutting the circles respectively in the points P.194 PROPERTIES OF THE HOMOTHETIC These points are often called the external and internal centres of similitude. show that {HH'. Show that two of the common tangents of two circles pass through each homothetic centre. p.HQ'=HQ. AB. CC'} is a harmonic range. show that {HH'. Hp .TP. Q and P' are corresponding points show that . Q. and that these rectangles have a constant value line for aU positions of the HP. that any pair of non-corresponding chords such as Pp. . . and A'. 3. A'B'} a range involution. P'. If the line joining the homothetic centres of two circles. Through either homothetic centre of two given circles are drawn two lines HP. p'. K and K' be the poles of the radical axis of H' their homothetic centres.HQ' = Hp. 320. respectively. the points P. 2. radical axis of the circles. 4). Ex.

CENTRES OF TWO CIRCLES. Therefore PQ must the given circles in Q and F. the other. the line joining the points of contact will pass through the anti-homothetic centre. and which have a common radical axis with the given circles. centres. 9. and the other If in the point B. or both the line joining the points of contact will pass through the homothetic centre of the given circles . tangents be drawn to the circles show that the homothetic centres of the circles will be two of the centres of the tetrastigm formed by the points of contact. show that the wiU pass through one of the homothetic Ex. AQ and pass through H. Ex. and meets one of the circles P is any point on the in radical axis of the circles. BQ P^ B^ If the variable circle touch the given circles externally. so also does the other or. 11. on the radical axis of two circles. show that the tangents at Q and R meet on the radical axis. PA. whose centres are the homothetic centres of the given circles. Show that if a variable circle touch two given circles it will cut orthogonally one or other of two fixed circles. if one of the circles externally touch one of the given circles internally and the other externally. both internally. are parallel. 195 Ex. 13—2 . Therefore. 8. Ex. circles. provided that: . . but if the circle touch one of the given circles internally and one externally. If any circle line joining the points of contact Let a Then. so also does pair. If from any point T. 7. 10. if is circle be its centre. PB cut the circles Q and R. show that the radical axis of either pair will pass through a homothetic centre of the other if one of the circles touches the given circles both or both internally. be drawn touching two given circles in the points and A and B the centres of the given P and §'. be drawn to touch two given circles. The line joining the centres of two circles in the point A. it cut are equally incUned to PQ. one of the homothetic centres of the given circles. if evident that AP. Ex. If two circles be drawn to touch two given circles.

But D is the middle point of PQ. drawn through a fixed point to touch two fixed . G respectively. and FG is the common tangent of the which passes through the point of intersection of AB and PQ. OFG touch one another touch a third in the points in the [St John's Coll. 14. R are collinear. PROPERTIES OF THE HOMOTHETIC Two circles are straight lines AB. and D. since Q.BO. R he the middle points of ABC touch the side BCin BC and AP. B are the centres of the given circles. Let the escribed circle which is on the opposite side of Then. OP and O'Q are Hence P. show that DR BC touch BC in is passes through the centre of the inscribed circle. AC m. circles 15. Show that AP: AQ=BP:B^. C be the centres of any two sense. centres are A A and given circles whose centre is touches two given circles. 0' A the homothetic centre of the two circles. : circles which touch two given Q' in the same at the points P.Sand F. P' are collinear. Q and P\ . and let AQ cut the inscribed circle in /". at Show that PQ^: 321. If the inscribed circle of the triangle it the point P. true of any one of the circles which touch the sides of For another proof of this theorem see Ex. FG^=OP^ AO. If 0. are the six vertices of a tetragram. parallel. the points i). circle B. § 241. . 0. 13. ODE. be the centres of the circles.BO AO' BO'. AQB P and Q. respectively. 0.] Two circles APB. Therefore D. show that where A and PQ^:PQ"=AO. Ex. Show that the circles circumscribing the triangles point 0. Ex. if 0. is also The theorem the triangle. 12. Ex.196 Ex. 1887. 16. whose P and Q. : The six homothetic centres of three circles taken in pairs.

. 2. Y'. Ex. CY:AY=c:a.. CZ. that 3. PPj and P^P^ BC in the same points as the internal and external bisectors of the angle BAG. c. X respectively. Y'. Z' are the opposite pairs of vertices of These four thetic 322. Y'. If a variable circle touch two fixed circles. Again.BZ = a:h. X' a tetragram. 197 Let A. therefore CXAY-^=^(§ Therefore 105) the points X. Z' are and that the points X'. Y. since GY' Y'A = c:a. Describe a circle which shall touch two given circles and pass through a given point. If the nine-point circle of the triangle circle at the point P. Hence X. P. P^. Y'. Y. that . AZ-. Y. Z be the homothetic centres and X'. Z' are collinear. collinear In the same way we may show that the points X'. BY'. X . . 4. B. AZ':Z'B = a:b. Then since BX:CX = b:c. AX'._=i. circles. Ex. Therefore the points X. Show that the lines ^. and the escribed cut circles at ABC touch the inscribed the points Pj..__. Ex. : Z are collinear. . . P and Q are homothetic centres of the pairs of circles A.V. Z. and B denote the given B in the points P and Q. and B. the line joining the points of contact passes through one of the homothetic centres of the given circles. Z' the anti-homothetic centres of the three pairs of radii circles. . CZ' are the three pairs of opposite connectors of a tetraatigm. .Z^B^^' . BX GY' AZ' _. . Ex. G be the centres of the given circles and let their be denoted by a. Y. and let X denote a circle touching A Then . 1. Z are collinear. b. f therefore -BX GY' AZ' . CX -TA. Let X. Let A. lines are called the axes of similitude or the homo- axes of the given circles. show . IS. BY.CENTRES OF TWO CIRCLES.

circles. and let T. circles. Draw the in R. must pass through H. can be drawn to pass through Similarly.198 CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCLES Let be the given point. it is evident that two circles E and touch the given Thus. it two circles can be drawn to touch the given that the line joining the points of contact shall pass through the homothetic centre H. it cut HE in F. and one of the given circles a line touching the circle Let BR cut EF in circle and from T draw BRA Then the circumscribing the triangle EFP will touch T the given Since two tangents follows that may be drawn from the point to the circle circles. circles. Let it be required to draw a circle passing through E. so ABR. 5. to describe a circle Show how which shall touch three given . Then the line joining the points of contact P and Q. which shall touch each of the given circles externally. so circles can be drawn satisfying the given conditions. and E HP Hq = HA' . HB. four Ex. . circle A' BE. that the line joining the point of contact shall pass through the anti-homothetic centre H'. in P.

denote their if and be the centres of the given let us suppose that u. Show that four circles can be drawn satisfying these conditions. r denote the radius of the circle which touches them. it is evident that a circle described with equal to r+a. C. 199 given circles that is. will generally be eight circles . or all internally. B. show is that the radical axis of X X and X' passes through the three homothetic centres of A. and C the anti-homothetic centre of and X'. and that the radical centre of A. and with radius and touch externally two circles whose centres are B and may C. is the centre of the circle which touches each of the three given circles externally. opposite sense to that in which it Let us suppose that circles. . will pass through the point A c for centre. 4 . Xow this circle be easily constructed as in Ex. 6. 7.TOUCHING THREE GIVEN CIRCLES. circles can be found. B. B. There sense. radii. and radii h-a. X' be drawn to touch three given A. Describe a circle which shall touch two given circles and cut a given circle orthogonally. circles If two circles all X. respectively. 6. so that each touches of the given circles externally. B. and C. two circles circles which can be drawn to touch three touching the given circles each in the same circles in the and three pairs of which touch one of the given touches the other two. and thus we shall 0. Ex. Let A. — a. C and let a. be able to find the point In the same manner the centres of the other seven Ex. is not greater than b or Then. c c.

as centre. Then it is evident that P with respect to the point-circle L is equal to the power of P with respect to any circle of the system. that if It was proved in with any point P. If any system of circles have a common radical axis. COAXAL CIRCLES. Points. if the centre of a circle which cuts one circle of a coaxal lie system orthogonally. . § 308. a circle be described cutting either circle orthogonally. the circles are said to be coaxal. on the radical the other circle orthogonally. all the circles of the system orthogonally. The Limiting 323. on the radical axis. it follows that any such circle will cut the line of centres of the circles of the system in two fixed points. it will also cut Hence. the circle will cut axis of two circles. Let these fixed points be the power of the point L and L'.CHAPTER XIII. From § 309.

in the last example. in every coaxal system there are two are indefinitely small. show that they coaxal. Then since this circle cuts each circle of the given coaxal system orthogonally. and L'. Ex.ir and cut orthogonally a circle. may be circles as a point-circle belonging to the coaxal system. Ex. 201 considered Hence the point L. and let the limiting points of the system be L. 324. 8. 1. 6. show that limiting point. and that the circles of the system will touch each other at this point. Ex. If two systems of coaxal circles have one circle (or a hmiting point) common. Hence. 3. Ex. If any circle of a coaxal system pass through a limiting point of the system. If the circles of a coaxal system touch at the point 0. show that the limiting points coincide in the point 0. 7. they have a common orthogonal Ex. 10. Let Q be the given point. 2. called real the only limiting points of the They are evidently when the circles do not intersect in real points. Therefore the Q will intersect concurrently in the point Q. Show that any line cut in involution by the circles of a coaxal . Ex. Three circles have their centres ai-e colline.PROPERTIES OF THE LIMITING POINTS. Ex. it touch QQ'. polars of the point If. that Q and Qf will be conjugate points with respect to every circle of the system. it follows from § 261. §' every circle of a coaxal system. is Ex. Show that the polars of a fixed point with respect to the circles of a coaxal system are concurrent. Show that the radical axes of the circles of a coaxal system and any given circle are concurrent. If that circle of the system which passes through the point will Q. be drawn. show that the two limiting points must coincide. be a pair of points which are conjugate with respect to QQ subtends a right angle at each Ex. given 9. 1. Ex. Show that the polar of a limiting point with respect to any circle is of the system is the line which passes through the other limiting point and parallel to the radical axis. 5. But in this case it is evident that the polars of the point Q will be perpendicular to the line LL'. § be a point on the line LL\ this proof fails. show that Ex. whose radii These point-circles are system. 4. Let Q be the opposite extremity of the diameter of the circle QLL' which passes through Q. and will therefore meet in a point at infinity. and similarly the point L'. If §. circle. however. system.

and P. R. show that the circles OPP. Construct a circle. S. On two . R'. .straight line. such systems are called orthogonal systems of coaxal evident from § 309. . . cut Z in the points P and Q. ORTHOGONAL COAXAL SYSTEMS. show that PP' and §<?' will subtend equal or supplementary angles at any point of is 0. OQQ'. the centres of centres are X and X' and C and C" C".202 Ex. Then if the tangents to F at P and Q cut the line joining system. Ex. respectively. Q. Y' be any circles which cut each system orthogonally. coaxal with 3. circle which shall be coaxal with a given system. is only one solution to the problem. Ex. If the it touch in P two and circles of Q. are coaxal. 1. 4.. Construct a circle which shall be coaxal with a given system of coaxal circles. X' denote any circles of the coaxal Let the circle. Y' orthogonally will clearly satisfy the conditions of the question. X and radii CP. respectively. The limiting points of either system are sometimes called the antipoints of the limiting points of the other system. and every such (§ 323). If a straight line cut points P. P. Q . Y. Two circles. X' orthogonally.. another system of coaxal may be constructed such that every circle of either system cuts orthogonally every circle of the other system.. the circle. respectively.. 2. Every circle which cuts two of the circles of a coaxal system orthogonally. which cuts Z. that if the limiting points of a given system be real. C'Q and X'. will touch the circle Z that two circles of a coaxal system can be drawn which shall touch a given Ex.. whose centre which cuts the given circles orthogonally.. and let Y. cuts every circle system orthogonally. Q. Y say. &c. circle passes Hence. There Ex. straight lines are taken the points P. show that a coaxal system which touch a given straight PQ subtends a right angle at each of the limiting points of the system. ORR'. Then the circle which cuts Z. Orthogonal coaxal systems. line. it is easy to see that the circles whose C and Show and be Ex.. any two and the circles of a coaxal system in the radical axis in the point 0. and cut a given circle orthogonally. X. 12. Let Z denote the circle of the given given circle. given circles through the limiting points of the system any system of coaxal circles. PS' = &c. 326. Q'. and touch a given Let Z denote the given circle. 11. the limiting points of the orthogonal system will It is be imaginary. S'. 325. so that PQ : P'Q' = PR : P'R' = PS : If the straight lines intersect in the point 0... and let X.

And let X denote that . § 311. a any Thus : Tf a variable circle be its drawn cutting a fixed circle of to coaxal system orthogonally. let Z denote this theorem is also true. Show circles that the antipoints of four concyclic points lie four by four on three orthotomic with each other and the original circle.. A. Ex. Show that the polar circles of the four triangles formed by four straight lines. A^. The difference of the powers of a variable circle with respect to two given circles is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the power of the variable circle with respect to the radical aons of the given circles.. variable circle. Y. Then if A.. whose powers with respect to two circles X^.. show that the circles described with these points for centres and coaxal with the three pairs of circles. will be coaxal. system. we have : : since (ZX) =0. A A. (ZX. 3. Let X. If A'. X^. Ex. be the orthogonally a 329. taken three at a time.. denote any circles of a given coaxal be that circle of the system which cuts given circle Z.. coaxal system are in a constant ratio. Let Xi..G h& the centres of these we {ZX)-{ZY) = {GX)-{CT) = 2AB NC.. where ON is the perpendicular from C on the radical axis of the system. have by Y denote the given and let Z denote the circles.. ^^3. and let X centres of the circles X.. Xg. B.. 1. X^. 203 Ex. fixed of the system are hi a constant The converse of any circle For.. and the distance between their centres. Then \i A. 328. X^. are orthogonal systems of coaxal circles..) : (ZX) : (ZX. Hence. Z be coUinear homothetic centres of three circles.. circles powers with respect ratio. the orthocentres of the four triangles formed by four lines lie on a straight line which is perpendicidar to the line which bisects the diagonals of the tetragram formed by the lines.POWER RELATIONS BETWEEN COAXAL 327. X^. A^. of a. . circles.) = A A. Relations between the powers of coaxal circles. and the circles described on the diagonals of the tetragram formed by the lines as diameters. X^. 2. CIRCLES.

Show that if the powers of a variable circle with respect to three given circles be in constant ratio. a^. Xi. which touch the variable will Z in positions. that the ratio cos ai : r^ cos a^ constant. Let us consider the case of a variable circles at constant angles..:AA. X^. of the same system.329. at angles Oj. we have (ZXi) Therefore =— : 2/37-1 cos ai. : Hence we have the theorem fixed circles A variable circle which cuts two of a coaxal system at constant angles. cos Hence by circles § . . X^^. that is to say. of a coaxal system at constant angles. Ei.„. Z cuts orthogonally a fixed circle coaxal with the X^. let and ratio is let X^ denote any other X. a coaxal system can always be drawn to infer touch a given We from the last theorem that touch if X. X.Ai. cuts every circle the same system at a constant angle. iJ04 GENERAL THEOREMS the system which cuts circle of Z orthogonally. variable circle which cuts the given circles X^ X„ . with Xi and X^. the r^ (ZXi) (ZX^) is constant . cut Z at the angle a. X^. Then if p. r^ denote the radii of these circles. orthogonally. last article.. of Now two circles of circle. Therefore AA^ AA^ : is a constant ratio . Then if A. (ZXi) (ZX^) = ri cos Oi : r. Again.)=AA. circle which cuts two given Let Z he St. he the centres of the circles X. r^. circles... A^. 1. the variable circle cuts orthogonally a fixed circle coaxal with the given 330. A is fixed. o. we have (ZX.):(ZX. Thus we have the theorem If the powers of a variable circle with respect to two given circles be in a constant ratio. the circle Z will and therefore the point always cut the same : circle. then X. Therefore as is a constant angle. X' be the two circle circles coaxal with X^. the variable circle will be coaxal with the circle which cuts the given circles orthogonally. will always touch two fixed : any position. (ZX^) = — ipr^ cos a. and X' Thus A variable circle which Z in all its cuts two fixed circles circles 331. : circle coaxal Then by the is.

If A. If the product of the tangents. Hence we have the following theorems 332. 10. sides of the triangle the points Y.<?=-BC. a. If X.CA. §. if ^. C he the centres of any three coaxal circles. Y. 6. 329. circles. c denote their show that BC. P' . The A'. has a constant ratio to the square of the power of the circle with respect to a third circle coaxal with the former. CZhe ABC touch three circles of a coaxal system concurrent. Z. two given lie A straight line cuts circles in the points P. Z. Ex. Q' . 8. and coaxal respectively with the pairs of circles Y. 11.'p-vCA. Ex. RELATING TO COAXAL CIRCLES. CR. line-pairs AP. b. show that the centres of the circles of the circles will form with the centres of those system which pass through the points A. Show that the tangents at P and P' will circle coaxal intersect the tangents circles. R. the variable circle will cut orthogonally a circle of the Ex. or if X. and if circles X'.q-^AB.AB. : .T=Q. Q' in four points which If on a with the given ABC be a triangle inscribed in a circle of a coaxal system . Show that all circles which cut three given circles at the same or supplementary angles form four coaxal systems. Q' respectively. and if it P. In the theorems given in §§ 328. R' are the pairs of opposite vertices of a tetragram. range in invo- lution. Q. Y. 5. X X. If AX. and if a. radii. C he the centres of any three coaxal circles. Ex.U' + AB. B. Y'. Ex. C.Z. If the product of the powers of a variable circle with respect to two given circles. Show that all circles which cut three given circles at the same angle form a coaxal system. BQ' . 3. Q and Ex. coaxal. Ex. B. in 9. any circle of the coaxal system may be replaced by one of the limiting points of the system. r BC. the locus of /" is a circle of the same system. Z be any three given circles. Q. given from a variable point P to two has a given ratio to the square of the tangent from P to a third given circle coaxal with the former. R' the similar points on . circles. If A. same system. . : The The point-pairs P. AP' .— .a^+CA. 2. BY. at 7. whose radical axes are the axes of similitude of the given Ex. Z' be drawn cutting a fourth given circle orthogonally. AB show that i. P' . Y show that the circles X'. ' 205 Ex. B. show that Ex. q. P' be the points of contact of BC with the two circles of the system which touches. ii. BQ. and denote their powers with respect to any other circle. Z he col- linear. CR' are the pairs of opposite connectors of a tetrastigm. and R. Q' the similar points on CA . 4. Y'. Z' are .

the drawn tangents to the circles. be equal to the third. AP BQ . G. From the vertices of the triangle ABC. B and C. Suppose we have given BC. is constant. F. 5.206 (i) PROPERTIES OF THE any point on a fixed circle of a coaxal system. prove that A and the inner . Two D . in B. 7. the tanfrom the limiting points have a constant ratio. OR are drawn to touch a given circle. If a variable circle cut it angles. Ex. two circles of a coaxal system. AB. the drawn from P to any other circle of the system is propor- tional to the distance of (iii) P from either limiting point of the system.CD.CD. Ex. ratio. BQ. If a variable circle touch varies as the square of the tangent two circles of a coaxal system. and lie on a circle which touches each of the given circles circles . the locus of the point will he a circle coaxal with the fixed point and the given circle. 4. AP. The tangent at A intersects the tangents at B and Cin and Fj and the tangent at B intersects the tangents at B and C in G and JI.BD -. 6. 1. and D. £ H at 0.AP. drawn from a point to a circle he proporIf tional to its distance from a fixed point. that D must be one of the limiting points of the ABC. 2. . Two circles are limiting point which lies outside them.BQ. are drawn. show that the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the points of intersection on the radical axis Ex.BD+AB. If a variable circle touch it gents drawn to Ex. the tangents drawn to two circles of a coaxal system at given from the limiting points have a constant Ex. From Z.] touch each other internally at the point 0. and a straight line is drawn cutting the circles in the points A.CR=AIi -. CA.] ABC. a straight line be drawn intersecting a circle of the system. Prove that £. he (ii) If V tangent If P be any point on a fixed circle of a coaxal system. 3. AP= CA. Ex. On the arc BC find a point Z) such that Then Hence It follows circles BD:CD = BQ:CIt. touching the outer circle in in C. : from § 322 (iii). If LB cut the outer circle LA^=LE^+CB BD. Show that if the sum of two of the rectangles BC. BC . PQR. then the circle will touch the circumcircle of the triangle [Purser. Ex. 1886. one lying within the other.AD=CA. the square on the distance from F to a limiting point of the system is proportional to the perpendicular from P on the radical axis. If through either limiting point of a system of coaxal circles.BQ+AB. CM. its radius drawn to it from either limiting point. the tangent 333. [St John's Coll. respectively.CR.

FR=^\{a~h). Larmor. Then if the tangents at P and Q . . 12. circles ABC. * This proof is due to Mr A. it is easy to see that Then. circles of the triangle. Q.LIMITING POINTS. b. 0' be the centres of the circles. 11. E. . Show that the nine-point circle of a triangle touches the inscribed and escribed Let D. 8. L will intersect in a point. point circle Show that the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from a fixed on any chord of a given circle which subtends a right angle at 0. F be the middle points of the sides of the triangle circle. PQR must touch each other*. theorem the nine-point circle touches the inscribed circle Ex. Ex. points of contact of the sides with the inscribed the sides of the triangle. EQ=\{c~a). FR=0. Ex. the locus of which is a circle Let Let PQ be the limiting point and let 0. . and therefore . If P and Q be points on two circles of a coaxal system such that PQ subtends a right angle at a limiting point of the system. is a coaxal with the given circle and the point-circle 0. is Show that the locus of the middle point of the chord a circle coaxal with the given circle and the point-circle 0. cut the circles again in P' and Q'. if a. intersect in if. we have : RP RQ=siii EQP sin : RPQ= cos O'QQ" : cos OPP'. show that the locus of the pole of the chord will be a circle coaxal with the given circle and the point-circle 0. If a chord of a circle subtend a right angle at a fixed point 0. R. show that the tangents at of the P and Q same system. Ex. last Hence by the of the triangle. the denote I)P=i{b~c). 10. EF DP±FD EQ±DE. 207 Hence the Ex. A chord of a circle subtends a right angle at a fixed point 0. c P. 9.

But PZ^:PQ.. N (see figure Ex. and the tangents at any two . RP RQ=QQ' OP PP' : . PN PQ' = LO O'O : and therefore PF Q'N=LO : : : LO'.PQ'=LO:0'0. BP RQ=LO' . 208 Therefore PROPERTIES OF THE LIMITING POINTS. Hence Therefore . 14. then Therefore PI^=PJf. : Similarly QN P '3^= LO' PP' QQ'=LO : : LO. circles. 12) is a circle coaxal with the given Ex.OP:LO. O'Q. 13. circle lies within the other. O'Q. : .PQ. Let LN be drawn perpendicular to PQ : . ^ is a circle coaxal with the given Show One that the locus of the point circles.LO'. of Hence the locus Ex.

li . P'Q. and the six points of contact will be collinear. APQ. Q' respectively. PQ cut P'Q' in T. Let A. If a tetrastigm be inscribed in a circle of a given coaxal system so that one pair of opposite connectors touches another circle of the system. and let AC. obviously similar. : we : have. DQ'F ai-e Again. show that PP' By Let § 332.C.inAPQ. since the triangles TPP'.PROPERTY OF A CYCLIC TETRASTIGM. Q and Q' . B. : PR PL = P'R' P'L=QR QL^Q'R' : : Q'L. TQ'Q are equiangular. BP' :BQ=sm BQP' sin BFQ. then it is evident that PR + P'R' = PT+P'T. CD in at the points P. BC in R and R. (ii). and AQ:AP=DQ':DP' AP:AQ = smAQP:s. Q . and AD. if R. P'. then each pair of opposite connectors will touch a circle of the system. i be a limiting point of the system. P'. : But the angles L. Poncelet's theorem. QP'B are equal. : QQ'=PL+P'Z QL + Q'L. points of the former cut the latter in the points P. 334. therefore The triangles AQP. R' be the points of contact of PQ. touch another Dhe circle any four points on a circle. : Hence PP' PP' : QQ' = PT+P'T QQ' = PL + P'L : : TQ' + TQ. QR + Q'R' = QT+Q'T. But. QL + Q'L. If 209 . BD Let PP' cut AB.

in which the line PP' cuts a pair of opposite connectors of the tetrastigm ABGD. two of the centres will same side of the radical axis as the centre of the circle ABGD. are internal to the circle ABGD. BQ. Z^.210 Therefore PEOPEETIES OF A TETRASTIGM AP AQ = BP' : : : : BQ.^ orthogonally. the circle X must touch GD at Q'. Z^ must cut Z. since these circles touch at the point Q'. Zi denote the circles D. By § 329 we have (AX) {BX) (CZ) (DX) = AP BP' GP DP'. the circle X will cut orthogonally the circles Z3. . therefore : : : : : : But Since Therefore Zj. Let Zi. its the circle which touches this pair of connectors will have centre on the same side of the radical axis as the centre of the circle ABGD. X X X must touch AB at the point Q. {GX)=GQ'. Thus the centre of the corre- sponding circle will be on the side of the radical axis opposite to the centre of the circle ABGD. Z. : : : : : : Therefore {AX) {BX) {GX) {DX) = AQ BQ GQ' DQ'. BG will touch a circle coaxal with the given circles at the points B and PL'. GD touch the same Q and Q'. DQ'. and whose radii are AQ. CQ'. Let us consider the case when the connectors AG. Now only one circle can be drawn coaxal with the given circles. 335.2. G. ex. It should be noticed that when the points. the coaxal system at the points Thus the pair of connectors AB. it follows that must pass through the limiting points of the circles But these circles touch at the point Q. circle of nectors In a similar manner it may be proved that the pair of conAD. of the three circles lie which on the touch the pairs of connectors. Hence the circle {BX) = BQ. : Hence AP AQ = BP' BQ = I)P' DQ' =^CP : CQ'. {BX)=BQ. 1). Z3. whose centres are A. Therefore. Similarly. {AX) = AQ. But when the points are external to the circle ABGD. B. {DX) = DQ'. BD of the inscribed tetrastigm intersect in a limiting point. by X. which will Let this cii'cle be denoted cut Zi orthogonally (§ 325. respectively.

so that one pair of opposite connectors of the tetrastigm formed by them intersect in a limiting point of the system. Hence we have the theorem If any four points he taken on a circle of a given coaxal system. and the connectors AD. q' respectively. show that one of the centres of the tetrastigm coincides with a limiting point of the system. CD will touch system in the points q. and if one pair of opposite connectors touch two circles coaxal with the former. BC will the system in it . touches two they do not constitute a pair of circles. Ex. touch another circle of the system in r and : r'. and let the bisectors of the angles between these lines be drawn. If a tetrastigm be inscribed in a circle. Q' and q. Hence it follows. CD will touch another In the same way a circle of the Q and Q'. It should be noticed that although each pair of connectors circles. q' and that AD. 14—2 . circle of the system in the point circle of R and R' and BC will touch a and that AB. r' respectively. R' and r. CD in Q. cutting the pair of connectors AB. that AD . may be shown that AB. as in § 334. Then it is easy to show that : : and AR:AL = DR:DL = BR BL = CR' CL.INSCRIBED IN A CIRCLE. 1. AQ:AL = Dq:DL = BQ:BL = GQ':CL. the other pairs of opposite connectors will each touch two circles of the system. 211 Let L be the point of intersection of ^(7 and BD . BC in R. common tangents of the two 336.

as circles on which are the describe envelopes respectively of J S. provided that Q. Ex. Q. B. and let AD. Let circle ABCD be the given tetrastigm. then since the circles whose diameters Rr and R'r' intersect in the limiting points of the given circles. Y.B. CZ' at be coaxal with the circumcircle and the inscribed circle of the . in a circle. the circle C be any X. and let AB. Let A. CD touch be a tetrastigm inscribed in a circle of a coaxal system. that AB. if and if AB. and in same direction. BC. Let are L be the point of intersection. show that the remaining pair of connectors will intersect in a limiting point of the system. that is. Q'. RP. the third side will touch another fijced circle of the system. Then from § 335. PQ cut the lines BC. system. one circle of the system at the points Q. Y'. If a tetrastigm be inscribed in a circle of a coaxal system. Therefore B'C must coincide with BC. BD will intersect in a limiting point of the system. mi the circumference of a circle of a given coaxal 337. the range {Br. 3. BC another circle of the system at R. CD will touch another circle of the system at the points in which these lines cut the line RR'. R and R' are not coUinear. Hence L must be one of the centres of the tetrastigm ABCD. Q'. Then it is easy to see that RR' will at right angles. it follows that L must be one of these limiting points. points X. Ex. R'. B' coincides with either B or C. and AD. BC touch and another circle in r one circle in R and cut R'. Q. Hence this theorem follows from that in Ex. G . AX' at X and X' . DA It touch a follows of the system at the points Q. Ex. R. Ex. If the lines QR. so that two pairs of its opposite connectors touch another circle of the system. so that two of its sides touch two fixed circles of the system. rr' and r'. show that CD touch QQ' pass through a limiting point of the system. the If the vertices of a triangle move continuously. R. we see that B'C must touch the same circles as AD at the points in which it is cut by rr' and RR'. show that the connectors AC.4 C. Z and Z' triangle . and the tangents to the circumcircle of the triangle its vertices. respectively at a coaxal circle.. BY' at Y and Y' and AB. 2. AD} is harmonic. DL meet the circle ABCD in C" and B' respectively. in AB in the ABC at the points X'. respectively. If ABCD be a tetrastigm inscribed Q and Q'. Z' respectively BC. 4. this point will be a centre of the tetrastigm. from § 334. will show that the three circles which touch CA. Let AL. and let positions of the vertices of the triangle X^. . X^ denote the . the points A. 4. Z. Again. The sides of the triangle ABC touch the inscribed circle in the points P. CD. CA. therefore LR and Lr must bisect the angles ALD. R'.212 Let PROPERTY OF A TRIANGLE ABCD be the given tetrastigm. 1. ABC. If ABCD and if AB.

rr' intersect CC. B. GC touch another circle X' at the points Then CC Q and R. AC. it is obvious that the centres of the circles X^. continuously the circle X. and follows AC. C. q'. from § 334. CC must touch the same circle of the system. AB with the circles X«_. pail.INSCRIBED IN A CIRCLE. X^ . and a since BB'. A'.val system at a point between A X and A'. BR. CC by X'. and that AA'. C lie on a circle X. it coaxal with X and A'. A'C touch a circle X^ in the that A A' and GC will touch a points circle.j. is a tetrastigm inscribed in a circle A'. and r be the new positions of 9 and r when the points A. Similarly it may and be proved that AA' and BB' will touch a circle.of connectors BB'. evident that qq' and rr' will intersect X^ must lie on the same Also it is side of the radical axis as the centre of the circle X between Similarly if qq'. between C and C. C have moved to the positions A'. at the points in which qq' cuts them. will lie Now the lines since the four points A. 213 Let q. C move in the same direction. B'. C. Since the points A. and Q between B and B'. B. AA' A R and A'. r be the points of contact of let q'. at the points in which rr' cuts them. it follo>vs from § 334 that BC and BC must touch a . coaxal with But since A A' can only A'l. BB'. q. touch one circle of the given coa. it follows that qq' and r?-' must intersect AA' in the same point. BB' in R and Q. Let us denote the circle which touches AA'.

side BC will envelope when is The proof given above the restriction that A. and p' between B' and C. Then by . X^ say. cii-eles Let us suppose that AB. Again. and in this case it may be proved that X. X„ must have is their centres on the side of the radical axis opposite to the circle X. Then it is obvious between B and 0. B.214 circle. which the envelope of BC has its and B move in one direction and C in the other. BC will have its centre on the same Hence we may state the theorem in the form : If a triangle be inscribed in a circle so that two sides touch two given circles coaxal with the former. requires but slight modification G should move in the same direction in the opposite direction to removed. the lines BC. must have its centre on the opposite side of the radical axis. Let QR meet lie that p must ' Thus a fixed as circle A. and let X^ denote the circle which is always touched by CA. which is touched by BC and B'C will have its centre on the same side of the radical axis as the circle X. coaxal with X and X'. since A and C. X^. easy to see that the circles X^. the envelope of side of the radical axis as X„. then X^ must have its centre on the same side of the radical axis as X. if A proved that X. 338. poncelet's theorem. Hence the circle X. the X^ coaxal with X. so that AB touches the circle X^. B. C describe the circle X. and X. BC touch respectively the X^ and X^. it is Thus if A move B and G. and X^. and then it may be centre on the same side as the circle X. the third side will touch a fixed circle of the same coaxal system. Let us take the point D between § 334. at the points in which QJR cuts these lines. as the vertices of the triangle move in the same direction round the circle ABC. B'C in p and p'.

AB. Thus BAD a triangle. form a poristic system with respect to the circle X. X3 do not constitute a poristic system of inscribed in circles. CD touch respectively three fixed if A'. X^.. B'. D). X^ are said to form a poristic system with respect to the circle X.. But of these twelve may be 340. coaxal with X. respectively.Dhe any Then four points on a circle of a given coaxal system. we X. we may obtain eight other solutions by drawing the common tangents of the pairs problem. B. the circles X^. X^. If be four other points on in the the circle ABC (taken B'C. Xj have four common tangents. BC. CD' touch respectively the same circles as . X. of circles Y«. X„. X.. Hence. twelve triangles may some in general be so that their sides touch respectively the circles solutions or all Xi. BD. we infer that order. then since the Fi. velope of the third side is the circle X^. X3.PORISTIC SYSTEM OF COAXAL CIRCLES. X3. Xn. poristic systems. Thus. 215 touch the AD and BC touch the same circle as same is circle X„. Xj. C. li ABC when two sides touch be a triangle inscribed in a cii-cle X. X^ A'^ . and the sides of which touch the same circles as the corresponding sides of the triangle But if we consider the same order as the ABC.. and same order as the points A. be the circle of coaxal system (X. Xj . and let circles of the system. B. X^. Suppose that we have given coaxal with a given circle X. X3.. such that two circles X^ X. in the vertices of see that the sides AB. imaginar}'. Y^.. X„. we shall find four solutions to the Similarly if F.. But when this is not the case. Y^ be the circles which form with and Xj. triangle ABD with its vertices occurring ABC. poristic will X3) which forms with X„ and X^ a circles system with respect to X." indeterminate when the the circles Xi. therefore BB will AG. so thaXA'B'. let Y^ A'«. G. same DA touch the circles X„ X„ if we take the vertices ABC always in the immaterial in which order the sides touch the circles X. three X. it is 339. Xj. it is anj' circles X^. A'3. is that the circle X^. X^ " evident that the problem to inscribe a triangle in the circle X so that its sides shall touch is respectively the three circles X^. the en. the vertices of which occur in the opposite order to those of the triangle ABC. when A'l. Let A. C..

Similarly. A^A. and that A'D'. X3 must touch a fixed circle. X3. BC circles Let that CE be EA Then AD drawn to touch the circle Xt. then an infinite number of such polystigms circle can be inscribed. must touch the remaining circle.. of the system.. further. . and. if CE touch Z4. so that each one of a complete set of connectors (§ 137) touches respectively a fixed circle of the system. A^A^. CD touch respectively any three of the four circles Xi. DA In exactly the same way. AC and BD. . therefore of the system. if AB. — 1) fi/ved circles X^ circle.X„_i . X^ say. . . Z4 respectively. X^. A^. Hence.An be any number of points taken in order on a circle of a given coaxal system.. X«.Xn. BB'. so that A-^A^. then A^A^.. X^.216 poncelet's theorems.An_iAn touch respectively (n . B. C. BC. § 338. A'C and B'D' will touch respectively the same circles of the system as AD.. since DA touch the circles X^. BC. EA must touch X^. D be four points taken in CA. Xj. will and CD touch respectively must touch a circle. of the system. further. of this theorem The second part theorem in may be deduced from the For since § 337. the fixed circles so that AB. then DA must touch the remaining circle. AB. that AA'. BC and CD. respectively. circles of the system. touch.. of the system. then must touch the circle X.. AB and BC always AC must always touch and touch fixed a fixed circle And since AC CD of the system. then AnA^ must touch a fixed X„. . Now the let us suppose that AB.A ^-^Ay^ touch respectively any ?i — 1 of the circles Xi. then 341.. X^. on a fixed circle belonging to a given coaxal system.. X^. CD and : the same order. . of the system.. and. we infer that If A. therefore AD must touch a always touch fixed circles fixed circle of the system. CC and DD' will touch a circle of the sj'stem. it may be proved Therefore by For CA always touch a fixed circle. Xi. if A-^A^. X^ and X^. we may prove Poncelet's cele- brated theorem: If A^. it may be proved in the same manner as in § 337. CD Xi. The theorem may can be inscribed in a also be stated in the form : If a polystigin of a given coaxal system.. Xi say. it may be proved that BD must always touch a fixed circle of the system. X^.

^. 3. Af. 342.2) circles coaxal with the given circles. A^A... If . Show that if 2n points A^. AiA^^ will touch another circle coaxal Ex. show that A^A^'. A'. A.i. A^A^. touch a circle belonging to the same coaxal system. there exists a set of n connectors which intersect in a limiting point of the circles. A^A^. each pair being common tangents of two of the circles of the system.1) pairs. .. A^A^. A^'A^.-An' . A^.dj^lj.^. A. A'l. A^. A^Ai.1.. show ... If A^^. show that the connectors A^A^. A^ be five points on a circle. A„A^.ji2?-"'^n ben points on a circle A' of a coaxal system. that the connectors A^A^. . &c..... A^A^. such that the connectors A^A.2. and that the connectors A^A^.PARTICULAK EXAMPLES. A-^A^. 4. ^b-^i touch another circle...A„-iA„.A„A„' will touch a circle of the coaxal system. with the given Ex. so that A^A.. Ag be six points on a circle.ill'.^5. The 2n («— 1) connectors which do not intersect in the limiting point may be arranged in n {n .2) other complete sets of connectors which touch respectively (n . &o. A„Ai touch respectively the circles of the system which form with respect to the circle A' a poristic system and be n other points taken in the same order on the circle A'. Ar. touch respectively the same circles as A^A. connectors given will .. A^.d2. circles.^. A^A^ touch another circle. circles.A^ be taken on a circle such that a complete set of connectors touch another circle. A^A^..A^. A^A^..^2.. will intersect in a limiting point of the A^Ai-.4i. and that there are (k . A^xi2'. .2. If Ai. J5. 2. A.A'„.. A^A^ Ex. and if the A^A^. A^A^. A^A^. if .. so that Aj^A^'. A^A^. 217 Ex. A^'t-.

THE THEORY OF INVERSION. 34:3. Q are a pair of conjugate points. and therefore every circle which passes through gonally. assemblage of points. of a is given circle. Q be a pair of inverse points with respect to a circle. OP OQ Q is equal to the square on the radius of the circle the point said to be the inverse point with respect to the circle of the point P. . if P. Hence P and Q are called a pair of inverse points with respect to the circle. P and Q will cut the given circle ortho- If we have any geometrical figure consisting of an 344. If on the line joining a point a point P to the centre . figure And as the inverse may be of a more complicated character we are thus able to obtain properties of such figures from known properties of simpler figures. it is evident that P is the inverse of Q. the inverse points with respect to a fixed circle will form another figure. which is called the inverse figure with respect to the circle of the given figure.CHAPTER XIV. other relations be shown that when certain relations exist between the may be inferred concerning the corresponding parts of the inverse figure. Inverse points. The inverse of any point with respect to a circle might also be defined as the conjugate point with respect to the circle which lies on the diameter which passes through the given point. Thus. Q be taken so that the rectangle . If Q be the inverse point of P. It will parts of any figure. P.

the nature of the inis verse figure inversion.' It will be seen that as a rule. . 219 The fixed circle is called the circle of inversion. and the rectangle P and Q will PO OQ will be con- stant. ' circle. and let the joints B. and the inverse of any point on the chord. any given figure may be drawn with the aid of a simple mechanical instrument. Show that the extremities of any chord of a circle. D be connected with a fixed point 0. respect to a Then the circle points A and C 0. and P. Let A BCD be a rhombus formed by four rigid bars of equal lengths hinged together. the inversion is taken with respect to a circle whose centre the point. on opposite sides of 0. will be inverse points with whose centre is . 2. It is often convenient to invert a figure with respect to an imaginary lie circle. 3. Ex. and the process is by which properties of inverse ' figures are derived known circle as inversion. Show that the limiting i^oints of a system of coaxal circles are inverse points with respect to every circle of the system. 1. Consequently phrase ' usual to designate the process briefly by the inverting with respect to a point is but it must be rememis really bered that when this phrase used. 345. having a real centre. Ex. if be the centre of inversion. Q a pair of inverse points. In this case. are concyclic. circles. but independent of the magnitude of the of depends on the position of the centre of this it is . by means of two equal rigid bars hinged at 0.peaucellier's cell. We may mention here a method by which the inverse of 346. Ex. the centre. If a pair of points be inverse points with respect to two they must be the limiting points of the circles.

is This arrangement of bars called Peaucellier's cell. A be made to describe any curve the point G will describe the inverse curve. evident that the points 0. A'. Let E be the point of intersection of BD and AG. it a circle which passes is evident that the inverse of a circle which is passes through the centre of inversion a straight line. Let P be any point on the straight line A B. Therefore the points A. A. Conversely. Thus. on the straight and Then we have OP the angle OP'A' angle. P. the inverse of a straight line through the centre of inversion. let Let OA be the perpendicular from A' be the inverse point of A.J)A\ if have Hence centre A and G are inverse points with respect to a Consequently the point circle whose is 0. is . P' are concyclic equal to the angle and therefore is OAP. C vnW be collinear. In other . Then we OA. is a circle The inverse of a straight line with respect to any circle which passes through the centre of the circle of inversion.220 It is INVERSE OF A STRAIGHT LINE. and is let P' be the inverse point with respect to a circle whose centre 0.OG = OE' -AE"^ OD' . which is a right Hence P' is a point on the circle whose diameter is OA'. The 347. OA'. OP' = OA . line. inverse of a straight line. .

Ex. words : 221 The inverse of a Show circle with respect to any point on it is a straight line. show that the straight line which is the inverse of the given circle bisects CC. 2. and meeting OA in B. Inverse circles. Let P be the centre of the circle. Ex. 1. inveree to If a system of lines be concurrent. Show that the inverse circles of a system of parallel straight lines touch each other at the centre of inversion. : .INVERSE OF A CIRCLE. 5. If f be if the centre of a circle which passes through the centre of inversion. and let P'B be drawn . circle. The inverse of a circle with respect to any circle is a Let let A be the centre of the given circle of inversion. 34S. ratio Then since the rectangles OP' OQ is constant. OP'. and any point on the given circle. that the inverse of the line at infinity is a point-circle coincident with the centre of inversion. 4. BP' :AQ = OB:0A = OP' OQ. The inverse circles of two straight lines intersect at the same angle as the hnes. : OP . parallel QA. Ex. circles which are Ex. 3. and C be the inverse of the point C. show that the them are coaxal. OP OQ are constant. and P' be the inverse point. Let to OP cut the given circle in Q. The radii of the circles drawn to the centre of inversion are perpendicular respectively to the lines. 349. BP" are parallel. the But since AQ. Ex.

and through any point the circles OAA'. C. If two circles and Y be so related that a triangle can be inscribed X. the middle point of BC. OBB'.222 Therefore INVERSE CIRCLES. Thus. If three circles intersect if two and two in the points . its centre is the homothetic centre and when the circle of inversion is imaginary. the point P' will coincide with the point Q. When . It is evident that the centre of inversion is a homothe circle thetic centre of the given circle and its inverse. the inverse of a given circle with respect to any circle which cuts 1. so that circles X and X' may be called a pair of inverse with respect to the circle of inversion. with respect to the circle whose centre the median point of the triangle. show that the nine-point circle of the triangle formed by the points of contact with Y is the inverse of with respect to Y. 2. Let X. and is BP' a constant length. Show that the may be so chosen that the A. inverse circles of three given circles shall be coincident with themselves. 5 If is a fixed point. so that its sides touch Y. Ex. Ex. : . Ex. OCC prove that these three circles will be coaxal. the fourth Show that the nine-point circle of a triangle ABC is the inverse common tangent of the two escribed circles. with respect to the circle whose centre circles orthogonally. For. 4. C . 3. 352. 3) are the inverses of the sides of the first Brocard triangle of a given triangle. 5. circles with respect to any Then these circles are coaxal. S. C. (P'-S) : . A' B. and which cuts these escribed 6. X' denote a pair of inverse circle of inversion. Show that the nine-point circle of a triangle is the inverse of the circumcircle with respect to the polar circle of the triangle.OP OP' P'Q PP' = OP' QP' = OB AB. and which cuts the Brocard circle orthogonally. to a circle whose centre circle. . referring to the figure in § 349. it orthogonally coincides with the given circle. B' be described. Show is that McCay's circles (§ 233. it is easy to see that X will be the inverse of X'. . which are opposite is of to B and Ex. its centre is the antihomothetic centre of the pair of inverse circles. If the circle X cut the circle of inversion orthogonally. Ex. Ex. in X X Ex. and the circle X' will coincide with X. circle of inversion 351. we have. X denote any and X' its inverse with respect any circle of inversion. of inversion is real. : (FZ) = P'O . B. is Hence the locus of the point P' 350.

If and X' be inverse circles with respect to each of the show that . Let 0. to the given circle in § 349). coa. and therefore OA'T will be equal to the angle OTA. /S X of any point § a constant Therefore. may be inverted into three equal 356. inversion will be the circles whose centres are the For these two circles of homothetic centres of 353. OP' = OT or.. denote their lie Then must on a fixed circle circles X^.. common tangent have (see . circles Show that there are two points with respect to which three given circles. : we must have (OTj) with the 2. 1. two X and X' are a pair A'^ of inverse circles with respect to either. Ex. and let r. and the polar circle are coaxal. '' with respect to the Thus = (oxy lie Show that if the centre of inversion 355. Ex. the circle X' coaxal with the circles and X. r and its inverse. ratio. (0A'2)=ri r^. Xf^. and X'.OQ:OP. Show that the circumcircle of a triangle. the inverse circles of two given circles will be equal. T' are concyclic. r:r'= (OX) R\ : OP'. which will be such that X and X'. Then from the we have : r Therefore r' = OQ:Or = OP. the nine-point circle.xal on a certain radii. A'. Jfj denote the given : circles. Let jR denote the radius of the denote the radii of the given figure in § 349. aS". Ex. and which are coaxal with 1. are in is to the circles S. and its Then we shall . 354. circle. OA OA' = OP the angle angle. . Therefore the points A.PROPEETIES OF INVERSE CIRCLES.? and S' cut each other orthogonally. circle circle of inversion. T. where (OX) denotes the power of the point given circle. S and 2. given a pair of circles can be found. fig. X Ex. A be the centre of a given circle. which is a right . Let Xj. r. 223 Thus the powers with respect P' on the circle X'. and let A' be the inverse point of A ^vith respect to a given circle of inversion whose centre is Let OTT' be the inverse. To find the radiiis of the inverse of a circle. circles X and X'. by 330. and let Hence r. Hence we may circles infer that.

Corresponding properties of inverse figures. the inverse circles will also touch each other. circle. 357. not necessarily be the same. and let P'. If two circles touch they intersect in two coincident points. their angle of intersection is equal or supplementary to the angle at which the inverse circles intersect.224 ANGLE OF INTERSECTION Hence AT' is the polar of with is. If two circles intersect. Thus. A similar theorem is 358. Hence it follows that the inverse circles of a system of con- centric circles will be of inversion for a coaxal system of circles having the centre a limiting point. Q' be the . Let P. It should be noticed will however that the nature of the contact evidently true for any two curves. follows that the inverse circles will intersect in points. It two coincident and therefore will touch each other. the inverse of the centre of a given circle is the inverse with respect to the inverse circle of the centre of inversion. Ex. For the polars with respect to the inverse circles of the centre of inversion will evidently be coincident and the result follows from § 345. If two circles touch each other. 2. A' is the inverse point of respect to the circle P'T'Q' . Q be two near points on any inverse points on the inverse circle. that with respect to the circle P'T'Q'.

Since circle P and Q are inverse points with respect to S. which case the angles OPQ.OF INVERSE FIGURES. or is internal to both but when the point is internal to one and Y will be and external to the other. falls It may happen however that the point within the circle which can be drawn through the points in P. and if P'. Q'. OQ'. Ex. Show that the circles. If P and Qbe a pair of inverse points with respect to any circle S. points with respect to the circle S'. 15 . inverse circles with respect to any point at the circles. when the point is either external to both the same angle as and Y. circles may be deduced from the theorem in § 351. with respect to any circle. any Consequently P' and Q* will be two points such that any circle which passes through them L. time Q'P' will become the tangent Hence if PT. Q' he the inverse points of P and Q. the angle of intersection of X . If X and X }' denote any two . 225 Then since OP . and if X'. the tangent at P. nine-point circle of a triangle touches the inscribed and escribed This Ex. Now let the point Q so that the line PQ becomes approach indefinitely near to the point P. Q. Then at the same at P'. Discuss the case when one of the given circles cuts the circle of inversion orthogonally. T'P'P will be equal or supplementary. Therefore the angle OPQ is equal to the angle OQ'P'. 3. will cut S' orthogonally. 2. therefore which passes through P and Q will cut S orthogonally. will be supplementary. Show that four circles can be drawn which shall touch two given circles and their inverse with respect to any circle of inversion. Q. the angle between the tangents to the circles at this point will be equal or supplementary to the angle between the tangents to the inverse circles at the point P' If the two circles cut orthogonally the inverse circles will also cut orthogonally. Y'. Ex. P'T' be the tangents at P and P'PT. 5. P'. P'. Y' denote the show that X' and Y' will intersect circles circle and Y. It follows that if the angles any two circles intersect in the point P. OP' = OQ . the points P. P'. 1. OQ'P'. X supplementary to the angle of intersection of X' and Ex. then P' and Q' will be inverse 360. and S' the inverse of S. Q' are concyclic. 359.

the points A.Dhe any four points on a straight line. A'B' Also :AB=OA. EA' AB = 0A . and Therefore the triangles OAB.DB+AD. C. OB' : OA .C.OA' OA.BC=Q. F^ and if Fi. since OA . : OA'. : : : : . 1. D A of the points Hence the above relation may be deduced by § 361. we shall have B'C' + C'D'+iyB'=0. that if be inverse figures with respect to a inversion. 361. S J"/.B. Given the distance between any two points to find the circle distance between the inverse points with respect to inversion. and let A'. OA' OA : OB. C. A'B'' AB" = OA' OB' OA OB.CD + AC. A'. OA OB' = OB OA' = AB B'A'. B he any two points. Then concyclic.OB'. A'B" if A& = OA' . F^. : . D. we shall have : : B are collinear with the point whence and 362. B.OB. F^' will be inverse figures with respect to the two figures Fi. li A. with respect to the point If B'. OB. B. In the case when the points A. p' denote the perpendiculars from shall AB. show that AB. we have A'B':AB=p':p. on the lines Again p. B' are are similar. B' be the inverse is points with respect to any circle of inversion whose centre 0. then circle S'.OA' = OB . OB'A' therefore AB Therefore : A'B' = OA : OB' = OB : . the inverse figures of ^i. . any of Let A. 0. be the inverse points. S' be with respect to any circle of circle S.226 INVERSION APPLIED TO It follows at once from this theorem. A'B'. F^'. Ex.

CD'. D on a any circle will circle. L.AD.BD=AB. and if the line joining the centres of the . B.AC.CD. circle be such that AB and CD A'.BC. show AB. Z). Ex. 5. 227 2. 3. show that Oil. If three straight lines be if angles with each other. making equa. that AC. 4. the inverse points resi>ect to be such that A'B'.CD+AD. B. BD. If A. 0N+ ON.AB=BC. are conjugate lines with respect to the circle. 15—2 . Show B' with that if four points A.AC. B' : and : CD' show . Ex.BC+AD. show ii. If A. B.BD. and drawn through a point 0. Ex.l any other straight line cut them in the points .AB+CD.BC. that BD] harmonic. 6. If the line joining the centres of any two circles cut them in the o-o'' points A. B and C. OL+OL 0M=0. is D be four points on a circle such that the pencil is {AC. C". CD=A'C' . M. C'Bf are con- jugate lines with respect to the inverse Ex. AC. inverse circles cut them in the points A'. D be any four points taken in order on a circle. B'. C. y. that i.CD=AD. B'D' A'B'. C. Ex. respectively .: METRICAL RELATIONS. C.BD AB. where any variable point on the circle.

Y denote the given circles. If A'. G'R. Y' cuts the Hence. Then and X' are also a pair of inverse circles with Let X X respect to the circle S'.BD AB.CD = A'C'.QS:FQ.PQ. we shall have by § 361. It follows that the lines A'P. show that the triangle A'B'C will be similar to the triangle PQR. the common diameter A'B'C'B' of the circles X' and Y' will clearly be the points. Then if P. 8. B. B.D respectively. Power 363. B'. and X' denote a pair of inverse circles with. and let S' denote the circle which cuts S orthogonally and is coaxal with X and X'. Y' will cut the circle PQRS in be one of these points. Let A. t denote the common tangents. R are the points in which the lines A 0. . : and cut the circles X'. If the inverse points of three given points A. Y' orthogonally. Y. Also we shall have from AC. Q. B'Q. R. r^ the radii of the inverse circles we shall X'. Hence. B. . respect to any circle. T' denote the inverse circles with respect to a circle of inversion whose centre is 0.r2 : r^'r^'. 7. BO.BD: AB. AC. S be the inverse points of the points A.CD = PR. have Xi Ex. C. respect to the circumcircle of the triangle ABC. and let X'. and r^. if we take this point as 0'. with respect to any centre of inversion 0. BD. Q.B'D' . Let X. these points will lie on a circle which will pass § through 361.QS -.C'D'= Therefore PR. Then if we take for circle of inversion the circle whose centre is 0' and which cuts X' and Y' orthogonally. relations connecting inverse circles. Y'. where P. if T.JIS. A' denote the centres of the circles X. Now two the radical axis of the circles X'.C'B'. B'. and if 7". C. C". we shall have A'B'. : A'B' . t denote the common tangents and r/. C be the inverse points of three given points A. and AD BC are equal to the squares on the common tangents of the circles X and Y. D respectively. and let . X'. : 7"2=<2 . B. CO cut the circumcircle of the triangle ABC. r^ the radii of the circles X. A'C'.RS. Let S denote the circle of inversion. which is similar to a given triangle. B'S will intersect in one of the points in circle PQRS.BC Now it is easy to prove that the rectangles AB.228 where the points points A. CD.A'B'. POWER RELATIONS D are supposed to occur in the same order as the C. which the radical axis of X'. A'. <'2=r.B'DIn the same way it may : be proved that AD. Let C inverse of the circle PQRS.C form a triangle show that the centre of inversion must coincide with one or other of two fixed points which are inverse points with Ex.CD =A'D B'C AC .

X'}. the powers (TX). 366. Consequently the opposite signs. S'.(TS') = {S'X) Therefore {TS') R. circle Let T denote the 364. and the circles S. : between and 0". : and therefore (TX) sign. and therefore OA O'A OA''^ 0'A'~^But since the circles cut orthogonally. 0' and X' (§ 352). (TX) . we shall have = {SS'}-{SS)='2IV. K' denote the radii of the circles S. and (TX') (SX') have : : We also have from § if 329. S. S' are we have by § 329. (S'X):(S'X') coaxal. {S'X) = IP : . Then since the circles T : : Hence the formula of the last article may be written. X. 0' denote the centres of the circles /S 229 are the homothetic centres of X and S'. S. the range {00'. we may deduce the relation (sx)^(sx') (ssy . Again it is easy to see that Hence from the relation of § 364. 365. circle which is concentric with S. which cuts S orthogonally. and the other the negative we can easily discriminate between the circles. 0.CONNECTING INVERSE CIRCLES. X. Hence. have the same It is easy to see that the ratio (S'X) lie is negative or positive accord- ing as the centre of X does. X'.{S'S'). of the coaxal system {S. (TX) ATX') "• (SX) ^ (SX') ~ ratios (TX) (SX). AA'] is harmonic. the positive circle of the pair. X'. Hence we have (S'X) (S'X) (SX)^ (5Z')~ be real when /S is and S' cut one circle. therefore by § 329. circle for if we call that circle of the pair of inverse circles X. ('TX)=(SX)-(SS).OA'.R'\ Hence (S'X) will if either of the circles S and (SX) : S' be imaginary. -. : O'A'. or does not. orthogonally. and will The T imaginary. Then since 0. which the ratio (TX) (SX) is positive. S' and (SX) : (SX') = OA = O'A -. (TX) (TX') = (S'X) (S'X').

.--^OA' = BA BA' „ BO : : BO. let and X'.^ BA BO J. Let P be any point on U. and which centre of Y. 230 POWER RELATIONS this From we may deduce the more general formula {ZX) {ZX')_ {ZS) {sxy{sx')~{ss)' where Z denotes any circle. Y' be the inverse circles ofX and : Y with respect to any : circle of inversion. : . then B A'B'^ If : AB" = OA' OB' OA OB. OB. cutting X orthogonally. . and let a Then if V be described coaxal with 329. B. : {ZX') (ZS) = _^ + 0/4 BO BO . ^^^^ (ZX) (ZT) _ (sx) ^ (SX') ~ (ZS) {ssy In § 361 it was proved that if A and B be any two points. § S and the point-circle P. But we have. : = B'O : We shall powers of inverse circles now show that a similar formula connects the If X'. : which is coaxal with X Then if B denote the (ZX) T> . and A'. this formula may be written in the form : (A'B') for. . whose centre is 0. Y orthogonally. the inverse points with respect to any circle of inversion. To prove this. as proved in § 363. and Q be any point on the circle V. (AS) = A'O (BS) : OA. . S. circle and cutting U be described coaxal with the circles S and X.(YS). : . we have : (A'S) (B'S) 368. 367. we have by Y denote the circle cuts Z orthogonally. . (AB) denote as usual the power of the points A and B.. (AB) = (A'S) (B'S) (AS) (BS). 2 ^^^^ and (§363) (SZ) + (SZO = BA' _ - ^- Tu f 1 neretore Hence ^^^ + ^^-y. . we have by and (XY):(YS) = (PX):(PS). § 329. (XP) (XS) = (QP) : : (QS). then : (X'Y') Let a circle (XY) = (X'S) (Y'S) (XS) .

Therefore 231 (XY) (XS). Hence we shall : have . 367. Then it is evident that U' will be coaxal with Also S and X'.OA'. X' . Also V will cut X' orthogonally and will be coaxal with P' and S. coaxal with the circles X and X'. (Q'S) ( : (PS) . is V be the inverse if circles of U and V. The proof given above requires modification when either of the given circles X. A' are the centres of the X. (P'Q') : (PQ) = (P-S).{YS). CONNECTING INVERSE CIRCLES.(QS). therefore by § 329.(YS) = {PQ) {PS). (XT') (X'S) (Y'S) = (FQ') But by § : (P'S) (Q'S). Therefore (Z' 7') 369. Let us suppose that with 7. : : Let V. 7 cuts the circle of inversion orthogonally. . then 7' will coincide Now which is since 7 is a circle which cuts orthogonally the circle S.. (QS). circles {XY):{YX') = OA where A. -. it evident that P" will be a point on U'. : (Z 7) = (X'S) 7'S) : (XS) . orthogonally. and will cut Y' P' be the inverse of P with respect to S. 7 cuts S orthogonally.

4 ± 2'j. 1. (r-r')2-4rr'tan2— = 82. Ex.] Show that if the circles X^. Deduce the theorem of 359. provided be internal to both the circles X. t'^-={XY)-'iab.3=0. But in § 363. the is external to both ii. 2. or is internal to both circles {XY):{X'Y')=ab:-a'b'. Y equal but have opposite signs. If T. b' : denote the radii of the circles X.. when when Ex. 5. result follows from Ex. X and Y. A series of circles Xj.4 ^2. so that each lies circle of the system touches two given circles (one of which its within the other). Y. or external to both. we shall have from Ex. Hence (XY) (XT') = (XS) . Prove that if A''. Ex. coaxal with X and X'.] we invert the figure with circle. external to one of the circles X.X^.. and internal to the other. ii. Y. : {XY) {X'Y') = ab a'b'.2. : : {XY) Ex. Y'. is a ring of circles traversing the space between the given circles n radii of the given circles are connected with the distance show that the between their centres by the formula. X^j. t' is 3. 4. If X„ + i coincide with X^. Y. Y. and two neighbours in the aeries. (YS) and (Y'S) are . common tangents of A". : {X'Y') = {OX) Show i. (S the circle. : it was shown that : OA OA' = (S'X) where i?' is (S'X') = . so that there times. and external to Y. X^. tangents of the circles X. 2.(X'S). and T'. 1. [Casey. X^. Ex. . Y' be the inverse circles of (OY') = {OY) {OX'). with respect to any circle whose centre is 0. in the 6. [Steiner. T'^=ah:-a'b'. 2. j'2=f2. b.si &c. show that y2 j"2=^2 fi = ab : a'b'.. are connected by a relation of the form T^. a'.2i ^i. We have Hence the If T^ = {XY) + 'iab. 2.. : : This relation is easily seen to be in agreement with the relation and Y' to be nearly coinof the last article for if we suppose small quantities which are ultimately cident..s • ^2. X and Y. X'. § Ex.4 + T'l.-.(SX) : {SX'). from Ex. t denote the common . that if a. ya. of this section. Ex. 232 POWER RELATIONS.. are described. be internal to the circle X. which cuts ortho- gonally. we shall have a group of If respect to any point on the common tangent four circles touching a straight line and lying . 370. the direct common tangents 7'j. Y'. 7'3. X^ touch another circle each same sense. i.

the above result follows. If a variable circle touch circles. 4) for the inverse figure a system of concurrent lines and when the coaxal systems have real limiting points. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ i.^ concurrent with given hnes. 2. we may take . Ex. Consequently the properties derived from the properties of lines.CD+AC. . two given the locus of the inverse point with respect to it of either of the limiting points of the given circles. ii„ „ given circles cuts orthogonally one ^. ^^. AB.BC=0. 23S it is If A. it will be observed that the centre of inversion will not have any particular relation to the simple figure. D he the four points of contact. B. When a system of coaxal in real points. on the same side of the evident that line. Inversion applied to coaxal circles.^j^ . Every or circle which touches two given straight lines cuts orthogonally one straight Imes ° other of two the . however.^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^-^ ^-^j^ y^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^v Every circle which touches two myen circles. and shall show It should that the converse theorem is also true. con- In either case. 372. is concentric with the given one or other of two the given circles. 1.COAXAL CIRCLES. ^. by taking either as the centre of inversion we obtain a system of concentric circles (§ 356). C. A similar relation holds when the given circles do not touch the circle in it the same sense. the locus of its centre is one or other of two circles circles. or of a system of coaxal circles may be the simpler figures consisting either of concurrent centric circles.DB + AD. be carefully noticed that the converse of this important theorem cannot be inferred from the nature of the proof here given. Hence by the theorem of Ex. In the next chapter. 3. we shall give another proof of the theorem. 371. Ex. provided that in the cases of two circles which touch opposite senses the direct in common tangent is replaced by the corresponding transverse common tangent. Ex. and thus obtain (§ 348. If a variable circle touch two given concentric circles. given concentric circles cuts orthogonally one or other of two circles concentric with the given circles. either point as the centre of inversion. To illustrate the advantage of using the method of inversion to prove propositions relating to geometrical figures shall circles we show how the principal properties of a system of coaxal circles intersect may be derived. circles coaxal with .

If no the circle of inversion is When part of the given figure pass through the point 0. If a variable circle cut two given concentric circles at constant angles i. If the powers of a variable circle with respect to two given circles are in a constant ratio. we may imagine a circle drawn having not cut for centre. circle circle But if any part of the figure F be a straight line or a which passes through the centre of inversion. a constant angle. It will cut every concentric ii. 5. Ex. Hence. when the circle of inversion is a point-circle. Miscellaneous Theorems. It wiU cut every coaxal two circle circle at iii. and its radius small but finite. the with respect to two concentric cut orthogonally a fixed circles are in a circle will orthogonally a fixed circle with the circle circles. is respect to this circle will evidently lie entii-ely within the and will therefore be evanescent when the radius of the circle indefinitely diminished. the circle will cut Ex. 0. which will F in real points. circle of inversion is remains to consider the case when the a point-circle. when the with the corresponding part of circle of inversion is a point- . such line or may be considered as cutting the point-circle of inversion ortho- gonally. circle 4. 373. Hitherto we have supposed It the circle of inversion to be of finite dimensions. If the powers of a variable constant ratio. It will at a constant angle. iii. 3. stant ratio. touch two circles con- It will touch circles co- centric with the given circles. the inverse of any figure which does not pass through the point is evanescent. The powers of a variable The powers circles are in of a variable point on a point on a fixed circle with respect to given circle with respect to two coaxal two concentric circles are in a con- a constant ratio. and will therefore coincide the inverse figure. a point-circle. Hence. and the case when the radius of the circle is infinitely great. ii. fi^ed circle coaxal with the given circles. circles at a variable circle cut two given constant angles : It wiU cut orthogonally a i- I* will cut orthogonally a fixed circle concentric with the given circles. axal with the given circles. The inverse figure of F with circle.: 234 INVERSION WITH RESPECT If Ex. let us enquire what will be the form of the inverse of a given figure F. concentric with the given given circle.

(that is A and the point at opposite extremities of a diameter of the line-circle finite part is the infinite circle whose the straight line AB). the line When cii-cle may the radius of the circle of inversion is infinitely be considered as consisting of a finite straight and the line at infinity. circle. If P" be the inverse point of P. if figure be inverted with respect to each of the four circles in succession. If four circles be mutually orthogonal. then the point may be considered as AB. ''P . 235 coincides with every straight line or circle which passes through the point its inverse with respect to the point. the fourth inversion will coincide with the original figure. 375. 'p' Let AB he any straight line. Hence PP" and any is bisected in the point A. Let PA be drawn perpendicular infinity to on the line PA AB. and let us find the inverse point with respect to the line AB of any given point P. P and P' must be harmonically conjugate with the point A and the point at infinity on the line AP. 374. great.TO A STRAIGHT LINE.

then P^P^ is ''ill It follows that Pj-^s t* bisected by OB . CR are concurrent. p. and an imaginary concentric Let P be any point. Ex. A. rectangular diameters. T. be a point of intersection of two of the circles.OP^+OP.) 0. B. Hence. such that i. E. It follows from § 360. ABPQ. R . Ex. P^ will be the inverse of Pj with respect to OB. COA. Hence also if any figure be inverted successively with respect to four mutually orthotomic circles. Q. : set will cut the circles A. If (? be the median point of the triangle ABO. Ei. CPQ belong respectively to two coaxal systems and the other two cut orthogonally the circle whose diameter is DC. if the point P be inverted with respect to the two circles. the fourth inversion will coincide with P. drawn through a fixed point cutting a P and Q. . Vigarie.P. and that these four circles are touched by another If the first set of circles intersect in the points which touches the second points P. two of the four circles which can be drawn to touch the circles OPC. R. Reprint. 2. circles are drawn through any point Show that four may be drawn to touch them. CG show that the cut the circumcircle of the triangle in the points A'. Show that if the direction of the line PQ vary. symmedian point of the triangle A'B'C lies on the diameter which passes C through the Tarry point of the triangle ABC (§ 135. and if A6. then if the figure be we shall have a real circle centre 0. CARP. . P^ be the inverse points with respect to the two circles. P . two circle. B. with respect to four mutually orthotomic will concide the fourth position with the original position of the point. BQ. AOB in three The lines AP. that is. Three circle. C. Vol. 73. P with respect to the diameter OA. the ultimate figure will coincide with the original figure. [E. The groups The circle of points B. we shall have OP. circles 3. iii. are concyclic.C show that the circle BOO.Q. 376. that if any point be inverted successively circles. Then since they cut orthogonally. and the two diameters successively. 7).OP^^O.236 Let EXAMPLES OF INVERSION. OQC. and let Pj.B. Therefore 0P^=P30. A straight line is is given circle whose centre C. PQR is the inverse of the circles circle ABC with respect to the circle which cuts orthogonally the three BCQR. inverted with respect to the point 0. ui. C. ii. A. Q. 1. Let Pj be the inverse of bisected by OA. E. BO. in the points Ex.

CHAPTER XV. The radical axes of three given circles taken in pairs are concurrent (§ 305). it will cut each of the circles orthogonally (§ 304). When circles. It was proved in § 321. Ex. or circles. System of three 377. 1. axes of similitude of the given It will be found that these . that the points of the given circles. It follows also from the properties of the radical axis of two circles (§ 308). If. It has an important relation to all the groups of circles which are connected with three given circles. Ex. Hence. with this point for centre. internal to each of the three given the orthogonal circle 315. circles. that the homothetic centres of three circles taken in pairs are the six vertices of a tetragram. The four lines of this tetragi-am are called the homothetic axes. that this circle is the only circle which cuts each of the three given circles ortho- gonally. the point of intersection being called the radical centre of the circles. owing to the fact that circles all such groups occur in pairs. SYSTEMS OF CIRCLES. the radical of a point whose polars 379. so as to be bisected by each of the given circles 378. evidently imaginary. In this case a concentric circle can be drawn 9). This circle is called the orthogonal circle. it follows from § 261. each pair being inverse circle of with respect to the orthogonal the radical centre is is the system. luith respect to three given circles are concurrent. a circle be described cutting any one of the circles orthogonally. or the radical circle of the given system. (§ If P and Q are P and Q opposite extremities of a diameter of the are conjugate points with respect to each circle is the locus radical circle of three given circles.

= d? — r' — r'^ = — 2rr' cos w. X Now the radius of a circle may be conceived either But. It will be found that considerable advantage will accrue from the use of this idea in the case of pairs of inverse circles. 1). when the will circle of inversion is real and that the radius of X' is be positive or negative according as the centre of inversion internal or external to the circle X. and as having different signs when their centres are situated version. the radius of X' will be positive or negative ing as the centre of inversion is external or internal to the circle . /. Y. when the circle of inversion is imaginary. Hence. we say that the inverse circles of two given circles intersect at the same angle as the given circles. their angle of intersection must be regarded as tt — &> when r. if we adopt the above rule of sign as a convention. Convention relating to the sign of the radius of a 380. Y. on opposite sides of the centre of in- It is easy to see that. provided that the point internal to both the circles X. their power (§ 313) or as a negative magnitude. was proved that the angle of intersection of supplementary to the angle of intersection of the inverse circles with respect to any circle of inversion. Let us consider the radii of the inverse pair of circles X. circle. or external to both circles but that when the point is external to one circle and internal to the other. as a positive d denote the radii and the distance between the centres of two circles. r are considered as of unlike sign. X' as having the same sign when their centres are situated on the same side of the centre of inversion. If and Y denote two given circles. T' is equal to the is either angle of intersection of X. axes have important relations in connection with the geometry of three circles. Ex. it is easy to see that the angle of intersection of the circles X'. r' are considered as of like sign. Hence. may . In § 358 it two circles is equal or X . T' denote the inverse circles with respect to a circle whose centre is 0.238 SIGN OF THE RADIUS OF A CIRCLE. if we regard the radius of the circle accord- X as positive. if to be regarded as the angle of intersection of the circles when r. if r. X. and if X'. the angle of intersection of X' and Y' is supplementary to the angle of intersection of and Y (§ 339.

382. they are also situated on opposite sides of the radical axis. every pair of given angles circles. Let us suppose that we have three given circles X. iji. that a circle can always be circles at given angles 6. them angles 0. Then each given circles coincides let with its inverse with respect to the circle S. circles which cut three given circles at may be considered as one of four associated pairs of Four such pairs of circles are called a group of circles. and the centres of two inverse circles are situated on opposite sides of the centre of inversion.-^. can be drawn cutting the given ir circles at angles cutting yfr.17 -<^. : Hence. Therefore. <f>. a pair cutting them at angles — ff. positive. for the present. however. side of the centre of inversion to the radical axis Now when the circle of inversion imaginary. 381. 239 circle of a When may it is is convenient to specify which to pair of inverse circles be considered as having is its radius positive. Assuming drawn cutting three given that : then.GROUPS OF CIRCLES. To describe a circle which shall cut three given circles at given angles. S. Circles cutting three given circles at given angles. ir — <ji.Y. tt — yfr. admits of one solution. we lies say that the radius of that circle positive whose centre is on the opposite of the circles. it with respect to circles at the U' denote the inverse circle of U will cut the given follows from § 380 that Then V same angles the problem as U. Now us imagine a circle U if to be drawn cutting the given circles at given angles. 4>. we . if To draw a circle cutting three given it will circles at given angles. infer —a 6. and a pair cutting ^fr. with the two circles which can be dra\vn cutting the given circles tf>. when the circle of inversion is imais we may say that the whose centre lies radius of that circle of the pair on the same side of the radical axis as the centre of inversion. admit of two It must be noticed.Z. it — Thus. that the two circles which can be i/r will be coincident drawn cutting the given circles at angles 6. at the angles ir — 0. of the and let S be the radical circle of the system. yjr. solutions. yfr a pair at them at angles 6. . pair of circles <f). ginary.

where found. Z. E. if a circle be drawn through the limiting points of the system Now two circles {U. V. W orthogonally. W) to touch Ui. Hence. U. Again the circles see that the circles 2. 2 must touch two circles with Z (§ 330). V. V. AF:BF = {1X):(1. these circles U. V. coUinear. V. and D. X. respectively. W evidently cut Z. U^ can be drawn. may be drawn passing through two given points and touching a given circle. r^. yfr. BD CE AF = _.240 CIRCLES CUTTING THREE GIVEN Let X. Y. Denoting this by S. Let these be U^ and Then tJi the circles U. it will also touch iTj. Y. Ui and U^. W. Consequently the W are coaxal. Y. BD:CI) = (ZY):(2Z). which § 330. W. Z. E. DEF. r^ are the radii of the circles Y. F the centres of A. These circles will evidently cut the circles Z at the given angles. Z be the three given circles. Z. It follows from which cuts them at the angles d. for if X.p. we have only to show that the cii-cles Ux. Y. and let 2 denote a circle ijr respectively. Hence we infer that two circles can be drawn cutting Again. and is perpendicular to the line Y and and JJ^ are a pair of inverse circles with respect to the circle TI.B. W. Y. Now W are coaxal circles. f Therefore GE:AE=aZ):(EX). orthogonally three circles U. V._ F are = rj cos !. Z.Y). To show that the construction is practicable. centres of as in § X . are coaxal with the pairs Y.C. the point D is easily and likewise the points E and Therefore the line BEF may be constructed. orthogonally circle the radical circle of the system X. . we S belong to the orthogonal coaxal system of the system U. Z. V. we have 329. V._. the circle circles coaxal ZJj. Now the locus of the centre of a circle which cuts a given circle at a given angle is a . and touching X. Hence the centre of the circle 2 must lie on the straight line which passes through the radical centre of the circles X. and therefore the points D. circles U. be the U. that 2 must cut <f>. Y. (2 F) : Also since i^Z) <}> : n cos F.

2. these circles will evidently be the circles U^. Z. a pair which touch the given circles each in the same sense. W) are imaginary. Ex. If the limiting points of the system {U. 2) the two circles coaxal with Y and Z which touch either of the two circles of given radius which cut Y and Z at the given angles.. circle concentric 241 with the given one. Thus. and three pairs which touch one of the given circles in one sense and the other two circles in 16 . we can in general always describe two circles which shall cut three given circles at given angles. circles consist The eight which touch three given . V.CIRCLES AT GIVEN ANGLES. Ex. Circles 383. U^. If then we draw (§ 325. Therefore two circles can be drawn having a given radius and touching the two given circles Y. of four pairs of circles (§ 381) namely. as in § 325. U^ (§ 330). we can still draw two circles cutting these circles orthogonally and touching the circles ZT. which touch three given circles circles.

Y. of the system is real and let us suppose circles to . homothetic axis of the circles X. it follows that Z is a point on the radical axis of thetic axis of T and Z. Let P. T'. therefore i is a point on the homo- X. Y. then the points of contact are points on the circles which touch the given circles. Draw of the pairs of circles of intersection of these axes with that homothetic axis of the given circles. which passes throrigh . T. touch the circles sense. and the tangent circles by T. the radical axis of T. T' are coaxal with the radical circle of the system X. be one pair of tangent . and S.242 CONSTRUCTION OF THE CIRCLES WHICH the opposite sense. Q'. Ex. if the radical circle cut the circle X in the points D and D' the chord DD' must pass through the point L. and from draw these homothetic centres.Z . R' the points of contact of the other. centre of F. Hence we have the the circles S. construction of any pair from the general case given in the indicated in § last article. R be the points of contact of one of the circles. T must pass through the homothetic centres of the pairs of circles and X. Let us denote the given since the circles circles by X. Y. S. the other pairs of tangent circles may be constructed by finding the points in which the radical axes of the pairs of circles S. Y. therefore the point the radical centre of the radical circle. since LP= LP". Q. Y. T' T and T' in the same must pass through the homothetic Similarly the radical axis of T. Corresponding to each homothetic axis there circles. following simple construction for drawing the radical axes the points T and . X S. Z. Again. the radical circle of the system by S. Hence the radical axis of the circles T. But the simplest method to proceed as explained below. cut the other three homothetic axes of the given will circles. Z. tangents to the given circles . Ex. Similarly. L is and the circles X. P' meet in L. Let us suppose the given so that the radical circle be external to each other. that the two circles which touch each of the given circles in the same sense have been drawn. Z (§ 9). Z. let the tangents to the circle X at the points P. Y and Z 320. Then. T' . and P'. Y. X . T'. Then. T' is a Z.X. The 5. or it may be deduced may be done as is 322. Z. Consequently. Y S. But since the circles T.

that is the homothetic axis of the circles { X.. and let Oi. 386. 0. Z with respect to the radical axis of S and S'. circle Hence. X^. X^. of the four triads of circles. Hence. Hence it appears that a can always be drawn which shall cut four given circles at the same angle. 1. { UZ) will be in the same ratio as the powers of the circles X. that the powers ( UX). circle coaxal which shall cut three given circles with the we infer that it is sufficient to draw a circles S and S'. Therefore the powers A"^. A'„. X3. 0^. QQ'. UZ) ai'e in the ratio of the radii of the circles Y. ( UY). circles X. T'. Y. and P' intersect on a homopass through the pole of this line with respect to the circle Draw any homoof the given circles. same Z at equal angles. or supplementary.TOUCH THREE GIVEN 384. § 383) touch each of three given circles A'. Y.. O4 be the radical centres 0^. from the above each of the given Ex. Show that eight circles can be drawn each of which will cut four given circles at the same. Let any circle U be drawn coaxal with the circles T. ( UY). Let the perpendiculars from follows will cut on the homothetic axes of the triads of Xi. then the lines joining these poles to the radical centre of the given circles. Y. 243 Let it be the radical centre of the given Then since the circles radical circle. Z in the same sense. but always practicable. which (see fig. RR' must intersect in the point 0. 385. Let A"^. T and T' are inverse circles with respect to the follows that the lines PP'. 6 say. Then it argument that a circle whose centre is circles at the same angle. to construct a at the angle. therefore PP' must X. Y. and cutting one of the given circle circles A' at the angle 6. angles. It follows from § 329. X„ X^: intersect in 0. Z. CIRCLES. whereas the former impracticable when the radical circle is imaginary. circles. Z.. 16—2 . Hence every circle which circles coaxal with the circles S and S' will cut the X. Again. and find the poles of this line luiih respect to each of the circles . O3. will cut them in the six points of coiitact of a pair of tangent circles. Z. is Y. ( UX). X^ denote the four circles. since the tangents at thetic axis of P X. we have the following construction : thetic axis Tliis method it is is not of such easy application as the preceding is one.

r-j. S. not follow from the proof there given. . r^ denote Also denote the direct &c. 135. Mr A.OA. common tangents of the pairs of circles Xi. B. Ex. Oi. X^. X^.. vol. § 320. pass four by four through eight other points. X^ in the same sense By Ex. Oj. <loes was pointed that the converse of the theorem relation. &c. =00. Xi denote any four circles which touch a circle X. and the transverse (13). X3. 00. true under We all propose now to give a different proof of this important theorem. X^. 244 Ex. (1891. CONDITION THAT FOUR CIRCLES From the radical centre of each triad of four given circles. common tangents of the same pairs by (12) X^. 12': we have 13^ -.00. lines are drawn perpendicular to the four homothetic axes of the triad. X^. xxiii. Show that the sixteen lines. by the symbols 12. C. however. O4 be the centres of the circles their radii. L. circles circles having a common tangent (§ circle*.. X^. O3. 6) that. Xz. and let us let r. this section is taken p. Let Xi. in the points A. Let 0. so obtained.) .OC. n. X^. 13. 2. &c. The greater part of M. Xi. from a paper by * Proc. D. X.AC' AB' = 00^. OB. in that article. Firstly let us suppose that the circle circles X touches each of the X^.. when have a common tangent the common tangents of the It four circles are connected by a certain out. 16. System of four 387. X^. :0 A. four It has been already proved circle. rs. -. Larmor . 370. and at the same time to show that the converse is circumstances.

: . 31. Then.. X^.BG==AG. 34 + (14). . lies according as the point O4 tively. . . B. AB. 23 + (13). X3. X3 or all externally. Thus.HAVE A COMMON TANGENT But since the points CIRCLE. or 12. 16. respec- If Oi be a point on either circle which has contacts of similar 24 nature with X^. . Xj. 23 -(13). (23) .24 = 0. common (ii) tangents must be connected by a relation of the type or It (iii). (12) 34 .. (12) 34 (12) 34 . by § 320. when four circles have a common tangent circle. (12) 34 + (14) -(12). or + 13 (24) = 0. is to be noticed that the product which is affected -with the negative sign corresponds to the pairs of circles for which the chords of contact intersect in a point which circle is internal to the X. . (24) = 0. 00. Then we see that. X^. if the circle X touches the circles X. .24 = 0. . 34 + (14). let us suppose that the circle opposite sense to that in which it X touches jfi in the touches the circles X^. X^ in the it opposite sense to that in which touches the circles X3.(13) 23 . which has contacts of similar and of the opposite nature with X«. 24 = 0. .BD.(14) + (13) 23 .23 + 13. Hence 12. or -12. 34 +14. we have . (23) . (24) = (iii).23-13.24 = (i). And shall thirdly.34-14. on the arc 23. and of the opposite nature with X. circle X^ is a point-circle. (23) + 13. 34 + (14). we have 12. Ex.(12). their (i).13 (24) = 0. . G. OA OB.34+14. then or = 0. D are concyclic. then . (12).23-13. Hence AB' = 00. X3.GD + AD.34+14. 24 = (12y : (ii).23 + 13. 24 = 0. 12. Let us suppose that the all internally 388. if Oj be a point on either of the circles which touch Xi. 12.34 + 14. 245 A. . Secondly.24 = 0. A'l. (23) -(13).14 + 14 . If O4 be a point on either circle nature with X^.

(14) (23) + (13) (24) = 0. . that point must lie on one or other of the pair of tangent circles of X^. X^. relation .(13) (24) = 0. X. X3. X^. by hypothesis.2Q = 0. . X3. 12 34 .. X3. 23 + 12 34 . same side of the tangent circle as the last article subsist if any one of the relations which occur in the between the common tangents of the circles Zi. Xj. (24) = 0. X2 . of circles (Y. The point Q which in fact the other point of concourse of the three circles can be drawn through X3. 1. The proof depends on X. X3 and a point P the following lemma 3P. § 345.24 = 0. = 0.^. .. 3. Xi.14 + 13. X3. and the point-circle Let us suppose now that the common tangents of the X^ are connected by the 12 34 .246 CONDITION SUFFICIENT If O4 be a point on either circle which has contacts of similar nature with X^. X^. 390. : Given three circles there is only one other point Q for which 1Q:2Q:BQ = IP:2P: This theorem follows at once from is § 312. § 388. X^. Ex. X^. This relation holds for any point on either of the arcs of the pair Y'.. for which that 389. lies In each case these alternatives hold according as the point O4 on the arc 23. and the point-circle X4. we see that Q are inverse points with respect to the radical circle of the system X^. say) which touch each of the circles X^. respectively.14 . Conversely. 31. by 12.2. X. 12 34 + (14) (23) . and. respectively. P coaxal with the pairs of circles X^. X] P. particular relation has here been proved to subsist. Through the point O4 describe a and let it circle coaxal with X^ and X. X4 being regarded as a point-circle lying on the circle X3. circles X^. Also from Ex. cut either of these arcs in Q. and of the opposite nature with Xs. . .1Q + 13. 12.34-23. in the same sense. . Then. . 34 + (14).12. or 12. (23) + (13). then or . .3Q-23. X.

. Y'. Then the four circles have a common tangent say. X2'. 12 . by : Hence and. cii'cles Suppose now that the common tangents of four given X. . circle. 14: 24 :34 = 1Q 2Q: 3Q. since O4. X. circle. Show that the circle which passes through the middle points of the sides of a triangle. whose radius equal to the sum or difference of its radius X4. (12) 34 + (14) 23 ± (13) 24 = 0. touches the inscribed and escribed circles of the triangle. so it the same common tangents as the four given that the given relation is satisfied for that the point O4 must lie by § 390 on one or other of a pair of common .. that X4 touches one or other of a pair of common tangent circles of the system Xj. follows that O4 must be a point on the other 391. common tangent circles of it and that of the circle and X4 is transverse or These three new centre of X4 X/. circle of the which are inverse circle.'. Xi are connected by a relation of the form or = 0. Q lie on a circle coaxal with Xj and X^. is For. X4 whose radius not greater than centre of each of is that of the three remaining circles. Ex. Ex.(34)±(14). A'. . 2. X3. If the given circles Xi. X^. X3. 24 : 34 : by the above Lemma. with respect to the radical system Xi.(23) + 13. and hence. With the the remaining circles as centre describe a circle. X3. (12). 392. But. Xg. take that circle. 247 § 329. together with O4 (the group of four circles having circles.. . Show that a circle can be drawn to touch the escribed circles of a triangle in one sense. circles it since Q is on one of the circles T. Xs'. = 2Q 3Q. system and follows tangent circles of the system X/. X. according as the direct.. 34 ± 14 23 ± 13 . and the inscribed circle in the opposite sense. . This theorem follows at once by treating the middle points of the sides as point-circles.24 = 0. X4 have a common orthogonal then it is easy to see that X4 will touch both circles of the pair. 24 .AS WELL AS NECESSARY. Xj. — a point-circle) form a this X/. 1.

;

:

;

248

Ex.

3.

**ALTERNATIVE PROOF OF THE
**

If the circles X,,

X, are the inverse

circles of

X3, X4, respectively,

**with respect to any circle, show that the connected by the relations
**

:

common

tangents of the circles are

23.14 = 12.34 + 13.24;

(23).(14)

= (12).(34) + 13.24.

which touch the same

circle intersect

393.

When

four circles

in real points,

we may obtain

relations connecting their angles of

intersection which are equivalent to the relations given in § 387. If two circles whose centres are 0,, 0^, touch another circle whose centre is 0, at the points P and Q, it is easy to prove that,

if

**the circles cut at the angle
**

.

w

:

**PQ' ^0,P 0,Q sin= lioy=^ OP. OQ: 00, 00„ when the contacts are of the same nature and that
**

.

;

PQ'

when the

circle

:

WrP

.

O^Q

cos= ^o)

= 0P.0Q: 00, 00„

.

**contacts are of the opposite nature.
**

if

Hence,

X,, X,, X3, X^ be four circles which touch a

fifth

X, we

.

shall

have

sin Joji,2

sin ^(0^^^

+ sin Ja),,4 + sin ^(Ua.s

•

.

sin ^«2,3

— sin J<»i,3

— sin |a)i,3

X.,,

.

sin ^Wo^i

=

.

.

.

(i),

when

when

sense

X touches

.

all

**the circles in the same sense
**

cos

^0)1,4

.

sin ^0)1,2 cos ^6)3,4

cos

^0)2,4

= 0.

.

.(ii),

X touches X4 in

•

one sense, and X,,

X3

.

in the opposite

sin ^a>]_2

sin ^6)3,4

+ cos^tuj^j

.

cos^a)i,4

— cos JtUj^a

cos

^(Bj,4

= 0.

X4

.

.(iii),

when

X touches X, and X„ in

the same sense, and X^,

in the

opposite sense.

Conversely, if the angles of intersection of the circles X,, X^,

X3,

Xi be connected by any one

of the above relations,

**proved, as in § 391, that the circles will have a
**

circle.

it may be common tangent

394.

We

propose

now

to give

**which the truth of the theorem of
**

If the circles X,, X^.

an alternative method* by § 391 may be inferred.

**evident that their
**

relation,

common

X, touch the same straight line, it is tangents must be connected by the

23 + 31 ± 12

or

= 0, = 0,

Mr

Baker.

**by a relation of the type
**

23 + (31) ± (12)

*

This method was suggested by

**SUFFICIENCY OF THE CONDITION.
**

according as the circle X,

side, of

is

249

the opposite

on the same

side, or

**the line as the circles X^, Xj.
**

of this

The converse

point-circle.

theorem

true

is

not so obvious, but

it is

easily

is

seen from a figure that

it is

when any one

of the circles

a

When the radius of each circles is finite, let X] be that circle whose radius is not greater than the radii of the other two, and let circles X/, X3' be drawn concentric with Xj and X3 with radii

equal to the

respectively,

sum

or difference

circle

of the radii of these circles,

and the

**Xj, according as their
**

direct.

common

tangents

with Xi are transverse or

circles X^, X3', and the point-circle Oi (the centre of have the same common tangents as the circles Xj, X2, X3, so Xi) that the given relation is satisfied for this system, and therefore

Then the

**the point Oi must
**

circles

lie

X/,

X3'.

Consequently the

**on one of the common tangents of the circle Xj must touch one of
**

X,, X3; that

is,

the

Xj,

**common tangents of the circles X2, X3 touch the same line.
**

395.

the circles

circles Xj,

**Let us suppose now that the common tangents of the X^, X, and a point-circle Oj, are connected by a
**

23

**relation of the form
**

.

14 + 31 24 ± 12 34 = 0.

. .

Let X/,

Xf,',

Xs' denote the inverse

circles of

Xi,

is

X.^,

X3,

respectively, with respect to any circle whose centre

O4,

and

whose radius

is

X„

Xi', &c.

**n, r/, &c. denote the radii of the Then we have by § 370, Ex. 3,
**

;

R

and

let

circles

provided O4 be external to both the circles X^, Xj, or internal to

both

;

and

12=

:

(1'2')'

= (12)=

1'2'=

:

= r,r,

:

n'r-./,

when

O4

is

external to one and internal to the other

circle.

**Also by § 354, we have,
**

14=

:

if = n

:

r/.

Hence

Xi', Xj',

it

follows that the

common

tangents of the circles

X3' will be connected by a relation of the type 2'3' ± 31' + 1'2' = 0,

or

(2'3')±3T +

1'2'

= 0.

common

Therefore, by § 394, the circles X/, X„', X3' will have a

tangent

line.

:

;

250

EXAMPLES.

Hence

it

**follows that the circles X^, X,,,
**

0^.

X3 must touch a

circle

passing through the point

We may

**proceed in the same manner when the
**

or

of § 387.

§

common

tangents of the circles X^, X^, X3 and the point-circle O4 are

**connected by either of the relations
**

Finally, the general case

396.

(ii)

(iii)

may be deduced

as in

391.

X,, X^, X3 at

Ex.

1.

Show

if

that, if the circle

X4 cut the

circles

equal angles, and the circle

sin Jwi, 2

**+ sin Ja>2, 3 - sin ^(Bi, 3 = 0,
**

Y' which touch the circles X,, Xj, X^,

[A. Larmor.]

X^ and the two

circles F,

**each in the same sense, will touch each other at the same point.
**

Ex.

2.

If three circles X^, Xj,

X^

intersect at angles

a, ft y,

and

if

X be

**the circle which intersects them at angles fi~y,y~a, that
**

i.

**a~^ respectively, show
**

X, X^, X^, X^ in the

A

circle

can be drawn to touch the

circles

same

sense.

ii. Three circles can be drawn to touch two of the circles Xj, X^, X3 in in the opposite sense. one sense, and the third circle and the circle

X

It is easily verified that the following relations subsist

connecting the

**angles of intersection of the four circles
**

sin ^a sin i

(/3

:

- y) + sin |/3 sin i (y - a) + sin

^ sin J

(a

- 13) =

;

sin ^a sin J(;3 -7) +C0S ^3 cos J(y -a)

- cos \y cos \{a-^)=0;

;

cos \a cos i

cos \a cos i

**O - y) — sin \^ sin ^ (y - a) — cos ^ cos ^ (a - 0) = O - y) - cos ^3 cos ^ (y - a) + sin ^ sin |(a - 0) = 0.
**

circles intersect

Ex.

B, B!

;

3.

Three given

C, C".

Show

circles.

that the circles

ABC, AB'C, A'BC,

**two by two in the points A, A' A' EG are touched
**

[A. Larmor.}

by four other

OIRCULAE TRIANGLE.

If the given circles intersect at angles a,

(3,

251

easy to see that the

are given

y, it is

angles of intersection of the circles

ABC, AB'C, A'BC, A'B'C,

by

the scheme

:

252

HARTS EXTENSION OF

**angles of intersection of the circles will be the supplements of
**

these angles.

**The angles of the several triangles formed by the CA, AB are easily seen to be given by the scheme
**

:

circles

BG,

ABC

feuerbach's theorem.

Let T, Ti,

Ts,

2^3

253

the triangles

denote the inscribed

circles of

ABC, A'BG, AB'C, ABC; and let 01, (01); 12, (12); &c., denote the common tangents of the pairs of circles T, T^\ T^, T^; &c.

**Then, since the
**

internally,

circle

BG

=

touches T^ externally, and T, T^, T^

we have by

§ 387, (ii),

(13). 02

Similarly, since the circle

internally,

(01). 23

+ (12). 03.

T^^,

GA

touches T^ externally, and T,

T^

(12). 03

= (02). 13 + (23). 01;

touches T^ externally, and T, T^, T^ in-

**and, since the circle
**

ternally,

AB

(13). 02

= (23). 01

=

(01). 23

+(03).

12.

Hence, we have,

(03). 12

+ (02). 13. T in-

Therefore

ternally

(§

391) a

circle

can be drawn touching the circle

and the

circles T,, T„, T^ externally.

This theorem is evidently analogous to Feuerbach's theorem concerning the inscribed and escribed circles of a linear triangle. The extension of the theorem is due to Dr Hart, and the proof

given above

is

a modification of

Dr

Casey's proof.

we have the theorem triangle is the Hart circle of the inverse associated triangles*. T^. Y. T^. we see that the circles form a circles T. Hence. Z. a . — . 2. A'BC. system touched by four other T„ such that : T H in the same sense H in one sense. 7 - a. T3 touches Z. 254 399. And since the Hart circle of any triangle eight touches the inscribed circles of its own triangle and the three associated triangles. AB'C. we infer that the Hart circle of the triangle ABC cuts the sides at angles equal to the differences of the angles of the triangle. we have in all a system of Hart circles. Y. former in the opposite sense to that 401. we infer that the that each is X. T„. T3. Z. it was proved that the circumcircles of the triangles one of ABC. respectively. H in one sense. 402. Ex. and the Hart by H. and Y. CA. H in one sense. . T^./3. Hence. Y. . 3. Larmor. touches the circles T. other three 400. and Z. PROPEBTIES OF THE HART The and circle which touches the inscribed circles of a circular the its associated triangles is called the Hart circle of It has several properties properties of the nine-point circle which are analogous to the of a linear triangle. Several properties of the Hart circle of a triangle may be derived by considering that the circle * This ABC is the Hart circle of theorem waa first stated by Mr A. There being a Hart circle connected with each of the by three circles. X in the other sense touches X. In Ex. for instance. AB by X.Z in the other sense Ti touches X. cuts the others at angles equal to The drcumdrcle of any circular of the triangle formed by the circumcircles : the differences of the angles at which they intersect. A'B'C form a system such that them. that the circle which cuts /9 the sides of the triangle ABC at angles equal to ~ 7. Hence. H form a system such the Hart circle of one of the triangles formed by the circles. Z. we see that The Hart circle of any triangle eight triangles formed : and the Hart it circles of the three associated triangles have a common tangent circle which touches the in which touches the latter. If we denote the circles circle of the triangle ABC BC. circles Y in the other sense. § 396.. T^ touches Y. ABC. and X. We have already seen § 396. triangle triangle.

Q. BCQR. the triangle A'B'C. BQ. GR are concurrent. formed by the circular arcs A'B'G. BQ. B. each pair circle being inverse points with respect to the circles orthogonally. Thus let us consider three circles secting in the three pairs of points A. we have the theorems . A'BC. Q. CARP. interP. be the point of concurrence of the lines AP. ABPQ. R. GR. circle of It follows that the circle which cuts the three PQR is the Hart the triangle ABC formed Hart by the circular arcs BPC. R. respectively. such that the straight lines If AP. CA. 255 AB'C. CQA. G. ARB. Hence we cuts the arcs infer that the circle of a circular triangle ABC BG.: CIRCLES OF A CIRCULAR TRIANGLE. AB in three points P.

P. P. or the circle of similitude of the is circumcircle and the Hart circle. the radii of T' and circles T/. ARB. y. are concyclic. Q with A. jS being concyclic . with respect to the orthogonally. The circumcircles of the triangles AQR. A. H^' B^. CARP. The point is the radical centre of the circles BCQR. we see that. Hence the nature of the contacts of the several circles will be those given in the . : . . orthogonally. B. . 403. T^. jT/. with B. respectively. H3. respectively. The points on the opposite R are evidently analagous in the case of a linear triangle to the feet of the perpendiculars from the vertices sides. touch the circumcircle of the triangle ABC at the points A. we denote the pairs of tangent circles by T. i/j'. /3. H' H^. § 398. A . BR'P'. 2. at angles equal to J (w+a+jS+y) show that these circles will cut the arcs of the triangle in three points P. C. R. GQA. which cuts the P. circles BCQR. Q. T. R' . as positive. T^ T„ Z' and the pairs of Hart circles by H. P' . Ex. ABPQ.— 256 i. in accordance with scheme : the the convention of § 380. Q. B. are CARP. R. Hi. analogous to the polar circle of Ex. . the circles. A. Ts. Q. H3'. CA. the points §. show that the circumcircles of the triangles AQR. H^. ABPQ. R respectively. AB. The circle which cuts the circles BCQR. PROPERTIES OF THE HART Each group of points : B. iii. R. Q! R. CP'Q". and the radii of H3 negative. iv. such that the circumcircle of the triangle PQR is the Hart circle of the triangle ABC. If the Hart circle of the triangle ABC cut the arcs BC.B. and P. CARP. CA. T' T^. by using the relations of § 387. orthogonally. If the angles of a circular triangle ABC be a. C. circles . P with C. ABPQ. T^. for the figure of If T^. BRP. Q. . H. ii. H3. Q . 404. CARP. AB in the points P. cutting the arcs BC. The Hart circle PQR is circle the inverse of the circumcircle ABC with respect to the which cuts the circles BCQR. Hart tence circles of the system are in general real inferred in a similar Their exis- may be manner to that adopted in § 398. C. C. When the given circles do not cut in real points. 1. CPQ the inverses of the circles circle BPC. H' will be positive. A. C C. and if we consider the radii of the circles T. A. T^. ABPQ a linear triangle. B. H^'. E^'. and if be drawn through the pairs of points B. .

CIRCLES OF A CIKCULAR TRIANGLE. 257 .

the circles x. then we have shown in : that the ratios (XT) (XS). S denote a fixed circle.. and it let T be the circle concentric § 364. x' will each touch circles y. that the circle of reciprocation is an imaginary circle having a real centre. shall call the reciprocal with regard to S P- of the point-pair P. locus of a point We circle. we shall show that circles X and y'. and that the radii of both circles of a pair may have the same sign. consti- tuting a pair of inverse reciprocation. P' or simply the reciprocal of the point The circle S will be called the circle of reciprocation. when the one of the 406.258 Let one RECIPROCAL CIRCLES. shall presently prove that when the P is a the reciprocal of the point will envelope two circles circles. Consequently we shall assume. with S and cutting orthogonally : . Y touch. where S' X and X' which cuts orthogonally. . and y. Then there can be found is 325. the centre of the negative circle of the pair lie X. circle with respect to the circle of These is circles will be called the reciprocal of the circles reciprocal to which y' the locus of P. We shall call that circle of the pair for the positive circle of the pair.P']. Further. To be able to apply the last theorem. x denote the pair of a circle X. X' be a pair of with respect to S. the pair of circles reciprocal to Y. >Si is It will be necessary to use the convention as to the sign of the which was given in § 380 and we shall suppose the radius of either of a pair of inverse circles to be positive. Assuming the convention as here stated to be always under- . (XT) {X'B) have which this opposite signs. it is necessary to distinguish between two circles which are inverse circles with respect to a given circle of inversion. when its centre is situated on the same side of the radical axis as the centre of inversion.P. and let P. circle we . P' be a pair of inverse (§ points with respect to S. In § 365 it was shown that when the circle of inversion is imaginary. ratio is positive. 1) which cuts This S orthogonally and coaxal with the system [S. The reciprocal circle of a point will evidently be a real circle only when the circle of reciprocation is imaginary. It is to be noticed that the positive circle of a given pair of inverse circles may have a negative radius. unless the contrary is stated. circles inverse Let X. X' must that circle coaxal with between the centres of the circles S. Ex. S'. circle. if x. and the other circle the negative circle of the pair. radius of a circle.

259 and using the definitions given above. p will have will bisect OP. and . the positive x. and therefore the range {OC. Y touch internally. 407. X touch respectively the negative and positive pair y. R. since P. the circle T. Y touch externally. and T in the points R. and of the of the when X. and with this point for centre di-aw a circle cutting the circle T in the same points as the diameter perpendicular to the line OP. Let q denote the circle whose diameter is PP'.: : CONSTRUCTION OF THE RECIPROCAL OF A POINT. Let T denote the circle whose centre centre on the line is denote the reciprocal of the point its which cuts S orthogonally. PP'} is harmonic. . 17—2 . iS and p. be the centre of p and let p cut OP in Q and Q'. P'. the circle q must cut these circles Therefore the circle q will pass through the points [PF. y'. respect to an imaginary circle and let P' be the invei-se point with S whose centre is 0. QQ] vdll be harmonic. the positive and negative pair X. y' touch respectively circles circles and negative . Hence we have the following construction for the circle p with respect to the Find the harmonic conjugate of the point points P. Then \i p P with respect to S. x' . Let P be any given point. R' and the pencil But the angles QRQ'. of the reciprocal pairs y. Then. Hence R. we shall find that the theorem stated in the last article may be stated in the form When two circles circles X. To construct the reciprocal of a point. RP' bisect the angle ORC. ORC evidently will bisect the angle QRQ'. P' are by definition the limiting Let C the circle points of the circles orthogonally. stood. R : RP have the same bisectors therefore RP.

we prove that these circles are fixed for all positions of P. Let P be any point on a given circle X. the centre of 409. k denote the radii of the if Hence. that zero) (Xp):iXS) = PC:PO. p. P. Since the circle X passes through the point P (so that the power (ZP) (p. To find the reciprocal of a given circle. is at and therefore the point C must coincide with We infer then that the circle the line at infinitj'. infinity. on the inverse circle X'. Then the circle p which the reciprocal of P with respect to shall S will touch two circles coaxal with X and X' . and 6 the angle of inter- section of the circles X. the circle of reciprocation. it is obvious that be the point at infinity on the line OP. and is let P' be the inverse point with respect to S. and also of Again P and P' be p will points on the circle T. if T is the reciprocal of the point 0. That is to say the reciprocal of any point P on the circle T is the diameter of this circle which is perpendicular to OP. p.260 408. is it which is a limiting point of the system follows by § 329. S. T. P' 0. circles p. But where (§ 407) GP:PO = p:k. THE RECIPROCAL CIRCLES OF When the point P coincides with the point 0. P'). r denote the radius of X. we shall have .

is x will evidently coincide with the circle which the reciprocal of the points. Hence. Q' be the points in which circles Z X. Q'.of X Let M be the centre of the (§ cii'cle p. P'. let L. and let P. Q and Q' will be the points in which p touches the and X'. QQ' circle must pass through N q which is and that iV will be the centre of the the reciprocal of the point-pair Q. Therefore (§ 330) the circle p will touch two fixed circles coaxal with and X'. if r Oil" CIRCLES. X The circles circles enveloped by p are called the reciprocal pair of corresponding to the pair X. Let X. if Q. Z evidently cuts orthogonally the circles S. X' at constant angles. PP'] is harmonic 407). it follows that and with respect to Z. we shall have circles Hence the circle p belongs to a systena of circles which cut the X. which are the reciprocal pair. of circles which are inverse with respect to the circle of reciprocation. 6' 261 the angle of denote the radius of X'. L' be the limiting points of X and X' . It is evident that these circles are a pair of inverse circles with respect to the circle of reciprocation. for drawing the x. p. Then. line. A'' the inverse circle with respect S . X'. X'. the reciprocal pair of X. and p. To construct the reciprocal pair of circles of a given pair 411. since {MO. the circles x. x' will touch the circle T. x denote the reciprocal circles of the circles X. since of QQ' with respect to Z. pole of PF with respect to Z. L. The points P. if p cuts Z orthogonally. M is the M are conjugate points pole N be the . cuts p. Then A'. Also the circles X' are point-circles. P' be a pair of concyclic invei-se points on them. it is evident that if either of the latter is a straight if each of the circles x. x'. Let to X be : any given circle. and intersection of X'. Also. L' are The circle let Z denote the circle which passes through them. following construction : Hence we have the circles x. the reciprocal of the point P.A GIVEN PAIR Similarly. X' . It follows that. 410. X.

262 DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN THE RECIPROCAL Take any point gonally in P on X. that is to say the locus of 0'. if the diameter of X which passes through from cut MQ. circle of radical axis of S and Z. given cii-cle. MQ' in the points a. a-nd draw the circle Z cuttivg X orthoP and X' orthogonally in P". A be which S orthogonally and will also cut Z is orthogonally. if a line parallel to FF' (see fig. and X'. a'. and let X be any Let variable circle cutting Z orthogonally in the point P. for different positions of X. the polar of 0. § 411) be drawn through the point MN. Then. we does not A . the circles whose centres are a. and therefore 0' must lie on the with respect to Z. Let PP' meet the polar of to with respect Z in the point M. Hence. 412. NP' in F and F'. MQ' be the tangents to Z. and let MQ. cutting the lines NP. M and whose radii are aQ. a'Q' will be the circles reciprocal to X Let us suppose that Z is a. X'. The circle S' jS and X. and let 0' is be the centre of the coaxal with circle S'. the polar of Now centre X will be the positive lie the pair X. the centre of cuts X. a'. when its between and 0' (§ 406).

x. and if B do not lie between and F. Q'. and x' the negative circle of the pair Then x and a. and likewise the but negative reciprocal circles touch when the circles touch . x. we see from the figure X. CIRCLES OF A GIVEN PAIR OF CIRCLES. and that y will touch x' at the point Q. If Q Q. where the word internally has a generalised in accordance with the convention stated in § 406. us enquire which of the circles X. In either case the circles X and A nor B lies between P Y must touch internally meaning at the point P. x will cut Z in Q. denote the positive point of the pair (S 411) that i. When A When A When A let lies lies between ii. Y touch extemallj'. Let X denote the positive. Also we see that the radius of X' will be negative when A' lies on the opposite side of F' to P' and that the radius of x or x will be negative when a or a lies on the same side of G as Q. (fig. let X and x be the positive and negative circles of the pair reciprocal to X. in a point OA G is on the circle x) evidently cuts the line whose diameter is OG. touch (ii) (i) at the point Q' Then we see that the positive circles x. Let X. The radical axis of the system {X. Q'. between P and F. or on the opposite side of G' to Q'. x will cut cut Z in Z in Q' Q. when which A lies has different positions on the line FN. 413. when is A The tangent to this circle at is lies on the same side of F as the point P. x. iii. have Again. circles touch each other. .' cut Z orthogonally in the points Q. B be the centres of X. it follows that the positive circle x will touch the negative circle y' at the point Q'. at the point Q provided that neither and F. y will when A and B both lie between P and F . x' negative radii. tivo circles touch internally. X'. Again if A lie between P and F. the radius of X negative. see that the circle 263 K will be the positive lie circle of the pair X. Let A. Therefore. x will F and N. P Hence we have the theorem the positive reciprocal : When . and let y and y be the positive and negative circles of the pair reciprocal to Y. the line OF. X' provided its centre does not between N and F. where the centre of the circle Z. Y. that is to say if the circles X. has any other position on FN.: . X'. Y be any two circles touching at the point P § 411). .

. B' G. F is a and the other a negative circle the reciprocal circles iimst touch externally. having the circle and intersecting in the point-pairs P. . Y are both positive. the reciprocals of the pointcircles A.264 APPLICATION OF THEORY TO externally. A'. the properties of the group of tangent circles of a given system of three circles must circles of correspond reciprocally to the properties of the group of circumsuch a system. the positive reciprocal circle of either touches the negative reciprocal circle of the other. B. B. ciprocals of the given circles. To illustrate the use of the method of . A' . R of circumcircles of the reciprocal system. circular recipro- cation. the reciprocal circles must touch internally.G'\ and having an radical circle of the imaginary radical circle. or both negative circles. when the given circles X. P' Q. B'. let us consider the case of three given circles intersectirg in the three pairs of points A. be three of reciprocation for their radical circle. 414. positive circle and when one of the circles X. Thus. of tangent circles which will evidently be the reAgain the reciprocals of the group of the given circles will obviously be the group . We can evidently determine the nature of the contacts of the reciprocal circles by considering whether the given circles are positive or negative circles. will if we take the system as the pairs circle of reciprocation. Then. Hence. C. C . . Q' R.

is The theorem stated above in § 413. since H touches T internally. to state the theorem in § 401. P^R. in a paper communicated to the British Association in 1887. T3. Vol. since Hi touches T externally and Ti. Q. 136 157. Similarly it follows that the circles K^. § we may show that the Q'R. T/. T. P'QR. P'QE. I believe. T^ externally (§ 404). Also. T(\ T^. .. it follows that Ki must touch the circles PQR. circles of the given system. pp. T' . Proc. and K' Kj'. Then. .' ^3 T/ respectively. it follows by the last article that must touch the circumcircles PQR. . circles of the given s_\stem. In of systems of circles. . PQ'R.' T. P'QR'. . RQ'R. arrived at independently. let denote the pairs of tangent . K^. Larmor was the first. HJ the pairs of Hart circles of the system. Soc. and T]. have say any one common tangent that may be consi- dered as a Hart Similarly circle of the sj'stem formed by the other three. if \ P. T T„ T. R be the positive points of the pairs of points in which the it is reciprocal circles intersect. and H3 denote H. PQR' will be the positive reciprocal circles of the pairs T.' this paper the subject — treated at greater length than in this treatise. P'QR. Let K. T^. P'QR'. H' H^.„ T. . T. Ks the negative reciprocal circles of the pairs of Hart . circles P' (cf. THE CASE OF A CIRCULAR TRIANGLE. PQ'R'. . T. Then. K^ must touch the same four circles. PQR' have Mr four common tangent circles 401). 265 T^. is to PQ'R'. Let Hs. although merely the equivalent in plane geometry of ' Lemmas is (a) and (/3) given in his paper on Contacts London Math. T. K Hence the four four circumcircles circles . PQ'R. PQR. easy to see that the circumcircles PQR. K3 denote respectively the positive reciprocal circles.'. internally. and to point out the reciprocal relation which exists between the circumcircles and the tangent circles of a system of three circles. P'Q'R. KJ. and PQ'R. A. sxiii.. H^ H„. K.

PQ]. four collinear points determine twenty-four ranges.CA]. : necessary to observe the order in which Now that is four points may C.BQ AQ.BP. CA]. {CB. BA]. {BA.DA]. [DB. so that be convenient to use the notation [AB. B. to say. {DA.DA]. {AD. PQ] In this definition the points are taken. [AB. That [DA.DB]. [AB. AB]. BA]. PQ].: CHAPTER XVI. [CD. it is From the definition evident that the four ranges in each is row of this scheme have the same cross ratio. or briefly the cross ratio of the range the cross ratio of the range {AB. [CD. D determine the ranges: {BA. [AD. [AC. [CB. PQ] to mean we have [AB.CB].GD]. The ratio of the ratios of two points P and Q with respect to the points A B is called the cross ratio of the points P. RATIO. 415.DG\. Q with respect to {AB. {GA. the ratio AP BP is : called the ratio of the point P with respect to the points -4 and B. {BC.BG].DB]. [BD. AC]. [DC. {DB. AD].GD]. If any two points of a range he interchanged. [CA. {DC. AC].CB\. be taken in twenty-four different orders. it is = AP.BD]. [AC. the to say cross ratio of the .BC]. [BD. If P be and any point on the line AB. THEORY OF CROSS Cross Ratios of rang^es and pencils.BD].DG]. [BC.AB]. AD]. It will A and B . Thus the points A.

BD = BG. And. B. BD] = \. DB] + {AD. {AC.BD] = {AD. GD] = - 1. we have from the definition. GB] = x. have Hence. 267 provided that the other two points are also interchanged. DC} = - {AG.BG = Q.DB + AD. CD] = \. k = 0. GD] have the or 00 two of the points must coincide.DG A . {AG.GD= AB. DG\ .DB\ = l. we have {AG. and Conversely. value 1. if the cross ratio of the range {AB. 416. D are four coUinear points. or else G and D coincide. GB} = 1. \A^. DG] {AG. GD] {AB.BG] = 0. BD] = {AD. . if {AG. + {AD. GD] is harmonic. GD} = k.GD + AG. POINTS. since A. GB] = 1. we {AB. and therefore Therefore either AB. AB. if {AB.BD] = {AD. GD] = K. DB] = {AD. Hence. Again. GB] = ^. 0.BG] = '^^. THK SIX CROSS RATIOS OF FOUR range is unaltered. . In we have. this case If {AB. {AB.BD] = \-K. and Conversely.BD] \AC.. BG] {AD. GD] have . K-1 it is {AD. DB] = {AD. {A C.GB] = A and B coincide. BC\ = l. and B coincide. [AB. + {AG. =0. {AD. BG] = Q. so that we have {AB. C. the cross ratio of the range {AB.DB} = ^^. if {AG. 417. the range {AB. If the two points {AD. {AB. GD] obvious that and therefore that In this case we have = 1. AG.BG]=2. {A G.AD.

Therefore AG . GD].CD\ = {BA. GD\. sin OB BOD be any four rays of a pencil. . the : sin BOG . the range {AD. sin AOD. harmonic. . the points A. sin AOD is called the cross ratio of the pencil {AB. For. have.GD} = harmonic.GB}. . DB}={AD. \i pencil will A.GD] = {AD.BD:BG. BD]. or ^ . satisfy the equation k^ — ^ + i^o. taken some order. G. D.GD] is (ii) When {AB. DC}=-k\ may be said to form a bivalent range. ratio of There is another special case of some importance. D be any four points on the same straight line. form a harmonic range. CD]. CD) = {AC. In this case the points 419. the {AB.G. BD} = {AD. [AG. formed by joining these points to any point 0. B. GD]. we ON . the range [AB. of sin AOG . that is it. In fact we have the following theorems (i) When {AB. BG\ is (iii) When {AB. BC}={AB. if ON be perpendicular to the line AB.AB = OA OB sin AOB.: 268 the value CROSS RATIO OF A PENCIL. {AC. 2. in — 1. have the same cross ratio as the range {AB. B. OB. the range [AG. BC}=k. harmonic. BD\ is 418. OC. GD]. ratio If OA. AD = sm AOG sin BOD : sin BOG . we have {AB. If the cross {AB.

. I. such that the range {AB. AB} = \. and if the circles described on AB. Ranges and pencils which have equal cross ratios are said to be equicross. AC:AD = CA':DP. and Therefore It is evident that there is only one solution to the problem. Hence it follows that. {AB. G: to find a point D on the same line. BB' meet in P. CD} the points = {AB.CB'. CB} =sec'8. If {ABCD} be any range. DC}=-i&n^6. If {ABXYZ} {FZ. Ex. 420. show that the product {BC. shew that {AB. [Casey. B' A C line D B it two CA' CB' is equal to the given cross ratio. Given any three collinear points A. \i A. B'. C. so that the ratio of For. C{AB. Draw any straight through the point C. 269 Ex. Also from 419 we infer that. be any range. Let the lines AA'. AC BD:BC . IJ}. DB] =sm'' 6. OD' must be coincident. CD}=-coi^6. 2.] {AD. 422. 3. and take on : points A'. Jhe any five coplanar points.AD = CA' -. CD'\. and let PD be drawn parallel to A'C meeting AB in D. D and § D' must coincide. {AB. BG:BD = CB':DP. if CD'}. IJ). of the cross ratios of the pencils A B{CA. CD. .CONSTRUCTION OF A GIVEN RANGE. Then D is a point such that the range {AB.{XY. if {AB. BD} = coiiec^e. show that AB} {ZX. the rays OD. . B. BC} = coa'e. CB} has the given cross ratio. 421. is equal to unity. AB). CD} = 0{AB. 1. IJ]. as diameters intersect at the angles %6. {AC. B. {AD. CD] may have a given cross ratio. Ex. {AC.

RS\. . PROPERTY OF It is often convenient to express the fact that two ranges or pencils are equicross by an equation such as {AB. or rays. CD} = [A'B'. the range [AB. when the points of a range [AB. In § 419 we proved that. 423. CD'} = [PQ. CD} and the pencil [AB. CD} are equicross.270 FUNDAMENTAI. it is necessary to observe the order of the points. But when this notation is used. CD} are joined to any point 0.

G \>e respectively the G . will intersect A'B'. A'X} = A' {BC. they will also have a common 425. CD"} = {A"F'. CD'"}. in points which are X. CD} = {A'B'. {A"B". BB. If ABCD be any tetraatigm. CD'}. AC A'C. Then we have A 0X}=0 424. the points D". CD'"] Therefore = [AS. 2. CC meet {BC. traiisversal. Ex. AX}=(i {BC. Hence. {BC. by § 421. § OB in . Let AA'. A'BC be two triangles such that AA\ BE. 1. OX]. B'C intersect in the point X. Ex. {AB. Hence by collinear with AB. B let and BC. the corresponding sides of the triangles will intersect in collinear points (§ 161). by hypothesis. If ABC. = {A'B'. and if E. 271 Then we have and But. C'B"} . F. CD}. the lines OD. OD' intersect in a point on the line A"B"G". The theorem of this article may also be stated in the form : If two equicross pencils have a common ray. CC are concurrent. D'" must coincide that is to say.HOMOGRAPHIC RANGES. [A"B". CIX]. [A"B".

BB'} common transversal A'B. B'C TX. CD . Ex. GF cut AB in If {ABC}. BB'}. 4. lines Q and R. Let be the centre of the involution. =A {CA'. 5. BZ} = Y{CC. AB} is harmonic. of the vertices. Then we have. Che coUinear. and AB'. and CD in A'. Ex. B'C CA'. {A'B'C} be two ranges on (§ 157. H.) different lines. AB} ^F{EK. YZ. Let AB] is harmonic (§ 141). BB'. . that the pencil G {EF. Z must be coUinear. a'h . C'A AB'. . will be concurrent. But it is evident that Y {AA'. Join Then it is easy to see that. BZs since these pencils have the Similarly. If \AA'. B'C] are equicross and conversely. .. 272 points of intersection of EXAMPLES. G{EF. A'B Let BC. sides of a triangle PQR pass respectively through the fixed points A. pairs of points he'. show that the . BB'] = C{CA'. show that the lines joining the ah'. Hence. h'c ca'. CC] be a range in involution the ranges {AA'. move on fixed straight which intersect in the point 0. BX} = C {CA'. Therefore the points X. BB} A {CA'. BD. CD} = G{EF. points of intersection of the pairs of lines will be coUinear. BA}. A'B in Z. Therefore. Y{AA'. . the pencil G {EF. 3. intersect in X . . BC show . B. . If the points 0. c'a be any two pencils. AC. . 426. then by definition (§ 66) we have OA OA' = OB . The . OB' = OC OC. {a'b'c'} . BX}. [A' A. B. C and two Involution. Ex. BC\. show that the locus of the point P will be a straight line. by § 417. YB. AD. AB}=F{EH. If {abc}. BC. AB. Y {CC. CA'. Y. C'A in Y.

have a common bisector. . It is circles PAA'. are equal to the and therefore the angles APA'. PBE. on the opposite side of the centre to points are imaginary. BC].OA' = OE''=OF'.PROPERTY OF RANGE IN INVOLUTION. OPA. P {A' A. at P &c. and passes through A will pass since OA . Then the double Let E be one of the double points. BB" as diameters intersect in be a right angle (§ 80 Ex. . tangent to the circles BPR. circles described Then the angle L. &c. OPC. angles PA'O.. FCC will touch Hence the angles evident therefore that the each other at P. CPC will also on AA'. PB'O. OPB. The circle be any point on which cuts through A'. lies Let us suppose that each point of the range conjugate. &c. (i) 273 Let us suppose that each point its lies on the same side of points of the range the centre as are real. Then the double Let the P. 18 . its B'G'} are equicross. 8). PC'O. conjugate. the Hence the (ii) pencils P [AA'. and let is P the circle whose centre this circle orthogonally and radius OE.

. GG"\ {AA'. Hence the pencils P {AA'. £'G'} be equicross. YZ\={EX'. Show A. = {A'A. Ex. \)% the pairs of opposite {AA'. the converse of this theorem is not true. BB'. P [A'A. CD'] will be equicross. B'C"}. If {AA'. points of the diagonals of a tetragram lie on a line Show that the diameters of the five tetragrams formed by five straight lines are concurrent. It is evident that any segment such as AB subtends an angle at P equal or supplementary to that subtended by the conjugate segment A'B'. . B. BB CC] . TZ] = {X'E. BG] Therefore a range in involution. a range in involution. B'C'} C". DC] = {EX. A' . CC] will 4. the range {AA'. BC]. B'C"}. Show that any straight line is cut by the pairs of opposite con- nectors of a tetrastigm in a system of points which form a range in involution. C" must coincide.. B' C. 274 EXAMPLES OF INVOLUTION. C . show that the ranges {AB. {^^'i TY'. BC}. {A'B'. and be any other point. the pencil BE. Ex. CD] B {X'X. BB'. CD). = {A'A. The middle called the diameter of the tetragram. be in involution. and Therefore A {XX'. be in involution. 2. Conversely. Thus we have. Hence the points 427. the conjugate point of the involution determined by the point pairs is A. let us find the point G". vertices of a tetragram. 1. G. and therefore Ex. {XX. DTH) be a range in involution. B' (§ 68). A' if . X --- We have. 3. in For if not. Y'Z']. B'C] will are equicross. B. {A' A. if the ranges [AA'. because [AA'. TZ] = {X'X. CC. {A'A. ZZ'] that \i is CD]. Show that Ex.

PB'O are respectively complementary to AOP. Hence we have. CD]. intersect the tangent at a variable point P. Four fixed points on a circle subtend a pencil. it follows that: Fawr fixed tangents to a circle is constant. BOP. Ex. C. at all points on the circle. If A. C. CD] are equicross. CD] is constant P. CD] has a constant cross ratio for all positions of the point P on the circle since the angles APB. show that 18—2 .CROSS RATIO PROPERTY OF THE CIRCLE. D^ Then. CD] = {A'B. B. and P {AB. B'. D on a circle. whose cross ratio is constant. since the angles half the angles Let be the centre of the PA'O. the angle A'OE is equal to half the is therefore equal to the angle APB. 1. D be four fixed points on a circle. &c.G.B. P {AB. F be any six points on a circle. D. the pencil P {AB. since the cross ratio of the pencil for all positions of angle AOB. 428. are of constant magnitude. If the tangents at four fixed points A. the range [A'B". C. If A. in the points A'. P A' B' c'^ circle. determine on a variable tangent a range whose cross ratio 430. Hence. D'. E. Gjy\ and the pencil P [AB. B. 275 Cross ratio properties of a circle. APO. 429.

276 pascal's theorem. Any straight line is cut in involution by a circle. Y. BD}. Z'. BB. 3. CE].) Let AB. Cf. P'. FA in 2. Ex. X' . common transversal A {FB. DE}. B' . 6. A' three straight lines be drawn cutting a and if be any other point on the . . CE} = Z{AX. 2. h. ef. AB. Join AP. X'Z'} = C {PP. DE}=^G {PP. XZ} = C {PP. Show that if A. C {FB. FA . BD} and C {PP. de. BC. CP.) fa. and the pairs of connectors of the tetrastigm in the points X. Y' Z. DE}. Z {FY. B.E C. and the tangents at the points is P intersect (§ 279). XZ} = A {PP. e. But by § 428. P in the point 0. If through any point . A {PP. A. A' . DE} are equicross because EF. C be the pairs of opposite vertices if of a tetragram circumscribed to a circle. Therefore Hence the points X. f be joining the pairs of points ah. d. DE . chon's theorem. and the opposite connectors of an inscribed tetrastigm (§ 273). . the points of intersection of the pairs of lines are collinear. . CP. and let a straight line be drawn. P CC'} will be in involution. Then we have . circle in the points circle. cd. B. six tangents to a circle. EF in V. (Brian- Ex. are equicross by § 428. Let ABCD be a tetrastigm inscribed in a circle. XX'. . Z are collinear. Therefore A {PP. A {PP. ZZ'} Ex. DE}. and CD. the pencil {PP. § 181. CC'} in involution Ex. BB'. C. AP'. are concurrent. CD. and the pencils Z {AX. DE intersect in X pencils BC. prove that the lines he. AA'. is in involution. transversal common C {FB. BD}. 4. EF. cutting the circle in P. DE} are equicross because they have the ED. c. DE} If a. Then the they have the Z {FY. Y. But the pencils A {FB. Hence the range {PP. BD} = C {PP. (Pascal's theorem. C show that the pencil P {AA'. X'Z'}.

T. will C . If four a circle. B. PC.. Four in p. D be any four collinear points. BC'} = {A'A.A'b' = Ac. If any straight line drawn through a fixed point on a circle. 6. Ba}=^B{A'A. 8. show that the range {PA'. cut the sides of an inscribed triangle in the point ratio. {AA'. &c. If the tangent at any point PB. Therefore Ex.Ab' A'b. BC} = {AA'. P c'. and if show that C. OR}. RO} . P {AA'. and P {A'A. B'. equal. PB. PC. so that the cross ratios of the pencils Q {PA.A'c'. TZ} have a constant cross Ex. and therefore the pencil P {AA'. CC'} ia in involution. EC'}. . BC} = C" {AA'. B. since the lines PA'. B'C'} have a constant cross Ex. BC} = P {A'A. the range {§A'. and the circle P. D. PQ intersect in a point on the tangent at the point A. are perpendicular .Ac' : A'c. P {QA. But. A chord PQ of the circumcircle of the triangle ABC cuts the sides Show that if of the triangle in the points X. Z. with respect to a circle whose Then. P {AA'. 7. V. and let PA'. RO} = {A'A.PROPERTIES OF THE CIRCLE. Q are taken on the circumcircle of the triangle ABC. Let 277 BC cut AA' in the point K Then we have. fixed tangents to a circle \ form a tetragram whose pairs of opposite vertices are A. the point P will be a fixed point. C. Two points P. ABC in the points A'. PB'. PB'. CB} are Show that the hues BC. PC meet AA! in the points 6. Aj^ 431. the polars of A. BC}. B : C. ratio. Ex. G. : A'p^^Ab. points be collinear the range formed by them is equicross ivith the pencil respect to formed by the polars of the points with Let A. BB'. PB' be centre is 0. OR}. B. A' meet AA' respectively. 9. c.

a circle. meets a fixed tangent in T.. Z. form the triangle A'B'C. and the sides of the triangle A'B'C in the points a'. . T. CD'] 432. AC'}. On the tangent at any point point triangle ABC. and the tangent at any point P meets the sides of the triangle ABCiu the points a. A'B'C be any two triangles self conjugate with respect to show that the pencils A {BC. and therefore the triangles ABC. Therefore C'B}. equicross with the pencil A{YA\ {BX. bc} = {Pa'. Therefore Z{A'X. Ex. D will be the pole of AC. Ex. But. Let A' the point EC sides intersect in the points X. c. If ABC. AC'} and A {YA'. &c. is Also X is the pole of AA'. AC'}=Z{YA'. BC} has a that the locus of § is a straight line which touches the Ex. 2. OA. 4. I)C'} = Z{A'X. 1. B. OB. the The tangent at any point P on a circle which touches the sides of ABC. C'B]=Z {YA'. C. be the conjugate triangle of ABC and let the corresponding Then. Ex. . the range {B'X. Any triangle and its conjugate with respect to a circle are in perspective (§ 267). if jB'C" cut ABvn the point D. b. Hence the points X. DC) . C'A}=Z{A'Y. c' : show that {Pa. BC} has a constant cross ratio. b'd}. by § 431. B'C}. Show that the pencil T{PA. 3. P {A'B'. circle. triangle Ex. Z are coUinear. A'B'C are in perspective.278 to the lines THEOREMS RELATING TO THE CIRCLE. it follows that the pencils {AB. Show P on the inscribed circle of the taken such that the pencil Q {PA. A' {BC. The tangents to a circle at the points A. are equicross. a Q is constant cross ratio. CD]. 5. C'A). Y. B'C} will be equicross. h.

determines two Show Show that a range of points on any straight line and their polars circle with respect to a Ex. (that is. Any two ranges {ABC. is when the any four points of one range equal to the cross of the corresponding points of the other range.}. PQ] = [A'B'. FQ}.. 434. [A'EC ... denote the points at infinity on the lines AB. a range which is Ex..]. 1. and any two corresponding points P.]. Q' the corresponding points of the range [A'B. on the same.] be any two homographic ranges 436. have a one be homographic. on different lines and let 0. 2.Ox] = qo ' [A'B'. have a constant ratio. rsinges variable tangent to a on any two fixed tangents. 4.. Similarly. situated lines. Similarly... ratios F of the ranges must be such that the AP : BP. P.. . if two pencils. {A'B'C. A'F. and only one. circle Ex. That is to say. that the polars with respect to a fixed triangle of a range of line in points on any straight line cut any other straight homographic with the former.}. 0' be the points of each range which correspond respectively to the point at infinity on the other. A'P' if : B'P'. Q be any two points of the range [AB.. or if to one correspondence. are homographic. the ranges will be homographic.]. For. will also Show that if two homographic pencils have a common ray they have a common transversal Let [ABC. Then we where oo . a pencil and a range. two pencils are said to be homographic cross ratio of when the any four rays of one pencil is equal to that of the corresponding rays of the other pencil and a pencil is said to be homographic with a range under similar circumstances.. . Any two when if ranges which have a one to one correspondence to each point of one range corresponds one. we shall have [AB.x'0']. B' the corresponding points of the other range..HOMOGRAPHIC RANGES AND PENCILS. 3.. form two homographic systems. Show that a homographic Ex. point of the other). A'. . they will 435. Hence. or on different cross ratio of ratio are said to be homographic. and P. Homographic ranges and pencils. A and B be two fixed points of one of the ranges. shall have [AB. 279 433.

.±±tAiV XiSf DOUBLE POINTS OF HOMOGRAPHIC RANGES.B'Cy .Boo A'x'. AO.280 . rr.^ J.

1. C the A given points.}.}. Show how to inscribe a triangle in a given triangle. FS' be the double rays of two homographic pencils P{ABC.}.. Z will be collinear.. C'S} = A [A'Z. {A'B'C. we know (Pascal's theorem.. CS}. A'B. /S and S'. Therefore P {A'B'C. Ex. P Let XYZ cut the circle in PS will ... OS} = P {AB. Ex. A'B} will be in involution. AB'. that the line joining Show how to find a point on each of two given straight lines such them shall subtend given angles at two given points. show that the pencil P{SS'. Through A' .. B'G. YS} = A' [AZ. if S. GA'.. 4. and similarly PS' will be the other double ray... A'. AF. F{A'B'C'. be one double ray of the pencils P {ABG. Let ABC be the given triangle . Y. CA.} 439.) that the points X. Then we shall have P {A'B'. Show that. S' be the ranges {ABC.}. YS} = A' [AB. 2. the circle whose diameter with the circles whose diameters are ^1^' and A'B. B. 281 BC. Ex.}. such that the sides of the triangle shall pass through three given points. C'S} = A [A'B'.. 3. If PS..DOUBLK BAYS OF HOMOGRAPHIC lines PENCILS.. double points of the homographic is SS' will be coaxal Ex.

it is clear that the Hence if AP and AP' be the pencils A{P^. P' wiU form two homographic ranges. straight line cutting the circles * This X method is due to Casey. it is evident that the line.. YR^ cut the circle whose centre is A in Pj and P'l. on the homographic ranges {ABGPQ. . Then. Q. C be the centres of the given circles .. Inscribe in a circle a triangle whose sides shall pass through three given points. If the double points of these ranges be S and S'. SC will cut AB. such that PP'. of a pair of circles which touch the given circles. Inscribe in a circle a triangle whose sides shall touch three given Ex. Describe a circle which shall touch three given circles*. {A'B'C'P'Q'. whose centre \a A. P and P' will be the points of contact with the circle. and let QC.. Q P'. Thus the problem admits of two solutions. Then the triangles PQR. as the line QR turns about the point A'. B. Show how to find two corresponding pairs of points P. Y. 8. Ex. if a pencil of lines be drawn through X. 5. ABC are in perspective and have one of the homothetic axes of Let A. Q^ .282 CIRCLES TOUCHING THREE GIVEN ONES. the points P. draw any line cutting CA in Q and AB in R .}. Z be the homothetic any Through draw whose centres are B and C in the points §( and R^. Ex. and suppose that a circle can be drawn touching them at the points P. respectively. the given circles for their axis of perspective. and let ZQ^. Let X. shall pass through a given point 0. A{P'^ will be homographic. RB' meet BC in P' and P. double rays of these pencils. centres of the given circles on this axis of perspective. 6.s SB'. circles. AC in points collinear with A'. Q'. R. Then. Ex.. 7.}.

Purser. 12. BRP. § 232. The theory of similar figures is chiefly due and Tarry. Clifford also used the same defi- nition in a paper said to have been written in 1866.. triangle. Royal Irish circle Page 189. of Feuerbach's theorem p.'' Quarterly Journal. Vol. xxi. 112. § 180. § Page 134. and the proof given is attributed by him to McCay. is to be found in McClelland's Geometry of the circle. In connection with the Brocardian geometry of the "On the geometry of the circle" (1891) may be consulted. It was first stated by Casey [Phil. to Page 140. The theorem in this example which is afterwards prove Feuerbach's theorem was taken from Nixon. 78. Trans. 2nd edit. Vol.. . R be any points on the sides BC. (1886) may be consulted. § 313. but the proof given by Nixon is invalid. Sequel to Euclid. 7. p. the circles AQR. whose papers will be found in Mathesis. p. This theorem is taken from Casey. Q.NOTES. 164 (1826). Vol. Vol. He deduces several theorems from the theorem that. The theorem together with the proof are said to be due to Prof. 3. Page 235. ex. 84. 350 (li'-88). 183 (1891). § 223. In conection with this subject a paper by Mr Jenkins "On some geometrical proofs of theorems connected with the inscription of a triangle of constant form in a given triangle. if P. VEcole Normale superieure. § 375. Vol. AB of a. Crelle. Academy. p. clxvil). vised to 333. I am informed that another proof has been inserted in a new edition of this treatise which It may be mentioned that an elegant proof by McCay is to appear shortly. Darboux gave the definition of the power of two circles in a paper published in Annates de i. (1872). ex. McOay's proof depends on the theorem that the Simson lines of two diametrically opposite points on the circumcircle of a triangle intersect in a point on the nine-point circle. CA. i. Page 145.. McClelland's treatise Page 113. The definition of the power of a point with respect to a was first given by Steiner. ex. triangle. Euclid Revised. Vol. ii. xxviii. Neuberg See a paper by McCay in the Traits. p. hut published for the first time in his Collected Mathematical Papers (1882). § Page 206. CPQ will have a common point.

66. 78. Axes. 253. of similitude of two figures directly similar. Casey. circles. Areas. cumscribing acircle. Circles. 78. 77. 282. 156. 172. 143. 63. 81. relating radical. 101. 8. harmonic section Brocard. Anharmonic —see ' Cross ratio. AntiparaUel. and 198. of similitude of two figures inversely similar. measurement of. 139.' — INDEX. touching two 241. 162. of. 282. of circle. 232. Tucker's system. 223. 75. Circle of coaxal system. 269. 132. 66. 204. 122. 136. Brocard. 222. 163. points. touching a given Circle cutting circle. 224. of Nine-point. angle of triangle. 78. of perspective. cutting given hexagram consisting of two circle orthogonally. for hexagram for circles coaxal. 202. Area. of range in involution. passing through a point circles. of perspective of conjugate triangles. Cayley. 10. 193. of three 242. similitude of inversely similAr figures. fimdamental theorems to. Baker. of perspective. 37. 83. 196. 134. Taylor's. 185. triangles. 134. equal or supplementary to that of inverse circles. of homology. Circles connected with a triangle : circumcircle. 138. Lemoine. Brianchon hexagram. 122. 203. 143. 129. 76. Axis. inscribed. pole of line at infinity. 222. circles. 108. 20. trigonometrical ratios of. 144. homothetic. Polar. defined. 238. of tetrastigm. 197. 26. cir- and polar Brianchon's theorem. of two circles. of a triangle. measurement of. 144. Circumcircle. of intersection of two circles. 101. circle. 139. Cosine. 116. nine-point. addition of. 276. 222. 197. 130. 116. 70. Centre. 101. Antipoints. Angle. 118. 202. 66. homothetic. Brocard. 144. 189. Brocard's first triangle has same median touching three given point as original triangle. 185. 248. defined. Centres. 133. 79. Angles. homothetic. 22. 72. 65. radical. . two given circles at constant angles cuts aU coaxal circles at constant angles. triads of concurrent lines. 20. 9. 12.

angle. 45.29. 60. 250. 254. points of harmonic range. 245. 257. relation between angles of. Class of an envelope. defined. 251. 27. Conjugate diameters. Concurrent when one pair of conjugate rays are Condition that. three lines should be concurrent. 258. 254. 278. Contact of inscribed and nine-point Dr. 26. for cutting thiee circles at given Contacts. scheme system of tan- angles. Educational Times. 69. Harmonic properties.INDEX. 239. 157. 275. CircleB. a circle. points with respect to each of two point-pairs. De Bocquigny. ranges having a common point. of a line. defined. tween. 27. property of. tangent circle. 189. 268. 33. 157 Circular reciprocation. 62. passing through three of the six points of intersection Cross ratio. 25. 207. 43. points of range in involution. ray. extension Feuerbach's circles. 24. 30. how affected by reciprocation. 253. 92. triangles in perspective. 27. three pairs of rays should be in involution. defined. how constant angles. three points should be collinear. 51. 35. . 274. of four circles touching a fifth circle. and Hart circles of a circular triangle. three pairs of points should be in involution. 28. 175. 121. 37. Continuity. rays of harmonic pencil. inverse pair of. relationsbetween segments of. 285 of. 161. 34. discrimination be- fundamental theorem. straight line cut harmonically by rays of. principle of. 157. three circles touching a line. 174. 67. of third side of triangle inscribed in related to common tangents of inverse circles. cutting four circles at equal angles. 31. 3. Hart circles of. at infinity. two triangles should be in perspective. Harmonic Harmonic of an Hart Hart. defined. principle of. such that two sides touch coaxal circles. four circles should have a common construction of " conjugate points. for circle. unaltered by pro- jection. 243. 157. which outs two circles at Common tangents. of a chord of a circle. Duality. how of 248. 58. 257. conjugate rays lines. Harmonic pencil. Harmonic pencils having a common property of. 57. 74. two circles should out orthogonally. Collinear points. 232. of reciprocal of a curve. triangles. 4. 266. 67. 4. of a pencil. of three given circles. points with respect to a circle. circles of system of three of circles. 177. 268. 25. Harmonic range. 236. section. 24. 264. 204. Circular triangle. associated triangles. 108. 212. of a range. theorem. cross ratio properties of. 87. 74. lines with respect to a when one point circle. perpendicular. 28. connected. defined. Envelope. of circle 1. of. 50. Eeprint. 244. gent circles. 163. 33. Circular points at infinity. of two circles. 228. d'Ooagne. 24. 27. 26. construction of conjugate rays. defined.

range in. Pascal. 274. double rays. Involution. centre of circle cutting two circles orthogonally. 275. Orthogonal coaxal systems of circles. {PCD) is constant. determined by for hexastigm inscribed in a four points. of. S. circular points at. consisting of two triads of concurrent lines. 87. M'Cay's Marks. M. 69. 172. a point whose powers with respect to two circles are equal. 88. {Brianchon's theorem). 258. triangle of three similar figures. E. 116. 108. 118. INDEX. 272. 129. Hexastigm. 56. 48. 37. Orthocentres of the four triangles of a tetragram collinear. 141. for hexastigm sisting of should form. centres and double points of. 222. 7. 207. 119. 117. should form. 175. 44. defined. 113. circles. theorems on. Involution. 167.. centres of Limiting points of coaxal 201. 277. Mathesis. 49. figures. 150. 192. 114. line at. 145. 3. 90. 242. Biianchon. condition that three pairs of points Pascal hexastigm. 254. 40. A. 98. 101. of reciprocal of a curve. Kiikman. Pascal's theorem. Neuberg. 95. condition that three parrs of rays Orthocentre of a triangle. 90. 244. 221. 157. 46. 97. 37. 206. 197. ranges in. (Pascal's Larmor. Infinity. consisting of two triads oS collinear points. 43. 113. 47. collinear. 280. fundamental property. Orthogonal 202. a point P. Invariable points of three similar figures.. Locus of. 265. intersect in metrical relations between segments. 57.. 91. Length. 1. discrimination between. Inverse circles. 63. 250. Isotomic points. 42. 64. 211. Pascal lines. 275. 273. 115. 141. and principal rays. 92. 6. 185. Locus. centre of similitude of two circles. . 281. 43. 42. construction of double rays. fundamental connection with pencil in involution. defined. 22. 66. centre. defined. of a locus. axes of three circles. circles. 160. measurement Homographic ranges and pencils. Homologous triangles. pencil in. 272.286 Hervey. con- two triads of collinear circle. 219. 116. 50. Hexagram. 38. 41. 237. 117. conjugate points. inscribed in a circle. a point whose polars with respect to three circles are concurrent. nomothetic. defined. 145. Involution. circumscribing a circle. defined. 196. 60. circles. defined. Order. points. 188. 37. 108. when sum of the areas two circles. twenty Steiner points. 80. when two pairs of rays are perpen- dicular. 171. Involution. property of. 193. defined. Langley. 279. principal rays. 76. Isogonal points. double points. 222. 107. nomographic ranges. {PAB). 173. circle of theorem). 276. 184. Lemoine a triangle. construction of conjugate points. 39.

diagonals. 134. 75. Polars of a point with respect to coaxal for inversely similar figures. 189. Perspective. 185. Similitude. construction of figures in. 121. circumcircles of its four triangles four triangles Purser. 128. etc. 83. fundamental relation be- tween angles. a point with respect to a 183. figures described on the sides of a inversely similar construction of rectangle and tetra- given triangle. 113. orthocentres of its Qaadrilateral (see also tetrastigm tetragram). a circle. two eqnicross. 96. col- involution property. . 232. 84. 287 220. centre figures. 216. Power of. common transversal. circle. diagonals of. etc. 61. 142. Polygram. 169. figures inversely. figures. defined. Feancellier's cell. 119. and collinear. Badius of a circle. 147. 92. 168. 174. 185 circles described on diagonals co- centre of three circles. having a Sahuon. axal. 140. 139. Beciprocal figures. Similitude. Taylor's circle. 23. inverse circles. 139.INDEX. 128. for two circles. middle points of diagonals. Simson line. figures directly. 86. for directly similar 153. 62. 78. rays defined. 81. Pencil of. diagonals form a self-conjugate triangle. with respect to a 151. 64. 17. 91. properties of. of. with respect to a triangle. 238. fundamental relation between segments. 83. Badical axis of two circles. involution property. for three similar figures. axis of. 144. circle. systems 201. circular. bivalent. Bange of. of circles concurrent. 84. Bange. convention as to Tetragram circumscribed to a circle. Steiner. 95. general theory. harmonic property. middle points of diagonals coUinear. 126. for gram. M. 237. Pencils. 91. 123. Symmedian point. centres Foncelet. 93. 15. Poncelet's theorem. 78. Projection. circle. 4. 116. 115. 203. four rays. harmonic property. Tarry's point. 68. 192. 83. Powers of. Taylor. 2. coaxal circles. of. 155. Pole and Polar. 271. circle of. 81. vertices. defined. 131. 15. of. in case of a triangle inscribed in a similar triangle. Poristic system of circles. 206. Similitude. defined. H. four points. two circles. 257. 83. 268. Steiner points of hexastigm inscribed in Polystigm. points. connectors centres. 84. Similar. 203. ray have a 271. Polar of a point with respect to a construction of. 134. concurrent. Tetragram. 168. 133. 215. 83. 229.. linear. Tetrastigm. Eeoiprocation. Tarry. 16. common Self-conjugate triangle with respect to a circle. 161. circle of three circles. fundamental theorem. defined. 130. 119. 144. sign. Tangent to a curve.

at the univebbity pbess. in a triangle. clay. Triangle in a circle. 167. Tetrastigm inscribed in a circle. centres form a self-conjugate triangle. involution property. 214. akd sons. V oambeedoe: pbinied by o.. Townaend.a. so that its sides pass when one another pair of connectors touch circle. Young. 164. 212. circle. 88. Tetrastigm. 165. 74. involution property. 133. through given points. 133. in a simUar triangle. Tucker's system of circles. . Vigari^. J. 209. 274. bo that ita sides tonch coaxal circles. m. 281. 276. Triangle. 77. inscribed. in its sides a. 236. so that pass through given points. j. Trigonometrical formulae for sum of when a complete set of connectors circle. 17. touch another *w° angles.288 INDEX.

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