A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process

in Aceh Banda Aceh, Indonesia, 2 – 7 March 2009

THE INDONESIAN TSUNAI BUOY DEVELOPMENT and REGIONAL LINKAGE

Wahyu W. Pandoe1, Ridwan Djamaluddin1, Djoko Hartoyo1, Wira Yogantara2
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Technology Center for Marine Survey, BPPT, Jakarta, Indonesia Technology Center for Informatics and Communication, BPPT, Jakarta, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: Indonesia has established the Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS) inaugurated on 11 November 2008. The system included the array of 24 tsunami buoys, or well known as tsunameters, distributed in Indian Ocean along the west Sumatra, south Java and south Nusa Tenggara, in the eastern internal waters of Indonesia, and in Pacific Ocean north of Sulawesi, Halmahera and Irian. The 24 tsunameters consist of 10 Indonesian made tsunameters, 10 Germany, 3 USA and 1 Malaysian (Norwegian made) Seven of 24 tsunameters had been deployed until end of 2008, and the remaining are expected to be completed for operational in 2009. Most of the operational tsunameters worked well performing the observational sea level (i.e. pressure data) and reporting to BPPT Read Down Station. The Krakatau tsunameter was able to detect the occurrence of a minor tsunami during the Bengkulu Erathquake 12 September 2007. Komodo tsunamter was able to observe the periodic sea level and the event of Sumbawa earthquake in 7 August 2008. The DART-II Indian Ocean 53401 was also working well detecting a minor tsunami during the event of Sinabang Earthquake 20 Feb 2008. The most recent earthquake are not dominated by the subduction zone activity, but also generated by the faults system activities, which may generate the local tsunami. Therefore, the local tsunami warning issues become more prominent in near future.

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INTRODUCTION

The disaster occurrence of mega Tsunami on 26 December 2006 shocked people around the world. It took more than two-hundred casualties along the coastline in the rim of Indian Ocean, mainly in the west and north coasts of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province of Indonesia. Another large Tsunami following the strong earthquake in Indian Ocean south of West Java Province also struck nearly half of the south Java coastline in July 2006. Some other historical tsunamis have struck other parts of Indonesia coastline too. Learning from those typical disaster experiences, the Government of Indonesia have appointed the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, well known as BPPT, to establish the Indonesian tsunami buoy program in which BPPT plans to develop 10 (ten) Indonesian designed tsunami buoys or tsunameters to be deployed in the Indonesian and ZEE waters prone to tsunami. In the same time, under the joint declaration between the Indonesia and Germany governments, there will be up to 10 (ten) tsunameters to be deployed in the Indian Ocean along west of Sumatra, south of Java, until south of Nusa Tenggara islands. At the same time, under the collaborative assessment between BPPT and the NOAA-USA there are three DART type tsunameters. One Norwegian Ocean Wave tsunameter belong to Malysia Government was also deployed in the Indonesia water. Those all 24 tsunameters are distributed in the Indonesian territorial water, internal, or ZEE zone. See Figure 1 for its location. The tsunameter system mainly consists of two main parts: surface buoy and the Ocean Bottom Unit (OBU). The surface buoy floats in water surface maintaining communication through the acoustic modem to the OBU and reporting periodically to land station through satellite communication link, while the OBU sit deeply at the ocean bottom.

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2 – 7 March 2009 Figure 1. In tsunami mode. It is equipped with acoustic modem and interface. All equipments are fixed in a 50mm fiber plate with some additional 14 of 17”. and batteries. Two Inmarsat antennas are dedicated to transmit and receive a message to/from RDS. respectively. The tsunameters are consisting of Indonesia. and so far two tsunameter generations have been performed. in which the Sea Watch buoy program in Indonesia was terminated in 1996 due to non technical reason. Specification of the tsunameter is given in Table 1.1 THE INDONESIA TEWS TSUNAMETER The Indonesia Tsunameter The Indonesian scientists and engineers have capabilities to build and manufacture Indonesian made tsunameters. CPU. consists of two main parts: (1) surface buoy and (2) ocean bottom unit (OBU). The first generation Indonesia Tsunameter (InaBUOY 1st Gen). The acoustic modem maintains the communication through water column to the OBU. batteries. 2 . Indonesia. See Figure 2.spherical floaters for floatation device during recovery. The proposed tsunameters locations in Indonesia for Ina TEWS. 2. the Inmarsat system sets to send data every 60 seconds containing of four 15” measurement set. CPU. The first generation is mostly remanufactured the old meteorological buoys. independent positioning system. 2. Its surface buoy hull remanufactures a used Sea Watch Buoy. The program has started since mid 2006. as most of the current tsunameter generation. The Inmarsat satellite modem links the buoy to the Read Down Station (RDS) through Inmarsat LES station. acoustic release.A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process in Aceh Banda Aceh. double (redundancy) Inmarsat satellite communication systems. USA and Malaysian. Germany. while the second generation performs new requirement design and configuration specifically operated in Indonesia waters. as they are symbolized at the top of the figure. The OBU consists of bottom pressure recorder sensor (BPR). acoustic modem. radar reflectors and standard lights.

it is working well on the second deployment and in operational status since October 2008. tsunameter Sampling interval. and final assembly at BPPT-B2TKS Workshop in PUSPIPTEK Serpong. The 2nd generation system has significant improvements of the 1st generation. However. manufacture. 3 . by warning RDS request Less than 2 minutes 1 hour The first prototype of 2nd generation of InaBuoy was on sea trial in September 2008 in KRAKATAU site. internal record Sampling interval.000 meters Automatically by tsunami detection algorithm On-demand. All design.000 meters ~ 1 year Beaufort 6/7 ~1 year ~1 year 15 seconds 15 and 60 seconds 15 minutes Less than 5 millimeter in 3. The BPPT scientists and engineers performed the deployment tasks very well on board BPPT Research Vessel Baruna Jaya III (Figure 3).A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process in Aceh Banda Aceh. event report Sampling interval. Characteristic of the 1st generation Indonesian Tsunameter Characteristics Reliability and data return ratio Optimum deployment depth Deployment duration Operating conditions Maintenance interval. Indonesia. assembly and appropriate tests are made by the Indonesian scientists and engineers at BPPT’s facilities. mainly in the surface buoy. This trial was not fully successful due to some failure in underwater acoustic communication. buoy Maintenance interval. The surface buoy (left) and the Ocean Bottom Unit – OBU (right) of the 1st Generation Indonesian Tsunami Buoy Table 1. The buoy hull was fully manufactured at BPPT-BPPH Laboratory in Surabaya. 2 – 7 March 2009 Figure 2. tidal report Measurement sensitivity Tsunami data report trigger Reporting delay Status report interval Specification Greater than 70% 2. Tengerang.

which is consisting of surface buoy and the OBU. The outer diameter is 2. and its height 1. Indonesia. and now the (GPS) buoys are working well. suitable for deployment in most of the Indonesian Seas. with net buoyancy 3000kg. is designed to survive to the wave height up to 5m. and now the (tsunami) wave measurements rely on Differential GPS measurement performed by the surface buoy. Two satellite communication system.2 Germany Tsunameters Under the joint declaration between Indonesia and Germany Governments. The bottom units are now ready to complete each Germany tsunameter system. In 2009. Inmarsat and Iridium system.4m. in which its weight is approximately 3. 2 – 7 March 2009 Figure 3. Several maintenance and replacement efforts to the buoys were done in 2007 and 2008. height is 5.1 tons.5tons. the OBU is still not included in the system yet. guaranteed the communication link between the buoy and Read Down Station (RDS) located at the 20th floor BPPT 1st building in Jakarta 2. in Indian Ocean ~90nm south-west of Lampung on board BPPT RV Baruna Jaya III The surface buoy hull was made of steel framed fiber glasses. the Germany have committed to contribute up to 10 tsunameters for an array in Indian Ocean (see Figure 1 for its location).2m. The buoy. located approximately 60nm west of Siberut Isaland and 50nm west of South Pagai Island.2m (base). The outer diameter is 2. respectively. Two tsunameters have been deployed in November 2005. and it is expected to be completed by end of May 2009. 4 .A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process in Aceh Banda Aceh. The surface buoy (left) and the Ocean Bottom Unit – OBU (right) of the 2nd Generation Indonesian Tsunami Buoy during its deployment in KRAKATAU site.85m and weight is 3. the additional 8 Germany tsunameters are scheduled for deployment. The tsunameters general configuration are nearly similar to others. Unfortunately.

2 – 7 March 2009 Figure 4. (Picture is courtesy of PMEL-NOAA). the mooring line is automatically spooled out lowering the bottom unit BPR into the bottom. the deployment is done. Figure 5. The DART-ETD (Easy to Deploy) tsunameter produced by PMEL-NOAA. The former is the common type tsunameter which is consisting of separate units of surface buoy and BPR (bottom pressure recorder). The surface buoy (left) and the Ocean Bottom Unit – OBU (right) of the Germany tsunameter Buoy during its deployment in Indian Ocean west off Sumatra. The latest is the newest DART generation in which the BPR and surface buoy are configured in one spooled mooring line.A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process in Aceh Banda Aceh. or DART. has two types tsunameter: DART-II and DART-ETD (Easy to Deploy). Indonesia. USA. 5 . See Figure 5. When the unit is dropped into the ocean. and the system will automatically set performing the tsunami (and sea level) observation.3 NOAA-USA Tsunameters The Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting on Tsunami System. Once it is touching the bottom. on board BPPT RV Baruna Jaya IV 2.

The buoy is made in Norwegia and it is belong to Malaysian government. one DART-ETD wad deployed in Indian Ocean ~200nm south of Bali. The DART-II Indian Ocean 53401 was also working well detecting minor tsunami during the event of Sinabang Earthquake 20 Feb 2008. Sabang. The data directly from the buoy is reported 6-hourly to NOAA National Data Buoy Center in Mississippi. USA. NAD. Sabang. It has been deployed since December 2005 on board BPPT RV Baruna Jaya I (Figure 6). it was in normal operational status observing the tsunami (and periodic sea level). pressure data) and reporting to BPPT Read Down Station. and the last one DART-ETD is scheduled for deployment in mid 2009 in Pacific Ocean north of Halmahera Island. but there was technical problem in the bottom unit. the buoy is deployed is Indonesia water approximately 5nm north of Rondo Island. NAD. 2 – 7 March 2009 Within the collaborative agreement between BPPT-Indonesia and NOAA-USA. Under the collaborative agreement between RISTEK Indonesia and Malaysia government. Indonesia. 6 . The Malaysian Wave Scan tsunami buoy is deployed in north of Rondo Island.A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process in Aceh Banda Aceh. DART-II has been deployed in Indian Ocean west of Sumatra at 0ºN and 92ºE in September 2007. SOME RESULTS IN OPERATIONAL TSUNAMETERS Most of the operational tsunameters worked well performing the observational sea level (i. Since the DART-II Indian Ocean was deployed.e. Figure 6.4 Malaysia Tsunameters One more type tsunameter in Indonesia is the Wave Scan tsunameter. Last maintenance performed in December 2008 brought the system back into normal operational status. Komodo tsunamter was also working well observing the sea level and the event of Sumbawa earthquake in 7 August 2008. There are one DART-II and two DART-ETD tsunameters. by the BPPT RV Baruna Jaya I 3. three DART type tsunameters will be contributed to complete the InaTEWS buoys array. and then re-directed to BPPT in (near) real time. 2. The Krakatau tsunameter was able to detect the occurrence of the minor tsunami during the Bengkulu Erathquake 12 September 2007.

The Lanczos low pass filtering technique is implemented to separate the high and low frequencies from the raw data with cutoff period 6 minutes (i. It was running in normal operation since 20 June 2008. The OBU records the pressure data every 15 seconds. unfortunately.. which was caused by tsunami and low frequency seismic waves (Figure 7).1 hour).e. The recorded data starts on July 20. Those three earthquakes did not generate any indication of significant tsunami. however. The preliminary data analysis showed the BPR of Krakatau Tsunameter. 2008). 2007 and ends on September 19. 3.49WIB. and (b) the tide-removed time series indicating the occurrence of Tsunami.A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process in Aceh Banda Aceh. The recorded raw data of the whole time series exhibit the normal tidal cycles in general. 2007. The occurrence of 12 September 2007 event was also successfully recorded. such as one on 9 August 2007. the Krakatau tsunameter. 0. Three other earthquakes were also detected on the record in the following day 13 Septemebr 2007 at 6. Those anomalies are related to the occurrence of earthquakes. After removing the tide from the tsunameter signals. 7 . The buoy is located in Flores Sea approximately 40nm north of Bima. Indonesia. several anomalies were recorded in the sea level records. was normally recording the pressure data with 15 seconds interval continuously. The 12 September 2007 Tsunami event: (a) comparison between predicted tide and 6-h low pass filtered data. (a) (b) Figure 7. et al. Sumbawa Island. 2 – 7 March 2009 3. The low frequency time series exhibit more clear view of the tide cycle with few occurrences of sea level disturbances due to low frequency anomalous signals.1 The 12 September 2007 Bengkulu EQ reporting by KRAKATAU During the 12 September 2007 EQ.2 Komodo Tsunameter The Indonesian Komodo Tsunameter was successfully deployed in June 2008 on board BPPT RV baruna Jaya IV. this signal is the highest amplitude ever detected by the tsunameter recorded in the deep sea. as originally designed. but terminated in October 2008 due to vandalize action. So far. and others in 12-13 September 2007. was working offline due to unscheduled maintenance of the surface buoy. resulting time series shows clearly the occurrence tsunami wave passing the tsunameter sensor in which the detected amplitude is approximately 13 cm (Pandoe. 8:26WIB and 23:09WIB.

it is necessary to estimate the astronomical tidal components from the original time series. the tsunami and other long wave anomaly signals can be detected from its deviation from the tidal periodic cycles. semidiurnal.e. the time series show very little fluctuation of the sea level less than 0. 1976. and other existing deep ocean long waves. fortnightly (14-days) and tidal periods clearly exhibited in the data. long term sea level rise. ~3cm) due to non-tidal long wave’s propagation. Pandoe. 3.3 DART-II Indian Ocean (53401) Tsunameter During its normal mode. During its normal condition. and take these tidal signals out of the time series. they should match very well. As shown in Figure 9. the amplitudes and phases of 22 tidal constituents were estimated by the method of cyclic descent (Bloomfield.03 dbar (i. if the observation data is superimposed to the modeled/calculated time series. It is becoming more interesting to know that the tsunameter is also capable to observe the anomaly of the sea level in the deep sea which is probably due to the occurrence of the incoming tropical storms. where the diurnal. and it deviates from its computational values as shown in Figure 9 starting from the day of 408 (ie. 8 . 15 February 2008). actually the system measured the normal tidal and other long wave periods. and then reassemble tidal signals only from those 22 tidal constituents. The normal operation of the InaBuoy KOMODO tsunameter .A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process in Aceh Banda Aceh. Therefore. The sea level rise. long wave anomalies due to other external forces may occur. 2000). Indonesia. it is clearly shows that the system acts as a tidal station in the deep sea. This tidal prediction is then compared to the 6-h low passed time series (Figure 8) to see how the tsunami signal deviate from the tidal prediction. and this phenomena is occurred for several days until its back to normal position again. Figure 8 shows the normal operation of the KOMODO Tsunameter. It shows normal tidal periodic time series. it is necessary to have the tide-removed signals. Julian Day since 1 Jan 2008 Figure 8. Therefore. To obtain an actual deviation of these long waves. 2 – 7 March 2009 During the Komodo’s normal operation. Using the filtered time series. However.

(left) The detected minor tsunami by the DART-II Indian Ocean 53401 tsunameter station during the event of Sinabang Eart Quake 20 Feb 2008. (Pictures is courtesy of PMEL-NOAA. As shown in Figure 10. USA) This earthquake was centered at the coastline waters originated from the movement of the local fault system. The distance between earthquake center to the station is approximately 540nm. in which the water level at the station increase more than 3 cm within a very short time. NAD. 2 – 7 March 2009 Figure 9. During the event of Sinabang earthquake on 20 Feb 2008. Figure 10. The tsunami and sea level observation performed by the DART-II Indian Ocean 53401 for the period of 25 Sept 2007 to 9 5 March 2008. The first spike of the signal is mainly due to the shake of seismic wave. while the first bulb 40 minutes later indicates the event of (minor) tsunami passing the tsunameter station. it clearly indicates the occurrence of minor tsunami detected by the DART-II IO station. Indonesia. This shallow water tsunami following the EQ is usually considered as a local tsunami 9 . there is a delay time betweent the earthquake and the tsunami detection.A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process in Aceh Banda Aceh. The rupture following this earthquake may happen nearby the center that may generate a tsunami wave. (right) Map showing the EQ center and the DART-II 53401 station. the DART-II IO 53401 gave a tsunami alert. The Earthquake was actually centered at Sinabang. Therefore.

in which this may cause rupture zone very close to the coastline. Local tsunami is most likely occurs in this fault zone where the warning time becoming a critical issue to solve. several earthquake events were also occurred in the coastal waters or in the fore arc basin area. and even it was able to detect the occurrence of the 12 September 2007 Tsunami event. the planned location of tsunameters become critical. It will set the tsunameter to send it in tsunami mode. The OBU will record the high frequency seismic wave while it should wait the possibility of long period ‘tsunami’ wave arrival. 4. faults or other active tectonic areas. The 24 number of Indonesian tsunameters for time being is not sufficient enough to cover all Indonesian prone area to tsunami. As Indonesia is surrounded by the tsunami prone areas. the OBU sends report to surface buoy every 60 minutes. while the exact method is still uncovered. the operational tsunami buoys in Indonesia in conjunction with the national Ina TEWS becomes more important to detect and warning the occurrence of tsunami. Study and assessment for the local tsunami issue should be done as soon as possible. in term of the speed of information reaching the coastal community. Any shallow earthquake near the tsunameter site will shake the OBU and causing the recorded sea level in OBU to trip into tsunami mode. It bring consequences to the data recoded by tsunameter. During its normal mode. Fortunately. Recently. therefore. Local tsunami warning is becoming a great challenge right after the completion of the tsunameter array in Indonesia. indicating that the system works well protecting the coastal community. Indonesia. but also to regional and international communities in Indian and Pacific Oceans. in which the first trial of 1st generation Indonesian tsunameter was performing good. 10 . The real time filtering techniques must be implemented in real time at any situation. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The on going development program of Indonesia Tsunami Buoy (Tsunameter) runs well. One side or predictive filtering techniques is ideally proposed to solve this issue. Other tsunameters were also able to detect several minor tsunamis so far. this event generates only minor tsunami in which it was not causing a tsunami damage along the local coastline. The un-intended high frequency noises must be taken out of the observed sea level data in RDS (land station). 2 – 7 March 2009 event.A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process in Aceh Banda Aceh. not in a dominated subduction zone . Tsunami may come within less than 30 minutes. and to be implemented immediately right after. This issue should be solved immediately as it is in a recently very important need. The tsunameters array in Indonesia is not intended to protect Indonesia only. The 12 September 2007 EQ and Tsunami events were able detected by the Indonesian tsunameter. and tsunami detection must be as early as possible within a few minutes. In conclusion. Most common situation that the amplitude of the seismic shock will much exceed the threshold of the sea level pressure change due to tsunami mode. Those earthquakes are most likely due to the move of the fault system. The authors should accept any suggestion ideas and collaborative studies solving this problem. A special design for the local tsunami warning such as connecting the bottom unit to the nearest coastline station and providing direct warning to the local communities may be considered for near future development in BPPT. It records approximately 13 cm tsunami wave amplitude which is so far the highest tsunami amplitude ever recorded on tsunameters. the location of tsunameters are relatively close to the predicted rupture zone such as near the subduction zones. while the 2nd Generation start to operate in last 2008. but during the tsunami mode it should report every 1-minute.

REFERENCES Bloomfield. R. 256 pp. S. The 12 September 2007 Tsunami Detected on Indonesian KRAKATAU Tsunameter. Indonesia. “Fourier Analysis of Time Series: An Introduction”. Texas A&M University. W.. W. Pandoe. P. Thesis. W. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like thank all colleagues in the team work of BPPT’s Indonesian Tsunami Buoy Development Program and colleagues at the BPPT Technology Center for Marine Survey and Baruna Jaya Research Vessels Crews for their eagerness and hard works.A Training Course on Lessons Learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Process in Aceh Banda Aceh. W. Djamaluddin.S. New York. Department of Oceanography. (1976). 6. (2000). The study described in this paper has been funded by the Indonesia APBN 2006 to 2008 Fiscal Years provided by the Indonesian Government. Bali. Handoyo... Texas Pandoe. and its relationship with the Indonesian Throughflow”. M. “Flow Pattern in the Ombai Strait. College Station. International Conference for Tsunami Warning. Indonesia. (2008). and Kongko. 2 – 7 March 2009 5. Proceeding. W.. Indonesia. John Wiley. 12 – 15 November 2008 11 .