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CHAPTER 5 Analysis of Functions and Their Graphs

EXERCISE SET 5.1 1. (a) f > 0 and f > 0 y (b) f > 0 and f < 0 y

x x

(c) f < 0 and f > 0 yy

(d) f < 0 and f < 0

x x

2. (a) y

(b) y

(c) y

(d) y

3. A : dy/dx < 0 ,d y /dx > 0 B : dy /dx > 0 ,d y/dx < 0 C : dy/dx < 0 ,d y/dx < 0

4. A : dy/dx < 0 ,d y/dx < 0 2 2 B : dy /dx < 0 ,d y/dx > 0 2 2 C : dy/dx > 0 ,d y/dx < 0 2 2

22 22 22

139

Exercise Set 5.1

140

5. An in ection point o ccurs when

f changes sign: at x = - 1 , 0 , 1 and 2.

6. (a) f (0) <f (1) since f > 0on(0 , 1). (b) f (1) >f (2) since f < 0on(1 , 2). (c) f (0) > 0 by inspection. (d) f (1) = 0 by inspection. (e) f (0) < 0 since f is decreasing there. (f) f (2) = 0 since f has a minimum there. 7. (a) [4 , 6] (d) (2 , 3) and (5 , 7) 8. (b) [1 , 4] and [6 , 7] (e) x =2 , 3 , 5 (c) (1 , 2) and (3 , 5)

(1 , 2) (2 , 3) (3 , 4) (4 , 5) (5 , 6) (6 , 7) f--++ f + - ++ -(a) [5 / 2 , + 8 ) (b) ( -8, 5 / 2] (c) ( -8, + 8 ) (d) none f ( x )=2 (e) none (a) ( -8, - 3 / 2] (b) [ - 3 / 2 , + 8 ) (d) ( -8, + 8 ) f ( x )= - 2

9. f ( x )=2 x- 5

10. f ( x )= - 2( x +3 / 2) (c) none (e) none 11. f ( x )=3( x +2)

(a) ( -8, + 8 ) (b) none 2 (c) ( - 2 , + 8 ) (d) ( -8, - 2) f ( x )=6( x +2) (e) - 2 (a) [ - 2 , 2] (b) ( -8, - 2], [2 , + 8 ) 2 (d) (0 , + 8 ) f ( x )= - 6 x

12. f ( x ) = 3(4 - x ) (c) ( -8, 0) (e) 0

13. f ( x )=12 x ( x- 1) (a) [1 , + 8 ) (c) ( -8, 0), (2 / 3 , + 8 ) (e) 0 , 2 / 3

(b) ( -8, 1] 2 (d) (0 , 2 / 3) f ( x )=36 x ( x- 2 / 3)

14. f ( x )=4 x ( x - 4) (a) [ - 2 , 0], [2 , + 8 ) (b) ( -8, - 2], [0 , 2] 2 (c) ( -8, - 2 /v 3), (2 /v 3 , + 8 ) (d) ( - 2 /v 3 , 2 /v 3) f ( x ) = 12( x - 4 / 3) 2 (e) - 2 /v 3, 2 /v 3 x x -22 15. f ( x )= 4 f ( x )= - 4 3 ( x +2) ( x +2) 2 2 23 (a) [0 , + 8 ) (b) ( -8, 0] (d) ( -8, - 2 / 3), (+ 2 / 3 , + 8 ) (e) - 2 / 3 , 2 / 3 -x x ( x - 6) 2 2 16. f ( x )= 2 f ( x )= 2 ( x +2) ( x +2) 2 2 2 3 v v vv v v (a) [ - 2 , 2] (b) ( -8, - 2], [ 2 , + 8 ) (d) ( -8, -v 6), (0 , v 6) (e) -v 6 , 0 , v 6 17. f ( x )= ( x +2) 3 9 (e) - 2 (a) ( -8, + 8 ) (c) ( -8, - 2)

(c) ( - 2 / 3 , + 2 / 3)

(c) ( - 6 , 0), ( 6 , + 8 )

(b) none 1

-2/3 -5/3

(d) ( - 2 , + 8 ) f ( x )= - ( x +2) 2

141

Chapter 5

18. f ( x )= x 3 9 x +1) 19. f ( x )= 4( 3x2/3 x - 2) f ( x )= 4( 9x5/ 3 x - 1 / 4) 20. f ( x )= 4( 3x2/ 3 x +1 / 2) f ( x )= 4( 9x5/ 3 21. f ( x )= -xe

(a) [0 , + 8 ) (c) none (e) none

(b) ( -8, 0] 2 - 1 / 3 (d) ( -8, 0), (0 , + 8 ) f ( x )= - x 2 - 4 / 3

(a) [ - 1 , + 8 ) (c) ( -8, 0), (2 , + 8 ) (e) 0 , 2

(b) ( -8, - 1] (d) (0 , 2)

(a) [1 / 4 , + 8 ) (c) ( -8, - 1 / 2), (0 , + 8 ) (e) - 1 / 2 , 0

(b) ( -8, 1 / 4] (d) ( - 1 / 2 , 0)

(a) ( -8, 0] (c) ( -8, - 1), (1 , + 8 ) (e) - 1 , 1

(b) [0 , + 8 ) - x 2 / 2 (d) ( - 1 , 1) f ( x )=( - 1+ x ) e 2 -x 2 / 2

22. f ( x )=(2 x +1) e (a) ( -8, + 8 ) (b) none 2 x 2 (c) (0 , + 8 ) (d) ( -8, 0) f ( x )=2 x (2 x +3) e 2 (e) 0 x 23. f ( x )= 2 1+ x 2 -x 2 f ( x )=2 1 (1 + x ) 2 2

x2

(a) [0 , + 8 ) (c) ( - 1 , 1) (e) - 1 , 1

(b) ( -8, 0] (d) ( -8, - 1) , (1 , + 8 )

24. f ( x )= x (2 ln x +1) (a) [ e , + 8 ) (b) (0 ,e ] - 1 / 2 (c) ( e , + 8 ) (d) (0 ,e ) - 3 / 2 (e) e - 3 / 2 25. f ( x )= - sin x f ( x )= - cos x (a) [ p, 2 p ] (c) ( p/ 2 , 3 p/ 2) (e) p/ 2, 3 p/ 2 1 (b) [0 ,p ] (d) (0 ,p/ 2), (3 p/ 2 , 2 p )

-1/2 - 3 / 2 f ( x )=2ln x +3

02 p

-1 1 26. f ( x ) = 2 sin 4 x f ( x ) = 8 cos 4 x (a) (0 ,p/ 4], [ p/ 2 , 3 p/ 4] (b) [ p/ 4 ,p/ 2], [3 p/ 4 ,p ] (c) (0 ,p/ 8), (3 p/ 8 , 5 p/ 8), (7 p/ 8 ,p ) (d) ( p/ 8 , 3 p/ 8), (5 p/ 8 , 7 p/ 8) (e) p/ 8, 3 p/ 8, 5 p/ 8, 7 p/ 8 0 0 p

Exercise Set 5.1

142

27. f ( x ) = sec x 2 f ( x )=2sec x tan x 2 (a) ( -p/ 2 ,p/ 2) (c) (0 ,p/ 2) (e) 0

10 (b) none (d) ( -p/ 2 , 0)

^6

-10 28. f ( x )=2 - csc x 82 x f ( x )=2csc x cot x =2cos 2 sin x 3 (a) [ p/ 4 , 3 p/ 4] (b) (0 ,p/ 4] , [3 p/ 4 ,p ) (c) (0 ,p/ 2) (d) ( p/ 2 ,p ) (e) p/ 2 0 -2 29. f ( x ) = cos 2 x f ( x )= - 2 sin 2 x (a) [0 ,p/ 4], [3 p/ 4 ,p ] (c) ( p/ 2 ,p ) (e) p/ 2 0.5 (b) [ p/ 4 , 3 p/ 4] (d) (0 ,p/ 2) 0

-0.5 30. f ( x )= - 2 cos x sin x - 2 cos x = - 2 cos x (1 + sin x ) f ( x )=2sin x (sin x +1) - 2 cos x = 2 sin x (sin x +1) - 2+2sin x = 4(1 + sin x )(sin x - 1 / 2) 2 Note : 1 + sin x = 0 2 (a) [ p/ 2 , 3 p/ 2] (b) [0 ,p/ 2], [3 p/ 2 , 2 p ] (c) ( p/ 6 , 5 p/ 6) (d) (0 ,p/ 6), (5 p/ 6 , 2 p ) (e) p/ 6, 5 p/ 6 0o

-2

31. (a) y

(b) y

(c) y

x 2 2

x x 2

143

Chapter 5

32. (a) y

(b) y

(c) y

x 2 2

x 2

33. (a) f ( x )=3( x-a ) , f ( x )=6( x-a ); in ection point is ( a, 0) 2 (b) f ( x )=4( x-a ) , f ( x ) = 12( x - a ) ; no in ection points 3

34. For n = 2, f ( x )= n ( n- 1)( x - a ) ; there is a sign change of f (point of in ection) at ( a, 0) if and n - 2 only if n is odd. For n =1, y = x-a , so there is no point of in ection. 35. f ( x )=1 / 3 - 1 / [3(1 + x ) ]so f is increasing on [0 , + 8 )thusif 2 / 3 x> 0, then f ( x ) >f (0)=0,1+ x/ 3 - 1+ x> 0, 3v 1+ x< 1+ x/ 3. 3 2.5 v

010 0 36. f ( x ) = sec x - 1so f is increasing on [0 ,p/ 2) thus if 0 <x<p/ 2, 2 then f ( x ) >f (0) = 0, tan x - x> 0, x< tan x . 10

06 0 37. x = sin x on [0 , + 8 ): let f ( x )= x- sin x . Then f (0) = 0 and f ( x )=1 - cos x = 0, so f ( x ) is increasing on [0 , + 8 ). 4

04 -1 38. (a) Let h ( x )= e - 1 -x for x = 0. Then h (0) = 0 and h ( x )= e - 1 = 0 for x = 0, so h ( x )is x increasing. (b) Let h ( x )= e - 1 -x- x . Then h (0) = 0 and h ( x )= e - 1 -x . By part (a), e - 1 - x = 0 x 2 for x = 0, so h ( x ) is increasing. x 12 x x

Exercise Set 5.1

144

(c) 6

02 02 0

0 250

39. Points of in ection at x = - 2 , +2. Concave up on ( - 5 , - 2) and (2 , 5); concave down on ( - 2 , 2). Increasing on [ - 3 . 5829 , 0 . 2513] and [3 . 3316 , 5] , and decreasing on [ - 5 , - 3 . 5829] and [0 . 2513 , 3 . 3316]. -5 5

-250 40. Points of in ection at x = 1 /v 3. Concave up on ( - 5 , - 1 /v 3) and (1 /v 3 , 5), and concave down on ( - 1 /v 3 , 1 /v 3). Increasing on [ - 5 , 0] and decreasing on [0 , 5]. -5 5 1

-2 41. Break the interval [ - 5 , 5] into ten subintervals and check f ( x ) at each endpoint. We find f ( - 1) > 0 and f (0) < 0. Refine [ - 1 , 0] into ten subintervals; f ( - 0 . 2) > 0, f ( - 0 . 1) < 0; repeat, f ( - 0 . 18) > 0, f ( - 0 . 17) < 0, so x = - 0 . 175 is correct to two decimal places. Note also that f (1) = 0 so there are two in ection points. 42. Break the interval [ - 5 , 5] into ten subintervals and check f ( x ) at each endpoint. We discover f ( - 1) > 0, f (0) < 0 and f (1) > 0. Refine [ - 1 , 0] into ten subintervals and we see that f ( - 0 . 6) > 0, f ( - 0 . 5) < 0. Subdivide [ - 0 . 6 , - 0 . 5] into 10 subintervals and we see that f ( - 0 . 58) > 0 and f ( - 0 . 57) < 0. Thus x = - 0 . 575 is within 0 . 005 of the true ro ot and is thus correct to two decimal places. For the other root we could pro ceed in a similar manner, but it easier to note that f (x) is an even function and thus the other root is x =0 . 575 to two decimal places. x - 81 x - 585 x + 397 3 2 43. f ( x )=290 . The denominator has complex ro ots, so is always positive; hence (3 x - 5 x +8) 2 3 the x -coordinates of the points of in ection of f ( x ) are the ro ots of the numerator (if it changes sign). A plot of the numerator over [ - 5 , 5] shows roots lying in [ - 3 , - 2], [0 , 1], and [2 , 3]. Breaking each of these intervals into ten subintervals locates the ro ots in [ - 2 . 5 , - 2 . 4], [0 . 6 , 0 . 7] and [2 . 7 , 2 . 8]. Thus to one decimal place the roots are x = - 2 . 45 , 0 . 65 , 2 . 75. x +5 x +14 x +30 x- 7 5 3 2 44. f ( x )= 2 . Points of in ection will occur when the numerator changes sign, ( x +1) 2 5 / 2 since the denominator is always positive. A plot of y =2 x +5 x +14 x +30 x- 7 suggests that there 5 3 2 is only one root and it lies in [0 , 1]. Subdivide into ten subintervals and determine that the root lies between x =0 . 2 and x =0 . 3. Thus to one decimal place the point of in ection is located at x =0 . 25. 45. f ( x ) - f ( x )= x -x =( x + x )( x - x ) < 0if x <x for x , x in [0 , + 8 ), so f ( x ) <f ( x ) 2 2 1 2 1212 12 12 1 212 and f is thus increasing. 1 x -x 2 1 46. f ( x ) - f ( x )= 1 - = 1 2 12 12 12 12 is decreasing.

> 0if x <x for x , x in (0 , + 8 ), so f ( x ) >f ( x ) and thus f 1 2xxxx

145

Chapter 5

47. (a) If x <x where x and x are in I , then f ( x ) <f ( x ) and g ( x ) <g ( x ), so f ( x )+ g ( x ) < 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 f ( x )+ g ( x ), ( f + g )( x ) < ( f + g )( x ). Thus f + g is increasing on I . 2 2 1 2 (b) Case I: If f and g are = 0on I , and if x <x where x and x are in I , then 0 <f ( x ) <f ( x ) 12 1 2 1 2 and 0 <g ( x ) <g ( x ), so f ( x ) g ( x ) <f ( x ) g ( x ), ( f g )( x ) < ( f g )( x ). Thus f g is 1 2 11 22 1 2 increasing on I . Case II: If f and g are not necessarily positive on I then no conclusion can be drawn: for example, f ( x )= g ( x )= x are both increasing on ( -8, 0), but ( f g )( x )= x is decreasing there. 2 48. (a) f ( x )= x , g ( x )=2 x (b) f ( x )= x , g ( x )= x +6 (c) f ( x )=2 x , g ( x )= x

b 49. (a) f ( x )=6 ax +2 b =6 a ( x + ), f ( x ) = 0 when x = - b . f changes its direction of concavity 3a 3a at x = - b so - b is an in ection point. 3a3a (b) If f ( x )= ax + bx + cx + d has three x -intercepts, then it has three ro ots, say x , x and x ,so 3 2 12 3 we can write f ( x )= a ( x-x )( x - x )( x - x )= ax + bx + cx + d , from which it follows that 3 2 1 2 3 b = -a ( x + x + x ). Thus - b = 1 x + x + x ), which is the average. 123 1233a3( (c) f ( x )= x ( x - 3 x +2)= x ( x- 1)( x - 2) so the intercepts are 0, 1, and 2 and the average is 1. 2 2 f ( x )=6 x- 6=6( x- 1) changes sign at x =1. 50. f ( x )=6 x +2 b , so the point of in ection is at x = -b b moves the point of 3 . Thus an increase in in ection to the left. 51. (a) Let x <x belong to ( a, b ). If both belong to ( a, c ] or both belong to [ c, b ) then we have 1 2 f ( x ) <f ( x ) by hypothesis. So assume x <c<x . We know by hypothesis that f ( x ) <f ( c ), 1 2 1 2 1 and f ( c ) <f ( x ). We conclude that f ( x ) <f ( x ). 2 1 2 (b) Use the same argument as in part (a), but with inequalities reversed. 52. By Theorem 5.1.2, f is increasing on any interval ((2 n - 1) p, 2( n +1) p )( n =0 , 1 , 2 , ), because f ( x ) = 1 + cos x> 0on[(2 n- 1) p, (2 n +1) p ]. By Exercise 51 (a) we can piece these intervals together to show that f ( x ) is increasing on ( -8, + 8 ). 53. t =7 . 67 1000

015 0 54. By zo oming on the graph of x =0 . 577. 55. y 4 2 i nf l p t 31 2 t 1 x i nfl pt s 56. y y ( t ), maximum increase is at x = - 0 . 577 and maximum decrease is at

Exercise Set 5.2 EXERCISE SET 5.2 1. (a) y f (x ) (b) y

146

f (x ) x x (c) y (d) y

f ( x) f (x ) x x

2. (a) y

(b) y

x x (c) (d) y y

x x

3. (a) f ( x )=6 x- 6 and f ( x ) = 6, with f (1) = 0. For the first derivative test, f < 0 for x< 1 and f > 0 for x> 1. For the second derivative test, f (1) > 0. (b) f ( x )=3 x - 3 and f ( x )=6 x . f ( x )=0at x = 1. First derivative test: f > 0 for x<- 1 2 and x> 1, and f < 0 for - 1 <x< 1, so there is a relative maximum at x = - 1, and a relative minimum at x = 1. Second derivative test: f < 0at x = - 1, a relative maximum; and f > 0 at x = 1, a relative minimum. 4. (a) f ( x )=2sin x cos x = sin 2 x (so f (0) = 0) and f ( x ) = 2 cos 2 x . First derivative test: if x is near 0 then f < 0 for x< 0 and f > 0 for x> 0, so a relative minimum at x = 0. Second derivative test: f (0)=2 > 0, so relative minimum at x =0. (b) g ( x )=2tan x sec x (so g (0) = 0) and g ( x )=2sec x (sec x + 2 tan x ). First derivative test: 2 g < 0 for x< 0 and g > 0 for x> 0, so a relative minimum at x = 0. Second derivative test: g (0)=2 > 0, relative minimum at x =0. (c) Both functions are squares, and so are positive for values of x near zero; both functions are zero at x = 0, so that must be a relative minimum. 5. (a) f ( x )=4( x- 1) , g ( x )=3 x - 6 x +3so f (1) = g (1)=0. 3 2 (b) f ( x ) = 12( x - 1) , g ( x )=6 x- 6, so f (1) = g (1) = 0, which yields no information. 2 (c) f < 0 for x< 1 and f > 0 for x> 1, so there is a relative minimum at x =1; g ( x )=3( x- 1) > 0 on both sides of x = 1, so there is no relative extremum at x =1. 2

2 2

147

Chapter 5

6. (a) f ( x )= - 5 x , g ( x )=12 x - 24 x so f (0) = g (0)=0. 4 3 2 (b) f ( x )= - 20 x , g ( x )=36 x - 48 x ,so f (0) = g (0) = 0, which yields no information. 3 2 (c) f < 0 on both sides of x = 0, so there is no relative extremum there; g ( x )=12 x ( x- 2) < 0 2 on both sides of x = 0 (for x near 0), so again there is no relative extremum there. 7. (a) f ( x )=3 x +6 x- 9=3( x + 3)( x - 1), f ( x ) = 0 when x = - 3 , 1 (stationary points). 2 (b) f ( x )=4 x ( x - 3), f ( x ) = 0 when x =0, v 3 (stationary points). 2 8. (a) f ( x )=6( x - 1), f ( x ) = 0 when x = 1 (stationary points). 2 (b) f ( x )=12 x - 12 x =12 x ( x- 1), f ( x ) = 0 when x =0 , 1 (stationary points). 3 v 9. (a) f ( x )=(2 -x ) / ( x +2) , f ( x ) = 0 when x = 2 (stationary points). 2 2 2 (b) f ( x )= x =2 / (3 x ), f ( x ) does not exist when x =0. 2 - 1 / 3 1/ 3 3

10. (a) f ( x )=8 x/ ( x +1) , f ( x ) = 0 when x = 0 (stationary point). 2 2 (b) f ( x )= ( x +2) , f ( x ) do es not exist when x = - 2. 1 - 2 / 3 3 x +1) 11. (a) f ( x )= 4( , f ( x ) = 0 when x = - 1 (stationary point), f ( x ) does not exist when 3x2/3 (b) f ( x )= - 3 sin 3 x, f ( x ) = 0 when sin 3 x =0 , 3 x = np, n =0 , 1 , 2 , x = np/ 3 ,n =0 , 1 , 2 , (stationary points)

x =0.

x - 3 / 2) 12. (a) f ( x )= 4( , f ( x ) = 0 when x =3 / 2 (stationary point), f ( x ) does not exist when x =0. 3x2/ 3 x, sin x = 0 x, sin x> 0 (b) f ( x )= | sin x| = sin f ( x )= cos f ( x )doesnot - sin x, sin x< 0 so - cos x, sin x< 0 and exist when x = np , n =0 , 1 , 2 , (sin x = 0) because lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) (see x np x np + Theorem preceding Exercise 75, Section 3.3). Now f ( x ) = 0 when cos x = 0 provided sin x =0 so x = p/ 2+ np , n =0 , 1 , 2 , are stationary points. 13. (a) x = 2 because f ( x ) changes sign from - to + there. (b) x = 0 because f ( x ) changes sign from + to - there. (c) x =1 , 3 because f ( x ) (the slope of the graph of f ( x )) changes sign at these points. 14. (a) x =1 (b) x =5 (c) x = - 1 , 0 , 3

-- + 0 0 ++ - - 0 + 15. (a) critical points x =0 ,v 5; f : -50 5 v x = 0: relative maximum; x = 5: relative minimum 0 -+ - + - + (b) critical point x =0; f : 0 x = 0: relative minimum

+++ + 00 - - -- 0 16. (a) critical points x =0 ,- 1 / 2 , 1; f : 1-0 1 2 x = 0: neither; x = - 1 / 2: relative maximum; x = 1: relative minimum

Exercise Set 5.2

148

++ - 0? -- ++ 0 - (b) critical points: x = 3 / 2 , - 1; f : 3 3--1 2 2 x = 3 / 2: relative maximum; x = - 1: relative minimum

0 + +- + -2

-- 17. f ( x )= - 2( x + 2); critical point x = - 2; f ( x ):

f ( x )= - 2; f ( - 2) < 0, f ( - 2) = 5; relative max of 5 at

x = -2

++ + +-- 00 -+ + 18. f ( x )=6( x- 2)( x - 1); critical points x =1 , 2; f ( x ): 12 f ( x )=12 x- 18; f (1) < 0, f (2) > 0, f (1)=5, f (2) = 4; relative min of 4 at of5at x =1 x = 2, relative max

++ - 0 0 - - ++ 0 - 19. f ( x )=2sin x cos x = sin 2 x ; critical points x = p/ 2, p ,3 p/ 2; f ( x ): pp3p 22 f ( x ) = 2 cos 2 x ; f ( p/ 2) < 0, f ( p ) > 0, f (3 p/ 2) < 0, f ( p/ 2) = f (3 p/ 2)=1, f ( p ) = 0; relative min of 0 at x = p , relative max of 1 at x = p/ 2, 3 p/ 2

- - - 00 + + + + + - 20. f ( x )=1 / 2 - cos x ; critical points x = p/ 3, 5 p/ 3; f ( x ): pp 5 33 f ( x )= - sin x ; f ( p/ 3) < 0, f (5 p/ 3) > 0 v f ( p/ 3) = p/ 6 - v 3 / 2, f (5 p/ 3)=5 p/ 6+ 3 / 2; v relative min of p/ 6 - v 3 / 2at x = p/ 3, relative max of 5 p/ 6+ 3 / 2at x =5 p/ 3 21. f ( x )=3 x + 5; no relative extrema because there are no critical points. 2 22. f ( x )=4 x ( x - 1); critical points x =0 , 1 ,- 1 2 f ( x )=12 x - 4; f (0) < 0, f (1) > 0, f ( - 1) > 0 2 relative min of 6 at x =1 ,- 1, relative max of 7 at x =0 23. f ( x )=( x- 1)(3 x - 1); critical points x =1 , 1 / 3 f ( x )=6 x- 4; f (1) > 0, f (1 / 3) < 0 relative min of 0 at x = 1, relative max of 4 / 27 at x =1 / 3 24. f ( x )=2 x (2 x + 3); critical points x =0 ,- 3 / 2 2 relative min of - 27 / 16 at x = - 3 / 2 (first derivative test) 25. f ( x )=4 x (1 - x ); critical points x =0 , 1 ,- 1 2 f ( x )=4 - 12 x ; f (0) > 0, f (1) < 0, f ( - 1) < 0 2 relative min of 0 at x = 0, relative max of 1 at x =1 ,- 1 26. f ( x ) = 10(2 x - 1) ; critical point x =1 / 2; no relative extrema (first derivative test) 4 27. f ( x )= x ; critical point x = 0; relative min of 0 at x = 0 (first derivative test) 4 - 1 / 5 5 28. f ( x )=2+ x ; critical points x =0 ,- 1 / 27 2 - 1 / 3 3 relative min of 0 at x = 0, relative max of 1 / 27 at x = - 1 / 27 29. f ( x )=2 x/ ( x +1) ; critical point x = 0; relative min of 0 at x =0 2 2

149

Chapter 5

30. f ( x )=2 / ( x +2) ; no critical points ( x = - 2 is not in the domain of 31. f ( x )=2 x/ (1 + x ); critical point at x = 0; relative min of 0 at 32. f ( x )= x (2 + x ) e 2 x = - 2 (first derivative test) ; critical points at x

f ) no relative extrema 2

x = 0 (first derivative test) 2 =0 ,- 2; relative min of 0 at x = 0 and relative max of 4 /e

at x

33. f ( x )=2 x if |x| > 2, f ( x )= - 2 x if |x| < 2, f ( x ) does not exist when x = 2; critical points x =0 , 2 ,- 2 relative min of 0 at x =2 ,- 2, relative max of 4 at x =0 34. f ( x )= - 1if x< 3, f ( x )=2 x if x> 3, f (3) do es not exist; critical point x = 3, relative min of 6 at x =3 35. f ( x ) = 2 cos 2 x if sin 2 x> 0, f ( x )= - 2 cos 2 x if sin 2 x< 0, f ( x ) does not exist when x = p/ 2 ,p, 3 p/ 2; critical points x = p/ 4 , 3 p/ 4 , 5 p/ 4 , 7 p/ 4 ,p/ 2 ,p, 3 p/ 2 relative min of 0 at x = p/ 2 ,p, 3 p/ 2; relative max of 1 at x = p/ 4 , 3 p/ 4 , 5 p/ 4 , 7 p/ 4 0o 0 v 36. f ( x )= 3+2cos x ; critical points x =5 p/ 6 , 7 p/ 6 v relative min of 7 3 p/ 6 - 1at x =7 p/ 6; relative max of v 5 3 p/ 6+1 at x =5 p/ 6 1

12

0o 0

1 37. f ( x )= - sin 2 x ; critical points x = p/ 2 ,p, 3 p/ 2 relative min of 0 at x = p/ 2 , 3 p/ 2; relative max of 1 at x = p

0o 0 38. f ( x )=(2cos x- 1) / (2 - cos x ) ; critical points x = p/ 3 , 5 p/ 3 2 v relative max of 3 / 3at x = p/ 3, relative min of -v 3 / 3at x =5 p/ 3 0o 0.8

-0.8

Exercise Set 5.2

150

2.5 39. f ( x )=ln x +1, f ( x )=1 /x ; f (1 /e )=0, f (1 /e ) > 0; relative min of - 1 /e at x =1 /e

0 2.5 -0.5 e -e x -x 40. f ( x )= - 2 = 0 when x = 0. By the first derivative test ( e + e ) x -x 2 f ( x ) > 0 for x< 0 and f ( x ) < 0 for x> 0; relative max of 1 at x =0

-2 2 0 0.14 41. f ( x )=2 x (1 - x ) e =0at x =0 , 1. f ( x )=(4 x - 8 x +2) e ; - 2 x f (0) > 0 and f (1) < 0, so a relative min of 0 at x = 0 and a relative max of 1 /e at x =1. 2 2 -2x

-0.3 4 0 42. f ( x )=10 /x - 1=0at x = 10; f ( x )= - 10 /x < 0; 2 relative max of 10(ln(10) - 1) 13 . 03 at x =10 14

020 -4 43. Relative minima at x = - 3 . 58 , 3 . 33; relative max at x =0 . 25 250

-5 5

-250 1.2 44. Relative min at x = - 0 . 84; relative max at x =0 . 84

-66

-1.2

151

Chapter 5

45. relative max at x =0 . 255

46. relative max at x =0 . 845 x =1 . 80 y

47. Relative min at x = - 1 . 20 and a relative max at f '' ( x ) 1 f' ( x ) x -4 -2 2 4 -1 -2

48. Relative max at x = - 0 . 78 and a relative min at f'' ( x ) 5 x -4 -2 2 4 f'(x) -5

x =1 . 55

k x -k 3 49. (a) Let f ( x )= x + , then f ( x )=2 x- k =2 . f has a relative extremum when 2 x - k =0, 2 x x x2 2 so k =2 x = 2(3) = 54. 3 3 x k-x 2 (b) Let f ( x )= , then f ( x )= . f has a relative extremum when k - x =0,so 2 x +k (x+k)2 22 k = x =3 =9. 2 2 0.3 50. (a) one relative maximum, lo cated at x = n

014 0 (b) f ( x )= cx ( -x + n ) e =0at x = n . Since f ( x ) > 0 for x<n and f ( x ) < 0 for n- 1 x>n its a maximum. 51. (a) f ( x )= -xf ( x ). Since f ( x )isalways (b) 1 , positive, f ( x )=0 at x =0, f ( x ) > 0 1 2p for x< 0 and f ( x ) < 0 for x> 0, so x = 0 is a maximum. () y -x

2p

Exercise Set 5.3

152

52. (a) relative minima at x = 0 . 6436, relative max at x =0 y 2 1. 8 1. 6 1. 4 1. 2 1 x - 1. 5 -1 -0. 5 0. 5 1 1. 5

(b) x = 0 . 6436 , 0

53. f ( x )=3 ax +2 bx + c and f ( x ) has roots at x =0 , 1, so f ( x ) must be of the form f ( x )=3 ax ( x - 1); 2 thus c = 0 and 2 b = - 3 a , b = - 3 a/ 2. f ( x )=6 ax +2 b =6 ax - 3 a ,so f (0) > 0 and f (1) < 0 provided a< 0. Finally f (0) = d ,so d = 0; and f (1) = a + b + c + d = a + b = -a/ 2so a = - 2. Thus f ( x )= - 2 x +3 x . 3 2 54. (a) Because h and g have relative maxima at x , h ( x ) = h ( x ) for all x in I and g ( x ) = g ( x ) for all 0 0 1 0 x in I , where I and I are open intervals containing x .If x is in I n I then both inequalities 2 1 2 0 12 are true and by addition so is h ( x )+ g ( x ) =h ( x )+ g ( x ) which shows that h + g has a relative 0 0 maximum at x . 0 (b) By counterexample; both h ( x )= -x and g ( x )= - 2 x have relative maxima at x = 0 but 2 2 h ( x ) - g ( x )= x has a relative minimum at x = 0 so in general h - g do es not necessarily have 2 a relative maximum at x . 0 55. (a) (b) (c) y y y

( x 0 f ( x ) is not an extreme value.

)( 0

) 0

x x

x x

f ( x ) is a relative maximum. 00 0

f ( x ) is a relative minimum.

EXERCISE SET 5.3 1. y = x - 2 x - 3; 2 y =2( x- 1); y =2 x 1 y

-4 (1, -4)

153

Chapter 5

2. y =1+ x-x ; 2 y = - 2( x - 1 / 2); ()y = -2 1 5, 24 1 x 1

3. y = x - 3 x +1; 3 y y =3( x - 1); 2 (- 1, 3) y =6 x (0, 1 ) x (1, -1)

4. y =2 x - 3 x +12 x +9; 3 2 y y =6( x -x + 2); 2 y = 12( x - 1 / 2) () 1 29, 10 2 2 x 1

5. y = x +2 x - 1; 4 3 y =4 x ( x +3 / 2); 2 y =12 x ( x +1) x (0, -1)

(-1 , -2) () 3 43-, 216

6. y = x - 2 x - 12; 4 2 y =4 x ( x - 1); 2 10 y = 12( x - 1 / 3) 2 x 1 (0 , -12 )

( 1, -1 3) (- 1, -1 3) ()() 1 1 13 1 1 13 - , - , 93 39

Exercise Set 5.3

154

7. y = x (3 x - 5); 3 2 1 7 3 -, 38 y =15 x ( x - 1); 2 2 (-1, 2) y =30 x (2 x - 1) 2 ( 0, 0) x

y ()

(1, -2 ) () 173, 38

8. y =3 x ( x +4 / 3); 3 y =12 x ( x + 1); 2 y =36 x ( x +2 / 3)

x (0, 0) () (-1, -1) 327

2 16-, -

9. y = x ( x - 1) ; 3 y =(4 x- 1)( x - 1) ; 2 0.1 y = 6(2 x - 1)( x - 1) x (1 , 0) () 1 1, 2 1 6 - 0.1 () 1 27 , 4256

10. y = x ( x + 5); 4 y =5 x ( x + 4); 3 300 (-4, 256) y =20 x ( x +3) 2

x ( 0, 0) (-3 , 162 )

11. y =2 x/ ( x - 3); y = - 6 / ( x - 3) ; 2 y =12 / ( x- 3) 3 y =2 x

x = 3

155 x 12. y = x - 1;2 x =-1 +1 2 y = -x ; ( x - 1) 2 2 1 x ( x +3) 2 y =2 x ( x - 1) 2 3 (0, 0 )

Chapter 5

x = 1

x2 13. y = y x - 1;2 2x y = ; ( x - 1) 2 2 x +1) 2 y =1 y = 2(3 x ( x - 1) 2 3 (0 , 0)

x =-1

x = 1

x - 12 y 14. y = x +1; 2 x y =4 ; ( x +1) 2 2 y = 1 - 3x )2 y = 4(1 x () ) ( ( x +1) 2 3 11 11-, 2 233 (0 , -1)

, -

1 x - 13 2 xx x +1 3 y =2 , x2 (-0. 8, 1.9 ) 1 y = 0 when x = - - 0 . 8; 3 x 2 (1, 0 ) x - 1) 3 y = 2( x3 y 15. y = x - = ;

x - 12 y 16. y = 2 x2 y =2 ; y = 2 x3 6 y = x4 ;

Exercise Set 5.3 x - 13 y 17. y = x +1; 3 x2 y =6 ; ( x +1) 3 2 y = 1 x (1 - 2 x ) 3 y = 12 ( x +1) (0 , -1) x = -1 x 33 3

156

(1/

2 , -1/ 3)

y 18. y = 8 4 -x2 x = -2 x y = 16 ; (4 - x ) 2 2 x +4) 2 1 y = 16(3 x (4 - x ) 2 3

x = 2

x- 1 y 19. y = x - 4;2 x = -2 4 - 2 x +4 2 y = -x ( x - 4) 2 2 x

x = 2

4 4 y 20. y =3 - ; x- x 2 x +2) () 3 5 (-2 , 4) -3 , y = 4( 9

x3 8( x +3) y = x4 x

y = 3

x - 1) 2 y 21. y = ( x2 x - 1) y = 2( ; x3 y = 1 - 2x) y = 2(3 x (1 , 0) () 3 1, 29 x4 ;

157 1 y 22. y =2+3 ; (1, 4 ) x- x 3 ( ) -x ) 2, 2 +2 4 y = 3(1 ; x4 x - 2) 2 y = 6( x x5 ( 4 (1 , 0) ) 5- 2, 2 2 y =2

Chapter 5

52

23. (a) VI

(b) I

(c) III

(d) V

(e) IV

(f ) II x = 0; as n increases the graph approaches the

24. (a) When n is even the function is defined only for line y = 1 for x> 0. y

x (b) When n is odd the graph is symmetric with respect to the origin; as approaches the line y = 1 for x> 0 and the line y = - 1 for x< 0. y n increases the graph

vx y 25. y = - 1; 2 x vy = x - 1;2 1 y = ( x - 1) 2 3 / 2 -1 1 3

y 26. y = x - 4; 2 3 x y =2 ; 3( x - 4) 2 2 / 3 2(3 x +4) 2 y = (-2, 0) ( 2, 0) 9( x - 4) 2 (0, -2 ) x 2 5 / 3 -2 3

Exercise Set 5.3

158

y 27. y =2 x +3 x ; 2 / 3 5 y = 2+2 x ; - 1 / 3 2 y = - x-4/ 3 3 x 4 (0 , 0)

y 28. y =4 x- 3 x ; 4 / 3 y =4 - 4 x ; 1 / 3 4 y = - x-2/ 3 3 x 1 3 (1, 1 )

y 29. y = x (3 - x ) ; 1 / 2 -x) y = 3(2 v ; (2, 2) 2 3 - x x - 4) y = 3( 4(3 - x ) 3 / 2

y 30. y = x (4 - x ); 1 / 3 -x) y = 4(1 ; 10 3 x 2 / 3 4( x +2) (1 , 3) y = 9x5/3 x 3 ( -2, -6 ) 2 -10

vx 1) y 31. y = 8( x - vx ) () y = 4(2 , (4, 2) x 8) y = 2(3 x x3 15 ; ; 4 64 15 9 8 2 vx -

159 vx y 32. y = 1+ ; 1 -vx x =1 y = 1 vx 2 (1 -vx ) ; vx 9 1 y =3 x 2 x (1 - vx ) 3 / 2 3 ()

Chapter 5

1 , 2 2

y = -1 -2

33. y = x + sin x ; y y = 1 + cos x , y = 0 when x = p +2 np ; y = - sin x ; y = 0 when x = np c n =0 , 1 , 2 ,... x c

34. y = x - cos x ; y = 1 + sin x ; y = 0 when x = -p/ 2+2 np ; c y = cos x ; x c y = 0 when x = p/ 2+ np n =0 , 1 , 2 ,...

35. y = sin x + cos x ; y = cos x - sin x ; y = 0 when x = p/ 4+ np ; x -o o y = - sin x - cos x ; -2 y = 0 when x =3 p/ 4+ np v 36. y = 3 cos x + sin x ; y = -v 3 sin x + cos x ; 2 y = 0 when x = p/ 6+ np ; x o y = -v 3 cos x - sin x ; y = 0 when x =2 p/ 3+ np

y 2

-2

Exercise Set 5.3

160

37. y = sin x, 0 = x = 2 p ; 2 y = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2 x ; 1 y = 2 cos 2 x x co

38. y = x tan x, -p/ 2 <x<p/ 2; y = x sec x + tan x ; 2 y = 0 when x =0; y = 2 sec x ( x tan x + 1), which is always 2 x -6 6 positive for -p/ 2 <x<p/ 2

39. (a) lim xe =+ 8 , lim xe =0 x x +8 x -8 (b) y = xe ; x y =( x +1) e ; x y =( x +2) e x - 5 -3 -1 x (-2 , -0. 27) -1 (-1, - 0.3 7)

40. (a) lim xe = 0, lim xe = -8 - 2 x -2 x x +8 x -8 1 0. 3 (b) y = xe ; y = - 2 x - e ; y =4( x- 1) e - 2 x 2 ( 1, 0. 14 ) 0. 1 x - 3 -1 1 3 -0. 1 -0. 3

-2x-2 x

(0. 5, 0. 18 )

x x2 2 41. (a) lim = 0, lim =+ 8 e e2x 2 xx +8 x -8 (b) y = x /e = x e ; y22x2- 2x y =2 x (1 - x ) e ; - 2 x y = 2(2 x - 4 x +1) e ; 2 -2x y = 0 if 2 x - 4 x + 1 = 0, when 2 v 16 - 8 (1, 0 .14 ) x =4 v 2 / 2 0 . 29 , 1 . 71 (1. 71 , 0. 10) 4 =1 x ( 0, 0) 1 23 (0. 29, 0 .0 5) 42. (a) lim x e =+ 8 , lim x e =0. 2 2 x x +8 x -8 22x

0. 3

161

Chapter 5

(b) y = x e ; 2 2 x y =2 x ( x +1) e ; 2 x 0. 3 y = 2(2 x +4 x +1) e ; 2 y = 0 if 2 x +4 x +1=0 , when 2 (- 1, 0. 14 ) v - 4 v 16 - 8 ( -1. 71, 0 .1 0) x = - 1 2 / 2 - 0 . 29 , - 1 . 71 4= x -3 -2 -1 (0, 0 ) (-0. 29, 0. 05) 2x

0. 2

43. (a) lim f ( x )=+ 8 , lim f ( x )= -8 x +8 x -8 (b) y = xe ; x 2 y = (1+2 x ) e ; 2 x 2 10 0 y =2 x (3+2 x ) e 2 x 2 no relative extrema, in ection point at (0 ( 0 ,0 ) x -22

, 0)

-10 0 44. (a) lim f ( x )=1 x 8 (b) f ( x )=2 x e so f ( x ) < 0 for x< 0 and f ( x ) > 0 for . - 3 - 1 /x 2 y x> 0. By LH opitals Rule lim f ( x ) = 0, so (by the first 1x 0 derivative test) f ( x ) has a minimum at x =0. 0.8 f ( x )=( - 6 x +4 x ) e ,so f ( x ) has points of in ection - 4 - 6 - 1 / x 2 at x = 2 / 3 0.4 () () 2/ 3 , e 2 /3 , e - 3 /2 - 3/ 2 x -1 0 -5 5 1 0 (0, 0 )

ln x 1 /x 45. (a) lim y = lim x ln x = lim = lim 1 /x - 1 /x 2 x 0 x 0 lim y =+ 8 x +8 (b) y = x ln x , y = 1+ln x , y =1 /x , y = 0 when x = e - 1 x 1

=0; x 0

y x 0+ + + +

-1-1 (e, - e )

ln x 1 /x 46. (a) lim y = lim = lim 1 /x - 2 /x 2 x 0 x 0 x 0+ lim y =+ 8

=0, 3 + +

0. 2 x +8 (b) y = x ln x, y = x (1+2ln x ) , 2 0. 1 ( ) y = 3+2ln x, 2 x y =0if x = e , -0. 1 y =0if x = e , - 3 / 2 lim y =0 2 x 0+

3 - 3/ 2 -3 e , 1-1/2

-0. 2 ( ) 1 e , -

e - 1/ 2 - 1

Exercise Set 5.3 ln x 47. (a) lim y = lim = -8 ; x2 x 0 x 0+ + ln x 1 /x 0. 4 lim y = lim = lim =0 0. 3 ( ) 1 x 2x x + 8 x + 8 0. 1 (b) y = ln ,y = 1 x y = 6ln x4 -0. 3 1 / 2 y =0if x = e , -0. 4 5 / 6 y =0if x = e x 1 2 3 x- 5 , -0. 2

162

( , x2 3

) 1 /2 -1 2 e ,

e 5 /6 - 5 /3 2 0. 2

6 x

e , - 2ln x

e 5x +8

-0. 1

x 0 Rule. x - ln x vx (b) y = ln , y = 2

1 /x 2 vx vx 48. (a) lim (ln x ) /vx = -8 by inspection, lim (ln x ) /vx = lim 1/2 x + 8 x + 8 x +8+

= lim

= 0, LH opitals

y ( 3 )82x 0. 5 x 2 6 10 14 y =0if x = e , 2 2 8 / 3 - 4 /3 ( e , 2 / e ) e , e3/ 2

- 8+3ln x y = 4x5/2 y =0if x = e 8 / 3 -1

49. (a) lim y = -8 , lim y =+ 8 ; x -8 x +8 curve crosses x -axis at x =0 , 1 ,- 1 4 2 x -2 -1 1 -2 -4 -6 (b) lim y =+ 8 ; x 8 curve never crosses x -axis 0. 2 y

0. 1

x -1 1 (c) lim y = -8 , lim y =+ 8 ; x -8 x +8 curve crosses x -axis at x = - 1 0. 4 0. 2 x -11 -0. 2 y

163

Chapter 5

(d) lim y =+ 8 ; x 8 curve crosses x -axis at x =0 , 1 0. 4 0. 2 x -1 1

50. (a) y y y

ab ab x x ab x

(b) y y

ab x

x ab (c) y

ab x

51. (a) horizontal asymptote y =3as x 8 , vertical asymptotes of x = 2 10

x -55 -5

Exercise Set 5.3

164

(b) horizontal asymptote of y =1 as x 8 , vertical asymptotes at x = 1

y 10

x -5 5

- 10 (c) horizontal asymptote of y = - 1as x 8 , vertical asymptotes at x = - 2 , 1 10 y

x -5 5

-1 0 (d) horizontal asymptote of y =1as x 8 , vertical asymptote at x = - 1 , 2 10 y

x -5 5

-10 52. y

x ab

53. (a)

(b) y =(1 -bx ) e , y = b ( x - 2 /b ) e ; 0.4 relative max at x =1 /b , y =1 /be ;pointof in ection at x =2 /b , y =2 /be . Increasing 2 b moves the relative max and the point of in ection to the left and down, i.e. towards the origin. -0.2 1 54. (a) (b) y = - 2 bxe , y =2 b ( - 1+2 bx ) e ; - b x 2 relative max at x =0, y = 1; points of in ection at x = 1 / 2 b , y =1 /ve . Increasing b moves the points of in ection towards the y -axis; the relative max do esnt move. 2 -b x 2

-bx

-b x

-0.5 3

-2 2 0

165

Chapter 5

55. (a) The oscillations of e cos x about zero y increase as x 8 so the limit do es not exist. 6

(b) x

4 ( 0 ,1 ) (1 .5 2 , 0 .22 ) x -2 - 1 1 2 -2 (c) The curve y = e cos bx oscillates between y = e and y = -e . The frequency of oscillation a x increases when b increases. y 5 10 b = 3 5 x -112 b = 1 -1 0. 5 1 -5 b = 2 a = 1 a = 1 x b = 1 a = 2 y a = 3

ax

ax

P (x) R(x) 56. lim - ( ax + b ) = lim R ( x ) is less than Q(x) Q ( x ) = 0 because the degree of x 8 x 8 the degree of Q ( x ). x - 2 22 57. y = = x - so x x y = x y = x is an oblique asymptote; x +2 2 y = , x2 4 x y = x3 4 4

x - 2x- 32 58. y = x- 4+ 5 x +2 = x +2 so y = x - 4 is an oblique asymptote; x +4 x- 1 2 y = , y = 10 ( x +2) ( x +2) 2 3 x -10 10 (0. 24, -1. 52) y = x - 4 (-4. 24 , -10 .48 )

x = -2

x - 2) x- 83 59. y = ( = x - 6+ 12 so x x2 2 y = x - 6 is an oblique asymptote; x - 2) ( x +4) 2 10 y =( x3 x - 2) y = 24( x4 ,

(2 , 0) x y = x - 6

- 10 (-4 , -13 .5)

Exercise Set 5.3 -x3 60. y = 4 , x2 +8 3 y = -x , x3 y = 24 x4 y =-x x

166

(-2, 3 )

1 1 x- 1)( x +1) 2 61. y = x +1 =( , x-x x2 2 y = x + 1 is an oblique asymptote; y = x + 1 x + 1)( x - x +2) 2 y =( , x3 (-1, 0 ) 2( x +3) y = x4 ( ) 16 - 3, 9

62. The oblique asymptote is y =2 x so (2 x - 3 x +4) /x =2 x , - 3 x +4=0, x =4 / 3. 3

x 8

2 63. lim [ f ( x ) - x ] = lim (1 /x )=0 x 8 x +1 1x -13 3 y = x + 1 = , y =2 x- =2 , 2 xx x x2 2 v x +1) y =2+ 2 =2( , y = 0 when x =1 / 2 0 . 8, 3 x x x3 3 y =3 2 / 2 1 . 9; y = 0 when x = - 1 ,y =0 3

y 3

23

y = x

3v

64. lim [ f ( x ) - (3 - x )] = lim (2 /x )=0 2 x 8 x 8 x-x 2 2( x +1) 3 3 y =3 -x + 2 = 2+3 , y = - 2 x- = , 22 x x x x2 2 2( x - 2) 3 y = - 2+ 4 = , y = 0 when x = - 1 ,y =0; xx x3 3 y = 0 when x = 2 1 . 3, y =3 3

y = 3 - x 1 3v

65. Let y be the length of the other side of the rectangle, then L L =2 x +2 y and xy = 400 so y = 400 /x and hence L =2 x + 800 /x . L =2 x is an oblique asymptote (see Exercise 48) x + 400) 800 x - 400) 2 2 1 00 L =2 x +800 = 2( , L =2 - = 2( , x x x x2 2 x L = 1600 , L = 0 when x =20 ,L =80 20 x 3

167

Chapter 5

66. Let y be the height of the box, then S = x +4 xy and x y = 500 so 2 y = 500 /x and hence S = x + 2000 /x . 2 2 100 0 The graph approaches the curve S = x asymptotically 2 (see Exercise 63) x + 2000 2000 x - 1000) 3 3 S = x + 2000 = , S =2 x- = 2( ,2 x x x x x2 2 30 x + 2000) 3 S =2+ 4000 = 2( , S = 0 when x =10 ,S = 300 x x3 3

67. y =0 . 1 x (6 x - 5); 4 critical points: x =0, x =5 / 6; relative minimum at x =5 / 6, y - 6 . 7 10 - 3

0. 01 x -1 1

68. y =0 . 1 x ( x + 1)(7 x + 5); 4 critical points: x =0, x = - 1, x = - 5 / 7, relative maximum at x = - 1, y =0; relative minimum at x = - 5 / 7, y - 1 . 5 10 - 3 0. 001 x 1

kL Ae kL A 2 -k L t 2 69. (a) P ( t )= S ,so P (0) = (1 + Ae ) (1 + A ) -k L t 2 2 (b) The rate of growth increases to its maximum, which occurs when P is halfway between 0 and L , or when t = 1 ln A ; it then decreases back towards zero. Lk dP (c) From (6) one sees that is maximized when P lies half way between 0 and L , i.e. P = L/ 2. dt This follows since the right side of (6) is a parabola (with P as independent variable) with P -intercepts P =0 ,L . The value P = L/ 2 corresponds to t = 1 ln A , from (8). Lk 70. Since 0 <P <L the right-hand side of (7) can change sign only if the factor L - 2 P changes sign, L L which it does when P = L/ 2. From (5) we have ,1= Ae , t = 1 ln A . - k Lt 2 = 1+ Ae Lk -k L t

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 5 x32 4. (a) False; an example is y = - x - 2 , 2]; x = 0 is a relative maximum and 3 2 on [ 1 minimum, buty=0isnotthelargest value of y on the interval, nor is y = 6 the smallest.

x = 1 is a relative

Supplementary Exercises

168

(b) true (c) False; for example y = x on ( - 1 , 1) which has a critical point but no relative extrema 3 6. (a) y (b) (c) yy

44

x 2 2

x 2

x - 7)( x - 1) 7. (a) f ( x )= 7( ; critical points at x =0 , 1 , 7; 3x2 /3 neither at x = 0, relative max at x = 1, relative min at x = 7 (first derivative test) (b) f ( x )=2cos x (1 + 2 sin x ); critical points at x = p/ 2 , 3 p/ 2 , 7 p/ 6 , 11 p/ 6; relative max at x = p/ 2 , 3 p/ 2, relative min at x =7 p/ 6 , 11 p/ 6 vx31 (c) f ( x )=3 x = 5; relative max at x =5 2 ; critical points at x- 9 -x 8. (a) f ( x )= , f ( x )= 27 ; critical point at x =9; f (9) > 0, relative min at x =9 18 x 36 x 3 / 2 5 /2 x -4 x +8 3 3 (b) f ( x )=2 , f ( x )=2 ; x x2 3 critical point at x =4 , f (4 ) > 0, relative min at x =4 1 / 3 1 / 3 1/3 (c) f ( x ) = sin x (2 cos x + 1), f ( x )=2cos x- 2 sin x + cos x ; critical points at x =2 p/ 3 ,p, 4 p/ 3; 2 2 f (2 p/ 3) < 0, relative max at x =2 p/ 3; f ( p ) > 0, relative min at x = p ; f (4 p/ 3) < 0, relative max at x =4 p/ 3 9. lim f ( x )=+ 8 , lim f ( x )=+ 8 x -8 x + 8 f ( x )= x (4 x - 9 x + 6), f ( x ) = 6(2 x - 1)( x - 1) 2 4 relative min at x =0, points of in ection when x =1 / 2 , 1, no asymptotes 2 ( 1 ,2) ( ) 1 23 , 1 216 ( 0 ,1) x 12 y

10. lim f ( x )= -8 , lim f ( x )=+ 8 y ( -0 .42 ,0 .16 ) ( 0,0 ) x -8 x + 8 ( -0 .6 3,0 .27 ) f ( x )= x ( x- 2) , f ( x )= x (5 x - 6)( x - 2), 3 x -1 1 23 4 f ( x )=4 x (5 x - 12 x +6) 2 v -1 00 8 2 31 critical points at x =0 , 5v -2 00 - 2 31 relative max at x = 8 - 0 . 63 5=v ( 2 .82 ,-1 6 5.0 0) (3 .83 ,- 26 1. 31 ) 31 relative min at x = 8+2 . 83 5 =3 6 v 66 points of in ection at x =0 , ,- 0 . 42 , 2 . 82 5 =0 no asymptotes

169 11. lim f ( x ) doesnt exist x 8 f ( x )=2 x sec ( x + 1), 2 2 4 f ( x )=2sec ( x +1) 1+4 x tan( x +1) 2 2 2 2 2 critical point at x = 0; relative min at x =0 x -2 -1 1 2 point of in ection when 1 + 4 x tan( x +1)=0 2 2 -2 vertical asymptotes at x = p ( n + ) - 1, n =0 , 1 , 2 ,... 1 2

Chapter 5

-4

12. lim f ( x )= -8 , lim f ( x )=+ 8 x -8 x + 8 f ( x ) = 1 + sin x , f ( x ) = cos x

4 2 critical points at x =2 np + p/ 2, n =0 , 1 , 2 ,... , x no extrema because f = 0 and by Exercise 51 of Section 5.1, -pp -2 f is increasing on ( -8, + 8 ) -4 in ections points at x = np + p/ 2, n =0 , 1 , 2 ,... -6 no asymptotes x ( x +5) x +15 x - 25 3 2 13. f ( x )=2 , f ( x )= - 22 ( x +2 x +5) ( x +2 x +5) 2 2 critical points at x = - 5 , 0; 1 relative max at x = - 5, 0 .8 relative min at x =0 0 .4 points of in ection at x = - 7 . 26 , - 1 . 44 , 1 . 20 0 .2 horizontal asymptote y =1as x 8 x -2 0 -10 10 20

y 2 3

0 .6

x - 25 x - 50 2 14. f ( x )=33 , f ( x )= - 63 x x4 critical points at x = 5 3 / 3; v relative max at x = - 5 3 / 3, v relative min at x =+5 3 / 3 in ection points at x = 5 2 / 3

2 5 yv

5 x -4 6 -5 horizontal asymptote of y =0as x 8 ,

vertical asymptote x =0 15. lim f ( x )=+ 8 , lim f ( x )= -8 x -8 x + 8 2 x x= 0 f ( x )= if - 2 x x> 0 x critical point at x = 0, no extrema in ection point at x =0 ( f changes concavity) no asymptotes 1 y

-2 1 -2

Supplementary Exercises -3x 16. f ( x )= 5 , 3(1 + x ) (3 - x ) 1 / 3 - 32 f ( x )= 9(1 + x ) (3 - x ) 4 / 3 critical point at x =5 / 3; relative max at x =5 / 3 -1 cusp at x = - 1; -3 point of in ection at x =3 oblique asymptote y = -x as x 8 17. lim f ( x )=+ 8 x +8 f ( x )= 1+ln x , f ( x )=1 /x lim f ( x )=0, lim f ( x )= -8 x 0 x 0+ critical point at x =1 /e ; relative min at x =1 /e y 5 /3 x -4 - 2 2

170

y 2 /3 4

1 +

x 12 no points of in ection, no asymptotes

18. lim f ( x )=+ 8 x +8 f ( x )= x (2 ln x + 1), f ( x )=2ln x +3 0. 2 0 .4 0 .6 lim f ( x )=0, lim f ( x )=0 x 0 x 0+ + critical point at x = e ; - 1 / 2 - 0. 1 relative min at x = e - 1 / 2 point of in ection at x = e - 3 / 2

y x

- 2ln x 19. f ( x )= 1 x

x- 5 , f ( x )= 6ln x3

y 4 x 12 -1

critical point at x = e , 1 / 2 relative max at x = e 1 / 2 point of in ection at x = e 5 / 6 -2 horizontal asymptote y =0as x + 8

20. lim f ( x )=+ 8 x 8 x -x 2 f ( x )= 2 f ( x )=2 1 x +1, ( x +1) 2 critical point at x =0; relative min at x =0 points of in ection at x = 1 x -22 no asymptotes 2 22 1

171

Chapter 5

21. lim f ( x )=+ 8 x +8 x- 1 x - 2 x +2 2 f ( x )= e , f ( x )= e x x x2 critical point at x =1; relative min at x =1

x 3 6 2 x

no points of in ection -2 vertical asymptote x =0, horizontal asymptote y = 0 for x -8 22. f ( x )=(1 -x ) e , f ( x )=( x- 2) e -x -x critical point at x = 1; relative max at x =1 0 .2 point of in ection at x =2 12 horizontal asymptote y =0as x + 8 , lim f ( x )= -8 x -8

-2 1 3

-0 .8

23. f ( x )= x (2 - x ) e , f ( x )=( x - 4 x +2) e 1 - x 1. 8 critical points at x =0 , 2; relative min at x =0, 1 relative max at x =2 0. 6 points of in ection at x =2 v 2 horizontal asymptote y =0as x + 8 , x 1234 lim f ( x )=+ 8 x -8

1 -x

24. f ( x )= x (3 + x ) e , f ( x )= x ( x +6 x +6) e 2 x-1 2 x- 1 critical points at x = - 3 , 0; 1 relative min at x = - 3 v 0. 4 points of in ection at x =0 ,- 3 3 x horizontal asymptote y =0as x -8 -4 -2 1 lim f ( x )=+ 8 -0. 4 x +8

25. (a)

1 (b) f ( x )= x - f ( x )=2 x 40 400 , 1 critical points at x = 20 ; 1 relative max at x = - -5 5 20 , relative min at x = 1 20 -40

Supplementary Exercises

172

(c) The finer details can be seen when graphing over a much smaller x -window.

0.0001

-0.1 0.1

26. (a)

-0.0001 v (b) critical points at x = 2 , , 2; 3 200 2 relative max at x = -v 2, v relative min at x = 2, relative max at x = , 3 2 relative min at x =2 -200 10

-5 5

(c)

-2.909

-2.2 3.5 1.3 1.6 -2.912

-4

27. (a)

(b) Divide y = x + 1 into y = x - 8 to get the 6 asymptote ax + b = x

-5 5

-6 28. (a) p ( x )= x -x (c) p ( x )= x -x -x + x (b) p ( x )= x -x 3 (d) p ( x )= x -x 5 4 3 2 42 53

29. f ( x )=4 x - 18 x +24 x- 8, f ( x ) = 12( x - 1)( x - 2) 3 2 f (1)=0, f (1)=2, f (1)=2; f (2)=0, f (2)=0, f (2)=3, so the tangent lines at the in ection points are y =2 x and y =3. dy dy dy dy x 30. cos x - (sin y ) =2 ; = 0 when cos x = 0. Use the first derivative test: dx dx dx dx 2 + sin y 2 + sin y> 0, so critical points when cos x = 0, relative maxima when when x =2 np - p/ 2, n =0 , 1 , 2 ,...

= cos

and

x =2 np + p/ 2, relative minima

173

Chapter 5

x - 1)( x + x - 7) x + x - 7 2 2 31. f ( x )= (2 ,x =1 / 2 y (2 x - 1)(3 x + x - 1) = 3 x + x - 1 2 2 10 horizontal asymptote: y =1 / 3, v vertical asymptotes: x =( - 1 13) / 6 5

x -4 -2 2 4 -5

x- 2)( x + x + 1)( x - 2) 2 2 32. (a) f ( x )= ( (b) ( x - 2)( x - 2) ( x +1) 2 2 2 4 x + x +1 2 = ( x - 2)( x +1) 2 2 x -2 1 3 -2

33. (a) sin x = - 1 yields the smallest values, and sin x = +1 yields the largest

Oo 0 (b) f ( x )= e cos x ; relative maxima at x =2 np + p/ 2, y = e ; relative minima at x =2 np - p/ 2, si n x y =1 /e ; n =0 , 1 , 2 ,... (first derivative test) (c) f ( x )=(1 - sin x - sin x ) e ; f ( x ) = 0 when sin x = t ,arootof t + t- 1=0, 2 si n x - 1 v 5 -1 -v5 t= x = <x< 2 p occur 2 ; sin 2 is impossible. So the points of in ection on 0 v - 1+ 5 when sin x = x =0 . 66624 , 2 . 47535 2 ,or 34. f ( x )=3 ax +2 bx + c ; f ( x ) > 0or f ( x ) < 0on( -8, + 8 )if f ( x ) = 0 has no real solutions so 2 from the quadratic formula (2 b ) - 4(3 a ) c< 0, 4 b - 12 ac < 0, b - 3 ac < 0. If b - 3 ac = 0, then 2 f ( x ) = 0 has only one real solution at, say, x = c so f is always increasing or always decreasing on both ( -8,c ] and [ c, + 8 ), and hence on ( -8, + 8 ) because f is continuous everywhere. Thus f is always increasing or decreasing if b - 3 ac = 0. 2 2 35. (a) relative minimum - 0 . 232466 at x =0 . 450184

-1 1.5 -0.5

Supplementary Exercises

174

0.2 (b) relative maximum 0 at x =0; relative minimum - 0 . 107587 at x = 0 . 674841

-1.2 1.2

-0.15 (c) relative maximum 0 . 876839; at x =0 . 886352; relative minimum - 0 . 355977 at x = - 1 . 244155

-1.5 1.5 -0.4 36. (a) f ( x ) = 2+3 x - 4 x has one real root at x =1 . 14, a relative max; so f is one-to-one for x = 1 . 14 2 3 (b) f (1 . 14)=3 . 07 so the domain of f is ( -8, 3 . 07) and the range is ( -8, 1 . 14); f ( - 1) = - 0 . 70 - 1 37. (a) (b) y =0 at x = 0; lim y =0 0.5 x +8

-1

05 0 (c) relative max at x =1 /a , in ection point at x =2 /a (d) As a increases, the x -coordinate of the maximum and the in ection point move towards the origin. 38. (a) 4 4

-2 2 0 0 (b) y =1at x = a ; lim y =+ 8 , lim y =0 x -8 x + 8 (c) Since y is always negative and y is always positive, there are no relative extrema and no in ection points. (d) An increase in b makes the graph atter. (e) An increase in a shifts the graph to the right.

-2 2

175

Chapter 5

1 39. f ( x ) = ln(1 + 1 /x ) - and f ( x )= 1 f > 0if x> 1 and therefore f is increasing on x x ( x +1);so 2 [1 , + 8 ). Next, f (1)=ln2 - 1 < 0. Then by LH opitals Rule, ln(1 + 1 /x ) - 1 /x 2 lim x ln(1 + 1 /x ) = lim = lim 1 /x (1+1 /x )( - 1 /x ) =1 2 x + 8 x + 8 x +8 x ln(1 + 1 /x ) - 1 and thus lim f ( x ) = lim is indeterminate. x x + 8 x + 8 1 By LH opitals Rule lim f ( x ) = lim ln 1+ 1 x - x +1 =0. x + 8 x + 8 Thus on [1 , + 8 ) the function f starts negative and increases towards zero, so it is negative on the whole interval. So f ( x ) is decreasing, and f ( x ) >f ( x + 1). Set x = n and obtain ln(1 + 1 /n ) > ln(1 + 1 / ( n + 1)) . Since ln x and its inverse function e are both increasing, n + 1 n+2 x it follows that (1 + 1 /n ) > (1+1 / ( n + 1)) . n + 1 n +2