CHAPTER 5 Analysis of Functions and Their Graphs

EXERCISE SET 5.1 1. (a) f > 0 and f > 0 y (b) f > 0 and f < 0 y

x x

(c) f < 0 and f > 0 yy

(d) f < 0 and f < 0

x x

2. (a) y

(b) y

x

x

(c) y

(d) y

x

x

3. A : dy/dx < 0 ,d y /dx > 0 B : dy /dx > 0 ,d y/dx < 0 C : dy/dx < 0 ,d y/dx < 0

4. A : dy/dx < 0 ,d y/dx < 0 2 2 B : dy /dx < 0 ,d y/dx > 0 2 2 C : dy/dx > 0 ,d y/dx < 0 2 2

22 22 22

139

Exercise Set 5.1

140

5. An in ection point o ccurs when

f changes sign: at x = - 1 , 0 , 1 and 2.

6. (a) f (0) <f (1) since f > 0on(0 , 1). (b) f (1) >f (2) since f < 0on(1 , 2). (c) f (0) > 0 by inspection. (d) f (1) = 0 by inspection. (e) f (0) < 0 since f is decreasing there. (f) f (2) = 0 since f has a minimum there. 7. (a) [4 , 6] (d) (2 , 3) and (5 , 7) 8. (b) [1 , 4] and [6 , 7] (e) x =2 , 3 , 5 (c) (1 , 2) and (3 , 5)

(1 , 2) (2 , 3) (3 , 4) (4 , 5) (5 , 6) (6 , 7) f--++ f + - ++ -(a) [5 / 2 , + 8 ) (b) ( -8, 5 / 2] (c) ( -8, + 8 ) (d) none f ( x )=2 (e) none (a) ( -8, - 3 / 2] (b) [ - 3 / 2 , + 8 ) (d) ( -8, + 8 ) f ( x )= - 2

9. f ( x )=2 x- 5

10. f ( x )= - 2( x +3 / 2) (c) none (e) none 11. f ( x )=3( x +2)

(a) ( -8, + 8 ) (b) none 2 (c) ( - 2 , + 8 ) (d) ( -8, - 2) f ( x )=6( x +2) (e) - 2 (a) [ - 2 , 2] (b) ( -8, - 2], [2 , + 8 ) 2 (d) (0 , + 8 ) f ( x )= - 6 x

12. f ( x ) = 3(4 - x ) (c) ( -8, 0) (e) 0

13. f ( x )=12 x ( x- 1) (a) [1 , + 8 ) (c) ( -8, 0), (2 / 3 , + 8 ) (e) 0 , 2 / 3

(b) ( -8, 1] 2 (d) (0 , 2 / 3) f ( x )=36 x ( x- 2 / 3)

14. f ( x )=4 x ( x - 4) (a) [ - 2 , 0], [2 , + 8 ) (b) ( -8, - 2], [0 , 2] 2 (c) ( -8, - 2 /v 3), (2 /v 3 , + 8 ) (d) ( - 2 /v 3 , 2 /v 3) f ( x ) = 12( x - 4 / 3) 2 (e) - 2 /v 3, 2 /v 3 x x -22 15. f ( x )= 4 f ( x )= - 4 3 ( x +2) ( x +2) 2 2 23 (a) [0 , + 8 ) (b) ( -8, 0] (d) ( -8, - 2 / 3), (+ 2 / 3 , + 8 ) (e) - 2 / 3 , 2 / 3 -x x ( x - 6) 2 2 16. f ( x )= 2 f ( x )= 2 ( x +2) ( x +2) 2 2 2 3 v v vv v v (a) [ - 2 , 2] (b) ( -8, - 2], [ 2 , + 8 ) (d) ( -8, -v 6), (0 , v 6) (e) -v 6 , 0 , v 6 17. f ( x )= ( x +2) 3 9 (e) - 2 (a) ( -8, + 8 ) (c) ( -8, - 2)

(c) ( - 2 / 3 , + 2 / 3)

(c) ( - 6 , 0), ( 6 , + 8 )

(b) none 1

-2/3 -5/3

(d) ( - 2 , + 8 ) f ( x )= - ( x +2) 2

141

Chapter 5

18. f ( x )= x 3 9 x +1) 19. f ( x )= 4( 3x2/3 x - 2) f ( x )= 4( 9x5/ 3 x - 1 / 4) 20. f ( x )= 4( 3x2/ 3 x +1 / 2) f ( x )= 4( 9x5/ 3 21. f ( x )= -xe

(a) [0 , + 8 ) (c) none (e) none

(b) ( -8, 0] 2 - 1 / 3 (d) ( -8, 0), (0 , + 8 ) f ( x )= - x 2 - 4 / 3

(a) [ - 1 , + 8 ) (c) ( -8, 0), (2 , + 8 ) (e) 0 , 2

(b) ( -8, - 1] (d) (0 , 2)

(a) [1 / 4 , + 8 ) (c) ( -8, - 1 / 2), (0 , + 8 ) (e) - 1 / 2 , 0

(b) ( -8, 1 / 4] (d) ( - 1 / 2 , 0)

(a) ( -8, 0] (c) ( -8, - 1), (1 , + 8 ) (e) - 1 , 1

(b) [0 , + 8 ) - x 2 / 2 (d) ( - 1 , 1) f ( x )=( - 1+ x ) e 2 -x 2 / 2

22. f ( x )=(2 x +1) e (a) ( -8, + 8 ) (b) none 2 x 2 (c) (0 , + 8 ) (d) ( -8, 0) f ( x )=2 x (2 x +3) e 2 (e) 0 x 23. f ( x )= 2 1+ x 2 -x 2 f ( x )=2 1 (1 + x ) 2 2

x2

(a) [0 , + 8 ) (c) ( - 1 , 1) (e) - 1 , 1

(b) ( -8, 0] (d) ( -8, - 1) , (1 , + 8 )

24. f ( x )= x (2 ln x +1) (a) [ e , + 8 ) (b) (0 ,e ] - 1 / 2 (c) ( e , + 8 ) (d) (0 ,e ) - 3 / 2 (e) e - 3 / 2 25. f ( x )= - sin x f ( x )= - cos x (a) [ p, 2 p ] (c) ( p/ 2 , 3 p/ 2) (e) p/ 2, 3 p/ 2 1 (b) [0 ,p ] (d) (0 ,p/ 2), (3 p/ 2 , 2 p )

-1/2 - 3 / 2 f ( x )=2ln x +3

02 p

-1 1 26. f ( x ) = 2 sin 4 x f ( x ) = 8 cos 4 x (a) (0 ,p/ 4], [ p/ 2 , 3 p/ 4] (b) [ p/ 4 ,p/ 2], [3 p/ 4 ,p ] (c) (0 ,p/ 8), (3 p/ 8 , 5 p/ 8), (7 p/ 8 ,p ) (d) ( p/ 8 , 3 p/ 8), (5 p/ 8 , 7 p/ 8) (e) p/ 8, 3 p/ 8, 5 p/ 8, 7 p/ 8 0 0 p

p ) (c) (0 . f ( x )= . [3 p/ 4 .2+2sin x = 4(1 + sin x )(sin x . 2 p ) (e) p/ 6. (a) y (b) y (c) y 4 4 4 x 2 2 x x 2 . [3 p/ 2 .p/ 2) (c) (0 .p ) (e) p/ 2 0 -2 29.Exercise Set 5.2 cos x = 2 sin x (sin x +1) .p/ 6).p ) (e) p/ 2 0. (5 p/ 6 .p/ 2) (e) 0 10 (b) none (d) ( -p/ 2 .p/ 2) (d) ( p/ 2 .5 30.5 (b) [ p/ 4 . f ( x ) = cos 2 x f ( x )= . 3 p/ 2] (b) [0 . 2 p ] (c) ( p/ 6 .2 cos x sin x .1 / 2) 2 Note : 1 + sin x = 0 2 (a) [ p/ 2 .2 cos x = .2 cos x (1 + sin x ) f ( x )=2sin x (sin x +1) . [3 p/ 4 .p ] (c) ( p/ 2 . 5 p/ 6) (d) (0 .p/ 2]. f ( x )=2 .2 sin 2 x (a) [0 . f ( x ) = sec x 2 f ( x )=2sec x tan x 2 (a) ( -p/ 2 . 0) ^6 -10 28. 5 p/ 6 0o 2 -2 31. 3 p/ 4] (b) (0 .p/ 2) 0 p p -0.p/ 4] . 3 p/ 4] (d) (0 .p/ 4].csc x 82 x f ( x )=2csc x cot x =2cos 2 sin x 3 (a) [ p/ 4 .1 142 27.

3v 1+ x< 1+ x/ 3.1 -x .a ) .p/ 2) thus if 0 <x<p/ 2.1 -x. Then h (0) = 0 and h ( x )= e .1so f is increasing on [0 . (b) Let h ( x )= e .2 only if n is odd. in ection point is ( a. Then f (0) = 0 and f ( x )=1 .a ) . f ( x ) = 12( x .143 Chapter 5 32. (a) y (b) y (c) y 4 4 4 x 2 2 x 2 x 33.cos x = 0. x< tan x .x = 0 x 2 for x = 0.1 = 0 for x = 0. f ( x )= n ( n.1)( x . 2 then f ( x ) >f (0) = 0. e .x> 0. then f ( x ) >f (0)=0. no in ection points 3 2 34.1 / [3(1 + x ) ]so f is increasing on [0 . For n = 2.1 . + 8 ). so f ( x ) is increasing on [0 . 4 04 -1 38. For n =1. 0) if and n . Then h (0) = 0 and h ( x )= e .5 v 010 0 36. (a) f ( x )=3( x-a ) . By part (a). 35.1+ x/ 3 . (a) Let h ( x )= e . 3 2. so h ( x )is x increasing. f ( x ) = sec x . so there is no point of in ection. + 8 ): let f ( x )= x. + 8 )thusif 2 / 3 x> 0. f ( x )=1 / 3 .sin x . tan x .1 -x for x = 0. x 12 x x . there is a sign change of f (point of in ection) at ( a. 0) 2 (b) f ( x )=4( x-a ) . f ( x )=6( x-a ).x . x = sin x on [0 . 10 06 0 37. y = x-a .1+ x> 0. so h ( x ) is increasing.

. 2 . 0] into ten subintervals. Concave up on ( . Subdivide into ten subintervals and determine that the root lies between x =0 . concave down on ( . 2513 . f ( . 3316 . 45 .2 . 2) > 0. x in [0 . and decreasing on [ . 5] . Points of in ection at x = ± 1 /v 3.5 . 5829] and [0 .5 x +8) 2 3 the x -coordinates of the points of in ection of f ( x ) are the ro ots of the numerator (if it changes sign).5 . We discover f ( . 005 of the true ro ot and is thus correct to two decimal places.7 suggests that there 5 3 2 is only one root and it lies in [0 .585 x + 397 3 2 43. and concave down on ( .f ( x )= 1 .1 /v 3) and (1 /v 3 .5 . Note also that f (1) = 0 so there are two in ection points. 1]. f ( x ) .2 . and [2 .0 . but it easier to note that f (x) is an even function and thus the other root is x =0 . 5] into ten subintervals and check f ( x ) at each endpoint. Subdivide [ . 2513] and [3 . Break the interval [ . f ( x )= 2 . so x = . 175 is correct to two decimal places. 575 to two decimal places.Exercise Set 5. . 6) > 0. 75.3 . 1 x -x 2 1 46. We find f ( .1) > 0. 25. 6 . 17) < 0. Increasing on [ . 5 .1 144 (c) 6 6 02 02 0 0 250 39.5 .0 . 2 and x =0 .x ) < 0if x <x for x . -5 5 -250 40. x . Refine [ .1 . 58) > 0 and f ( .2) and (2 .3 . Breaking each of these intervals into ten subintervals locates the ro ots in [ . 3]. 5829 . . f ( x ) . 65 . 0] and decreasing on [0 . so f ( x ) >f ( x ) and thus f 1 2xxxx . A plot of y =2 x +5 x +14 x +30 x. 5] into 10 subintervals and we see that f ( .5 . 5] into ten subintervals and check f ( x ) at each endpoint. 3. +2. 1].1) > 0 and f (0) < 0. Thus to one decimal place the roots are x = .3 . Concave up on ( . A plot of the numerator over [ . Increasing on [ . x +5 x +14 x +30 x.= 1 2 12 12 12 12 is decreasing.0 .2 .81 x . 1) < 0. The denominator has complex ro ots. 5). 5].1 /v 3 .0 . Points of in ection at x = . . 6 .0 . Thus x = . 5) < 0.0 . hence (3 x . 45. For the other root we could pro ceed in a similar manner.0 . f ( .0 .2 .0 . f (0) < 0 and f (1) > 0.0 . Refine [ . so f ( x ) <f ( x ) 2 2 1 2 1212 12 12 1 212 and f is thus increasing.1 . f ( . 7] and [2 . . [0 . 575 is within 0 . 8]. Break the interval [ . 42. repeat. + 8 ). f ( . 5] shows roots lying in [ . 57) < 0. so is always positive. 4].2 .0 . 0 . .f ( x )= x -x =( x + x )( x . f ( . 0 .5 . 3 . [0 . 1 /v 3). x in (0 . 7 . -5 5 1 -2 41. 0 . 3316].2]. Thus to one decimal place the point of in ection is located at x =0 .5 . 5). f ( x )=290 . 2). + 8 ). 2 .0 . > 0if x <x for x . Points of in ection will occur when the numerator changes sign. 18) > 0. 0] into ten subintervals and we see that f ( .7 5 3 2 44. ( x +1) 2 5 / 2 since the denominator is always positive.

145 Chapter 5 47. (a) If x <x where x and x are in I . b ). from which it follows that 3 2 1 2 3 b = -a ( x + x + x ). 2 2 f ( x )=6 x. By zo oming on the graph of x =0 . t =7 . g ( x )= x +6 (c) f ( x )=2 x .so 3 2 12 3 we can write f ( x )= a ( x-x )( x . f ( x )= g ( x )= x are both increasing on ( -8. because f ( x ) = 1 + cos x> 0on[(2 n. f ( x ) = 0 when x = . g ( x )=2 x (b) f ( x )= x .2) so the intercepts are 0.2. which is the average. so f ( x )+ g ( x ) < 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 f ( x )+ g ( x ). Thus . so the point of in ection is at x = -b b moves the point of 3 .6=6( x.1) p.1)( x . f changes its direction of concavity 3a 3a at x = . We know by hypothesis that f ( x ) <f ( c ). 123 1233a3( (c) f ( x )= x ( x . Case II: If f and g are not necessarily positive on I then no conclusion can be drawn: for example. Thus f · g is 1 2 11 22 1 2 increasing on I . so f ( x ) g ( x ) <f ( x ) g ( x ). maximum increase is at x = . (a) Let x <x belong to ( a. 577 and maximum decrease is at . If both belong to ( a. then 0 <f ( x ) <f ( x ) 12 1 2 1 2 and 0 <g ( x ) <g ( x ). c ] or both belong to [ c.x )( x . and 2 and the average is 1. then f ( x ) <f ( x ) and g ( x ) <g ( x ). g ( x )= x b 49. (a) f ( x )= x .± 2 . 1. By Exercise 51 (a) we can piece these intervals together to show that f ( x ) is increasing on ( -8. Thus f + g is increasing on I . say x . then it has three ro ots.b = 1 x + x + x ).1. f is increasing on any interval ((2 n . 50. b ) then we have 1 2 f ( x ) <f ( x ) by hypothesis. f ( x )=6 x +2 b . 2 2 1 2 (b) Case I: If f and g are = 0on I .1) changes sign at x =1.··· ). 1 2 1 2 1 and f ( c ) <f ( x ). but with inequalities reversed. y 4 2 i nf l p t 31 2 t 1 x i nfl pt s 56. (a) f ( x )=6 ax +2 b =6 a ( x + ). y y ( t ). (2 n +1) p ]. So assume x <c<x . 2 1 2 (b) Use the same argument as in part (a).± 1 . ( f + g )( x ) < ( f + g )( x ). By Theorem 5. 51. 0).b so . 3a3a (b) If f ( x )= ax + bx + cx + d has three x -intercepts. but ( f · g )( x )= x is decreasing there. 52. + 8 ).b is an in ection point.b . Thus an increase in in ection to the left. 67 1000 015 0 54. and if x <x where x and x are in I .3 x +2)= x ( x.x )= ax + bx + cx + d . 2 48. 577. 55. x and x .1) p. We conclude that f ( x ) <f ( x ).0 . 2( n +1) p )( n =0 . 53. ( f · g )( x ) < ( f · g )( x ).

6 and f ( x ) = 6. and f < 0 for .1) .1. Second derivative test: f < 0at x = . (a) f ( x )=6 x. a relative minimum. with f (1) = 0. relative minimum at x =0. g ( x )=3 x .2 1. 3 2 (b) f ( x ) = 12( x . 5. (a) y (b) y x x (c) (d) y y x x 3. (a) f ( x )=2sin x cos x = sin 2 x (so f (0) = 0) and f ( x ) = 2 cos 2 x . (b) f ( x )=3 x . (c) Both functions are squares. both functions are zero at x = 0. so that must be a relative minimum. and a relative minimum at x = 1. which yields no information. so a relative minimum at x = 0.1 <x< 1. Second derivative test: g (0)=2 > 0.2 EXERCISE SET 5. so a relative minimum at x = 0. and f > 0 at x = 1. so f (1) = g (1) = 0. (a) y f (x ) (b) y 146 f (x ) x x (c) y (d) y f ( x) f (x ) x x 2. a relative maximum.6 x +3so f (1) = g (1)=0.1 2 and x> 1.6. Second derivative test: f (0)=2 > 0. For the second derivative test. g ( x )=3( x. (b) g ( x )=2tan x sec x (so g (0) = 0) and g ( x )=2sec x (sec x + 2 tan x ). so relative minimum at x =0.1) > 0 on both sides of x = 1. 4. f ( x )=0at x = ± 1. First derivative test: 2 g < 0 for x< 0 and g > 0 for x> 0. so there is no relative extremum at x =1. (a) f ( x )=4( x. First derivative test: f > 0 for x<.1) . g ( x )=6 x. so there is a relative maximum at x = . so there is a relative minimum at x =1. and so are positive for values of x near zero. f (1) > 0. 2 (c) f < 0 for x< 1 and f > 0 for x> 1.Exercise Set 5.3 and f ( x )=6 x . f < 0 for x< 1 and f > 0 for x> 1.1. For the first derivative test. 2 2 2 2 . First derivative test: if x is near 0 then f < 0 for x< 0 and f > 0 for x> 0.

1).-. ±v 3 (stationary points). f ( x ) = 0 when x = ± 2 (stationary points). (c) x =1 . 3 -. f ( x ) = 0 when x =3 / 2 (stationary point). n =0 . x = ± 5: relative minimum 0 -+ .+ 0 0 ++ . g ( x )=12 x .sin x. sin x> 0 (b) f ( x )= | sin x| = sin f ( x )= cos f ( x )doesnot . 1 . sin x< 0 so . f ( x ) = 0 when sin 3 x =0 .12 x =12 x ( x.··· are stationary points.20 x ..± 2 . n =0 .1 . (b) x = 0 because f ( x ) changes sign from + to .± 2 . x = .1 (stationary point).to + there. f ( x ) = 0 when x =0. g ( x )=12 x ( x. 3 x = np.2 / 3 3 x +1) 11. f ( x ) = 0 when x = .± 2 .+ (b) critical point x =0. f : -50 5 v x = 0: relative maximum. 3x2/ 3 x. so there is no relative extremum there. 2 (b) f ( x )=12 x . Now f ( x ) = 0 when ± cos x = 0 provided sin x =0 so x = p/ 2+ np .3 . f ( x ) = 0 when x =0 . f : 0 x = 0: relative minimum +++ + 00 . sin x = 0 x. 3 2 (c) f < 0 on both sides of x = 0. x .··· (sin x = 0) because lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) (see x np x np + Theorem preceding Exercise 75. 1. sin x< 0 and exist when x = np .± 1 . 0 . f ( x ) does not exist when x =0.3). f ( x ) = 0 when x = .± 2 .cos x.± 1 .. 4 3 2 (b) f ( x )= . 13. f ( x ) = 0 when x = 0 (stationary point).n =0 . (a) f ( x )= . Section 3. 2 (b) f ( x )=4 x ( x . (a) f ( x )=6( x . f ( x ) do es not exist when x = . x = 1: relative minimum .1). 3 because f ( x ) (the slope of the graph of f ( x )) changes sign at these points. g ( x )=36 x . 1 (stationary points). f ( x ) does not exist when x =0. (a) f ( x )=8 x/ ( x +1) . so again there is no relative extremum there.··· (stationary points) x =0. (a) critical points x =0 . f : 1-0 1 2 x = 0: neither.0 + 15.2. 1 (stationary points).24 x so f (0) = g (0)=0. 3 v 9.3).± 1 . f ( x ) does not exist when 3x2/3 (b) f ( x )= . (a) f ( x )= 4( . 7.±v 5..0 16.5 x . (a) f ( x )=3 x +6 x. (a) f ( x )=(2 -x ) / ( x +2) .1).1 / 2 .so f (0) = g (0) = 0.2) < 0 2 on both sides of x = 0 (for x near 0).+ .9=3( x + 3)( x .··· x = np/ 3 .147 Chapter 5 6. (a) f ( x )= 4( .48 x . n =0 .1 / 3 1/ 3 3 2 2 10.± 1 . 14. (a) x = 2 because f ( x ) changes sign from . f ( x ) = 0 when x = ± 1 (stationary points).1 / 2: relative maximum.3 / 2) 12.3 sin 3 x. (a) critical points x =0 . 2 . which yields no information.there. 2 2 2 (b) f ( x )= x =2 / (3 x ). 2 8. (a) x =1 (b) x =5 (c) x = . 2 2 (b) f ( x )= ( x +2) .

f (1 / 3) < 0 relative min of 0 at x = 1. f (0) < 0.+ -2 -.27 / 16 at x = .2) < 0. f ( x )=( x.(b) critical points: x = ± 3 / 2 .. critical point x =1 / 2.2 148 ++ . critical points x = p/ 3. f (1) < 0.v 3 / 2.sin x .++ 0 . f ( p ) > 0.00 + + + + + .12 x .x ). f ( p/ 2) < 0. f ( x ): f ( x )= .20. f ( .4.0? -. f ( x ): 12 f ( x )=12 x. f : 3 3--1 2 2 x = ± 3 / 2: relative maximum.2) = 5. f (2) = 4. f (0) > 0. f ( x )=2 x/ ( x +1) .4.2)( x .1). relative min of 0 at x = 0 (first derivative test) 4 . 1 .1 26.. f (5 p/ 3) > 0 v f ( p/ 3) = p/ 6 . relative max of 5 p/ 6+ 3 / 2at x =5 p/ 3 21. f ( p ) = 0.19.1 2 f ( x )=4 . critical points x =0 . critical points x =0 .1 / 27 2 . f ( x ): pp3p 22 f ( x ) = 2 cos 2 x . critical points x = p/ 2.cos x . relative min of 4 at of5at x =1 x = 2.. f (5 p/ 3)=5 p/ 6+ 3 / 2. f (1) > 0. f ( p/ 3) < 0. 3 p/ 2 . relative max of 5 at x = -2 ++ + +-. relative max of 1 at x =1 .. v relative min of p/ 6 .1) . p .1. f ( x )= x .3 / 2 2 relative min of .1) < 0 2 relative min of 0 at x = 0. critical points x =1 . critical point x = 0. relative min of 0 at x =0 2 2 . critical points x =0 .1 2 f ( x )=12 x . critical point x = . f ( x )=3 x + 5. 2 22. f ( x )= ..2( x + 2).. critical points x =0 . f ( x )=2 x (2 x + 3).3 / 2 (first derivative test) 25.1)(3 x . f ( x )=2+ x . f ( x )=4 x (1 . f (1) > 0.++ 0 .18.00 -+ + 18. 1 .17. critical point x = 0. f (1)=5.. f ( .v 3 / 2at x = p/ 3. x = .2.3 p/ 2. relative max of 1 / 27 at x = . . f ( x )=1 / 2 .1 / 3 3 relative min of 0 at x = 0. f ( .1 / 27 29.1 / 5 5 28.1) > 0 2 relative min of 6 at x =1 . f ( x )=4 x ( x . relative max ++ . f (1) < 0. f ( x )=6( x.. f (2) > 0. relative max of 4 / 27 at x =1 / 3 24. f ( x ): pp 5 33 f ( x )= .0 0 . f ( x )=2sin x cos x = sin 2 x .1: relative minimum 0 + +. f ( x ) = 10(2 x .2. 2. f ( . relative min of 0 at x = p .Exercise Set 5. no relative extrema because there are no critical points.. relative max of 1 at x = p/ 2. 1 / 3 f ( x )=6 x. 5 p/ 3.1). f (3 p/ 2) < 0. no relative extrema (first derivative test) 4 27. critical points x =1 .1.1). relative max of 7 at x =0 23. f ( p/ 2) = f (3 p/ 2)=1.

3 p/ 2. 3 p/ 4 . relative max of 1 at x = p 0o 0 38.2 relative min of 0 at x =2 . relative max of 4 at x =0 34.2.149 Chapter 5 30. 2 .p. f ( x )=2 x if |x| > 2.p/ 2 . critical points x = p/ 2 .2. f ( x )= . 3 p/ 2.2 is not in the domain of 31. relative min of 0 at x = 0 and relative max of 4 /e at x 33. 7 p/ 4 . relative min of 0 at 32. f ( x ) does not exist when x = p/ 2 . f ( x )= . f ( x )= .. relative max of 1 at x = p/ 4 . 3 p/ 2 relative min of 0 at x = p/ 2 . f ( x )= x (2 + x ) e 2 x = . f ( x )=2 x if x> 3. 3 p/ 4 . 5 p/ 3 2 v relative max of 3 / 3at x = p/ 3.1if x< 3.p. 5 p/ 4 .8 . critical points x =5 p/ 6 . f ( x ) does not exist when x = ± 2.sin 2 x . critical point x = 3.cos x ) . relative min of 6 at x =3 35..1) / (2 .. f ( x )= 3+2cos x . f ( x )=2 x/ (1 + x ).p. no critical points ( x = .8 -0. f ( x )=(2cos x. f ( x ) = 2 cos 2 x if sin 2 x> 0. 7 p/ 4 0o 0 v 36. critical points at x f ) no relative extrema 2 x = 0 (first derivative test) 2 =0 .2 cos 2 x if sin 2 x< 0. 5 p/ 4 . 3 p/ 2 relative min of 0 at x = p/ 2 . critical points x =0 . critical points x = p/ 4 . 7 p/ 6 v relative min of 7 3 p/ 6 .2 x if |x| < 2. f ( x )= . f (3) do es not exist.p.2 (first derivative test) . critical points x = p/ 3 . critical point at x = 0. 3 p/ 2. relative min of -v 3 / 3at x =5 p/ 3 0o 0. f ( x )=2 / ( x +2) .1at x =7 p/ 6. relative max of v 5 3 p/ 6+1 at x =5 p/ 6 1 12 0o 0 1 37.

1. f ( x )=10 /x .5 -0.10 /x < 0. 84 -66 -1. Relative minima at x = . By the first derivative test ( e + e ) x -x 2 f ( x ) > 0 for x< 0 and f ( x ) < 0 for x> 0.8 x +2) e .0 .3 . f ( x )= .2 .2 44. relative max at x =0 .2 = 0 when x = 0. 2 relative max of 10(ln(10) . f ( x )=1 /x .3 4 0 42. 84.5 39. 3 .2 150 2.14 41. 25 250 -5 5 -250 1. 58 . f ( x )=ln x +1. 33.1=0at x = 10.Exercise Set 5. . f (1 /e )=0.1) ˜ 13 . so a relative min of 0 at x = 0 and a relative max of 1 /e at x =1. f ( x )= . relative max at x =0 . relative min of . f ( x )=2 x (1 .x ) e =0at x =0 .1 /e at x =1 /e 0 2. relative max of 1 at x =0 1 -2 2 0 0.2 x f (0) > 0 and f (1) < 0. f (1 /e ) > 0. 2 2 -2x -0.5 e -e x -x 40. Relative min at x = . 03 at x =10 14 020 -4 43. f ( x )=(4 x .

f ( x )=0 at x =0.k =0. Since f ( x ) > 0 for x<n and f ( x ) < 0 for n.0 . (a) f ( x )= -xf ( x ). Relative min at x = . 3 3 x k-x 2 (b) Let f ( x )= . f has a relative extremum when k . 255 46.x =0. relative max at x =0 . 845 x =1 . Since f ( x )isalways (b) 1 µ . Relative max at x = . (a) one relative maximum.so 2 x +k (x+k)2 22 k = x =3 =9. 80 y 47. lo cated at x = n 3 014 0 (b) f ( x )= cx ( -x + n ) e =0at x = n . 51.151 Chapter 5 45. f ( x ) > 0 1 2p for x< 0 and f ( x ) < 0 for x> 0. so x = 0 is a maximum. 2 2 0. () y -x 2p x µ . 20 and a relative max at f '' ( x ) 1 f' ( x ) x -4 -2 2 4 -1 -2 48.k =2 . f has a relative extremum when 2 x .3 50. (a) Let f ( x )= x + .1 . relative max at x =0 .1 x>n it’s a maximum. positive. then f ( x )= . 55 y k x -k 3 49. 78 and a relative min at f'' ( x ) 5 x -4 -2 2 4 f'(x) -5 x =1 . 2 x x x2 2 so k =2 x = 2(3) = 54. then f ( x )=2 x.

6436. 1. 00 0 f ( x ) is a relative minimum. f ( x )=3 ax +2 bx + c and f ( x ) has roots at x =0 . so f ( x ) must be of the form f ( x )=3 ax ( x .If x is in I n I then both inequalities 2 1 2 0 12 are true and by addition so is h ( x )+ g ( x ) =h ( x )+ g ( x ) which shows that h + g has a relative 0 0 maximum at x . 5 1 1.2. 2 y =2( x. 2 thus c = 0 and 2 b = . 5 -1 -0.2 x have relative maxima at x = 0 but 2 2 h ( x ) . Finally f (0) = d . 5 (b) x = ± 0 . b = . y = x . 4 1. relative max at x =0 y 2 1.3 a . 0 53.3 152 52. (a) Because h and g have relative maxima at x . EXERCISE SET 5.so d = 0. 6436 .2 x . where I and I are open intervals containing x . 0 55.3 1.Exercise Set 5. (a) relative minima at x = ± 0 . 6 1. h ( x ) = h ( x ) for all x in I and g ( x ) = g ( x ) for all 0 0 1 0 x in I .2 x +3 x .3 a/ 2.3 a .1). (a) (b) (c) y y y ( x 0 f ( x ) is not an extreme value. )( 0 ) ( ) 0 x x x x x f ( x ) is a relative maximum. y =2 x 1 y -4 (1.g do es not necessarily have 2 a relative maximum at x . and f (1) = a + b + c + d = a + b = -a/ 2so a = .so f (0) > 0 and f (1) < 0 provided a< 0. 3 2 54. 5 0.g ( x )= x has a relative minimum at x = 0 so in general h . f ( x )=6 ax +2 b =6 ax .1). Thus f ( x )= . 8 1. both h ( x )= -x and g ( x )= .1. 2 1 x . -4) .3. 0 (b) By counterexample.

2 x . 24 1 x 1 y 3. 2 y = . y =2 x . 2 10 y = 12( x . 2 y =12 x ( x +1) x (0. -1) 4.153 Chapter 5 2. -1) y (-1 .1).. .1.3 x +1. 1 ) x (1. 10 2 2 x 1 5.1 / 2). 3) y =6 x (0. y = x +2 x .3 x +12 x +9. -12 ) y ( 1. 216 6.2( x .1 / 3) 2 x 1 (0 . -2) () 3 43-.1. y = x . 3 y y =3( x . 2 y = 12( x . y =1+ x-x . -1 3) ()() 1 1 13 1 1 13 ..1 / 2) () 1 29. 4 2 y =4 x ( x . ()y = -2 1 5. 2 (. y = x . 3 2 y y =6( x -x + 2).1. 93 39 .12. 4 3 y =4 x ( x +3 / 2). -1 3) (.1).

1) . 0) (-3 . -1) 327 2 16-. 2) y =30 x (2 x . 38 8. 256) y =20 x ( x +3) 2 y x ( 0.0.6 / ( x . y = x ( x .Exercise Set 5.1 y = 6(2 x . 4256 y 10.1)( x . -2 ) () 173.1 () 1 27 . 2 y =12 / ( x. 2 0. 0) () 1 1. 3 y =(4 x. y = x (3 x .1) .3) .1)( x . 2 1 6 .3 154 7.3) 3 y =2 x y x = 3 .1).3).1) 2 ( 0. y = x ( x + 5). 38 y =15 x ( x . 3 300 (-4. 3 2 1 7 3 -. - 9. 162 ) 11. y =2 x/ ( x . 0) () (-1. y = .1) x (1 . 2 2 (-1. y =3 x ( x +4 / 3). 3 y =12 x ( x + 1). 0) x y () (1.5). 4 y =5 x ( x + 4). 2 y =36 x ( x +2 / 3) y x (0.

0 . 8. y = x .1) 2 3 (0 . 8. 0 ) Chapter 5 y x = 1 x2 13.13 2 xx x +1 3 y =2 .˜.2 2x y = .1) 2 2 1 x ( x +3) 2 y =2 x ( x . - 1 x .= . -1) . ( x +1) 2 2 y = 1 .1) 2 3 (0. y = 2 x3 6 y = x4 . x2 ˜ (-0. y = y x . 0 ) x . x . y = x +1.12 y 14. x . 0) x =-1 x = 1 x .1) 2 2 x +1) 2 y =1 y = 2(3 x ( x . y = 2 x2 y =2 . 3 x 2 (1. ( x . ( x .9 ) 1 y = 0 when x = . 1.12 y 16. 2 233 (0 .1. y = x . 2 x y =4 .3x )2 y = 4(1 x () ) ( ( x +1) 2 3 11 11-.1.2 x =-1 +1 2 y = -x .1) 3 y = 2( x3 y 15.155 x 12.

1) 2 y 21.4) 2 2 x x = 2 4 4 y 20..2 x ) 3 y = 12 ( x +1) (0 .2x) y = 2(3 x (1 .2 x = -2 4 . y = ( x2 x .x ) 2 2 x +4) 2 1 y = 16(3 x (4 . ( x +1) 3 2 y = 1 x (1 . x = 2 x. y = x .13 y 17. -1) x = -1 x 33 3 156 (1/ 2 . 29 x4 . -1/ 3) y 18. 3 x2 y =6 . x3 y = 1 . 4) -3 . 0) () 3 1. x. y = 8 4 -x2 x = -2 x y = 16 .4.2 x +4 2 y = -x ( x .x ) 2 3 .1 y 19. . y = x +1.x 2 x +2) () 3 5 (-2 . x3 8( x +3) y = x4 x y = 3 x . y = 4( 9 .Exercise Set 5.3 x .1) y = 2( . y =3 . (4 .

4. y = x . y = . (a) VI (b) I (c) III (d) V (e) IV (f ) II x = 0. 0) ( 2. (1. as approaches the line y = 1 for x> 0 and the line y = .1 for x< 0. 0) ) 5. y n increases the graph x vx y 25.x 3 ( ) -x ) 2.4) 2 2 / 3 2(3 x +4) 2 y = (-2. (a) When n is even the function is defined only for line y = 1 for x> 0.2) 2 y = 6( x x5 ( 4 (–1 . 3( x . 2 x vy = x . 4 ) x.1.1) 2 3 / 2 -1 1 3 x y 26.2.157 1 y 22. y =2+3 . as n increases the graph approaches the 24. 2 –2 y =2 Chapter 5 52 23. x4 x .2 1 y = ( x .1. -2 ) x 2 5 / 3 -2 3 . 0) 9( x .4) 2 (0. 2 +2 4 y = 3(1 . y x (b) When n is odd the graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. 2 3 x y =2 .

y = 8( x . 10 3 x 2 / 3 4( x +2) (1 . y = x (3 .4 x .vx ) () y = 4(2 .1 / 3 2 y = . 2) 2 3 . 4 64 15 9 8 2 vx - .3 158 y 27.x ).x x . 2 / 3 5 y = 2+2 x . y = x (4 . 1 / 3 -x) y = 4(1 . y =4 x.3 x . -6 ) 2 -10 vx 1) y 31. 2) x 8) y = 2(3 x x3 15 . (4.4) y = 3( 4(3 . 4 / 3 y =4 .x ) 3 / 2 x y 30. . 1 / 3 4 y = . 0) y 28.Exercise Set 5. y =2 x +3 x . (2.x-4/ 3 3 x 4 (0 . 1 ) y 29.x-2/ 3 3 x 1 3 (1. 3) y = 9x5/3 x 3 ( -2. 1 / 2 -x) y = 3(2 v .x ) . .

. 1 -vx x =1 y = 1 vx 2 (1 -vx ) . y = -v 3 sin x + cos x . y y = 1 + cos x . x c 34. y = 1+ . y = 0 when x =2 p/ 3+ np y 2 y -2 .sin x .vx ) 3 / 2 3 () Chapter 5 1 .± 1 .sin x . c y = cos x .cos x . y = 0 when x = p/ 4+ np .sin x . y = x + sin x . 2 y = 0 when x = p/ 6+ np .± 2 . y = 0 when x = np c n =0 ..159 vx y 32. x o y = -v 3 cos x . 2 2 y = -1 -2 33. x -o o y = . x c y = 0 when x = p/ 2+ np n =0 .. y = cos x ..± 1 . y 35. y = 0 when x = -p/ 2+2 np .. -2 y = 0 when x =3 p/ 4+ np v 36. y = 1 + sin x . y = 3 cos x + sin x ..± 2 . y = 0 when x = p +2 np .cos x . y = sin x + cos x . y = . vx 9 1 y =3 x 2 x (1 . y = x .sin x .

y = x tan x.3 160 37. when 2 ± v 16 . 0 .3 -1 1 3 -0.2 x y = 2(2 x . -p/ 2 <x<p/ 2. lim xe =0 x x +8 x -8 (b) y = xe . 71 (1. 71 . x y =( x +1) e . (a) lim xe =+ 8 .1) e . y = sin x. 3 y -2x-2 x (0. (a) lim xe = 0. 2 2 x x +8 x -8 22x 0. x y =( x +2) e x . (a) lim = 0.Exercise Set 5.0 5) 42. 1 . 1 y = 2 cos 2 x x co y 38. y = . 0 = x = 2 p .4 x + 1 = 0. 2 y = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2 x .0.2 x 2 ( 1.e . lim =+ 8 e e2x 2 xx +8 x -8 (b) y = x /e = x e .x ) e . which is always 2 x -6 6 positive for -p/ 2 <x<p/ 2 y 39. (a) lim x e =+ 8 . 29 . lim x e =0. 0 . y = x sec x + tan x . 14 ) 0.3 7) x y 1 40. y =4( x.4 x +1) e . 1 x . 2 y = 0 when x =0. 5.2 x -2 x x +8 x -8 1 0. 18 ) x x2 2 41. 10) 4 =1 x ( 0. . 0. 0) 1 23 (0. 27) -1 (-1. 3 (b) y = xe . 1 -0.2 x . 0. 0. y22x2.5 -3 -1 x (-2 .14 ) x =4 ±v 2 / 2 ˜ 0 . 29. -0.2x y =2 x (1 . 2 -2x y = 0 if 2 x . y = 2 sec x ( x tan x + 1). lim xe = -8 . .8 (1. 3 .

2 2 x y =2 x ( x +1) e .2 /x 2 x 0 x 0 x 0+ lim y =+ 8 =0.3 . 0. when 2 (.4 () () 2/ 3 .1 /x 2 y x> 0. 0 . .1 .8 f ( x )=( .8 ( -1. 2 x +8 (b) y = x ln x. 0 ) (-0. 0.4 ± v 16 .1 0) x = . 3 y = 2(2 x +4 x +1) e .0 .1 .1 /x 2 x 0 x 0 lim y =+ 8 x +8 (b) y = x ln x . By L’Hˆ opital’s Rule lim f ( x ) = 0.3 / 2 lim y =0 2 x 0+ 3 .1 ± 2 / 2 ˜. 2 0.6 . . 0. 3 + + y 0.6 x +4 x ) e .3/ 2 -3 e . 14 ) v . (a) lim f ( x )=+ 8 . e .3 /2 . 1 y =0if x = e . 0 ) ln x 1 /x 45. 2 x y =0if x = e .3/ 2 x -1 0 -5 5 1 0 (0. . x 0 y x 0+ + + + -1-1 (e. (a) lim f ( x )=1 x ±8 (b) f ( x )=2 x e so f ( x ) < 0 for x< 0 and f ( x ) > 0 for . (a) lim y = lim = lim 1 /x . y = x (1+2ln x ) . x 2 y = (1+2 x ) e . 2 43. y =1 /x . - e .so f ( x ) has points of in ection . 1 ( ) y = 3+2ln x.1.1 / x 2 at x = ± 2 / 3 0. y = 0 when x = e . 05) 2x y 0. y = 1+ln x . -0. .e ) ln x 1 /x 46. 71. 1-1/2 e -0. 29 . e 2 /3 .161 Chapter 5 (b) y = x e . lim f ( x )= -8 x +8 x -8 (b) y = xe . 71 4= x -3 -2 -1 (0.0 ) x -22 y . 2 ( ) 1 e . 2 y = 0 if 2 x +4 x +1=0 . 2 x 2 10 0 y =2 x (3+2 x ) e 2 x 2 no relative extrema. in ection point at (0 ( 0 .4 . so (by the first 1x 0 derivative test) f ( x ) has a minimum at x =0.1 x 1 =0. 2 x 0. 0) -10 0 44. 29.1/ 2 . (a) lim y = lim x ln x = lim = lim 1 /x .

1 x 0 Rule. 1 (b) y = ln . lim y =+ 8 .5 .Exercise Set 5.3 ln x 47. 3 1 / 2 y =0if x = e . 4 0. x ±8 curve never crosses x -axis 0. 1 . 4 5 / 6 y =0if x = e x 1 2 3 x. (a) lim y = -8 . 4 lim y = lim = lim =0 0. 2 / e ) e . lim y =+ 8 .2ln x e 5x +8 -0.y = 1 x y = 6ln x4 -0. 2 y . (a) lim (ln x ) /vx = -8 by inspection. x2 3 ) 1 /2 -1 2 e . x . 2 2 8 / 3 . 2 y y 0.4 /3 ( e . 2 x -11 -0. (a) lim y = lim = -8 . L’Hˆ opital’s y ( 3 )82x 0.5 /3 2 0.8+3ln x y = 4x5/2 y =0if x = e 8 / 3 -1 49.ln x vx (b) y = ln . -0. lim (ln x ) /vx = lim 1/2 x + 8 x + 8 x +8+ = lim = 0.1 4 2 x -2 -1 1 -2 -4 -6 (b) lim y =+ 8 . x -8 x +8 curve crosses x -axis at x =0 .1 0. 2 6 x e . 5 x 2 6 10 14 y =0if x = e . e 5 /6 . y = 2 1 /x 2 vx vx 48. x -8 x +8 curve crosses x -axis at x = . . 1 x -1 1 (c) lim y = -8 . -0.. 2 162 y ( . e3/ 2 . x2 x 0 x 0+ + ln x 1 /x 0. 3 ( ) 1 x 2x x + 8 x + 8 0.

x ±8 curve crosses x -axis at x =0 . (a) horizontal asymptote y =3as x ±8 . vertical asymptotes of x = ±2 10 y 5 x -55 -5 . 4 0. 2 x -1 1 y 50. 1 0.163 Chapter 5 (d) lim y =+ 8 . (a) y y y ab ab x x ab x (b) y y ab x x ab (c) y ab x 51.

1+2 bx ) e .pointof in ection at x =2 /b .2 /b ) e .1 . y = 1.2 bxe . vertical asymptote at x = . y =1 /be . y =2 b ( . Increasing 2 b moves the relative max and the point of in ection to the left and down. Increasing b moves the points of in ection towards the y -axis. 2 10 y x -5 5 -10 52.e.2 .2 1 54.b x 2 relative max at x =0. (a) (b) y = . -0. y x ab 53. y =1 /ve . towards the origin. . points of in ection at x = ± 1 / 2 b .5 3 -2 2 0 . vertical asymptotes at x = ± 1 y 10 x -5 5 .4 relative max at x =1 /b . the relative max do esn’t move.10 (c) horizontal asymptote of y = . vertical asymptotes at x = . y =2 /be . i. 0.Exercise Set 5.1as x ±8 .3 164 (b) horizontal asymptote of y =1 as x ±8 . 1 10 y x -5 5 -1 0 (d) horizontal asymptote of y =1as x ±8 . (a) (b) y =(1 -bx ) e . y = b ( x . 2 -b x 2 -bx 2 -b x -0.

4 ˜ (-4. -10 . 24. -13 .22 ) x -2 .6 . 5 1 -5 b = 2 a = 1 a = 1 x b = 1 a = 2 y a = 3 ax ax P (x) R(x) 56. x2 4 x y = x3 4 4 y x .2x.( ax + b ) = lim R ( x ) is less than Q(x) Q ( x ) = 0 because the degree of x ±8 x ±8 the degree of Q ( x ).10 (-4 . y = ( = x . x +2 2 y = . y = x.1 1 2 -2 (c) The curve y = e cos bx oscillates between y = e and y = -e . 24 .48 ) y x = -2 x .165 Chapter 5 55.1 2 y = .2) ( x +4) 2 10 y =( x3 x .32 58.5 2 . y (2 .2 22 57. x +4 x. lim . y = 10 ( x +2) ( x +2) 2 3 x -10 10 ˜ (0. The frequency of oscillation a x increases when b increases.2) y = 24( x4 .5) . x . y = = x . 0) x y = x .1 ) (1 .6+ 12 so x x2 2 y = x .4+ 5 x +2 = x +2 so y = x .6 is an oblique asymptote.4 is an oblique asymptote. x . 0 .2) x. (a) The oscillations of e cos x about zero y increase as x ±8 so the limit do es not exist. -1.83 59. y 5 10 b = 3 5 x -112 b = 1 -1 0. 52) y = x . 6 (b) x 4 ( 0 .so x x y = x y = x is an oblique asymptote.

400) 2 2 1 00 L =2 x +800 = 2( .x ] = lim (1 /x )=0 x ±8 x +1 1x -13 3 y = x + 1 = .x 1 3v 65. then L L =2 x +2 y and xy = 400 so y = 400 /x and hence L =2 x + 800 /x . 2 xx x x2 2 v x +1) y =2+ 2 =2( . y = 4 . 9.x )] = lim (2 /x )=0 2 x ±8 x ±8 x-x 2 2( x +1) 3 3 y =3 -x + 2 = 2+3 . x =4 / 3. y = 0 when x = .x +2) 2 y =( .Exercise Set 5. lim [ f ( x ) . L =2 .1)( x +1) 2 61. x2 +8 3 y = -x .y =0.L =80 20 x 3 .2) 3 y = . 9 y x 62. xx x3 3 y = 0 when x = 2 ˜ 1 . lim [ f ( x ) . y =3 3 y y = 3 . x3 y = 24 x4 y =-x x 166 y (-2.1 . x-x x2 2 y = x + 1 is an oblique asymptote. The oblique asymptote is y =2 x so (2 x . y = x +1 =( . y = 0 when x = . L = 0 when x =20 .2+ 4 = . . Let y be the length of the other side of the rectangle. y = 0 when x =1 / 2 ˜ 0 . y =2 x.(3 .y =0 3 y 3 23 y = x 3v 64. 0 ) 2( x +3) y = x4 ( ) 16 .= 2( .2 x. 3 2 x ±8 2 63.= . 3 ) 1 1 x. L =2 x is an oblique asymptote (see Exercise 48) x + 400) 800 x .3 -x3 60.1 .3. y = x + 1 x + 1)( x . 3. 8. y = .3 x +4=0. x3 (-1. 3 x x x3 3 y =3 2 / 2 ˜ 1 .=2 .3 x +4) /x =2 x . 22 x x x x2 2 2( x . x x x x2 2 x L = 1600 .

3 y 0.1.1= Ae . dt This follows since the right side of (6) is a parabola (with P as independent variable) with P -intercepts P =0 .= 2( .5).e. 2].1. buty=0isnotthelargest value of y on the interval.167 Chapter 5 66. y ˜.6 . from (8). y =0 . y =0. Lk 70. Lk dP (c) From (6) one sees that is maximized when P lies half way between 0 and L . 4 critical points: x =0. then S = x +4 xy and x y = 500 so 2 y = 500 /x and hence S = x + 2000 /x . nor is y = 6 the smallest. 4 critical points: x =0.3 0. x = 1 is a relative . relative minimum at x =5 / 6. relative minimum at x = .2 x x x x x2 2 30 x + 2000) 3 S =2+ 4000 = 2( . an example is y = . t = 1 ln A . relative maximum at x = .2 .5 / 7.2 P changes sign. x = . 7 × 10 . Since 0 <P <L the right-hand side of (7) can change sign only if the factor L . which occurs when P is halfway between 0 and L . Let y be the height of the box. 001 x 1 y kL Ae kL A 2 -k L t 2 69. S =2 x. 5 × 10 . y =0 . x = 0 is a relative maximum and 3 2 on [ 1 minimum. .S = 300 x x3 3 2 S 67. 1 x (6 x . L L which it does when P = L/ 2.1000) 3 3 S = x + 2000 = .1 . x =5 / 6.k Lt 2 = 1+ Ae Lk -k L t SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 5 x32 4.L . S = 0 when x =10 . P = L/ 2. it then decreases back towards zero. or when t = 1 ln A . x = .so P (0) = (1 + Ae ) (1 + A ) -k L t 2 2 (b) The rate of growth increases to its maximum.5 / 7. 2 2 100 0 The graph approaches the curve S = x asymptotically 2 (see Exercise 63) x + 2000 2000 x . 01 x -1 1 68. From (5) we have . The value P = L/ 2 corresponds to t = 1 ln A .x . (a) P ( t )= S . (a) False. i. y ˜. 1 x ( x + 1)(7 x + 5).

11 p/ 6. lim f ( x )=+ 8 x -8 x + 8 f ( x )= x (4 x . lim f ( x )=+ 8 .0 . no asymptotes 2 ( 1 .2 sin x + cos x . 3 p/ 2 .7)( x . f ( x )= x (5 x . 63 5=v ( 2 .-1 6 5. critical points at x =2 p/ 3 . relative min at x = 7 (first derivative test) (b) f ( x )=2cos x (1 + 2 sin x ).6 3. lim f ( x )=+ 8 y ( -0 . 31 ) 31 relative min at x = 8+2 . 1 216 ( 0 .p..27 ) f ( x )= x ( x. f (4 p/ 3) < 0.2) ( ) 1 23 . critical points at x. relative max at x =5 2 .6)( x .Supplementary Exercises 168 (b) true (c) False.1)( x .82 . 1) which has a critical point but no relative extrema 3 6.0 . f (9) > 0.26 1. 83 5 =3 6 ±v 66 points of in ection at x =0 . 2 2 f (2 p/ 3) < 0.1 .. (a) f ( x )= . 3 x -1 1 23 4 f ( x )=4 x (5 x . relative min at x =7 p/ 6 . relative max at x =4 p/ 3 9. f ( x )=2 . x x2 3 critical point at x =4 . 7 p/ 6 .16 ) ( 0. critical points at x =0 . 82 5 =0 no asymptotes 2 2 . relative max at x = 1. 42 . points of in ection when x =1 / 2 . relative max at x = p/ 2 . f ( p ) > 0. 1 . 3x2 /3 neither at x = 0. 2 . critical points at x = p/ 2 .9 x + 6). (a) y (b) (c) yy 44 4 x 2 2 x 2 x x .0 ) x -8 x + 8 ( -0 .2) . 5v -2 00 .42 . relative min at x =9 18 x 36 x 3 / 2 5 /2 x -4 x +8 3 3 (b) f ( x )=2 .12 x +6) 2 v -1 00 8 ± 2 31 critical points at x =0 . f (4 ) > 0. 4 p/ 3. f ( x ) = 6(2 x . for example y = x on ( . lim f ( x )= -8 . (a) f ( x )= 7( .0 0) (3 . f ( x )=2cos x. .1) x 12 y 3 10. relative max at x =2 p/ 3. relative min at x = p . f ( x )= 27 .1) 7. 3 p/ 2. relative min at x =4 1 / 3 1 / 3 1/3 (c) f ( x ) = sin x (2 cos x + 1).2 31 relative max at x = 8 . 11 p/ 6 vx31 (c) f ( x )=3 x = 5.1) 2 4 relative min at x =0. 7.9 -x 8.0 .2).83 .0 . 1. critical point at x =9.

± 2 .1.5 ...5. x no extrema because f = 0 and by Exercise 51 of Section 5.± 1 . 1 2 Chapter 5 y -4 12..8 relative min at x =0 0 . -6 no asymptotes x ( x +5) x +15 x .1.6 x . f ( x )=2 . 0 . f ( x )= . f ( x )=33 . v relative max at x = .22 ( x +2 x +5) ( x +2 x +5) 2 2 critical points at x = .± 2 . f ( x )= . 1 relative max at x = . + 8 ) -4 in ections points at x = np + p/ 2.. 1 . relative min at x =0 x -2 -1 1 2 point of in ection when 1 + 4 x tan( x +1)=0 2 2 -2 vertical asymptotes at x = ± p ( n + ) . 0.63 x x4 critical points at x = ± 5 3 / 3.± 1 . n =0 . 2 . lim f ( x )= -8 x -8 x + 8 2 x x= 0 f ( x )= if . n =0 .169 11. lim f ( x ) doesn’t exist x ±8 f ( x )=2 x sec ( x + 1)..7 . 20 0 .. . lim f ( x )=+ 8 . 44 .25 3 2 13. lim f ( x )=+ 8 x -8 x + 8 f ( x ) = 1 + sin x . -pp -2 f is increasing on ( -8. 1 .5 3 / 3. lim f ( x )= -8 . . 26 .25 x .4 points of in ection at x = . f ( x ) = cos x y 4 2 critical points at x =2 np + p/ 2.1 . vertical asymptote x =0 15.50 2 14. 2 2 4 f ( x )=2sec ( x +1) 1+4 x tan( x +1) 2 2 2 2 2 critical point at x = 0.... n =0 .2 x x> 0 x critical point at x = 0.2 horizontal asymptote y =1as x ±8 x -2 0 -10 10 20 y 2 3 0 . no extrema in ection point at x =0 ( f changes concavity) no asymptotes 1 y -2 1 -2 . v relative min at x =+5 3 / 3 in ection points at x = ± 5 2 / 3 2 5 yv 5 x -4 6 -5 horizontal asymptote of y =0as x ±8 .

Supplementary Exercises -3x 16.1.6 lim f ( x )=0.2 2 170 y 2 /3 4 2 1 + x 12 no points of in ection.1 / 2 point of in ection at x = e . -3 point of in ection at x =3 oblique asymptote y = -x as x ±8 17. lim f ( x )= -8 x 0 x 0+ critical point at x =1 /e .x ) 4 / 3 critical point at x =5 / 3. .32 f ( x )= 9(1 + x ) (3 . 1 / 2 relative max at x = e 1 / 2 point of in ection at x = e 5 / 6 -2 horizontal asymptote y =0as x + 8 20.2ln x 19. f ( x )=1 /x lim f ( x )=0. relative min at x =0 points of in ection at x = ± 1 x -22 no asymptotes 2 22 1 y .3 / 2 y x . f ( x )= 5 . ( x +1) 2 critical point at x =0. lim f ( x )=+ 8 x ±8 x -x 2 f ( x )= 2 f ( x )=2 1 x +1. f ( x )= 1 x x. 3(1 + x ) (3 . f ( x )= 6ln x3 y 4 x 12 -1 critical point at x = e . lim f ( x )=0 x 0 x 0+ + critical point at x = e .x ) 1 / 3 . 1 relative min at x = e .1 / 2 .5 .4 0 . relative max at x =5 / 3 -1 cusp at x = . lim f ( x )=+ 8 x +8 f ( x )= x (2 ln x + 1). no asymptotes 18. lim f ( x )=+ 8 x +8 f ( x )= 1+ln x .0. 2 0 . f ( x )=2ln x +3 0. relative min at x =1 /e y 5 /3 x -4 .

2 point of in ection at x =2 12 horizontal asymptote y =0as x + 8 . f ( x )= x (2 . 4 points of in ection at x =0 . f ( x )= x ( x +6 x +6) e 2 x-1 2 x.f ( x )=2 x 40 400 . relative min at x =0.4 x +2) e 1 .-5 5 20 . horizontal asymptote y = 0 for x -8 22. x 1234 lim f ( x )=+ 8 x -8 2 1 -x y 24. 8 critical points at x =0 .2) e -x -x critical point at x = 1.1 x . 0. f ( x )= e x x x2 critical point at x =1.2 x +2 2 f ( x )= e . f ( x )=( x . 1 relative min at x = . 4 x +8 y 25.3 v 0..171 Chapter 5 21. relative min at x = 1 20 -40 2 .x 1. 1 critical points at x = ± 20 .x ) e .8 23. relative max at x =1 0 . lim f ( x )=+ 8 x +8 x. relative min at x =1 y x 3 6 2 x no points of in ection -2 vertical asymptote x =0. f ( x )=( x. 6 points of in ection at x =2 ±v 2 horizontal asymptote y =0as x + 8 .3 .1 critical points at x = . 2. (a) 1 (b) f ( x )= x . 1 relative max at x =2 0. lim f ( x )= -8 x -8 -2 1 3 y x -0 .3 ± 3 x horizontal asymptote y =0as x -8 -4 -2 1 lim f ( x )=+ 8 -0. 1 relative max at x = . f ( x )= x (3 + x ) e . f ( x )=(1 -x ) e .

. (a) -0. 3 2 relative min at x =2 -200 10 -5 5 (c) -2. f (2)=3.p/ 2.± 1 .912 -4 27. (a) p ( x )= x -x (c) p ( x )= x -x -x + x (b) p ( x )= x -x 3 (d) p ( x )= x -x 5 4 3 2 42 53 29.1 26. f (2)=0.18 x +24 x. f (1)=2.. 2. (a) (b) Divide y = x + 1 into y = x . f ( x )=4 x . Use the first derivative test: dx dx dx dx 2 + sin y 2 + sin y> 0.1 0. 3 200 2 relative max at x = -v 2. f (2)=0. so critical points when cos x = 0. f ( x ) = 12( x . so the tangent lines at the in ection points are y =2 x and y =3. .0001 v (b) critical points at x = ± 2 . dy dy dy dy x 30.2) 3 2 f (1)=0. relative minima . relative max at x = .(sin y ) =2 .8.909 -2.0001 -0. cos x .5 1. = 0 when cos x = 0..2 3. n =0 . f (1)=2.6 -2.3 1.Supplementary Exercises 172 (c) The finer details can be seen when graphing over a much smaller x -window. relative maxima when when x =2 np . v relative min at x = 2.1)( x . 0.± 2 .8 to get the 6 asymptote ax + b = x 2 3 -5 5 -6 28. = cos and x =2 np + p/ 2.

or 34. If b .1 yields the smallest values..2)( x +1) 2 2 x -2 1 3 -2 y 33.. f ( x )= (2 . + 8 ) because f is continuous everywhere.1)(3 x + x . b .7) x + x .2)( x + x + 1)( x . y = e . v vertical asymptotes: x =( .sin x ) e .173 Chapter 5 x . say.1) = 3 x + x . (a) sin x = . sin 2 is impossible.12 ac < 0. (a) relative minimum .± 1 . x = c so f is always increasing or always decreasing on both ( -8.4(3 a ) c< 0.1+ 5 when sin x = x =0 .5 -0. 2 si n x .x =1 / 2 y (2 x . 232466 at x =0 .3 ac < 0.arootof t + t.2) ( x +1) 2 2 2 4 x + x +1 2 = ( x .1)( x + x .3 ac = 0. + 8 ). relative maxima at x =2 np + p/ 2.1=0..± 2 .1 ±v 5 -1 -v5 t= x = <x< 2 p occur 2 . Thus f is always increasing or decreasing if b . f ( x ) = 0 when sin x = t . So the points of in ection on 0 v . 450184 2 2 2 2 -1 1.3 ac = 0.2)( x . 2 .sin x .0 . then 2 f ( x ) = 0 has only one real solution at. relative minima at x =2 np . 47535 2 .c ] and [ c. (a) f ( x )= ( (b) ( x . 4 b . 2 2 35. + 8 )if f ( x ) = 0 has no real solutions so 2 from the quadratic formula (2 b ) . 66624 . f ( x )=3 ax +2 bx + c . n =0 . (first derivative test) (c) f ( x )=(1 .2) 2 2 32.1 ± 13) / 6 5 x -4 -2 2 4 -5 x. si n x y =1 /e .p/ 2.1 2 2 10 horizontal asymptote: y =1 / 3.7 2 2 31. f ( x ) > 0or f ( x ) < 0on( -8. and hence on ( -8. and sin x = +1 yields the largest 3 Oo 0 (b) f ( x )= e cos x .5 .

1 37. (d) An increase in b makes the graph atter. relative minimum . lim y =+ 8 . 14)=3 .0 . 07) and the range is ( -8.5 1.5 x +8 -1 05 0 (c) relative max at x =1 /a . 38. 14 2 3 (b) f (1 . 14. 876839. lim y =0 x -8 x + 8 (c) Since y is always negative and y is always positive. (e) An increase in a shifts the graph to the right. -2 2 . 3 . 244155 1 -1. 355977 at x = . 07 so the domain of f is ( -8.2 -0. 886352. (a) f ( x ) = 2+3 x . 1 .15 (c) relative maximum 0 . the x -coordinate of the maximum and the in ection point move towards the origin.Supplementary Exercises 174 0. 70 . at x =0 .5 -0. there are no relative extrema and no in ection points.0 .4 36. a relative max.4 x has one real root at x =1 . 107587 at x = ± 0 . lim y =0 0.0 .1 . f ( . so f is one-to-one for x = 1 .2 1.2 (b) relative maximum 0 at x =0. (a) (b) y =0 at x = 0. (a) 4 4 -2 2 0 0 (b) y =1at x = a .1) = . relative minimum . 14). in ection point at x =2 /a (d) As a increases. 674841 -1.

1 and thus lim f ( x ) = lim is indeterminate. ln(1 + 1 /x ) . n + 1 n+2 x it follows that (1 + 1 /n ) > (1+1 / ( n + 1)) . + 8 ). and f ( x ) >f ( x + 1). Next. so it is negative on the whole interval. + 8 ) the function f starts negative and increases towards zero. Since ln x and its inverse function e are both increasing.175 Chapter 5 1 39. Then by L’Hˆ opital’s Rule. x + 8 x + 8 Thus on [1 .and f ( x )= 1 f > 0if x> 1 and therefore f is increasing on x x ( x +1). x x + 8 x + 8 1 By L’Hˆ opital’s Rule lim f ( x ) = lim ln 1+ 1 x .so 2 [1 .1 /x 2 lim x ln(1 + 1 /x ) = lim = lim 1 /x (1+1 /x )( . f ( x ) = ln(1 + 1 /x ) . Set x = n and obtain ln(1 + 1 /n ) > ln(1 + 1 / ( n + 1)) . n + 1 n +2 . So f ( x ) is decreasing.x +1 =0.1 < 0. f (1)=ln2 .1 /x ) =1 2 x + 8 x + 8 x +8 x ln(1 + 1 /x ) .