Machine: an apparatus that perform desired tasks by using its different parts, such as mechanical and electrical devices

. This is done because machines transmit different kinds of energy. An example is an automobile, which uses fuel to perform four driving wheels. Mechanics: science that predicts the conditions of a body either it is at rest or in motion, when under the action of forces and moments. Mechanisms (linkages): a machine’s subsystems. For e.g.: timing belt drive, cam mechanism and a slider crank mechanism. Slider Crank Mechanism: parts: base link, crank which rotates about the base pivot, coupler or connected rod will be attached with the slider or piston to make linear movement. Skeleton Diagrams: simple diagrams used to analyze the motions of mechanisms into a machine. Offset: when the base pivot is not on the line of action. Four Bar Mechanism: includes four bars or links, where there is a stationary base and three moving parts. A coupler is used to connect two moving parts together. For e.g. if link two is a moving part, therefore the fourth link will move too because of the coupler. (link 3) Center-to-Center distances: a typical distance r that is the same for two of the equivalent mechanisms. Coupler Point: a selected point on the coupler to obtain various paths of motions (path generating mechanism). Coupler Curves: paths from where the coupler moves during its process. Straight-line mechanism: four bar mechanisms that is able to generate a straightline path.

Belt Drive Gearing Open loop friction drive: when both pulleys rotate in the same direction. Cross belt friction drive: the pulleys rotate in the opposite direction. Idler pulley: enables the input and output pulleys to turn in different planes. Friction Gears: when motion is transferred by the friction between the cylinders. Toothed Gears: gears with teeth. In this case slippage is avoided because of the interlocking teeth. Gear Train: when having three or more gears. Pinion/idler gear: the small gear between two gears. This is used to drive from the input gear to the output gear.

Planar motion: restricted to a plane. Types: turning pairs. Types of mechanisms: wedge cam. External Gear: teeth on the outside.g. sliding pairs. One degree of freedom pairs: allow one motion between the adjacent links. pivots. where the motions of the links must take place into the same plane or a parallel plane. l= longest. For e. Disadvantages of this type of mechanism are that are poor wear resistance and the noise generated between the cam and follower during the impacts at high speeds. . pin joints. cylindrical cam and end cam. Kinematic pairs or joints: the links are connected to each other with these. drag link If otherwise. Two degrees of freedom pairs: allow two motions. Class 1: s+l < p+q    If s is the input link. crank rocker If s is the base link. Rack and Pinion: where the rack provides a straight-line motion and it is equivalent to a portion of a gear of infinite radius. which has a curved outline by its rotation. Kinematic Chains and kinematic pairs Kinematic chain: assembly of links connected together without specifying the base link. Cam Mechanism Cam: a link of a mechanism used to transmit motion to another link (follower) by direct contact. Mechanism Mobility Mobility: the number of independent parameters required to specify the position of all links of the mechanism. Spatial mechanisms: links move in three dimensions. Disc Cam mechanism: cam and follower.Internal Gear: a gear that has teeth on the inside of the ring. rolling pairs. bearings. The cam. Types of four bar mechanisms: s = the shortest link. then the mechanism is a rocker-rocker Class 2: s+l > p+q Rocker-rocker Time ratio: the time of the slider to move in one direction between the limit positions. gives motion to the follower.

Plain bevel gears: permit transmission of motion between two shafts angled relative to each other. Pitch point/ fixed point: where the common normal (line of action) intersect with the line of centers (K). multiple-stage. Hypoid gears: resembles spiral bevel gears. Common types of toothed gears Straight spur gear: straight teeth parallel to the axis of rotations. Spiral bevel gears: grater tooth strength and durability. Classification of gear trains: ordinary (simple. While machining each cut. compound). has teeth with a curved shape to permit greater contact area. similar in shape to a screw thread. In this process an indexing head rotates the work piece between cuts by the angle needed by a gear tooth. Manufacturing of gears Form milling: used to cut the teeth of straight gears and racks. the work piece turns in a carefully coordinated manner. planetary (singlestage. Backlash: the difference between the tooth space and tooth thickness as measured along a pitch circle. Wheel. Contact Ratio: the average number of pairs of gear teeth in contact over time. When the hob rotates. Other gears info Line of centers: the line where two gears are pivoted on. Types: right hand or left hand. Worm and wheel gears: worm. For each revolution of the hob. the work piece will be held stationary. miter gear that has a helix angle of 45 degrees. Driver Gear: the gear that drives the driven gear. Teeth are machined by passing a milling cutter repeatedly across the face of a gear blank. the gear turns about its axis the angle to be subtended by one tooth.Velocity polygon: used to find the velocities of joints. Hobbing: is one of the fastest processes to make a rough or finish cuts of gear teeth by using a tool called hob. Herringbone gears: equivalent to two helical gears with left and right hand teeth. Used in heavy load applications such as large turbines and generators. Involute: the curve traced out by the bead. . Helical spur gears: oblique angle teeth parallel to the axis of rotation.

undergoing motion relative to one another.Shaping: where the cutter reciprocates with respect to the work piece. the relative velocity must always be in a direction perpendicular to the line segment joining the points. the three associated instantaneous centers. After this the gear blank will be translated vertically upward and as the cutter continues to rotate. Fundamental law of toothed gearing: to maintain a constant speed ration between a pair of gears the common normal at the point of contact between meshing teeth must always intersects the line of centers at a fixed point (pitch point). . These are: where the cutter progressively increases in depth. high torque capacity if multiple planets are included. In this assembly of a gear train the planet gears will be attached to the crank or a planet carrier. the gear blank moves downward while at the same time the cutter teeth. This includes two reciprocating cutters that shape both sides of a tooth simultaneously. This form of meshing will produce zero backlashes. which is relative to the base link. circular spline. This is called a planet gear. This happens because the teeth increase in depth. external teeth on the flex spline mesh with a rigid internal circular gear known as the circular spline. a concentric ring gear. Pij. a slot is cut in the gear blank. The wave generator has a surface in an ellipse shape. cut the slot by constant speed. The two cutters will be mounted on a cradle. planet and ring gears must be identical. For two points separated by a fixed distance. With this it is lead to a balanced torque reaction between the input and output about the central axis of the drive. In this process when the gear blank is stationary. j and k. and planet gears. Pik and Pjk lie on the same straight line. Advantages: compact space requirements. wave generator. flex spline. the cradle gives the cutters the same relative motion with respect to the work piece as a meshing gear. designated as i. which is a flexible component. Teeth on the flex spline and circular spline simultaneously mesh at two locations. This is inserted into the flex spline. Rotary broaching: it includes a rotating cutter. This type of gear train consists of a sun gear. By this the elliptical shape is forced to be deflected into the same shape. Through these deflections. There are two sizes of cutter teeth on the periphery. Planet gears are the gears that mesh with the external teeth of the sun gear and with the internal teeth of the ring gear. Harmonic Drive: parts. Kennedy’s theorem when considering three links. Planetary Gear trains: where the axis of one gear or more moves on a circular path. can provide wide range of speed ratios. Planing: a process used to manufacture bevel gears. For each tooth. In this process the relative motion between the teeth of the cutter and work piece ensures that the required involute profile is done. static and dynamic forces are balanced when multiple planets are equally spaced about the central axis of the gear train. The pitch of the sun. and a portion in which the cutter teeth have constant depth.

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