MICRO CONTROLLER BASED SOLAR CHARGER

An Industrial Oriented Mini Project Report
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of

Bachelor of Technology In Electronics & Communication Engineering By
CH.RAVITEJA (084N1A0436) G.VENKATESWARA RAO (084N1A0461) D.VISHNU VARDHAN (084N1A0465) B.SUJITHA (084N1A0453)

Under the Guidance of RAMESH REDDY.M (Assistant Prof)

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, VISVODAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KAVALI (Affiliated to JNTU, Anantapur)

2008 – 2012

VISVODAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KAVALI Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering,

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the mini project report entitled MICROCONTROLLER BASED SOLAR CHARGER, being submitted by CH.RAVITEJA (084N1A0436), G.VENKATESWARA RAO (084N1A0461), D.VISHNU VARDHAN

REDDY(084N1A0465), B.SUJITHA (084N1A0453) , in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics And Communication Engineering, is a record of bonafide work carried out by them under my guidance and supervision. The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any other university for the award of degree.

Internal Guide
Mr. M. Ramesh Reddy, Assistant Professor, Dept. of ECE, VEC .

Head of the Department
Mr. V. Narayana Reddy, Associate Professor, Dept. of ECE, VEC.

External Viva Voce conducted on_______________

External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We consider it as our privilege to express our gratitude and respect to all those who guided, inspired and helped us in completion of this mini project. We are thankful to all whose encouragement and timely help made us to achieve the desired goal. We would like to thank our internal Mr.M.Ramesh Reddy, Assistant Professor for his technical guidance, constant encouragement and support in carrying out our project at the college. We express our heart-felt thanks to Mr.V.Narayana Reddy, Associate

Professor and Head of the Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering, VEC, Kavali, for his kind encouragement in completion of the project work and being a great teacher inspired us to complete our course of action successfully. We profoundly thank our Principal Dr.M.Sreenivasa Kumar, for his constant encouragement and support throughout the completion of this project.

We also express our gratitude to the Chairman , D.Vidhyadara Kumar Reddy Garu for his encouragement and moral support to complete our course.

Finally we would like to thank all the teachers who taught us various subjects in B.Tech course for the past four years and for giving us sufficient knowledge and inspiration to evolve ourselves efficient graduates.

We thank one and all who have helped us directly or indirectly in completing this mini project work successfully and proficiently.

CH.RAVITEJA G.VENKATESWARA RAO D.VISHNU VARDHAN B.SUJITHA

(084N1A0436) (084N1A0461) (084N1A0465) (084N1A0453)

CONTENTS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT FIGURES TABLES SYMBOLS & ABBREVATIONS CHAPTER-1

PG NO
1 2 3 4

1.

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Motivation 1.2 Project Outline 1.3 Objectives & Limitations 1.3.1 Objectives 1.32 Limitations CHAPTER-2

5-7 5 6 7

2.

SOLAR PANELS 2.1 Photo Voltaic Cells 2.1.1 Types Of PV Cells 2.1.1.1 Single Crystal 2.1.1.2 Poly Crystalline 2.1.1.3 Ribbon Silicon 2.1.1.4 Amorphous Silicon 2.2 Construction Of Silicon Solar Panel 2.3 Solar Array 2.4 Working Of Solar Cells 2.5 PV Cells At a Glance 2.5.1 Advantages 2.5.2 Applications

8-28 8 12 12 13 14 15 16 21 24 28

i

3 CG Rom 53-64 53 55 56 ii .4 Usart 3.1 Pin Description 4.9.9.2 Usart Asynchronous Txr 3.3 Registers 3.5 Specifications CHAPTER-4 32-52 32 33 39 39 39 39 41 41 43 44 46 47 48 50 50 51 51 52 52 4.2 Peripheral Features 3.5 A/D Converter Module 3.8 Interface With PC 3.4.1 Core Features 3.3 Usart Asynchronous Rxr 3. LCD DISPLAY 4.2 DD Ram 4.1 Step Down Transformer 3.3 Filtering Unit 3.7 Instruction Set Summary 3. PIC MICROCONTROLLERS 3.4.2 Status Registers 3.9.4 Voltage Regulators 3.9.9 Power Supply Unit 3.3.1 Usart Synchronous Mode 3.1 Special Function Registers 3.9.3.6 Interrupts 3.CHAPTER-3 3.2 Rectifier Unit 3.4.

TESTING CIRCUIT 6.CHAPTER-5 5.REFERENCES 82 iii . RELAY CHAPTER-6 65-67 6.CONCLUSION CHAPTER-8 81 8.1 Software Dumping Procedure 6.2 Program Used In PIC16F877 CHAPTER-7 68-80 81 7.

germanium. gallium arsenide or amorphous glass. In other words. The controller will vary the voltage across the panel to find and maintain the maximum power point. a current sensing microchip.ABSTRACT Our project is a device that will allow a solar panel to efficiently recharge a DC battery. This is accomplished by operating the solar panel at an optimal power level regardless of the battery voltage. a microcontroller. The circuitry also monitors the battery voltage level and charges the battery using pulse width modulation techniques. it exhibits a phenomenon called „photovoltaic effect‟. When the rays of the sun strike certain light-sensitive material like solar cell connected to an appropriate circuit. selenium. The photovoltaic effect is the generation of an electrical current in a circuit containing a photosensitive device when the device is illuminated by visible or invisible light. cadmium sulphide. and a serial computer interface for programming and data collection at the initial stage to dump a small c-program into microcontroller kit PIC16F877. The device consists of a boost DC-DC converter. Light of the sun is directly converted into electrical energy without any inter mediate step. light is directly converted into electricity. a Liquid Crystal Display for data output. 1 . In detail the sun is the ultimate source of limitless solar energy in the form of light and heat. The photovoltaic effect can be achieved by using a variety of materials like silicon.

SOLAR PANEL WORKING 17.POLY CRYSTALLINE PV CELL 5.ONE & TWO AXIS TRACING SOLAR PANEL 16.PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC16F877 20.FIGURES FIG 1.MAX VOLTAGE AND DELIVERED VOLTAGE 12.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF PIC16F877 19.SHARED AND UNSHARED V-I REGION 10.TRANSMIT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER 22.ADCON0 REGISTER (AD 8) 23.V-I CHARACTERISTIC WITH RESPECT TO TEMP 11.ADCON1 REGISTER (AD9) 24.PIN OUT DESCRIPTION OF PIC16F877 21.V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF DESIRED SOLAR CELL 8.SINGLE CRYSTAL PV CELL 4.RIBBON CRYSTAL PV CELL 6.NO 5 11 12 14 14 15 17 17 18 19 20 22 22 23 27 33 34 35 36 40 44 45 48 50 .PIN DIAGRAM MAX232 25.PARALLEL SOLAR CELLS ARRAY 14.PIC BLOCK DIAGRAM 18.GREEN ENERGY GLOBALIZATION 2.AMARPHOUS SILICON PV CELL 7. V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR CELL 9.STRUCTURE OF SOLAR PANEL 3.PERSONAL PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY 15.MICROCONTROLLER POWER SUPPLY UNIT 2 PG.

KEIL DUMPING SOFTWARE PROGRAM WINDOW 53 55 55 56 57 58 59 62 66 66 69 70 TABLES TABLE 1.RELAY SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 35.COMMAND & INSTRUCTION SET FOR LCD TYPE 33. LCD CHARACTER MASK 5*10 DOTS 32.DDRAM ADDRESS 2 LINE LCD 29.LCD CHARACTER MASK 5*8 DOTS 31.SOLAR CHARGER TESTING SCHEMATIC CIRCUIT 37.DDRAM ADDRESS 1 LINE LCD 28.GLOBALLY RECOGNIZED SOLAR CELL O/P V-I 2. DDRAM ADDRESS 4 LINE LCD 30.PIN DESCRIPTION OF LCD WITH CONTROLLER 1 4. COMMAND AND INSTRUCTION OF HD44780 PG.LCD HD44780 27. PIN DESCRIPTION OF LCD WITH CONTROLLER 2 5.PIN DESCRIPTION OF LCD DISPLAY 3.FLOW CHART FOR LCD INITIALIZATION 34.NO 21 54 54 54 59 60 61 6.WORKING OF RELAY CIRCUIT 36.POWER SUPPLY CONDITION FOR INTERNAL RESET 3 .FREQUENTLY USED COMMANDS & INSTRUCTIONS OF LCD 7.26.

Parallel Slave Port EEPROM.Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver And Transmitter RAM .SYMBOLS & ABBREVIATIONS USART .Supply Voltage VSS .Electrically Erasable Control Register TMR-Timer PWMM-Pulse Width Modulation Mode MSSP-Master Synchronous Serial Port POR-Power On Reset PWRT-Power Up Timer OST-Oscillator Start Up Timer SSP-Synchronous Serial Port PC-Program Counter ALU-Arithmetic And Logic Unit CU-Control Unit 4 .Electrically Erasable programmable Read Only Memory EPROM -Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory EECON.Read Only Memory RS232 – Recommended Standard VCC .Random Access Memory ROM .Ground Potential PSEN – Program Store Enable ALE – Address Latch Enable UART – Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter USRT – Universal Synchronous Receiver Transmitter PSP.

So in order to meet the power generation scarcity problem along with resource extinction drawbacks we motivated ourselves to create our project named "MICROCONTROLLER BASED SOLAR CHARGER" which uses natural renewable solar energy for generating the electricity in efficient manner thus creating pollution free world termed as "GREEN ENERGY" power generation concept. not only that it's also causing the pollution problems along with resource extinction due to utilization of natural non-renewable resources.1 MOTIVATION In present globalized world mighty technical innovations lead to growth of human living standards in such a way that electricity utilization has become his/her mandatory requirement in order to invent new things or to utilize present technology. INTRODUCTION 1. Non conventional power generation is one of the fastest growing sectors. all countries are busy developing and implementing non-conventional power to bridge the electricity demand and power supply gap.1. fig 1. But due to less natural resources availability and heavy population criteria's power generation is unable to meet the necessary requirements of people to complete extent. 5 .1(a): green energy globalization Also in present living world Globally.

The goal of our project was to design and build a cost-effective MPPT circuit and use three-stage charging to efficiently recharge batteries. but continuously updates to ensure maximum power transfer more consistently. an alternative means of charging must be present. and long lifetime capabilities are all contributing to a higher demand for solar powered devices. power reliability (the sun is not expected to stop shining soon). Many solar Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) devices have been designed and implemented. laptop computers. Other devices simply calculate the MPP. This is called Maximum Power Point Tracking. Charged batteries are the backbone of these products. but ours may be the first to use microprocessor control to continuously track the maximum power point. We implemented a common technique known as three-stage charging which differentiates charging techniques based on if the battery is mostly depleted. In addition.1. Our product does periodically recalculate as well. The solar panel actually charges these internal batteries. 6 . and music playing devices are becoming more prevalent. nearly charged. and when individuals are not near traditional electricity. operate the circuit at that point. and periodically recalculate the MPP. In addition. cost competitiveness with replacement of non-rechargeable batteries. such as cellular phones. this device employs microprocessor-based control which continuously monitors the power output of the solar panel to deliver the maximum electric power to the batteries. and it enables the most efficient battery recharge. Ease of use and installation. This report outlines the design and performance of a solar electric charge controller and portable power supply. portable electronic devices. Along with a solar panel. rechargeable batteries should be charged differently based on battery state. and these batteries are used to recharge any external electronic devices which are attached.2 PROJECT OUTLINE Solar photovoltaic panels are becoming a more common way to provide electric power to remote electronic devices. and fully charged. A solar photovoltaic panel meets this need. an extremely portable device which recharges electronic devices. Our product also contains internal rechargeable batteries (at 6-7 Volts).

 To develop and deploy village specific electricity generation system and package based on Solar Technology/ Solar Wind Hybrid Technology.3. including reliable solar radiation forecasts.  Solar panels are very delicate and a slight mishandling may lead to destruction of solar cells which are embedded in solar panels. 7 . availability and accessibility in formats that address specific user needs  To develop methods that improve the quality and the spatial and temporal coverage.2 Limitations   Large initial setup is required to supply high rating solar energy supplies. Solar panels are costlier and its bulkiness increases to have large power supplies of DC.1.1 Objectives  To provide alternative Solar energy solutions for domestic industrial and commercial establishments in order to mitigate the energy problems in backward villages of the state.3 OBJECTIVES AND LIMITATIONS 1. with customized solar resource products. 1.  To provide further standardization and benchmarking of international solar resource data sets to insure worldwide Intercomparability and acceptance  To provide improved data reliability.3.

and group 15 atoms have 5 valence electrons. Silicon is a semiconductor. i. or lack of electrons (known as "holes") are not involved in the covalent bonds of the crystal lattice. this is explained by the fact that the Fermi level lies in the forbidden bandgap. it is "doped" with very small amounts of atoms from either group 13 (III) or group 15 (V) of the periodic table. It should be noted that both n-type and p-type silicon are electrically neutral. pure silicon is a poor electrical conductor. arsenic) is known as n-type silicon because the majority charge carriers (electrons) are negative. Silicon which is doped with group 13 atoms (aluminum.1 PHOTO VOLTAIC CELLS (PV CELLS) There are two basic types of solid silicon. In quantum mechanics. These "dopant" atoms take the place of the silicon atoms in the crystal lattice. This means that in solid silicon.2. there is either one too few. and are made from each of these types of silicon. However. poly-crystalline. At room temperature. they are free to move around within the solid. SOLAR PANELS 2. gallium) is known as p-type silicon because the majority charge carriers (holes) carry a positive charge. the most common being poly-crystalline. micro-crystalline. whilst silicon doped with group 15 atoms (phosphorus. These forbidden energies are called the "band gap". or one too many electrons to satisfy the four covalent bonds around each atom.e. there are certain bands of energies which the electrons are allowed to have. To make silicon a better conductor. nano-crystalline etc. because group 13 atoms have only 3 valence electrons. and bond with their neighboring Si atoms in almost the same way as other Si atoms do. amorphous (having no long range order) and crystalline (where the atoms are arranged in an ordered three dimensional array). The allowed and forbidden bands of energy are explained by the theory of quantum mechanics. Since these extra electrons. Solar cells can be. and these refer to the size of the crystal "grains" which make up the solid. they have the same numbers of positive and negative charges. and other energies between these bands which are forbidden. it is just that in n- 8 . There are various other terms for the crystalline structure of silicon.

while the converse is true for p-type silicon. then what occurs is a diffusion of electrons from the region of high electron concentration . This imbalance of charge across the p-n junction sets up an electric field which opposes further diffusion of charge carriers across the junction. 9 . To understand the workings of a p-n junction it is convenient to imagine what happens when a piece of n-type silicon is brought into contact with a piece of p-type silicon. making an excess of negative charge on the ptype side of the junction. A solar cell is a large-area semiconductor p-n junction. leaving an excess of positive charge on the n-type side of the junction. and holes may pass from the p-type side to the n-type side. It is also known as the "space charge region". When the electrons diffuse across the p-n junction. In practice. because of the electric field which is created by the imbalance of charge immediately either side of the junction which this diffusion creates.type silicon. conventional current may only flow in one direction. If we imagine what happens when a piece of p-type silicon is placed in intimate contact with a piece of n-type silicon.p-type side of the junction. becoming involved in covalent bonds around the group 13 acceptor atoms. leaving behind the (extra) positively charged nuclei of the group 15 donor atoms. This region where electrons have diffused across the junction is called the depletion region because it no longer contains any mobile charge carriers. they recombine with holes on the p-type side. into the region of low electron concentration . usually. The electric field which is set up across the p-n junction creates a diode. but rather. But since the sign of the charge on electrons and holes is opposite.the n-type side of the junction. these electrons are filling in holes on the p-type side of the junction. however. the p-n junctions of solar cells are not made in this way. This diffusion of carriers does not happen indefinitely however. allowing current to flow in only one direction across the junction. Electrons from donor atoms on the n-type side of the junction are crossing into the p-type side. some of the negative charges are free to move around. At the same time. by diffusing an ntype dopant into one side of a p-type wafer. Electrons may pass from the n-type side into the p-type side.

and a grid-like metal contact made up of fine "fingers" and larger "busbars" is screen-printed onto the front surface using a silver paste. 10 . an n-type diffusion is performed on the front side of the wafer. Such surfaces can usually only be formed on single-crystal silicon. it prevents carrier recombination at the surface of the solar cell). and assembled into modules or "solar panels". The wafers are usually lightly p-type doped. typically aluminum. the solar cells are interconnected in series (and/or parallel) by flat wires or metal ribbons. are typically applied next. To make a solar cell from the wafer. Some solar cells have textured front surfaces that. Antireflection coatings. whereby a full area metal contact is made on the back surface. serve to increase the amount of light coupled into the cell. though in recent years methods of forming them on multicrystalline silicon have been developed. they share many of the same processing and manufacturing techniques as other semiconductor devices such as computer and memory chips. silicon nitride has gradually replaced titanium dioxide as the antireflection coating of choice because of its excellent surface passivation qualities (i. Over the past decade. It is typically applied in a layer several hundred nanometers thick using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Most large-scale commercial solar cell factories today make screen printed polycrystalline silicon solar cells. forming a p-n junction a few hundred nanometres below the surface. The rear contact is also formed by screen-printing a metal paste. Single crystalline wafers which are used in the semiconductor industry can be made in to excellent high efficiency solar cells. but they are generally considered to be too expensive for large-scale mass production. and a polymer encapsulation on the back. Solar panels have a sheet of tempered glass on the front. like antireflection coatings. Poly-crystalline silicon wafers are made by wire-sawing block-cast silicon ingots into very thin (250 to 350 micrometer) slices or wafers. However. The metal electrodes will then require some kind of heat treatment or "sintering" to make Ohmic contact with the silicon. which increase the amount of light coupled into the solar cell..e. Usually this contact covers the entire rear side of the cell. The wafer is then metallised.Because solar cells are semiconductor devices. though in some cell designs it is printed in a grid pattern. After the metal contacts are made. the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells.

A selenium-or silicon-based solar cell exhibits open-circuit voltage of only 0.5V and short-circuit cell current of the order of 1milliampere for 6. let us see the individual discrete component of solar cell which is shown in below Fig 2.4cm² area of the cell at 6458 meter candles. 11 . The solar-based battery may be used to directly feed electricity to electronic equipment or for domestic heating.1. Therefore a large number of such silicon or selenium solar cells need to be connected in series and parallel to provide any significant power. A PV cell is used for converting photon into electron and with sun light incident. electrical energy is generated. A telemetry system required to operate 24 hours a day requires a solar panel providing 5 watts at 12 volts used for recharging corresponding storage batteries during daylight hours.These are also known as solar cells and their assembly is termed as solar panel. Solar batteries can also be used for satellites.(a) PV cells were invented in 1953 by Charles Fariett. communication equipment and domestic appliances.

2. the same material from which sand is made.1 Single Crystal Silicon Most photovoltaic cells are single-crystal types.1. The ingots are sliced into thin wafers to make individual cells. and crystallized into ingots. In this case. To make them. the silicon is extremely pure.1. melted. more exotic materials such as gallium arsenide are just beginning to make their way into the field. 12 . usually blue or black. Other. Ribbon silicon. however. silicon is purified. Polycrystalline silicon (also known as multicrystal silicon). Amorphous silicon (abbreviated as "aSi.1 Types Of Photo Voltaic Cells At the present time. most commercial photovoltaic cells are manufactured from silicon." also known as thin film silicon).1. The cells have a uniform color. 2. The four general types of silicon photovoltaic cells are:     Single-crystal silicon.

Typically. leaving an empty "hole". This usually results in slightly lower efficiency. electrons continue to be dislodged and move upwards If an electrical path exists outside the cell between the top grid and the backplane of the cell. but wide enough to carry adequate amounts of electrical energy Light." As sunlight strikes a photovoltaic cell. most of the cell has a slight positive electrical charge. 2. the more current it will produce. Most cells produce a voltage of about one-half volt. When a photon strikes an electron. The loose electron moves toward the top layer of the cell. the larger the cell. Electrons from further back in the circuit move up to fill the empty electron holes. a thin grid of metal is applied to the top instead of a continuous layer. including sunlight. Current and voltage are affected by the resistance of the circuit the cell is in. 13 . it dislodges it.1." This is usually a layer of metal used to physically reinforce the cell and to provide an electrical contact at the bottom. and is covered in the next section. The grid must be thin enough to admit adequate amounts of sunlight. is sometimes described as particles called "photons. However. regardless of the surface area of the cell. A thin layer at the top has a slight negative charge.1. The difference is that a lower cost silicon is used. The amount of available light affects current production. photons move into the cell. The temperature of the cell affects its voltage. Loose electrons move out the top of the cell and into the external electrical circuit. Knowing the electrical performance characteristics of a photovoltaic power supply is important. Since the top of the cell must be open to sunlight.2 Polycrystalline silicon Polycrystalline cells are manufactured and operate in a similar manner. a flow of electrons begins. but polycrystalline cell manufacturers assert that the cost benefits outweigh the efficiency losses. As photons continue to enter the cell. The cell is attached to a base called a "backplane.

3 Ribbon Silicon Ribbon-type photovoltaic cells are made by growing a ribbon from the molten silicon instead of an ingot.1. These cells operate the same as single and polycrystal cells.1.The surface of polycrystalline cells has a random pattern of crystal borders instead of the solid color of single crystal cells. 14 . 2. The anti-reflective coating used on most ribbon silicon cells gives them a prismatic rainbow appearance.

" Modules of all kinds are described. they are made up in long rectangular "strip cells.2. Amorphous silicon has no such structure. or metal. Amorphous silicon is sometimes abbreviated "aSi" and is also called thin film silicon.1. Amorphous silicon units are made by depositing very thin layers of vaporized silicon in a vacuum onto a support of glass. plastic. Amorphous silicon cells are produced in a variety of colors Since they can be made in sizes up to several square yards." These are connected in series to make up "modules.4 Amorphous Or Thin Film Silicon The previous three types of silicon used for photovoltaic cells have a distinct crystal structure.1. 15 .

When the module is shorted. the one-half volt produced by a single cell is inadequate. the voltage in the circuit is zero. An outer frame is attached to increase mechanical strength. Current. is on the vertical Y-axis. These two extremes in load resistance. it is necessary to know the electrical characteristics of photovoltaic modules. These interconnected cells and their electrical connections are then sandwiched between a top layer of glass or clear plastic and a lower level of plastic or plastic and metal. To insure compatibility with storage batteries or loads. Typically. in volts. abbreviated I(sc). Under this condition the resistance is infinitely high and there is no current. expressed in amps. Conversely. "V" is used for voltage in volts. The short circuit current occurs on a point on the curve where the voltage is zero. expressed in amps. since the circuit is incomplete.2 CONSTRUCTION OF SILICON SOLAR CELL For almost all applications. This would be a short circuit between its positive and negative terminals. and the whole range of conditions in between them. is on the horizontal X-axis. and to provide a way to mount the unit. Voltage. are depicted on a graph called a I-V (current-voltage) curve. Therefore. the maximum voltage is produced when there is a break in the circuit. This package is called a "module" or "panel". a module is the basic building block of photovoltaic systems. "I" is the abbreviation for current. abbreviated V(oc). cells are connected together in series to increase the voltage. Several of these series strings of cells may be connected together in parallel to increase the current as well. The open circuit voltage occurs where the current is zero. This maximum current is called the short circuit current. As a reminder. 16 . and "R" is used for resistance in ohms. This is called the open circuit voltage.2. A photovoltaic module will produce its maximum current when there is essentially no resistance in the circuit.

output. The power.The power available from a photovoltaic module at any point along the curve is expressed in watts. There is a point on the "knee" of the curve where the maximum power output is located. or other terms. At the open circuit voltage point. rated power. The current-voltage (I-V) curve is based on the module being under standard conditions of sunlight and module temperature.5 watts. since the voltage is zero. the power output is zero. equaling 42. or ideal. It assumes there is no shading on the module. Maximum power is generally abbreviated as "I (mp).5 amps. but this time it is because the current is zero. Therefore the maximum power in watts is 17 volts times 2. At the short circuit current point. at the maximum power point is described as peak. and the current is 2. the power output is also zero.5 amps." Various manufacturers call it maximum output power. among other terms. expressed in watts. maximum. peak power. or W = VA). Watts are calculated by multiplying the voltage times the current (watts = volts x amps. 17 . This point on our example curve is where the voltage is 17 volts.

Standard sunlight conditions on a clear day are assumed to be 1000 watts of solar energy per square meter (1000 W/m2or lkW/m2). 18 . Thin film modules are not as affected by this problem. A shadow across a module can almost stop electricity production. the amount of output current is roughly cut in half. One or more damaged cells in a module can have the same effect as shading. For example." or a "peak sun. For a typical module. Partial module shading has a serious effect on module power output. This is why modules should be completely unshaded during operation. completely shading only one cell can reduce the module output by as much as 80%. They are now acting as inefficient conductors instead of electrical generators. partial shading of the module will cause the shaded cells to heat up. Partial shading may ruin shaded cells. This is sometimes called "one sun." Less than one sun will reduce the current output of the module by a proportional amount. but they should still be unshaded. the face of the photovoltaic modules should be pointed as straight toward the sun as possible Because photovoltaic cells are electrical semiconductors. if only one-half sun (500 W/m2) is available. For maximum output.

1 volts for every one Celsius degree rise in temperature (0. the voltage loss is from 0. As the battery reaches a full charge. it must supply a higher voltage than that of the battery. the battery voltage is fairly low.056 volts per degree of temperature rise. The photovoltaic module can charge the battery with a low voltage.04V/0C to 0. In Fahrenheit degrees.Module temperature affects the output voltage inversely. If the module is charging a battery. The battery voltage drives module voltage.1V/0C). The last significant factor which determines the power output of a module is the resistance of the system to which it is connected. the module is forced to deliver a higher voltage. An air space of 4-6 inches is usually required to provide proper ventilation. shown as point #1 in Figure 2-20. Air should be allowed to circulate behind the back of each module so it's temperature does not rise and reducing its output.04 to 0. shown as point #2. 19 . This is why modules should not be installed flush against a surface. If the battery is deeply discharged. Higher module temperatures will reduce the voltage by 0.022 to 0.

7 volts. Typical modules use either 30. the required voltage is higher than the voltage at the module's maximum power point. 36 cell modules are the most common in the photovoltaic industry. Since the ability of the module to produce electricity is not being completely used whenever it is operating at a point fairly far from the maximum power point. 36. the current production is lower than the current at the maximum power point. At this operating point. photovoltaic modules should be carefully matched to the system load and storage. 33. the output power is lower than the maximum.Eventually. Their slightly higher voltage rating. The module's power output is also lower. The output voltage of a module depends on the number of cells connected in series. or 44 cells wired in series. 32. allows the modules to overcome the reduction in output voltage when the modules are operating at high temperatures. To a lesser degree. Using a module with a maximum voltage which is too high should be avoided nearly as much as using one with a maximum voltage which is too low. when the operating voltage is lower than that of the maximum power point. The modules with 30-32 cells are considered self regulating modules. 20 . 16.

Globally. It should be noted that this approach is similar to putting a larger engine in a car with locked brakes to make it move faster. or both to increase either output voltage or current. When modules are connected in parallel.83 36 13. they usually require a charge controller.42 2. Higher module voltage can overcome this problem. following configurations of PV cells are available: Array voltage (V) O/P (A) TABLE 2. Another application for 44 cell modules is a system with an extremely long wire run between the modules and the batteries or load.36 cells also have enough surplus voltage to effectively charge high antimony content deep cycle batteries.3 volts. the current increases. It is almost always more cost effective to use an adequate wire size. current 12 41. connected in parallel. For example.2(a): GLOBALLY RECOGNIZED SOLAR CELL O/P V. I Modules with 33 . Individual modules can be connected in series. 44 cell modules are available with a rated output voltage of 20. This also increases the output power. parallel. three modules which produce 15 volts and 3 amps each. However.89 48 10. If the wire is not large enough. These modules are typically used only when a substantially higher voltage is required. it will cause a significant voltage drop.3 SOLAR ARRAYS In many applications the power available from one module is inadequate for the load. since these modules can overcharge batteries. rather than to overcome voltage drop problems with more costly 44 cell modules. will produce 15 volts and 9 amps. Finally.67 24 20. 21 .

a reverse flow of current from the batteries through the photovoltaic array can occur at night. They can be mounted on vehicles to maintain the engine battery during long periods of inactivity. This flow will drain power from the batteries.If the system includes a battery storage system. A portable array may be as small as a one square foot module easily carried by one person to recharge batteries for communications or flashlights. 22 . Larger ones can be installed on trailers or truck beds to provide a portable power supply for field operations.

Tracking arrays perform best in areas with very clear climates. one axis trackers follow the sun from the east to the west throughout the day. 23 . Two axis trackers are considerably more complicated than one axis types. The modules face straight at the sun all through the day. The angle between the modules and the ground does not change. can follow the sun in one axis or in two.Arrays that track. Direct radiation comes straight from the sun. rather than the entire sky. or follow the sun across the sky. The modules face in the "compass" direction of the sun. but may not point exactly up at the sun at all times. Two axis trackers change both their east-west direction and the angle from the ground during the day. Normally. This is because following the sun yields significantly greater amounts of energy when the sun's energy is predominantly direct.

The solar panels are made of a semi-conductive material. Another factor which affects solar panel efficiency is location. the electrons absorb this solar energy. Before you are able to produce electricity through solar energy.g. interfering with other aspects of the solar cells. and carry an electric charge through a circuit to the destination. or solar array. Any electrons that do not receive enough energy simply warm up. Obviously nearer the equator. means the more output you will receive. there needs to be some form of solar cell or panel. that the cell is not working to its full potential (e. you are more likely to have a more efficient cell. transforming them into conduction electrons. the panel also becomes warm. Quality cells are also a major factor in efficiency.4 WORKING OF SOLAR CELLS The answer to the question of how do you produce electricity from solar energy is fairly easy to understand once you have a slight knowledge of the subject. If you purchase more expensive natural energy technologies. some electrons may be lost). but solar cells 24 . the most common material is silicon. If the energy of these photons is great enough. The more solar cells contained in a solar panel. you will receive a slightly better output with a given cell. which heats your cell or panel. resulting in lowering the efficiency of the cell. When photons (contained within the suns rays) hit the solar cells. The semi-conductive material contains electrons which are quite happy just sitting there. The lowering in efficiency is down to two main factors and they are.2. the second factor is when the electrons release heat. then the electrons are able to become free.

This creates a strong bond. the result is a stable eight electrons with an additional free electron along for the ride. Whether on a solar-powered calculator or an international space station. Here's where science enters the picture. This material is used to form the plates of solar panels. Two plates of pure silicon would not generate electricity in solar panels. has five electrons to offer to other atoms. this new silicon/phosphorus plate is considered to be negatively charged. Phosphorus. 25 . because it is bonded to the other phosphorus atoms. Therefore. If one silicon atom contacts another silicon atom. Solar panels are created by combining silicon with other elements that do have positive or negative charges. solar panels generate electricity using the same principles of electronics as chemical batteries or standard electrical outlets. To understand how solar panels generate electrical power.pure silicon. but there is no positive or negative charge because the eight electrons satisfy the atoms' needs. but it isn't needed by the silicon. With solar panels. When silicon is stripped of all impurities. The basic element of solar panels is the same element that helped create the computer revolution -. and have no objects blocking the sun's rays. It can

t leave. each receives the other atom's four electrons. it might help to take a quick trip back to high school chemistry class. If silicon and phosphorus are combined chemically. So there we have a basic understand of how you produce solar electricity from using energy within the sun's rays. it's all about the free flow of electrons through a circuit. because they have no positive or negative charge.should always be facing the direction of the sun. it makes a ideal neutral platform for the transmission of electrons. Silicon atoms can combine for years to result in a large piece of pure silicon. Silicon atoms have room for eight electrons in their outer bands. but only carry four in their natural state. This means there is room for four more electrons. Silicon also has some atomic-level properties which make it even more attractive for the creation of solar panels. for example.

photons bombard the silicon/phosphorus atoms. With the two plates in place. is knocked off the outer ring. Eventually. The two plates are sandwiched together in solar panels. A calculator might only require a single solar cell. since the positive silicon/boron plate draws it into the open spot on its own outer band. This means the plate has a positive charge. but a solar-powered car would require several thousand. When the negative plates of solar cells are pointed at a proper angle to the sun. which only has three electrons to offer. A silicon/boron plate still has one spot left for another electron. Some power from solar panels can be stored in chemical batteries. which eventually cause the panels to degrade physically. which can also seriously affect efficiency. electricity is generated. solar cells works on the concept of PN junction where when light incidents on the solar cell then the heat energy or the photonic energy which was present in the 26 . but there usually isn't much excess power in the first place. but when all of the conductive wires draw the free electrons away from the plates. The panels must also be exposed to destructive weather elements. This electron doesn't remain free for long.In order for electricity to flow. there is enough electricity to power low amperage motors or other electronics. Natural sunlight sends out many different particles of energy. but the one we're most interested in is called a photon. the 9th electron. This is achieved in solar panels by combining silicon with an element such as boron. Whatever electrons are not used or lost to the air are returned to the negative plate and the entire process begins again. it's now time to bring in the 'solar' aspect of solar panels. The same sunlight that provides photons also provides more destructive ultraviolet and infrared waves. with conductive wires running between them. A photon essentially acts like a moving hammer. which wants to be free anyway. One of the main problems with using solar panels is the small amount of electricity they generate compared to their size. The electricity generated by one solar cell is not very impressive. If the angle of the solar panels is changed even slightly. the efficiency can drop 50 percent. a positive charge must also be created. As the sun's photons break off more electrons.

which references the importance of light (photos) in the generation of electrical voltage.terminals.photons which were located in the solar rays was converted into electrical energy by means of PN junction of semiconductor principle where the majority carriers of P and N material Crosses the junction as a result movement of these charge carriers causes current flow which can be extracted from the either side of the solar cell in the form of DC output with + and . Thus the DC Output obtained can be given to any digital circuits or it can be converted into AC by using the INVERTER and can be utilized for house hold purposes. 27 . Many sources also refer to solar panels as photovoltaic cells. The challenge for future scientists will be to create more efficient solar panels are small enough for practical applications and powerful enough to create excess energy for times when sunlight is not available.

1 Advantages       Salient and low maintenance Solid states with no moving parts High-quality powers Life times of 20 to30 years Flexible and reliable Modular and expandable 2.5. 28 .connected homes Rail road signaling Satellites and space station Out door lightning‟s Telecommunication and water pumping.2. etc.5 PV CELLS AT GLANCE 2.5.2 Applications       Coast guard navigation Off-grid and grid.

but in either case the task is performed by a computer system programmed appropriately. Its programming cannot be changed except in ways that its original programmer intended. but this is not necessarily the case. Each motor on each joint of each leg might be controlled by its own embedded system that implements some form of motor control strategy such as pulse width modulation or stepper motor control as appropriate. Generally. This simple article provides what is an embedded system and its applications. and acquires sensory input (probably joint angles and forces). however an embedded system is programmed to perform its task from the time it is powered up until it is shut down. "But" you say. Thus. An embedded system is a large or small computer system that is built into a product. these low-level embedded systems could be controlled by a higher-level embedded system that issues commands for each leg to implement the desired robot motion. the task may be extremely complex or extremely simple. An embedded system is a component of a larger system of some sort. and that performs some task useful to the product. or legged. Indeed. It is a computer system that is programmed to perform a particular task. " all computers are programmed to perform tasks!" True. Just like a logic gate or other electronic component.3. embedded systems may be nested within other embedded systems to arbitrary depth. This leads to the notion of an embedded system as a component. Again. the "higher level" embedded system is the more complex one. an embedded systems has a single task to perform. equipment or system. a piece of equipment or another computer system. robot. these two levels of embedded system implement a motion control platform. PIC MICRO CONTROLLER Embedded System Plays a major role in day to day advancement and achievements. An example of nested embedded systems might be a walking. to which commands are sent by a yet higherlevel system that performs robot path planning and computes the overall motion for 29 . that is not a relevant distinction. In a multi-legged robot. This task may be very simple or very complex.

and  they are considered to be a component of the (usually much larger) product. Embedded systems come in a tremendous variety of "sizes and flavors". pulse oximeters. coffee makers. or may be as large as a system with 256 megabytes of memory. In this example. but all embedded systems have these features:  they perform a very well-defined task for the product.  elevator. The range of physical and "computing" sizes is huge. equipment or system in which they are found  they do not permit user interaction with their operation except where such interaction may be the task of the embedded system. fuel injection. a small disc (20 gigabytes or so). CD players and consumer electronics.  control of data communications routers for wide-band communications. 30 .the robot.  timing and control electronics in microwave ovens.  internal operation of medical instrumentation such as infusion pumps. Examples of Pic Microcontroller Based embedded systems include:  keyboard and other controllers for computers.  parking meter controllers. a Pentium processor and a host of intelligent peripherals. it is entirely possible that a still-higher level system controls the path planner.  controllers for vacuum cleaners and washing machines for sensing dirt loads. suspension stiffness and environmental temperature and noise in automobiles. An embedded system may be as small as a single 8-pin integrated circuit that performs the functions of a few logic gates.  and many more. equipment or system.  disc controllers for computer systems. we see a hierarchy of four levels of nested embedded systems. environmental and security systems in buildings. This system may not be at the top of the embedded system hierarchy. ignition.  control of the dashboard.

Other than the normal Microcontrollers PIC Family supports more features, so we have chosen PIC 16F877 as the main controller. The Main features and Peripherals features are discussed below.

The PIC Microcontroller board consists of circuits necessary to operate a Microcontroller with PC interface. The board contains provisions for interfacing 8 analog inputs and 23 Digital level signals. The Description of the circuit is given below.

Analog inputs: Pin no 2 to 10 can be used to connect any analog signals of range 0-5v.

Digital signals: As mentioned in the circuit the pin outs from the port is taken to a 26 pin FRC connector through which we can connect our Digital level signals 0 or 5 volts.

Clock: The PIC16F877 can be operated in Four Different oscillator modes. The user can program two configuration bits FOSC1 and FOSC0 to select one of these four modes. *LP - Low Power crystal *XT - crystal / resonator *HS - High speed crystal/resonator *RC - Resistor capacitor The clock we have used is 10 MHZ which full under HS category.

MCLR/VPP: This is master clear input pin to the IC. A logic low signal will generate a reset signal to the microcontroller. So we have tied this pin to VCC for the proper operation of the microcontroller.

31

TXD and RXD: TO communicate with the outside world the microcontroller has an inbuilt USART. The O/P and I/P line from the USART is taken and given to a MAX232 IC for having communication with the PC. Since we have used comport for interfacing the microcontroller.

VCC and Ground: Pin no 32, 11 are tied to VCC and pin no 31, 12 are grounded to provide power supply to the chip.

3.1 CORE FEATURES • High performance RISC CPU
• Only 35 single word instructions to learn • All single cycle instructions except for program Branches which are two cycle • Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input DC - 200 ns instruction cycle • Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) • Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) • Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes • Power-on Reset (POR) • Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) • Processor read/write access to program memory • Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V • Low-power consumption: - < 0.6 mA typical @ 3V, 4 MHz < 1 µA typical standby current
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3.2 PERIPHERAL FEATURES • Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler
• Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler, can be incremented during SLEEP • Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler • 10-bit multi-channel Analog-to-Digital converter • Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) wi

• Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI) with 9-bit address detection • Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8-bits wide, with external RD, WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only)

Figure 3.2(a) - Block Diagram of PIC Micro Controller
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Figure 3.2(b) - Circuit Diagram of PIC16F877

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The RESET vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h. The Program Memory and Data Memory have separate buses so that concurrent access can occur and is detailed in this section. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound.Fig 3. The PIC16F87X devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space.2(c): PIC16f877 Pin Diagram There are three memory blocks in each of the PIC16F87X MCUs. The PIC16F877/876 devices have 8K x 14 words of FLASH program memory. 35 .

Fig 3.2(d): PIC16f877 Pin Out Description 36 .

Fig 3.2(e): PIC16f877 Pin Out Description 37 .

Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The PIC16F877/876 devices have 8K x 14 words of FLASH program memory. the execution takes two instruction cycles with the second cycle executed as a NOP. implemented as static RAM. If ‟d‟ is one. Thus. All instructions are executed within one single instruction cycle. All implemented banks contain Special Function Registers. The lower locations of each bank are reserved for the Special Function Registers. In this case. The RESET vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h. or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction. ‟f‟ represents a file register designator and ‟d‟ represents a destination designator. while ‟f‟ represents the address of the file in which the bit is located. The file register designator specifies which file register is to be used by the instruction. The destination designator specifies where the result of the operation is to be placed. For literal and control operations. unless a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound. the instruction execution time is 2 µs. 38 . ‟k‟ represents an eight or eleven bit constant or literal value. for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz. the result is placed in the W register. Some frequently used Special Function Registers from one bank may be mirrored in another bank for code reduction and quicker access. the normal instruction execution time is 1 µs. ‟b‟ represents a bit field designator which selects the number of the bit affected by the operation. The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks which contain the General Purpose Registers and the Special Function Registers.The PIC16F87X devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space. If ‟d‟ is zero. For bit-oriented instructions. If a conditional test is true. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods. For byte-oriented instructions. the result is placed in the file register specified in the instruction. Bits RP1 (STATUS<6>)and RP0 (STATUS<5>) are the bank select bits.

therefore. 3. If the STATUS register is the destination for an instruction that affects the Z.3. CLRF STATUS will clear the upper threebits and set the Z bit. 3. as with any other register. Those registers associated with the core functions are described in detail in this section. that only BCF. the TO and PD bits are not writable. the RESET status and the bank select bits for data memory. BSF.2 Status Registers The STATUS register contains the arithmetic status of the ALU. The Special Function Registers can be classified into two sets: core (CPU) and peripheral. These registers are implemented as static RAM. therefore. This leaves the STATUS register as 000u u1uu (where u = unchanged).1 Special Function Registers The Special Function Registers are registers used by the CPU and peripheral modules for controlling the desired operation of the device.It is recommended. the result of an instruction with the STATUS register as destination may be different than intended.SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the STATUS register. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI. These bits are set or cleared according to the device logic. DC or C bits.) The USART can be configured as a full duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as CRT terminals and personal computers.The STATUS register can be the destination for any instruction. Those related to the operation of the peripheral features are described in detail in the peripheral features section.4 ADDRESSABLE UNIVERSAL SYNCHRONOUS ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER TRANSMITTER (USART) The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. or it can be configured as a half duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as A/D or 39 .3. C or DC bits from the STATUS register. because these instructions do not affect the Z. For example. then the write to these three bits is disabled.3 REGISTERS 3. Furthermore.3.

4(a) . The USART can be configured in the following modes: • Asynchronous (full duplex) • Synchronous .Transmit status and Control register (address 98h) bit 7 CSRC: Clock Source Select bit Asynchronous mode: Don‟t care Synchronous mode: 1 = Master mode (clock generated internally from BRG) 0 = Slave mode (clock from external source) bit 6 TX9: 9-bit Transmit Enable bit 1 = Selects 9-bit transmission 0 = Selects 8-bit transmission bit 5 TXEN: Transmit Enable bit 1 = Transmit enabled 0 = Transmit disabled bit 4 SYNC: USART Mode Select bit 1 = Synchronous mode 0 = Asynchronous mode bit 2 BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = High speed 40 . serial EEPROMs etc.Master (half duplex) • Synchronous .D/A integrated circuits. Figure 3. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection.Slave (half duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.

As soon as the STOP bit is transmitted. TXREG. The shift register obtains its data from the read/write transmit buffer. The most common data format is 8-bits. and one STOP bit).4. The baud rate generator produces a clock. the USART uses standard non-return-to zero (NRZ) format (one START bit.4. dedicated. either x16 or x64 of the bit shift rate.1 Usart Asynchronous Mode In this mode. Asynchronous mode is stopped during SLEEP. can be parity bit 3. Parity is not supported by the hardware. The USART transmits and receives the LSb first. depending on bit BRGH (TXSTA<2>). but can be implemented in software (and stored as the ninth data bit). The transmitter and receiver are functionally independent. Asynchronous mode is selected by clearing bit SYNC (TXSTA<4>). Once the TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR register (occurs in one TCY).0 = Low speed Synchronous mode: Unused in this mode bit 1 TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit 1 = TSR empty 0 = TSR full bit 0 TX9D: 9th bit of Transmit Data. The USART Asynchronous module consists of the following important elements: • Baud Rate Generator • Sampling Circuit • Asynchronous Transmitter • Asynchronous Receiver 3. eight or nine data bits. 8-bit baud rate generator can be used to derive standard baud rate frequencies from the oscillator. The TXREG register is loaded with data in software. the TSR is loaded with new data from the TXREG register (if available).2 Usart Asynchronous Transmitter The heart of the transmitter is the transmit (serial) shift register (TSR). The TSR register is not loaded until the STOP bit has been transmitted from the previous load. An on-chip. but use the same data format and baud rate. 41 .

set bit BRGH. If a high speed baud rate is desired. 3. At that point. so the user has to poll this bit in order to determine if the TSR register is empty. In such a case. The transmission can also be started by first loading the TXREG register and then setting enable bit TXEN. 2. Flag bit TXIF will be set. Status bit TRMT is a read only bit. 4. If interrupts are desired. regardless of the state of enable bit TXIE and cannot be cleared in software. an incorrect ninth data bit may be loaded in the TSR register. transfer to the TXREG register will result in an immediate transfer to TSR.the TXREG register is empty and flag bit TXIF (PIR1<4>) is set. Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN. A back-to-back transfer is thus possible Clearing enable bit TXEN during a transmission will cause the transmission to be aborted and will reset the transmitter. While flag bit TXIF indicates the status of the TXREG register. then set enable bit TXIE.In order to select 9-bit transmission. then set transmit bit TX9. follow these steps: 1. another bit TRMT (TXSTA<1>) shows the status of the TSR register. Transmission is enabled by setting enable bit TXEN (TXSTA<5>). when transmission is first started. the TSR register is empty. When setting up an Asynchronous Transmission. It will reset only when new data is loaded into the TXREG register. If 9-bit transmission is desired. This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit TXIE (PIE1<4>). transmit bit TX9 (TXSTA<6>) should be set and the ninth bit should be written to TX9D (TXSTA<0>). As a result. Normally. which is set when the TSR register is empty. Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate baud rate. the RC6/TX/CK pin will revert to hi-impedance. The ninth bit must be written before writing the 8-bit data to the TXREG register. The actual transmission will not occur until the TXREG register has been loaded with data and the baud rate generator (BRG) has produced a shift clock. No interrupt logic is tied to this bit. 42 . resulting in an empty TXREG. This is because a data write to the TXREG register can result in an immediate transfer of the data to the TSR register (if the TSR is empty).

The data recovery block is actually a high speed shifter. The RCREG register can be read twice to retrieve the two bytes in the FIFO. Reading the RCREG will load bits RX9D and FERR with new values.3 Usart Asynchronous Receiver The data is received on the RC7/RX/DT pin and drives the data recovery block. operating at x16 times the baud rate.4.5. essential to clear error bit OERR if it is set. which is cleared by the hardware. The actual interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit RCIE (PIE1<5>). the main receive serial shifter operates at the bit rate or at FOSC. 6. The heart of the receiver is the receive (serial) shift register (RSR). If the transfer is complete. reception is enabled by setting bit CREN (RCSTA<4>). If using interrupts. Load data to the TXREG register (starts transmission). whereas. The word in the RSR will be lost. which will also set bit TXIF. Overrun bit OERR has to be cleared in software. transfers from the RSR register to the RCREG register are inhibited. 7. 43 . and no further data will be received. 3. the ninth bit should be loaded in bit TX9D. Flag bit RCIF is a read only bit. the received data in the RSR is transferred to the RCREG register (if it is empty). After sampling the STOP bit. If bit OERR is set. This is done by resetting the receiver logic (CREN is cleared and then set). It is therefore. If the RCREG register is still full. 8. Framing error bit FERR (RCSTA<2>) is set if a STOP bit is detected as clear. It is cleared when the RCREG register has been read and is empty. it is essential for the user to read the RCSTA register before reading the RCREG register in order not to lose the old FERR and RX9D information. the overrun error bit OERR (RCSTA<1>) will be set. therefore. flag bit RCIF (PIR1<5>) is set. If 9-bit transmission is selected. ensure that GIE and PEIE (bits 7 and 6) of the INTCON register are set. Enable the transmission by setting bit TXEN. Once Asynchronous mode is selected. Bit FERR and the 9th receive bit are buffered the same way as the receive data.

5 ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER (A/D) MODULE The Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter module has five inputs for the 28-pin devices and eight for the other devices. The A/D module has four registers. The ADCON1 register.3. shown in Figure 11. Additional information on using the A/D module can be found in the PIC micro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023). The A/D conversion of the analog input signal results in a corresponding 10-bit digital number. the A/D clock must be derived from the A/D‟s internal RC oscillator. controls the operation of the A/D module.ADCON0 Register (address: 1fh) bit 7-6 ADCS1:ADCS0: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits 00 = FOSC/2 01 = FOSC/8 10 = FOSC/32 11 = FRC (clock derived from the internal A/D module RC oscillator) bit 5-3 CHS2:CHS0: Analog Channel Select bits 000 = channel 0. shown in Figure 12. Figure 11. configures the functions of the port pins. (RA0/AN0) 001 = channel 1. These registers are: • A/D Result High Register (ADRESH) • A/D Result Low Register (ADRESL) • A/D Control Register0 (ADCON0) • A/D Control Register1 (ADCON1) The ADCON0 register. (RA1/AN1) 44 . or as digital I/O. To operate in SLEEP. The port pins can be configured as analog inputs (RA3 can also be the voltage reference). The A/D converter has a unique feature of being able to operate while the device is in SLEEP mode.

Configure the A/D module: • Configure analog pins/voltage reference and digital I/O (ADCON1) • Select A/D input channel (ADCON0) • Select A/D conversion clock (ADCON0) • Turn on A/D module (ADCON0) 45 .ADCON1 Register (address 9fh) bit 7 ADFM: A/D Result Format Select bit 1 = Right justified. (RE1/AN6)(1) 111 = channel 7. (RA3/AN3) 100 = channel 4. 6 Least Significant bits of ADRESL are read as „0‟. (RE0/AN5)(1) 110 = channel 6. (RA5/AN4) 101 = channel 5.010 = channel 2. (RE2/AN7)(1) bit 2 GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit If ADON = 1: 1 = A/D conversion in progress (setting this bit starts the A/D conversion) 0 = A/D conversion not in progress (this bit is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion is complete) bit 1 Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 0 ADON: A/D On bit 1 = A/D converter module is operating 0 = A/D converter module is shut-off and consumes no operating current Figure 12. 6 Most Significant bits of ADRESH are read as „0‟. (RA2/AN2) 011 = channel 3. 0 = Left justified. bit 6-4 Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 3-0 PCFG3:PCFG0: A/D Port Configuration Control bits: These steps should be followed for doing an A/D Conversion: 1.

OR • Waiting for the A/D interrupt 6. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits in various registers. It also has individual and global interrupt enable bits. clear bit ADIF if required. Wait for A/D conversion to complete. A global interrupt enable bit. Individual interrupt bits are set. which re-enables interrupts. exits the interrupt routine. The RB0/INT pin interrupt. the interrupt will vector immediately. A minimum wait of 2TAD is required before the next acquisition starts. 46 . and the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in the INTCON register. The “return from interrupt” instruction. PIE1 and PIE2. The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the special function registers. The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. RETFIE. PIR1 and PIR2. as well as sets the GIE bit. GIE (INTCON<7>) enables (if set) all unmasked interrupts.6 INTERRUPTS The PIC16F87X family has up to 14 sources of interrupt. For the next conversion. regardless of the status of the GIE bit. and an interrupt‟s flag bit and mask bit are set. by either: • Polling for the GO/DONE bit to be cleared (with interrupts enabled).2. and the peripheral interrupt enable bit is contained in special function register INTCON. The interrupt control register (INTCON) records individual interrupt requests in flag bits. Read A/D result register pair (ADRESH:ADRESL). as required. Start conversion: • Set GO/DONE bit (ADCON0) 5. or disables (if cleared) all interrupts. The GIE bit is cleared on RESET. The corresponding interrupt enable bits are contained in special function registers. When bit GIE is enabled. 3. 4. 7. Wait the required acquisition time. the RB port change interrupt. Configure A/D interrupt (if desired): • Clear ADIF bit • Set ADIE bit • Set PEIE bit • Set GIE bit 3. go to step 1 or step 2.

The interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to avoid recursive interrupts. regardless of the status of their corresponding mask bit. bit-oriented. or the GIE bit. the interrupt latency will be three or four instruction cycles. Note: Individual interrupt flag bits are set.When an interrupt is responded to. such as the INT pin or PORTB change interrupt. regardless of the status of their corresponding mask bit. Once in the Interrupt Service Routine. For external interrupt events. the GIE bit is cleared to disable any further interrupt. and literal and control operations. the result is placed in the W register. while ‟f‟ represents the address of the file in which the bit is located. 3. Individual interrupt flag bits are set. The PIC16F87X instruction set summary in byteoriented. ‟b‟ represents a bit field designator which selects the number of the bit affected by the operation.7 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY Each PIC16F87X instruction is a 14-bit word. PEIE bit. For bit-oriented instructions. The destination designator specifies where the result of the operation is to be placed. The latency is the same for one or two-cycle instructions. ‟f‟ represents a file register designator and„d‟ represents a destination designator. The file register designator specifies which file register is to be used by the instruction. or GIE bit. the result is placed in the file register specified in the instruction. 47 . For byte-oriented instructions. If „d‟ is zero. the return address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded with 0004h. divided into an OPCODE which specifies the instruction type and one or more operands which further specify the operation of the instruction. The exact latency depends when the interrupt event occurs. the source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling the interrupt flag bits. I'd‟ is one.

In this case. 3.Pin Diagram of MAX232 48 . Using this device we cannot make Parameter more effective.For literal and control operations. All instructions are executed within one single instruction cycle. Here we have used MAX232 as a serial interface chip. Thus.8 INTERFACE WITH PC Even if all the parameters are processed through a PIC Microcontroller the display unit used will be a Seven segment Display or an LCD Display. So to Interface a PC with our Microcontroller unit we need a RS232 interface. If a conditional test is true. the execution takes two instruction cycles with the second cycle executed as a NOP. or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction. ‟k‟ represents an eight or eleven bit constant or literal value. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods. Figure 13. unless a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction. In order to make the Parameter more effectively illustrated on Screen we can go for PC instead of LCD Displays. for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz. the instruction execution time is 2µs. the normal instruction execution time is 1 µs.

The second charge pump uses external capacitor to invert +10V to –10V with an overall output impedance of 45. To ensure compatibility with either RS232 49 .9 v The slow rate at output is limited to less than 30V/s and the powered done output impedance will be a minimum of 300 with +2V applied to the output with Vcc =0V. Increasing the value of C1 and C2 to 47F will lower the output impedance of +5V to+10V doubled by about 5 and +10V to -10V inverter by about 10.5V and maximum allowable ambient temperature typical voltage with 5K and Vcc= +.The outputs are short circuit protected and can be short circuited to ground indefinitely. The open circuit output voltage swing is guaranteed to meet the RS232 specification + 5v output swing under the worst of both transmitter driving the 3K Minimum load impedance. the Vcc input at 4. The value of C1 and C4 can be lowered to 1F in systems where size is critical at the expense of an additional 20 impedance +10V output and 40 additional impedance at –10V input.The MAX232 power supply section has 2 charge pumps the first uses external capacitors C1 to double the +5V input to +10V with input impedance of approximately 200. They‟re input impedance is between 3K either with or without 5V power applied and their switching threshold is within the +3V of RS232 specification. The input is TTL and CMOS compatible with a logic threshold of about 26% of Vcc. The best circuit uses 22F capacitors for C1 and C4 but the value is not critical. The input if an unused transmitter section can be left unconnected: an internal 400K pull up resistor connected between the transistor input and Vcc will pull the input high forming the unused transistor output low. Increasing the value of C3 and C4 lowers the ripple on the power supplies thereby lowering the 16KHz ripple on the RS232 output. The two receivers fully conform to RS232 specifications. Each of the two transmitters is a CMOS inverter powered by + 10V internally generated supply. Normally these capacitors are low cost aluminum electrolyte capacitors or tantalum if size is critical.

9.5V of hysterisis to improve noise rejection.9 POWER SUPPLY UNIT As we all know any invention of latest technology cannot be activated without the source of power.4V the receivers have 0. the cheapest and commonly available energy source of 230v-50Hz and stepping down. Figure 3. rectifying. The MAX232 receivers have VIL of 0.8V and –30V.1 Step Down Transformer When AC is applied to the primary winding of the power transformer it can either be stepped down or up depending on the value of DC needed. The receiver output will be high when input is floating or driven between +0. One alteration of input causes the top of the transformer to be positive and the bottom negative. So it this fast moving world we deliberately need a proper power source which will be apt for a particular requirement.4V. filtering and regulating the voltage. The next alteration will temporarily cause the reverse. In our circuit the transformer of 230v/15-0-15v is used to perform the step down operation where a 230V AC appears as 15V AC across the secondary winding. 3. All the electronic components starting from diode to Intel IC‟s only work with a DC supply ranging from -+5v to -+12v. 3. This will be dealt briefly in the forth-coming sections.IIP or TTl\CMOS input.9(a) : Power Supply Unit For The Microcontroller We are utilizing for the same. The current rating of the transformer 50 . The TTL\CMOS compatible output of receiver will be low whenever the RS232 input is greater than 2.8V and VIH of 2.

two diodes are connected to the positive voltage at the top winding and only one diode conducts. 3. This capacitor is also called as a decoupling capacitor or a bypassing capacitor. At the same time one of the other two diodes conducts for the negative voltage that is applied from the bottom winding due to the forward bias for that diode. Since each altercation produces a resulting output pulse. A load resistor R1 is 51 . 3.3 FILTERING UNIT Filter circuits which are usually capacitors acting as a surge arrester always follow the rectifier unit. it gives isolation between the power source and power supply circuitries. frequency = 2*50 Hz. rectification is normally achieved using a solid state diode. electrons only flow when the anode and cathode is negative. The DC output has a ripple frequency of 100Hz. The DC voltage appearing across the output terminals of the bridge rectifier will be somewhat lass than 90% of the applied rms value. Normally one alteration of the input voltage will reverse the polarities.8v pulsating DC. Two diodes will conduct during the negative cycle and the other two will conduct during the positive half cycle. Opposite ends of the transformer will therefore always be 180 deg out of phase with each other. Diode has the property that will let the electron flow easily in one direction at proper biasing condition.used in our project is 2A. As AC is applied to the diode.9. In this circuit due to positive half cycleD1 & D2 will conduct to give 10. Apart from stepping down AC voltages.2 Rectifier Unit In the power supply unit. is used not only to „short‟ the ripple with frequency of 120Hz to ground but also to leave the frequency of the DC to appear at the output. The output obtained is not a pure DC and therefore filtration has to be done. Reversing the polarity of voltage will not permit electron flow. A commonly used circuit for supplying large amounts of DC power is the bridge rectifier. A bridge rectifier of four diodes (4*IN4007) are used to achieve full wave rectification. For a positive cycle.9.

9. O. 3.9.51v.4 Voltage Regulators The voltage regulators play an important role in any power supply unit.connected so that a reference to the ground is maintained.5% of the load. Without capacitor: Vavg = (15-1. The primary purpose of a regulator is to aid the rectifier and filter circuit in providing a constant DC voltage to the device. 3. At the secondary side of the transformer. Frequency = 0Hz With 7812 voltage regulator: V0= +12v 52 .2)v = 13. it passes only low frequency signals and bypasses high frequency signals.414(form factor) = 19.8c pulsating DC Frequency = 100Hz With capacitor: V=Vavg *1.2v.6= 1. 1 : for bypassing the high frequency disturbances. C2R2 is used as a low pass filter. the voltage can be maintained within a close tolerant region of the desired output.e. 1000f/25v : for the reduction of ripples from the pulsating.5 Specifications Resistors R1 and R2 maintain line load regulation. 10f/25v : for maintaining the stability of the voltage at the load side. The load resistor should be 1% to 2. With a regulator connected to the DC output. i. C1R1 is for bypassing ripples. Applied voltage = 15v Conducting drop across the diodes = 2*0. IC7812 and 7912 is used in this project for providing +12v and –12v DC supply. Power supplies without regulators have an inherent problem of changing DC voltage values due to variations in the load or due to fluctuations in the AC liner voltage.

FIG 4.1 PIN DESCRIPTION The most commonly used LCDs found in the market today are 1 Line. special stuff and tricks you can do with these simple looking LCDs which can give a new look to your application. In this tutorial. various interfaces (8-bit/4-bit). their interfacing with various microcontrollers. Pin description is shown in the table below. whereas LCDs supporting more than 80 characters make use of 2 HD44780 controllers. 4. LCD DISPLAY The most commonly used Character based LCDs are based on Hitachi's HD44780 controller or other which are compatible with HD44580. we will discuss about character based LCDs.4.1(a): Character LCD type HD44780 Pin diagram 53 . Most LCDs with 1 controller has 14 Pins and LCDs with 2 controller has 16 Pins (two pins are extra in both for back-light LED connections). programming. 2 Line or 4 Line LCDs which have only 1 controller and support at most of 80 characters.

10 D3 Data bus line 3 Pin no. Pin no. 2 Pin no. 11 D4 Data bus line 4 Pin no. 14 D7 Data bus line 7 (MSB) TABLE 4. 6 Pin no. 10 D3 Data bus line 3 Pin no. 4 RS 1 = Data input 0 = Write to LCD module Pin no.1(b): Pin description Of LCD Display with controller 1 Pin No. 14 D7 Data bus line 7 (MSB) TABLE 4. 7 D0 Data bus line 0 (LSB) Pin no. 7 Pin no. 11 D4 Data bus line 4 Pin no. 8 D1 Data bus line 1 Pin no. 1 Pin no. 5 Pin no. 13 D6 Data bus line 6 Pin no. 1 Pin no. 5 R/W 1 = Read from LCD module Pin no. 12 D5 Data bus line 5 Pin no. 11 RS . 6 EN Enable signal Pin no. 9 D2 Data bus line 2 Pin no. 10 R/W Pin no. 13 D6 Data bus line 6 Pin no. 8 Pin no. 2 Pin no. 4 Pin no. 3 Pin no. Pin no.Pin No. 9 Name D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 EN1 Description Data bus line 7 (MSB) Data bus line 6 Data bus line 5 Data bus line 4 Data bus line 3 Data bus line 2 Data bus line 1 Data bus line 0 (LSB) Enable signal for row 0 and 1 (1stcontroller) 0 = Write to LCD module 1 = Read from LCD module 0 = Instruction input 54 Name VSS VCC VEE Pin no. 12 D5 Data bus line 5 Pin no.1(a): Pin description Of LCD Display Pin no. 9 D2 Data bus line 2 Pin no. 3 Description Power supply(GND) Power supply (+5V) Contrast adjust 0 = Instruction input Pin no. 8 D1 Data bus line 1 Pin no.

So whatever you send on the DDRAM is actually displayed on the LCD. 14 VCC Power supply (+5V) Pin no. Its extended capacity is 80 X 8 bits. The area in display data ram (DDRAM) that is not used for display can be used as general data RAM.1(b): Pin description Of LCD Display with controller 2 Usually these days you will find single controller LCD modules are used more in the market. 15 EN2 Enable signal for row 2 and 3 (2ndcontroller) Pin no. 16 NC Not Connected TABLE 4.2 DDRAM . 13 VSS Power supply (GND) Pin no. Figures below will show you the DDRAM addresses of 1 Line.2(a): DDRAM Address for 1 Line LCD Figure 4. So in the tutorial we will discuss more about the single controller LCD. 12 VEE Contrast adjust Pin no. the operation and everything else is same for the double controller too. 2 Line and 4 Line LCDs. For LCDs like 1x16.1 = Data input Pin no. so whatever you write after 16 chars is written in DDRAM but is not visible to the user. 4. only 16 characters are visible.Display Data RAM Display data RAM (DDRAM) stores display data represented in 8-bit character codes. or 80 characters.2(b) : DDRAM Address for 2 Line LCD 55 . Figure 4. Lets take a look at the basic information which is there in every LCD.

and for 5 x 10 dots. 56 . In the character generator RAM. how the character is displayed on LCD? so the answer is CGROM. For 5 x 8 dots. User defined character patterns are also available by mask-programmed ROM. As clear from the name. It can generate 208 5 x 8 dot character patterns and 32 5 x 10 dot character patterns. the character code from 0x00 to 0x07 is occupied by the CGRAM characters or the user defined characters.Figure 4. when user send 0x03 code to the LCD DDRAM then the fourth user created character will be displayed.2(c): DDRAM Address for 4 Line LCD 4. Later in this tutorial i will explain how to use CGRAM area to make custom character and also making animations to give nice effects to your application.e. the user can rewrite character patterns by program.Character Generator ROM Now you might be thinking that when you send an ascii value to DDRAM.3 CGROM . The character generator ROM generates 5 x 8 dot or 5 x 10 dot character patterns from 8-bit character codes (see Figure 5 and Figure 6 for more details). four character patterns can be written. eight character patterns can be written. CGRAM area is used to create custom characters in LCD. As you can see in both the code maps. If user want to display the fourth custom character then the code to display it is 0x03 i.

this flag is set (i. When BF = 1 means LCD is busy and will not accept next command or data and BF = 0 means LCD is ready for next. This is helpful in producing and exact delay.g LCD shift command. LCD address etc. and Data register is used for 57 . the condition RS = 0 and R/W = 1 must be met and The MSB of the LCD data bus (D7) act as busy flag.3 (a) : LCD characters code map for 5x8 dots Busy Flag is an status indicator flag for LCD. LCD clear. There are two 8-bit registers in HD44780 controller Instruction and Data register. When we send a command or data to the LCD for processing. Instruction register corresponds to the register where you send commands to LCD e. To read Busy Flag.Figure 4.e BF =1) and as soon as the instruction is executed successfully this flag is cleared (BF = 0).

Before starting the internal operation of the LCD. Only the instruction register (IR) and the data register (DR) of the LCD can be controlled by the MCU. the data on the pins is latched in to the data register and data is then moved automatically to the DDRAM and hence is displayed on the LCD. Figure 4.storing data which is to be displayed on LCD. We will discuss more on LCD instruction set further in this tutorial. control information is temporarily stored into these registers to allow interfacing with various MCUs. The 58 . which operate at different speeds. or various peripheral control devices. the address where you want to send the data.3(b) : LCD characters code map for 5x10 dots Data Register is not only used for sending data to DDRAM but also for CGRAM. when send the enable signal of the LCD is asserted. is decided by the instruction you send to LCD.

There are four categories of instructions that:  Designate LCD functions.internal operation of the LCD is determined by signals sent from the MCU. make up the LCD instructions (Table 3). and the data bus (DB0 to DB7). read/write signal (R/W). data length. These signals.  Set internal RAM addresses  Perform data transfer with internal RAM  Perform miscellaneous functions 59 . etc. such as display format. which include register selection signal (RS).

3 (a) : Command and Instruction set for LCD type HD44780 Although looking at the table you can make your own commands and test them.3 (b): Frequently used commands and instructions for LCD * DDRAM address given in LCD basics section see Figure 2. 5x7 Dots 0x30 48 Function Set: 8-bit.3. 60 . 1 Line.Table 4. 5x7 Dots 0x38 56 Function Set: 4-bit. we will discuss both ways of initialization one by one. Below is a brief list of commands which are used frequently while working on LCD. 2 Line. Before using the LCD for display purpose. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 Instruction Hex Decimal Function Set: 8-bit.4 ** CGRAM address from 0x00 to 0x3F. LCD has to be initialized either by the internal reset circuit or sending set of commands to initialize the LCD. No. 1 Line. 5x7 Dots 0x20 32 Function Set: 4-bit. 5x7 Dots 0x28 40 Entry Mode 0x06 6 Display off cursor off (clearing display without clearing DDRAM 0x08 8 content) Display on Cursor on 0x0E 14 Display on Cursor off 0x0C 12 Display on Cursor blinking 0x0F 15 Shift entire display left 0x18 24 Shift entire display right 0x1C 30 Move cursor left by one character 0x10 16 Move cursor right by one character 0x14 20 Clear Display (also clear DDRAM content) 0x01 1 Set DDRAM address or coursor position on 0x80+add* 128+add* display Set CGRAM address or set pointer to CGRAM 0x40+add** 64+add** location Table 4. 0x00 to 0x07 for char1 and so on. 2 Line. It is the user who has to decide whether an LCD has to be initialized by instructions or by internal reset circuit.

Given below is a flowchart that describes the step to follow.  As mentioned in the Note.3(c): Power Supply condition for Internal Reset circuit Initializing LCD with instructions is really simple. 61 . Table 4. if user want to use initialization by internal reset circuit. These conditions are shown in the Table 5 below.      Move data to LCD port select data register select write operation send enable signal wait for LCD to process the data Now we are ready with sending data and sending command to LCD. The following instructions are executed during the initialization. The busy state lasts for 10 ms after VCC rises to 4.5 V. to initialize the LCD. The busy flag (BF) is kept in the busy state until the initialization ends (BF = 1). there are certain conditions that has to be met.An internal reset circuit automatically initializes the HD44780U when the power is turned on.

Figure 4. it will reset and wait for instructions. and then send one character at a 62 . When the LCD is initialized. turning on a cursor and writing characters from left to right. Typical instructions sent to LCD display after a reset are: turning on a display. it will write it on the display and move the cursor one space to the right. but control line R/W has to be high. If it receives a character.4(a) : Flow chart for LCD initialization Reading data from the LCD is done in the same way. When we send a high to the LCD. The Cursor marks the next location where a character will be written. When we want to write a string of characters. it is ready to continue receiving data or instructions. first we need to set up the starting address.

The other way is to introduce a delay in the program. The LCD controller needs 40 to 120 microseconds (uS) for writing and reading. we can communicate with an LCD through a 4-bit data bus. The delay has to be long enough for the LCD to finish the operation in process. The size of DDRAM is 80 bytes. Thus we can reduce the total number of communication lines to seven. But this is not so. This is not the best method because LCD's can get stuck. That's why it is necessary to change the numbers from a binary system into a decimal system so they can be easily understood. As such. Characters that can be shown on the display are stored in data display (DD) RAM. One way is to check the BUSY bit found on data line D7. During that time. In the second row we have produced the word 'mikroElektronika'. labeled LM16X212 by Japanese maker SHARP. Before we access DD RAM after defining a special character. they cannot be displayed on a display. However. The wiring for connection via a 4-bit data bus is shown in the diagram below. Other operations can take up to 5 mS. and program will then stay forever in a loop checking the BUSY bit. Writing and reading data from any LCD memory is done from the last address which was set up using set-address instruction. Instructions for writing to and reading from an LCD memory are shown in the previous table. so a program needs to know when the LCD is busy. We can solve this in two ways. Until now we discussed the operation of writing and reading to an LCD as if it were an ordinary memory. When working with a microcontroller the numbers are presented in a binary form. a new written character will be displayed at the appropriate place on the screen. The message 'character' is written in the first row: and two special characters '~' and '}' are displayed.time. In this example we use an LCD display with 2x16 characters. For printing the variables lcdbyte and lcdword we have used the macros digbyte and digword which convert the numbers from binary system into a decimal system and 63 . At the beginning we mentioned that we needed 11 I/O lines to communicate with an LCD. Once the address of DD RAM is set. the microcontroller cannot access the LCD. the program must set the DD RAM address.

Digtemp. At the start it's necessary to declare variables LCDbuf.print the result on LCD. Dig2. Program initializes the LCD and demonstrates printing text and 8-bit variable temp. LCDtemp. It is also necessary to state the port of microcontroller that LCD is connected to. Main program has the purpose of demonstrating use of LCD display. Dig1. and Dig3 used by the macros for LCD support. 64 .

The characteristics of these relays have some limitations. It is useful if we want a small current in one circuit to control another circuit containing a device such as a lamp or electric motor which requires a large current. Relays have a coil which works on 12V dc power supply and provides DPDT action as an output.5. the soft iron core is magnetized and attracts the L-shaped soft iron armature. or if we wish several different switch contacts to be operated simultaneously. The current needed to operate a relay is called the pull-in current and the dropout current in the coil when the relay just stops working. If the coil resistance R of a relay is 185  and its operating voltage V is 12V. The VA burden of such relays are high. For important and costly equipment installation static relays are preferred. When the controlling current flows through the coil. which provides contact between two mechanical elements. 65 . Each relay can perform only one protective function. In general relays provide potential free contacts which can be used for universal function like DC.ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS A relay is a switch worked by an electromagnet. The electromechanical relays are based on the comparison between operating torque/force and restraining torque/force. the electrical contacts in the circuit being controlled it closes the contacts. AC voltage switching and to control bigger electrical switch gears. the pull-in current I is given by: I = V/R = 12/185 = 65 mA Relays are electromagnetic switches. closes or changes over. This rocks on its pivot and opens. Such relays are used for simple and less costly protection purposes.

The choice of protection depends upon several aspects such as # type and rating of the protected equipment. 66 . # probable abnormal conditions between generators and final load points. # its importance.FIG 5(a): Relay schematic diagram Protective relaying is necessary for almost every electrical plant and no part of the power system is left unprotected. Each needs certain adequate protection . # location and cost. self-contained devices which respond to abnormal conditions (relays can distinguish normal and abnormal conditions). The relays used in this project are compact.The protective relaying senses the abnormal conditions in a part of the power system and isolates that part from the healthy part of system. There are several electrical equipments and machines of various ratings.

which results in switching of the relay form NC to NO. then the transistor conducts. The operation is as follows. So ground is not applied to the relay Coil. 67 . So the relay remain in NC position. The Relay works only if the Positive and the Ground is connected to the appropriate terminals of the relay coil. So that when the relay is switched on the device gets supply and works. A Relay is connected as shown in the figure 5(a). When the output of the controller is High. Using this Normally open (NO) and Normally Closed (NC) contacts we can switch any supply AC or DC. the transistor will not conduct. When the output is Low. The supply to the operated device should be given to the Common of the relay and the output from the NO is given to the Device. We control the relay by controlling the ground signal given to the relay using a transistor. allowing the low potential to reach one end of the relay.The Relay driver Circuit Works as follows. Figure 5(a): Working Of Relay Circuit The output of the controller decides Relay operation.

When the solar panel voltage is present. the charging current is wasted by converting into heat (current is passed through low value. A potential divider is used at pin 2 of the ADC (IC2) using resisters R5. In this project. the duck-to-down sensor provides a signal to the microcontroller. and start a 5-minute times.0V. The LCD shows “battery full. we have used parallel regulation but instead of wasting the charging current as heat. is preferred in solar field.TESTING CIRCUIT Basically. this stage. When the voltage reaches 14. the control circuitry allows the charging current (even in MA) to flow into the battery and stop the charging once the battery is fully charged. The current and voltage output of a solar panel is governed by the angle of incidence of light. we have made it pulsed and applied to the battery to keep the battery topped-up. which is connected to the MOSFET BS170 (T2) . As Vref of the ADC is converted to Vcc (5V). the input voltage to the ADC connect exceed +5V. this part of the regulation dissipate a lot of heat. It monitors the input signal from the dusk-todawn sensor and activates the load or charging relay RL1 accordingly. Parallel regulation. At. During this stage. During charging. the microcontrollers read the battery voltage with the help of the ADC and display the values on LCD. there are two methods of controlling the charging current: series regulation and parallel (shunt) regulation. which the displays „charging‟ message on the LCD. the battery voltage is continuously monitored. The series type of regulation „wastes‟ a lot of energy while charging the battery as the control circuitry is always active and series regulator requires the input voltage to be 3-4 volts higher than the output voltage. The digital voltmeter works up to 20V.” 68 . the microcontroller interrupts the charging current by energizing the relay. which keeps varying. After power-on. high-wattage resister). R6 & R7 to scale down the voltage from ADC output is multiplied four times and displayed on the LCD as battery voltage.6. A series regulator is inserted between the solar panel and the battery. In parallel regulation.

the relay reconnects the panel to the battery. when the load is switched off. FIG 6(a): solar charger testing schematic circuit When the panel voltage falls below the zener diode (ZD1) voltage of the dusk-todawn sensor. In this mode. the battery voltage tends to rise back and the load oscillates between „on‟ and „off‟ states. This way. the microcontroller monitors for low battery. When the battery voltage drops below 10 volts. Normally. the microcontroller senses this and activates the load by switching on MOSFET T3 via optocoupler IC3 and “load on” message is displayed. To avoid this. the microcontroller employs a hysteresis control by intering into a „lock‟ mode during low-battery state and comes out of the lock mode when the duck-to-dawn sensor receives the panel 69 . the microcontroller turns off the load by switching off MOSFET T3 and “Battery Low-Load Off” message is displayed. the charging current is pulsed at the intervals of five minutes and the cycle repeats until the panel voltage is present.After 5-minutes.

the microcontroller keeps converting the ADC value and displays the battery voltage on the LCD.voltage (the next morning). 2. Click on the Project menu from the title bar Then Click on New Project 70 .1 SOURCE CODE 1. 4. Click on the Keil uVision Icon on DeskTop The following fig will appear FIG: 6. During lock mode. 6.1 (a): Keil Dumping Software Program Window 3.

e. Select the component for u r project. Then Click on Save button above. Atmel…… Click on the + Symbol beside of Atmel 71 . 8. i.5. 7. Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in u r own folder sited in either C:\ or D:\ 6.

Then Click on “OK” The Following fig will appear 72 . Select AT89C51 as shown below 10. 11.9.

13. you would get another option “Source group 1” as shown in next page.12. Then Click either YES or NO………mostly “NO” Now your project is ready to USE Now double click on the Target1. Click on the file option from menu bar and select “new” 73 . 15. 14.

then save it with extension “. and just maximize it by double clicking on its blue boarder.C” 74 . Now start writing program in either in “C” or “ASM” For a program written in Assembly. 17. The next screen will be as shown in next page.16. 18. asm” and for “C” based program save it with extension “ .

Now right click on Source group 1 and click on “Add files to Group Source” 20.19. Now you will get another window. 75 . on which by default “C” files will appear.

Any error will appear if so happen.21. then press Control+F5 simultaneously. 25. 24. 22. The new window is as follows 76 . 23. Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file Click only one time on option “ADD” Now Press function key F7 to compile. If the file contains no error.

26. Drag the port a side and click in the program file. and check your required port as shown in fig below 28. 27. 77 . Then Click “OK” Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar.

float Volt. TRISE = 0x00.h> #include <delay4.h> #defineRelay RC0 int Printval.29.h> #include <math.2 Program Used In PIC16F877 // With LCD Display #include <pic. TRISD = 0x00.c> #include <lcdportd.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib. 78 . 30.Volt1. You are running your program successfully 6. TRISC = 0x80. Now keep Pressing function key “F11” slowly and observe. void main() { TRISA = 0xff. char Ostr[5]. TRISB = 0xff.

while(ADGO) continue.'). LCD_SendData(Ostr[0]).').0) { Relay = 1. if(Volt > 6. LCD_SendData('V'). sprintf(Ostr. LCD_SendData(Ostr[1]). LCD_puts("BV:"). do { ADCON0 = 0x81. DelayUs(50). DelayMs(200). LCD_SendCmd(0x80). } LCD_SendCmd(0xc9). LCD_puts("Nt Chrg").(int)(Volt1 * 10)). Volt1 = (float)((ADRESH * 256)+ADRESL). PORTD = 0x00.0. LCD_puts("SV:"). LCD_SendCmd(0x89). LCD_SendData('. LCD_puts("Chrgng ").0.ADCON0 = 0x81. ADCON0 = 0x89."%3d". LCD_SendCmd(0x80). LCD_SendData(Ostr[1]). ADCON1 = 0x82. PORTE = 0x00.(int)(Volt * 10)). while(ADGO) continue. } else { Relay = 0. ADGO = 1. Volt = (float)((ADRESH * 256)+ADRESL). 79 . LCD_SendData('."%3d". LCD_SendCmd(0xc0). DelayUs(50). sprintf(Ostr. LCD_SendData(Ostr[0]). Relay = 0. Volt = Volt / 101. LCD_SendData(Ostr[2]). LCD_init(). LCD_SendData('V'). Volt1 = Volt1 / 102. ADGO = 1. LCD_SendData(Ostr[2]).

} else { LCD_puts("Volt OK").0) { LCD_puts("Lo Volt"). } 80 .if(Volt1 < 4. } DelayMs(200). }while(1).

However to extend use of solar power energy to industrial and commercial areas. By using the solar energy power generation technology the usage of non-conventional resources can be minimized which not only reduces the resource extinction but helps widely in reducing the environmental pollution. the growth rate may increase to 7%.7. By the end of 2010. India will have to depend on renewable energy. the price of PV cells need to be brought down through low-cost manufacturing techniques.CONCLUSION In future. and we can easily convert sunlight energy into electrical energy by using PV cells to meet our requirement. The only source available around us is sunlight. The key point is "Start Using Solar Power And Save Earth From Destruction" 81 . Presently.  By Generating Power Through Solar Energy The Cost Of Electricity Can Be Minimized And Occasionally Can Be Provided With Free Of Cost.  Electricity Can Be Supplied Even To Remote Areas With Out The usage Of Transmission Lines. solar systems are developing 2%.

com  www.8.electronicsforu.REFERENCES  Solar Electricity Engineering of Photovoltaic System – by Lorezo E. & Stoica P.wikipedia.F & McGown J.com 82 .  Power Electronics – by Bhimbra P.by Allen Mottershead  Basic Electronics – by Miami A.S  Electronics and Circuits .G  System Identification – by Solderstron T.  Solar Energy – by Maxwell J.com  www.atmel.K  www.

i. 7.5.e. Then Click on Save button above. Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in u r own folder sited in either C:\ or D:\ 6. Atmel…… Click on the + Symbol beside of Atmel . 8. Select the component for u r project.

Then Click on “OK” The Following fig will appear . 11.9. Select AT89C51 as shown below 10.

14. Click on the file option from menu bar and select “new” . 13. you would get another option “Source group 1” as shown in next page.12. Then Click either YES or NO………mostly “NO” Now your project is ready to USE Now double click on the Target1. 15.

asm” and for “C” based program save it with extension “ .C” .16. then save it with extension “. 18. The next screen will be as shown in next page. Now start writing program in either in “C” or “ASM” For a program written in Assembly. and just maximize it by double clicking on its blue boarder. 17.

Now you will get another window. . on which by default “C” files will appear. Now right click on Source group 1 and click on “Add files to Group Source” 20.19.

The new window is as follows .21. 23. Any error will appear if so happen. 25. Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file Click only one time on option “ADD” Now Press function key F7 to compile. 22. If the file contains no error. 24. then press Control+F5 simultaneously.

and check your required port as shown in fig below 28. . 27. Then Click “OK” Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar. Drag the port a side and click in the program file.26.

h> #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> #define Relay RC0 int Printval.2 Program Used In PIC16F877 // With LCD Display #include <pic.h> #include <delay4. char Ostr[5]. float Volt. void main() { TRISA = 0xff. Now keep Pressing function key “F11” slowly and observe. . TRISB = 0xff. 30.h> #include <stdlib.29. You are running your program successfully 6.Volt1. TRISC = 0x80.c> #include <lcdportd.

0. ADCON0 = 0x89. ADCON0 = 0x81."%3d". LCD_SendCmd(0xc0). ADGO = 1. PORTD = 0x00. LCD_SendData(Ostr[1]). ADGO = 1. LCD_puts("Chrgng ").TRISD = 0x00. LCD_SendData('V'). DelayUs(50). LCD_init(). Relay = 0. LCD_SendData('. sprintf(Ostr. LCD_SendCmd(0x80). LCD_SendData(Ostr[2]). LCD_SendData(Ostr[1]). } . if(Volt > 6. Volt = (float)((ADRESH * 256)+ADRESL). LCD_SendData(Ostr[0]). do { ADCON0 = 0x81. LCD_SendData('V'). DelayUs(50).0) { Relay = 1. TRISE = 0x00. LCD_puts("SV:").0. while(ADGO) continue. LCD_SendCmd(0x89). while(ADGO) continue. LCD_puts("BV:"). Volt = Volt / 101. ADCON1 = 0x82.'). LCD_SendData(Ostr[2]). LCD_SendCmd(0x80). sprintf(Ostr."%3d". Volt1 = (float)((ADRESH * 256)+ADRESL).'). DelayMs(200).(int)(Volt1 * 10)). LCD_SendData(Ostr[0]).(int)(Volt * 10)). Volt1 = Volt1 / 102. LCD_SendData('. PORTE = 0x00.

} else { LCD_puts("Volt OK"). }while(1). } DelayMs(200). if(Volt1 < 4.0) { LCD_puts("Lo Volt"). LCD_puts("Nt Chrg"). } .else { } Relay = 0. LCD_SendCmd(0xc9).

and we can easily convert sunlight energy into electrical energy by using PV cells to meet our requirement.  By Generating Power Through Solar Energy The Cost Of Electricity Can Be Minimized And Occasionally Can Be Provided With Free Of Cost. By using the solar energy power generation technology the usage of nonconventional resources can be minimized which not only reduces the resource extinction but helps widely in reducing the environmental pollution.CONCLUSION In future.7. solar systems are developing 2%. Presently. However to extend use of solar power energy to industrial and commercial areas. The only source available around us is sunlight.  Electricity Can Be Supplied Even To Remote Areas With Out The usage Of Transmission Lines. India will have to depend on renewable energy. The key point is "Start Using Solar Power And Save Earth From Destruction" . the growth rate may increase to 7%. the price of PV cells need to be brought down through low-cost manufacturing techniques. By the end of 2010.

➢ Power Electronics – by Bhimbra P.com ➢ www.com .wikipedia.F & McGown J.K ➢ www.by Allen Mottershead ➢ Basic Electronics – by Miami A.REFERENCES ➢ Solar Electricity Engineering of Photovoltaic System – by Lorezo E. ➢ Solar Energy – by Maxwell J.atmel.S ➢ Electronics and Circuits .G ➢ System Identification – by Solderstron T. & Stoica P.electronicsforu.com ➢ www.8.

Related Interests

t leave. each receives the other atom's four electrons. it might help to take a quick trip back to high school chemistry class. If silicon and phosphorus are combined chemically. So there we have a basic understand of how you produce solar electricity from using energy within the sun's rays. it's all about the free flow of electrons through a circuit. because they have no positive or negative charge.should always be facing the direction of the sun. it makes a ideal neutral platform for the transmission of electrons. Silicon atoms can combine for years to result in a large piece of pure silicon. Silicon atoms have room for eight electrons in their outer bands. but only carry four in their natural state. This means there is room for four more electrons. Silicon also has some atomic-level properties which make it even more attractive for the creation of solar panels. for example.

photons bombard the silicon/phosphorus atoms. With the two plates in place. is knocked off the outer ring. Eventually. The two plates are sandwiched together in solar panels. A calculator might only require a single solar cell. since the positive silicon/boron plate draws it into the open spot on its own outer band. This means the plate has a positive charge. but a solar-powered car would require several thousand. When the negative plates of solar cells are pointed at a proper angle to the sun. which only has three electrons to offer. A silicon/boron plate still has one spot left for another electron. Some power from solar panels can be stored in chemical batteries. which eventually cause the panels to degrade physically. which can also seriously affect efficiency. electricity is generated. solar cells works on the concept of PN junction where when light incidents on the solar cell then the heat energy or the photonic energy which was present in the 26 . but there usually isn't much excess power in the first place. but when all of the conductive wires draw the free electrons away from the plates. The panels must also be exposed to destructive weather elements. This electron doesn't remain free for long.In order for electricity to flow. there is enough electricity to power low amperage motors or other electronics. Natural sunlight sends out many different particles of energy. but the one we're most interested in is called a photon. the 9th electron. This is achieved in solar panels by combining silicon with an element such as boron. Whatever electrons are not used or lost to the air are returned to the negative plate and the entire process begins again. it's now time to bring in the 'solar' aspect of solar panels. The same sunlight that provides photons also provides more destructive ultraviolet and infrared waves. with conductive wires running between them. A photon essentially acts like a moving hammer. which wants to be free anyway. One of the main problems with using solar panels is the small amount of electricity they generate compared to their size. The electricity generated by one solar cell is not very impressive. If the angle of the solar panels is changed even slightly. the efficiency can drop 50 percent. a positive charge must also be created. As the sun's photons break off more electrons.

which references the importance of light (photos) in the generation of electrical voltage.terminals.photons which were located in the solar rays was converted into electrical energy by means of PN junction of semiconductor principle where the majority carriers of P and N material Crosses the junction as a result movement of these charge carriers causes current flow which can be extracted from the either side of the solar cell in the form of DC output with + and . Thus the DC Output obtained can be given to any digital circuits or it can be converted into AC by using the INVERTER and can be utilized for house hold purposes. 27 . Many sources also refer to solar panels as photovoltaic cells. The challenge for future scientists will be to create more efficient solar panels are small enough for practical applications and powerful enough to create excess energy for times when sunlight is not available.

1 Advantages       Salient and low maintenance Solid states with no moving parts High-quality powers Life times of 20 to30 years Flexible and reliable Modular and expandable 2.5. 28 .connected homes Rail road signaling Satellites and space station Out door lightning‟s Telecommunication and water pumping.2. etc.5 PV CELLS AT GLANCE 2.5.2 Applications       Coast guard navigation Off-grid and grid.

but in either case the task is performed by a computer system programmed appropriately. Its programming cannot be changed except in ways that its original programmer intended. but this is not necessarily the case. Each motor on each joint of each leg might be controlled by its own embedded system that implements some form of motor control strategy such as pulse width modulation or stepper motor control as appropriate. Generally. This simple article provides what is an embedded system and its applications. and acquires sensory input (probably joint angles and forces). however an embedded system is programmed to perform its task from the time it is powered up until it is shut down. "But" you say. Thus. An embedded system is a large or small computer system that is built into a product. these low-level embedded systems could be controlled by a higher-level embedded system that issues commands for each leg to implement the desired robot motion. the task may be extremely complex or extremely simple. An embedded system is a component of a larger system of some sort. and that performs some task useful to the product. or legged. Indeed. It is a computer system that is programmed to perform a particular task. " all computers are programmed to perform tasks!" True. Just like a logic gate or other electronic component.3. embedded systems may be nested within other embedded systems to arbitrary depth. This leads to the notion of an embedded system as a component. Again. the "higher level" embedded system is the more complex one. an embedded systems has a single task to perform. equipment or system. a piece of equipment or another computer system. robot. these two levels of embedded system implement a motion control platform. PIC MICRO CONTROLLER Embedded System Plays a major role in day to day advancement and achievements. An example of nested embedded systems might be a walking. to which commands are sent by a yet higherlevel system that performs robot path planning and computes the overall motion for 29 . that is not a relevant distinction. In a multi-legged robot. This task may be very simple or very complex.

and  they are considered to be a component of the (usually much larger) product. Embedded systems come in a tremendous variety of "sizes and flavors". pulse oximeters. coffee makers. or may be as large as a system with 256 megabytes of memory. In this example. but all embedded systems have these features:  they perform a very well-defined task for the product.  elevator. The range of physical and "computing" sizes is huge. equipment or system in which they are found  they do not permit user interaction with their operation except where such interaction may be the task of the embedded system. fuel injection. a small disc (20 gigabytes or so). CD players and consumer electronics.  control of data communications routers for wide-band communications. 30 .the robot.  timing and control electronics in microwave ovens.  internal operation of medical instrumentation such as infusion pumps. Examples of Pic Microcontroller Based embedded systems include:  keyboard and other controllers for computers.  parking meter controllers. a Pentium processor and a host of intelligent peripherals. it is entirely possible that a still-higher level system controls the path planner.  controllers for vacuum cleaners and washing machines for sensing dirt loads. suspension stiffness and environmental temperature and noise in automobiles. An embedded system may be as small as a single 8-pin integrated circuit that performs the functions of a few logic gates.  and many more. equipment or system.  disc controllers for computer systems. we see a hierarchy of four levels of nested embedded systems. environmental and security systems in buildings. This system may not be at the top of the embedded system hierarchy. ignition.  control of the dashboard.

Other than the normal Microcontrollers PIC Family supports more features, so we have chosen PIC 16F877 as the main controller. The Main features and Peripherals features are discussed below.

The PIC Microcontroller board consists of circuits necessary to operate a Microcontroller with PC interface. The board contains provisions for interfacing 8 analog inputs and 23 Digital level signals. The Description of the circuit is given below.

Analog inputs: Pin no 2 to 10 can be used to connect any analog signals of range 0-5v.

Digital signals: As mentioned in the circuit the pin outs from the port is taken to a 26 pin FRC connector through which we can connect our Digital level signals 0 or 5 volts.

Clock: The PIC16F877 can be operated in Four Different oscillator modes. The user can program two configuration bits FOSC1 and FOSC0 to select one of these four modes. *LP - Low Power crystal *XT - crystal / resonator *HS - High speed crystal/resonator *RC - Resistor capacitor The clock we have used is 10 MHZ which full under HS category.

MCLR/VPP: This is master clear input pin to the IC. A logic low signal will generate a reset signal to the microcontroller. So we have tied this pin to VCC for the proper operation of the microcontroller.

31

TXD and RXD: TO communicate with the outside world the microcontroller has an inbuilt USART. The O/P and I/P line from the USART is taken and given to a MAX232 IC for having communication with the PC. Since we have used comport for interfacing the microcontroller.

VCC and Ground: Pin no 32, 11 are tied to VCC and pin no 31, 12 are grounded to provide power supply to the chip.

3.1 CORE FEATURES • High performance RISC CPU
• Only 35 single word instructions to learn • All single cycle instructions except for program Branches which are two cycle • Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input DC - 200 ns instruction cycle • Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) • Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) • Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes • Power-on Reset (POR) • Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) • Processor read/write access to program memory • Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V • Low-power consumption: - < 0.6 mA typical @ 3V, 4 MHz < 1 µA typical standby current
32

3.2 PERIPHERAL FEATURES • Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler
• Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler, can be incremented during SLEEP • Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler • 10-bit multi-channel Analog-to-Digital converter • Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) wi

• Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI) with 9-bit address detection • Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8-bits wide, with external RD, WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only)

Figure 3.2(a) - Block Diagram of PIC Micro Controller
33

Figure 3.2(b) - Circuit Diagram of PIC16F877

34

The RESET vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h. The Program Memory and Data Memory have separate buses so that concurrent access can occur and is detailed in this section. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound.Fig 3. The PIC16F87X devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space.2(c): PIC16f877 Pin Diagram There are three memory blocks in each of the PIC16F87X MCUs. The PIC16F877/876 devices have 8K x 14 words of FLASH program memory. 35 .

Fig 3.2(d): PIC16f877 Pin Out Description 36 .

Fig 3.2(e): PIC16f877 Pin Out Description 37 .

Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The PIC16F877/876 devices have 8K x 14 words of FLASH program memory. the execution takes two instruction cycles with the second cycle executed as a NOP. implemented as static RAM. If ‟d‟ is one. Thus. All instructions are executed within one single instruction cycle. All implemented banks contain Special Function Registers. The lower locations of each bank are reserved for the Special Function Registers. In this case. The RESET vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h. or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction. ‟f‟ represents a file register designator and ‟d‟ represents a destination designator. while ‟f‟ represents the address of the file in which the bit is located. The file register designator specifies which file register is to be used by the instruction. The destination designator specifies where the result of the operation is to be placed. For literal and control operations. unless a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound. the instruction execution time is 2 µs. 38 . ‟k‟ represents an eight or eleven bit constant or literal value. for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz. the result is placed in the W register. Some frequently used Special Function Registers from one bank may be mirrored in another bank for code reduction and quicker access. the normal instruction execution time is 1 µs. ‟b‟ represents a bit field designator which selects the number of the bit affected by the operation. The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks which contain the General Purpose Registers and the Special Function Registers.The PIC16F87X devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space. If ‟d‟ is zero. For bit-oriented instructions. If a conditional test is true. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods. For byte-oriented instructions. the result is placed in the file register specified in the instruction. Bits RP1 (STATUS<6>)and RP0 (STATUS<5>) are the bank select bits.

therefore. 3. If the STATUS register is the destination for an instruction that affects the Z.3. CLRF STATUS will clear the upper threebits and set the Z bit. 3. as with any other register. Those registers associated with the core functions are described in detail in this section. that only BCF. the TO and PD bits are not writable. the RESET status and the bank select bits for data memory. BSF.2 Status Registers The STATUS register contains the arithmetic status of the ALU. The Special Function Registers can be classified into two sets: core (CPU) and peripheral. These registers are implemented as static RAM. therefore. This leaves the STATUS register as 000u u1uu (where u = unchanged).1 Special Function Registers The Special Function Registers are registers used by the CPU and peripheral modules for controlling the desired operation of the device.It is recommended. the result of an instruction with the STATUS register as destination may be different than intended.SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the STATUS register. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI. These bits are set or cleared according to the device logic. DC or C bits.) The USART can be configured as a full duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as CRT terminals and personal computers.The STATUS register can be the destination for any instruction. Those related to the operation of the peripheral features are described in detail in the peripheral features section.4 ADDRESSABLE UNIVERSAL SYNCHRONOUS ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER TRANSMITTER (USART) The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. or it can be configured as a half duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as A/D or 39 .3. C or DC bits from the STATUS register. because these instructions do not affect the Z. For example. then the write to these three bits is disabled.3 REGISTERS 3. Furthermore.3.

4(a) . The USART can be configured in the following modes: • Asynchronous (full duplex) • Synchronous .Transmit status and Control register (address 98h) bit 7 CSRC: Clock Source Select bit Asynchronous mode: Don‟t care Synchronous mode: 1 = Master mode (clock generated internally from BRG) 0 = Slave mode (clock from external source) bit 6 TX9: 9-bit Transmit Enable bit 1 = Selects 9-bit transmission 0 = Selects 8-bit transmission bit 5 TXEN: Transmit Enable bit 1 = Transmit enabled 0 = Transmit disabled bit 4 SYNC: USART Mode Select bit 1 = Synchronous mode 0 = Asynchronous mode bit 2 BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = High speed 40 . serial EEPROMs etc.Master (half duplex) • Synchronous .D/A integrated circuits. Figure 3. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection.Slave (half duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.

As soon as the STOP bit is transmitted. TXREG. The shift register obtains its data from the read/write transmit buffer. The most common data format is 8-bits. and one STOP bit).4. The baud rate generator produces a clock. the USART uses standard non-return-to zero (NRZ) format (one START bit.4. dedicated. either x16 or x64 of the bit shift rate.1 Usart Asynchronous Mode In this mode. Asynchronous mode is stopped during SLEEP. can be parity bit 3. Parity is not supported by the hardware. The USART transmits and receives the LSb first. depending on bit BRGH (TXSTA<2>). but can be implemented in software (and stored as the ninth data bit). The transmitter and receiver are functionally independent. Asynchronous mode is selected by clearing bit SYNC (TXSTA<4>). Once the TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR register (occurs in one TCY).0 = Low speed Synchronous mode: Unused in this mode bit 1 TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit 1 = TSR empty 0 = TSR full bit 0 TX9D: 9th bit of Transmit Data. The USART Asynchronous module consists of the following important elements: • Baud Rate Generator • Sampling Circuit • Asynchronous Transmitter • Asynchronous Receiver 3. eight or nine data bits. 8-bit baud rate generator can be used to derive standard baud rate frequencies from the oscillator. The TXREG register is loaded with data in software. the TSR is loaded with new data from the TXREG register (if available).2 Usart Asynchronous Transmitter The heart of the transmitter is the transmit (serial) shift register (TSR). The TSR register is not loaded until the STOP bit has been transmitted from the previous load. An on-chip. but use the same data format and baud rate. 41 .

set bit BRGH. If a high speed baud rate is desired. 3. At that point. so the user has to poll this bit in order to determine if the TSR register is empty. In such a case. The transmission can also be started by first loading the TXREG register and then setting enable bit TXEN. 2. Flag bit TXIF will be set. Status bit TRMT is a read only bit. 4. If interrupts are desired. regardless of the state of enable bit TXIE and cannot be cleared in software. an incorrect ninth data bit may be loaded in the TSR register. transfer to the TXREG register will result in an immediate transfer to TSR.the TXREG register is empty and flag bit TXIF (PIR1<4>) is set. Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN. A back-to-back transfer is thus possible Clearing enable bit TXEN during a transmission will cause the transmission to be aborted and will reset the transmitter. While flag bit TXIF indicates the status of the TXREG register. then set enable bit TXIE.In order to select 9-bit transmission. then set transmit bit TX9. follow these steps: 1. another bit TRMT (TXSTA<1>) shows the status of the TSR register. Transmission is enabled by setting enable bit TXEN (TXSTA<5>). when transmission is first started. the TSR register is empty. When setting up an Asynchronous Transmission. It will reset only when new data is loaded into the TXREG register. If 9-bit transmission is desired. This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit TXIE (PIE1<4>). transmit bit TX9 (TXSTA<6>) should be set and the ninth bit should be written to TX9D (TXSTA<0>). As a result. Normally. which is set when the TSR register is empty. Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate baud rate. the RC6/TX/CK pin will revert to hi-impedance. The ninth bit must be written before writing the 8-bit data to the TXREG register. The actual transmission will not occur until the TXREG register has been loaded with data and the baud rate generator (BRG) has produced a shift clock. No interrupt logic is tied to this bit. 42 . resulting in an empty TXREG. This is because a data write to the TXREG register can result in an immediate transfer of the data to the TSR register (if the TSR is empty).

The data recovery block is actually a high speed shifter. The RCREG register can be read twice to retrieve the two bytes in the FIFO. Reading the RCREG will load bits RX9D and FERR with new values.3 Usart Asynchronous Receiver The data is received on the RC7/RX/DT pin and drives the data recovery block. operating at x16 times the baud rate.4.5. essential to clear error bit OERR if it is set. which is cleared by the hardware. The actual interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit RCIE (PIE1<5>). the main receive serial shifter operates at the bit rate or at FOSC. 6. The heart of the receiver is the receive (serial) shift register (RSR). If the transfer is complete. reception is enabled by setting bit CREN (RCSTA<4>). If using interrupts. Load data to the TXREG register (starts transmission). whereas. The word in the RSR will be lost. which will also set bit TXIF. Overrun bit OERR has to be cleared in software. transfers from the RSR register to the RCREG register are inhibited. 7. 43 . and no further data will be received. 3. the ninth bit should be loaded in bit TX9D. Flag bit RCIF is a read only bit. the received data in the RSR is transferred to the RCREG register (if it is empty). After sampling the STOP bit. If bit OERR is set. This is done by resetting the receiver logic (CREN is cleared and then set). It is therefore. If the RCREG register is still full. 8. Framing error bit FERR (RCSTA<2>) is set if a STOP bit is detected as clear. It is cleared when the RCREG register has been read and is empty. it is essential for the user to read the RCSTA register before reading the RCREG register in order not to lose the old FERR and RX9D information. the overrun error bit OERR (RCSTA<1>) will be set. therefore. flag bit RCIF (PIR1<5>) is set. If 9-bit transmission is selected. ensure that GIE and PEIE (bits 7 and 6) of the INTCON register are set. Enable the transmission by setting bit TXEN. Once Asynchronous mode is selected. Bit FERR and the 9th receive bit are buffered the same way as the receive data.

5 ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER (A/D) MODULE The Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter module has five inputs for the 28-pin devices and eight for the other devices. The A/D module has four registers. The ADCON1 register.3. shown in Figure 11. Additional information on using the A/D module can be found in the PIC micro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023). The A/D conversion of the analog input signal results in a corresponding 10-bit digital number. the A/D clock must be derived from the A/D‟s internal RC oscillator. controls the operation of the A/D module.ADCON0 Register (address: 1fh) bit 7-6 ADCS1:ADCS0: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits 00 = FOSC/2 01 = FOSC/8 10 = FOSC/32 11 = FRC (clock derived from the internal A/D module RC oscillator) bit 5-3 CHS2:CHS0: Analog Channel Select bits 000 = channel 0. shown in Figure 12. Figure 11. configures the functions of the port pins. (RA0/AN0) 001 = channel 1. These registers are: • A/D Result High Register (ADRESH) • A/D Result Low Register (ADRESL) • A/D Control Register0 (ADCON0) • A/D Control Register1 (ADCON1) The ADCON0 register. (RA1/AN1) 44 . or as digital I/O. To operate in SLEEP. The port pins can be configured as analog inputs (RA3 can also be the voltage reference). The A/D converter has a unique feature of being able to operate while the device is in SLEEP mode.

Configure the A/D module: • Configure analog pins/voltage reference and digital I/O (ADCON1) • Select A/D input channel (ADCON0) • Select A/D conversion clock (ADCON0) • Turn on A/D module (ADCON0) 45 .ADCON1 Register (address 9fh) bit 7 ADFM: A/D Result Format Select bit 1 = Right justified. (RE1/AN6)(1) 111 = channel 7. (RA3/AN3) 100 = channel 4. 6 Least Significant bits of ADRESL are read as „0‟. (RE0/AN5)(1) 110 = channel 6. (RA5/AN4) 101 = channel 5.010 = channel 2. (RE2/AN7)(1) bit 2 GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit If ADON = 1: 1 = A/D conversion in progress (setting this bit starts the A/D conversion) 0 = A/D conversion not in progress (this bit is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion is complete) bit 1 Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 0 ADON: A/D On bit 1 = A/D converter module is operating 0 = A/D converter module is shut-off and consumes no operating current Figure 12. 6 Most Significant bits of ADRESH are read as „0‟. (RA2/AN2) 011 = channel 3. 0 = Left justified. bit 6-4 Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 3-0 PCFG3:PCFG0: A/D Port Configuration Control bits: These steps should be followed for doing an A/D Conversion: 1.

OR • Waiting for the A/D interrupt 6. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits in various registers. It also has individual and global interrupt enable bits. clear bit ADIF if required. Wait for A/D conversion to complete. A global interrupt enable bit. Individual interrupt bits are set. which re-enables interrupts. exits the interrupt routine. The RB0/INT pin interrupt. the interrupt will vector immediately. A minimum wait of 2TAD is required before the next acquisition starts. 46 . and the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in the INTCON register. The “return from interrupt” instruction. PIE1 and PIE2. The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the special function registers. The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. RETFIE. PIR1 and PIR2. as well as sets the GIE bit. GIE (INTCON<7>) enables (if set) all unmasked interrupts.6 INTERRUPTS The PIC16F87X family has up to 14 sources of interrupt. For the next conversion. regardless of the status of the GIE bit. and an interrupt‟s flag bit and mask bit are set. by either: • Polling for the GO/DONE bit to be cleared (with interrupts enabled).2. and the peripheral interrupt enable bit is contained in special function register INTCON. The interrupt control register (INTCON) records individual interrupt requests in flag bits. Read A/D result register pair (ADRESH:ADRESL). as required. Start conversion: • Set GO/DONE bit (ADCON0) 5. or disables (if cleared) all interrupts. The GIE bit is cleared on RESET. The corresponding interrupt enable bits are contained in special function registers. When bit GIE is enabled. 3. 4. 7. Wait the required acquisition time. the RB port change interrupt. Configure A/D interrupt (if desired): • Clear ADIF bit • Set ADIE bit • Set PEIE bit • Set GIE bit 3. go to step 1 or step 2.

The interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to avoid recursive interrupts. regardless of the status of their corresponding mask bit. bit-oriented. or the GIE bit. the interrupt latency will be three or four instruction cycles. Note: Individual interrupt flag bits are set.When an interrupt is responded to. such as the INT pin or PORTB change interrupt. regardless of the status of their corresponding mask bit. Once in the Interrupt Service Routine. For external interrupt events. the GIE bit is cleared to disable any further interrupt. and literal and control operations. the result is placed in the W register. while ‟f‟ represents the address of the file in which the bit is located. 3. Individual interrupt flag bits are set. The PIC16F87X instruction set summary in byteoriented. ‟b‟ represents a bit field designator which selects the number of the bit affected by the operation.7 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY Each PIC16F87X instruction is a 14-bit word. PEIE bit. For bit-oriented instructions. The destination designator specifies where the result of the operation is to be placed. The latency is the same for one or two-cycle instructions. ‟f‟ represents a file register designator and„d‟ represents a destination designator. The file register designator specifies which file register is to be used by the instruction. or GIE bit. the result is placed in the file register specified in the instruction. 47 . For byte-oriented instructions. If „d‟ is zero. the return address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded with 0004h. divided into an OPCODE which specifies the instruction type and one or more operands which further specify the operation of the instruction. The exact latency depends when the interrupt event occurs. the source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling the interrupt flag bits. I'd‟ is one.

In this case. 3.Pin Diagram of MAX232 48 . Using this device we cannot make Parameter more effective.For literal and control operations. All instructions are executed within one single instruction cycle. Here we have used MAX232 as a serial interface chip. Thus.8 INTERFACE WITH PC Even if all the parameters are processed through a PIC Microcontroller the display unit used will be a Seven segment Display or an LCD Display. So to Interface a PC with our Microcontroller unit we need a RS232 interface. If a conditional test is true. the execution takes two instruction cycles with the second cycle executed as a NOP. or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction. ‟k‟ represents an eight or eleven bit constant or literal value. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods. Figure 13. unless a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction. In order to make the Parameter more effectively illustrated on Screen we can go for PC instead of LCD Displays. for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz. the instruction execution time is 2µs. the normal instruction execution time is 1 µs.

The second charge pump uses external capacitor to invert +10V to –10V with an overall output impedance of 45. To ensure compatibility with either RS232 49 .9 v The slow rate at output is limited to less than 30V/s and the powered done output impedance will be a minimum of 300 with +2V applied to the output with Vcc =0V. Increasing the value of C1 and C2 to 47F will lower the output impedance of +5V to+10V doubled by about 5 and +10V to -10V inverter by about 10.5V and maximum allowable ambient temperature typical voltage with 5K and Vcc= +.The outputs are short circuit protected and can be short circuited to ground indefinitely. The open circuit output voltage swing is guaranteed to meet the RS232 specification + 5v output swing under the worst of both transmitter driving the 3K Minimum load impedance. the Vcc input at 4. The value of C1 and C4 can be lowered to 1F in systems where size is critical at the expense of an additional 20 impedance +10V output and 40 additional impedance at –10V input.The MAX232 power supply section has 2 charge pumps the first uses external capacitors C1 to double the +5V input to +10V with input impedance of approximately 200. They‟re input impedance is between 3K either with or without 5V power applied and their switching threshold is within the +3V of RS232 specification. The input is TTL and CMOS compatible with a logic threshold of about 26% of Vcc. The best circuit uses 22F capacitors for C1 and C4 but the value is not critical. The input if an unused transmitter section can be left unconnected: an internal 400K pull up resistor connected between the transistor input and Vcc will pull the input high forming the unused transistor output low. Increasing the value of C3 and C4 lowers the ripple on the power supplies thereby lowering the 16KHz ripple on the RS232 output. The two receivers fully conform to RS232 specifications. Each of the two transmitters is a CMOS inverter powered by + 10V internally generated supply. Normally these capacitors are low cost aluminum electrolyte capacitors or tantalum if size is critical.

9.5V of hysterisis to improve noise rejection.9 POWER SUPPLY UNIT As we all know any invention of latest technology cannot be activated without the source of power.4V the receivers have 0. the cheapest and commonly available energy source of 230v-50Hz and stepping down. Figure 3. rectifying. The MAX232 receivers have VIL of 0.8V and –30V.1 Step Down Transformer When AC is applied to the primary winding of the power transformer it can either be stepped down or up depending on the value of DC needed. The receiver output will be high when input is floating or driven between +0. One alteration of input causes the top of the transformer to be positive and the bottom negative. So it this fast moving world we deliberately need a proper power source which will be apt for a particular requirement.4V. filtering and regulating the voltage. The next alteration will temporarily cause the reverse. In our circuit the transformer of 230v/15-0-15v is used to perform the step down operation where a 230V AC appears as 15V AC across the secondary winding. 3. All the electronic components starting from diode to Intel IC‟s only work with a DC supply ranging from -+5v to -+12v. 3. This will be dealt briefly in the forth-coming sections.IIP or TTl\CMOS input.9(a) : Power Supply Unit For The Microcontroller We are utilizing for the same. The current rating of the transformer 50 . The TTL\CMOS compatible output of receiver will be low whenever the RS232 input is greater than 2.8V and VIH of 2.

two diodes are connected to the positive voltage at the top winding and only one diode conducts. 3. This capacitor is also called as a decoupling capacitor or a bypassing capacitor. At the same time one of the other two diodes conducts for the negative voltage that is applied from the bottom winding due to the forward bias for that diode. Since each altercation produces a resulting output pulse. A load resistor R1 is 51 . 3.3 FILTERING UNIT Filter circuits which are usually capacitors acting as a surge arrester always follow the rectifier unit. it gives isolation between the power source and power supply circuitries. frequency = 2*50 Hz. rectification is normally achieved using a solid state diode. electrons only flow when the anode and cathode is negative. The DC output has a ripple frequency of 100Hz. The DC voltage appearing across the output terminals of the bridge rectifier will be somewhat lass than 90% of the applied rms value. Normally one alteration of the input voltage will reverse the polarities.8v pulsating DC. Two diodes will conduct during the negative cycle and the other two will conduct during the positive half cycle. Opposite ends of the transformer will therefore always be 180 deg out of phase with each other. Diode has the property that will let the electron flow easily in one direction at proper biasing condition.used in our project is 2A. As AC is applied to the diode.9. In this circuit due to positive half cycleD1 & D2 will conduct to give 10. Apart from stepping down AC voltages.2 Rectifier Unit In the power supply unit. is used not only to „short‟ the ripple with frequency of 120Hz to ground but also to leave the frequency of the DC to appear at the output. The output obtained is not a pure DC and therefore filtration has to be done. Reversing the polarity of voltage will not permit electron flow. A commonly used circuit for supplying large amounts of DC power is the bridge rectifier. A bridge rectifier of four diodes (4*IN4007) are used to achieve full wave rectification. For a positive cycle.9.

9. O. 3.9.51v.4 Voltage Regulators The voltage regulators play an important role in any power supply unit.connected so that a reference to the ground is maintained.5% of the load. Without capacitor: Vavg = (15-1. The primary purpose of a regulator is to aid the rectifier and filter circuit in providing a constant DC voltage to the device. 3. At the secondary side of the transformer. Frequency = 0Hz With 7812 voltage regulator: V0= +12v 52 .2)v = 13. it passes only low frequency signals and bypasses high frequency signals.414(form factor) = 19.8c pulsating DC Frequency = 100Hz With capacitor: V=Vavg *1.2v.6= 1. 1 : for bypassing the high frequency disturbances. C2R2 is used as a low pass filter. the voltage can be maintained within a close tolerant region of the desired output.e. 1000f/25v : for the reduction of ripples from the pulsating.5 Specifications Resistors R1 and R2 maintain line load regulation. 10f/25v : for maintaining the stability of the voltage at the load side. The load resistor should be 1% to 2. With a regulator connected to the DC output. i. C1R1 is for bypassing ripples. Applied voltage = 15v Conducting drop across the diodes = 2*0. IC7812 and 7912 is used in this project for providing +12v and –12v DC supply. Power supplies without regulators have an inherent problem of changing DC voltage values due to variations in the load or due to fluctuations in the AC liner voltage.

FIG 4.1 PIN DESCRIPTION The most commonly used LCDs found in the market today are 1 Line. special stuff and tricks you can do with these simple looking LCDs which can give a new look to your application. In this tutorial. various interfaces (8-bit/4-bit). their interfacing with various microcontrollers. Pin description is shown in the table below. whereas LCDs supporting more than 80 characters make use of 2 HD44780 controllers. 4. LCD DISPLAY The most commonly used Character based LCDs are based on Hitachi's HD44780 controller or other which are compatible with HD44580. we will discuss about character based LCDs.4.1(a): Character LCD type HD44780 Pin diagram 53 . Most LCDs with 1 controller has 14 Pins and LCDs with 2 controller has 16 Pins (two pins are extra in both for back-light LED connections). programming. 2 Line or 4 Line LCDs which have only 1 controller and support at most of 80 characters.

10 D3 Data bus line 3 Pin no. Pin no. 2 Pin no. 11 D4 Data bus line 4 Pin no. 14 D7 Data bus line 7 (MSB) TABLE 4. 6 Pin no. 10 D3 Data bus line 3 Pin no. 4 RS 1 = Data input 0 = Write to LCD module Pin no.1(b): Pin description Of LCD Display with controller 1 Pin No. 14 D7 Data bus line 7 (MSB) TABLE 4. 7 D0 Data bus line 0 (LSB) Pin no. 7 Pin no. 11 D4 Data bus line 4 Pin no. 8 D1 Data bus line 1 Pin no. 1 Pin no. 5 Pin no. 13 D6 Data bus line 6 Pin no. 1 Pin no. 5 R/W 1 = Read from LCD module Pin no. 12 D5 Data bus line 5 Pin no. 11 RS . 6 EN Enable signal Pin no. 9 D2 Data bus line 2 Pin no. 10 R/W Pin no. 13 D6 Data bus line 6 Pin no. 8 Pin no. 2 Pin no. 4 Pin no. 3 Pin no. Pin no.Pin No. 9 Name D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 EN1 Description Data bus line 7 (MSB) Data bus line 6 Data bus line 5 Data bus line 4 Data bus line 3 Data bus line 2 Data bus line 1 Data bus line 0 (LSB) Enable signal for row 0 and 1 (1stcontroller) 0 = Write to LCD module 1 = Read from LCD module 0 = Instruction input 54 Name VSS VCC VEE Pin no. 12 D5 Data bus line 5 Pin no.1(a): Pin description Of LCD Display Pin no. 9 D2 Data bus line 2 Pin no. 3 Description Power supply(GND) Power supply (+5V) Contrast adjust 0 = Instruction input Pin no. 8 D1 Data bus line 1 Pin no.

So whatever you send on the DDRAM is actually displayed on the LCD. 14 VCC Power supply (+5V) Pin no. Its extended capacity is 80 X 8 bits. The area in display data ram (DDRAM) that is not used for display can be used as general data RAM.1(b): Pin description Of LCD Display with controller 2 Usually these days you will find single controller LCD modules are used more in the market. 15 EN2 Enable signal for row 2 and 3 (2ndcontroller) Pin no. 16 NC Not Connected TABLE 4.2 DDRAM . 13 VSS Power supply (GND) Pin no. Figures below will show you the DDRAM addresses of 1 Line.2(a): DDRAM Address for 1 Line LCD Figure 4. So in the tutorial we will discuss more about the single controller LCD. 12 VEE Contrast adjust Pin no. the operation and everything else is same for the double controller too. 2 Line and 4 Line LCDs. For LCDs like 1x16.1 = Data input Pin no. so whatever you write after 16 chars is written in DDRAM but is not visible to the user. 4. only 16 characters are visible.Display Data RAM Display data RAM (DDRAM) stores display data represented in 8-bit character codes. or 80 characters.2(b) : DDRAM Address for 2 Line LCD 55 . Figure 4. Lets take a look at the basic information which is there in every LCD.

and for 5 x 10 dots. 56 . In the character generator RAM. how the character is displayed on LCD? so the answer is CGROM. For 5 x 8 dots. User defined character patterns are also available by mask-programmed ROM. As clear from the name. It can generate 208 5 x 8 dot character patterns and 32 5 x 10 dot character patterns. the character code from 0x00 to 0x07 is occupied by the CGRAM characters or the user defined characters.Figure 4. when user send 0x03 code to the LCD DDRAM then the fourth user created character will be displayed.2(c): DDRAM Address for 4 Line LCD 4. Later in this tutorial i will explain how to use CGRAM area to make custom character and also making animations to give nice effects to your application.e. the user can rewrite character patterns by program.Character Generator ROM Now you might be thinking that when you send an ascii value to DDRAM.3 CGROM . The character generator ROM generates 5 x 8 dot or 5 x 10 dot character patterns from 8-bit character codes (see Figure 5 and Figure 6 for more details). four character patterns can be written. eight character patterns can be written. CGRAM area is used to create custom characters in LCD. As you can see in both the code maps. If user want to display the fourth custom character then the code to display it is 0x03 i.

this flag is set (i. When BF = 1 means LCD is busy and will not accept next command or data and BF = 0 means LCD is ready for next. This is helpful in producing and exact delay.g LCD shift command. LCD address etc. and Data register is used for 57 . the condition RS = 0 and R/W = 1 must be met and The MSB of the LCD data bus (D7) act as busy flag.3 (a) : LCD characters code map for 5x8 dots Busy Flag is an status indicator flag for LCD. LCD clear. There are two 8-bit registers in HD44780 controller Instruction and Data register. When we send a command or data to the LCD for processing. Instruction register corresponds to the register where you send commands to LCD e. To read Busy Flag.Figure 4.e BF =1) and as soon as the instruction is executed successfully this flag is cleared (BF = 0).

Before starting the internal operation of the LCD. Only the instruction register (IR) and the data register (DR) of the LCD can be controlled by the MCU. the data on the pins is latched in to the data register and data is then moved automatically to the DDRAM and hence is displayed on the LCD. Figure 4.storing data which is to be displayed on LCD. We will discuss more on LCD instruction set further in this tutorial. control information is temporarily stored into these registers to allow interfacing with various MCUs. The 58 . which operate at different speeds. or various peripheral control devices. the address where you want to send the data.3(b) : LCD characters code map for 5x10 dots Data Register is not only used for sending data to DDRAM but also for CGRAM. when send the enable signal of the LCD is asserted. is decided by the instruction you send to LCD.

There are four categories of instructions that:  Designate LCD functions.internal operation of the LCD is determined by signals sent from the MCU. make up the LCD instructions (Table 3). and the data bus (DB0 to DB7). read/write signal (R/W). data length. These signals.  Set internal RAM addresses  Perform data transfer with internal RAM  Perform miscellaneous functions 59 . etc. such as display format. which include register selection signal (RS).

3 (a) : Command and Instruction set for LCD type HD44780 Although looking at the table you can make your own commands and test them.3 (b): Frequently used commands and instructions for LCD * DDRAM address given in LCD basics section see Figure 2. 5x7 Dots 0x30 48 Function Set: 8-bit.3. 60 . 1 Line.Table 4. 5x7 Dots 0x38 56 Function Set: 4-bit. we will discuss both ways of initialization one by one. Below is a brief list of commands which are used frequently while working on LCD. 2 Line. Before using the LCD for display purpose. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 Instruction Hex Decimal Function Set: 8-bit.4 ** CGRAM address from 0x00 to 0x3F. LCD has to be initialized either by the internal reset circuit or sending set of commands to initialize the LCD. No. 1 Line. 5x7 Dots 0x20 32 Function Set: 4-bit. 5x7 Dots 0x28 40 Entry Mode 0x06 6 Display off cursor off (clearing display without clearing DDRAM 0x08 8 content) Display on Cursor on 0x0E 14 Display on Cursor off 0x0C 12 Display on Cursor blinking 0x0F 15 Shift entire display left 0x18 24 Shift entire display right 0x1C 30 Move cursor left by one character 0x10 16 Move cursor right by one character 0x14 20 Clear Display (also clear DDRAM content) 0x01 1 Set DDRAM address or coursor position on 0x80+add* 128+add* display Set CGRAM address or set pointer to CGRAM 0x40+add** 64+add** location Table 4. 0x00 to 0x07 for char1 and so on. 2 Line. It is the user who has to decide whether an LCD has to be initialized by instructions or by internal reset circuit.

Given below is a flowchart that describes the step to follow.  As mentioned in the Note.3(c): Power Supply condition for Internal Reset circuit Initializing LCD with instructions is really simple. 61 . Table 4. if user want to use initialization by internal reset circuit. These conditions are shown in the Table 5 below.      Move data to LCD port select data register select write operation send enable signal wait for LCD to process the data Now we are ready with sending data and sending command to LCD. The following instructions are executed during the initialization. The busy state lasts for 10 ms after VCC rises to 4.5 V. to initialize the LCD. The busy flag (BF) is kept in the busy state until the initialization ends (BF = 1). there are certain conditions that has to be met.An internal reset circuit automatically initializes the HD44780U when the power is turned on.

Figure 4. it will reset and wait for instructions. and then send one character at a 62 . When the LCD is initialized. turning on a cursor and writing characters from left to right. Typical instructions sent to LCD display after a reset are: turning on a display. it will write it on the display and move the cursor one space to the right. but control line R/W has to be high. If it receives a character.4(a) : Flow chart for LCD initialization Reading data from the LCD is done in the same way. When we send a high to the LCD. The Cursor marks the next location where a character will be written. When we want to write a string of characters. it is ready to continue receiving data or instructions. first we need to set up the starting address.

The other way is to introduce a delay in the program. The LCD controller needs 40 to 120 microseconds (uS) for writing and reading. we can communicate with an LCD through a 4-bit data bus. The delay has to be long enough for the LCD to finish the operation in process. The size of DDRAM is 80 bytes. Thus we can reduce the total number of communication lines to seven. But this is not so. This is not the best method because LCD's can get stuck. That's why it is necessary to change the numbers from a binary system into a decimal system so they can be easily understood. As such. Characters that can be shown on the display are stored in data display (DD) RAM. One way is to check the BUSY bit found on data line D7. During that time. In the second row we have produced the word 'mikroElektronika'. labeled LM16X212 by Japanese maker SHARP. Before we access DD RAM after defining a special character. they cannot be displayed on a display. However. The wiring for connection via a 4-bit data bus is shown in the diagram below. Other operations can take up to 5 mS. and program will then stay forever in a loop checking the BUSY bit. Writing and reading data from any LCD memory is done from the last address which was set up using set-address instruction. Instructions for writing to and reading from an LCD memory are shown in the previous table. so a program needs to know when the LCD is busy. We can solve this in two ways. Until now we discussed the operation of writing and reading to an LCD as if it were an ordinary memory. When working with a microcontroller the numbers are presented in a binary form. a new written character will be displayed at the appropriate place on the screen. The message 'character' is written in the first row: and two special characters '~' and '}' are displayed.time. In this example we use an LCD display with 2x16 characters. For printing the variables lcdbyte and lcdword we have used the macros digbyte and digword which convert the numbers from binary system into a decimal system and 63 . At the beginning we mentioned that we needed 11 I/O lines to communicate with an LCD. Once the address of DD RAM is set. the microcontroller cannot access the LCD. the program must set the DD RAM address.

Digtemp. At the start it's necessary to declare variables LCDbuf.print the result on LCD. Dig2. Program initializes the LCD and demonstrates printing text and 8-bit variable temp. LCDtemp. It is also necessary to state the port of microcontroller that LCD is connected to. Main program has the purpose of demonstrating use of LCD display. Dig1. and Dig3 used by the macros for LCD support. 64 .

The characteristics of these relays have some limitations. It is useful if we want a small current in one circuit to control another circuit containing a device such as a lamp or electric motor which requires a large current. Relays have a coil which works on 12V dc power supply and provides DPDT action as an output.5. the soft iron core is magnetized and attracts the L-shaped soft iron armature. or if we wish several different switch contacts to be operated simultaneously. The current needed to operate a relay is called the pull-in current and the dropout current in the coil when the relay just stops working. If the coil resistance R of a relay is 185  and its operating voltage V is 12V. The VA burden of such relays are high. For important and costly equipment installation static relays are preferred. When the controlling current flows through the coil. which provides contact between two mechanical elements. 65 . Each relay can perform only one protective function. In general relays provide potential free contacts which can be used for universal function like DC.ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS A relay is a switch worked by an electromagnet. The electromechanical relays are based on the comparison between operating torque/force and restraining torque/force. the electrical contacts in the circuit being controlled it closes the contacts. AC voltage switching and to control bigger electrical switch gears. the pull-in current I is given by: I = V/R = 12/185 = 65 mA Relays are electromagnetic switches. closes or changes over. This rocks on its pivot and opens. Such relays are used for simple and less costly protection purposes.

The choice of protection depends upon several aspects such as # type and rating of the protected equipment. 66 . # probable abnormal conditions between generators and final load points. # its importance.FIG 5(a): Relay schematic diagram Protective relaying is necessary for almost every electrical plant and no part of the power system is left unprotected. Each needs certain adequate protection . # location and cost. self-contained devices which respond to abnormal conditions (relays can distinguish normal and abnormal conditions). The relays used in this project are compact.The protective relaying senses the abnormal conditions in a part of the power system and isolates that part from the healthy part of system. There are several electrical equipments and machines of various ratings.

which results in switching of the relay form NC to NO. then the transistor conducts. The operation is as follows. So ground is not applied to the relay Coil. 67 . So the relay remain in NC position. The Relay works only if the Positive and the Ground is connected to the appropriate terminals of the relay coil. So that when the relay is switched on the device gets supply and works. A Relay is connected as shown in the figure 5(a). When the output of the controller is High. Using this Normally open (NO) and Normally Closed (NC) contacts we can switch any supply AC or DC. the transistor will not conduct. When the output is Low. The supply to the operated device should be given to the Common of the relay and the output from the NO is given to the Device. We control the relay by controlling the ground signal given to the relay using a transistor. allowing the low potential to reach one end of the relay.The Relay driver Circuit Works as follows. Figure 5(a): Working Of Relay Circuit The output of the controller decides Relay operation.

When the solar panel voltage is present. the charging current is wasted by converting into heat (current is passed through low value. A potential divider is used at pin 2 of the ADC (IC2) using resisters R5. In this project. the duck-to-down sensor provides a signal to the microcontroller. and start a 5-minute times.0V. The LCD shows “battery full. we have used parallel regulation but instead of wasting the charging current as heat. is preferred in solar field.TESTING CIRCUIT Basically. this stage. When the voltage reaches 14. the control circuitry allows the charging current (even in MA) to flow into the battery and stop the charging once the battery is fully charged. The current and voltage output of a solar panel is governed by the angle of incidence of light. we have made it pulsed and applied to the battery to keep the battery topped-up. which is connected to the MOSFET BS170 (T2) . As Vref of the ADC is converted to Vcc (5V). the input voltage to the ADC connect exceed +5V. this part of the regulation dissipate a lot of heat. It monitors the input signal from the dusk-todawn sensor and activates the load or charging relay RL1 accordingly. Parallel regulation. At. During this stage. During charging. the microcontrollers read the battery voltage with the help of the ADC and display the values on LCD. there are two methods of controlling the charging current: series regulation and parallel (shunt) regulation. which the displays „charging‟ message on the LCD. the battery voltage is continuously monitored. The series type of regulation „wastes‟ a lot of energy while charging the battery as the control circuitry is always active and series regulator requires the input voltage to be 3-4 volts higher than the output voltage. The digital voltmeter works up to 20V.” 68 . the microcontroller interrupts the charging current by energizing the relay. which keeps varying. After power-on. high-wattage resister). R6 & R7 to scale down the voltage from ADC output is multiplied four times and displayed on the LCD as battery voltage.6. A series regulator is inserted between the solar panel and the battery. In parallel regulation.

the relay reconnects the panel to the battery. when the load is switched off. FIG 6(a): solar charger testing schematic circuit When the panel voltage falls below the zener diode (ZD1) voltage of the dusk-todawn sensor. In this mode. the battery voltage tends to rise back and the load oscillates between „on‟ and „off‟ states. This way. the microcontroller monitors for low battery. When the battery voltage drops below 10 volts. Normally. the microcontroller senses this and activates the load by switching on MOSFET T3 via optocoupler IC3 and “load on” message is displayed. To avoid this. the microcontroller employs a hysteresis control by intering into a „lock‟ mode during low-battery state and comes out of the lock mode when the duck-to-dawn sensor receives the panel 69 . the microcontroller turns off the load by switching off MOSFET T3 and “Battery Low-Load Off” message is displayed. the charging current is pulsed at the intervals of five minutes and the cycle repeats until the panel voltage is present.After 5-minutes.

the microcontroller keeps converting the ADC value and displays the battery voltage on the LCD.voltage (the next morning). 2. Click on the Project menu from the title bar Then Click on New Project 70 .1 SOURCE CODE 1. 4. Click on the Keil uVision Icon on DeskTop The following fig will appear FIG: 6. During lock mode. 6.1 (a): Keil Dumping Software Program Window 3.

e. Select the component for u r project. Then Click on Save button above. Atmel…… Click on the + Symbol beside of Atmel 71 . 8. i.5. 7. Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in u r own folder sited in either C:\ or D:\ 6.

Then Click on “OK” The Following fig will appear 72 . Select AT89C51 as shown below 10. 11.9.

13. you would get another option “Source group 1” as shown in next page.12. Then Click either YES or NO………mostly “NO” Now your project is ready to USE Now double click on the Target1. Click on the file option from menu bar and select “new” 73 . 15. 14.

then save it with extension “. and just maximize it by double clicking on its blue boarder.C” 74 . Now start writing program in either in “C” or “ASM” For a program written in Assembly. 17. The next screen will be as shown in next page.16. 18. asm” and for “C” based program save it with extension “ .

Now right click on Source group 1 and click on “Add files to Group Source” 20.19. Now you will get another window. 75 . on which by default “C” files will appear.

Any error will appear if so happen.21. then press Control+F5 simultaneously. 25. 24. 22. The new window is as follows 76 . 23. Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file Click only one time on option “ADD” Now Press function key F7 to compile. If the file contains no error.

26. Drag the port a side and click in the program file. and check your required port as shown in fig below 28. 27. 77 . Then Click “OK” Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar.

float Volt. TRISE = 0x00.h> #include <delay4.h> #defineRelay RC0 int Printval.29.h> #include <math.2 Program Used In PIC16F877 // With LCD Display #include <pic. TRISD = 0x00.c> #include <lcdportd.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib. 78 . 30.Volt1. You are running your program successfully 6. TRISC = 0x80. Now keep Pressing function key “F11” slowly and observe. void main() { TRISA = 0xff. char Ostr[5]. TRISB = 0xff.

while(ADGO) continue.'). LCD_SendData(Ostr[0]).').0) { Relay = 1. if(Volt > 6. LCD_SendData('V'). sprintf(Ostr. LCD_SendData(Ostr[1]). LCD_puts("BV:"). do { ADCON0 = 0x81. DelayUs(50). DelayMs(200). LCD_SendCmd(0x80). } LCD_SendCmd(0xc9). LCD_puts("Nt Chrg").(int)(Volt1 * 10)). Volt1 = (float)((ADRESH * 256)+ADRESL). PORTD = 0x00.0. LCD_puts("SV:"). LCD_SendCmd(0x89). LCD_SendData('. LCD_puts("Chrgng ").0.ADCON0 = 0x81. ADCON0 = 0x89."%3d". LCD_SendCmd(0x80). LCD_SendData(Ostr[1]). ADCON1 = 0x82. PORTE = 0x00.(int)(Volt * 10)). while(ADGO) continue. } else { Relay = 0. ADGO = 1. Volt = (float)((ADRESH * 256)+ADRESL). 79 . LCD_SendData('."%3d". LCD_SendCmd(0xc0). DelayUs(50). sprintf(Ostr. LCD_SendData(Ostr[0]). Relay = 0. Volt = Volt / 101. LCD_SendData(Ostr[2]). LCD_init(). LCD_SendData('V'). Volt1 = Volt1 / 102. ADGO = 1. LCD_SendData(Ostr[2]).

} else { LCD_puts("Volt OK").0) { LCD_puts("Lo Volt"). } 80 .if(Volt1 < 4. } DelayMs(200). }while(1).

However to extend use of solar power energy to industrial and commercial areas. By using the solar energy power generation technology the usage of non-conventional resources can be minimized which not only reduces the resource extinction but helps widely in reducing the environmental pollution. the growth rate may increase to 7%.7. By the end of 2010. India will have to depend on renewable energy. the price of PV cells need to be brought down through low-cost manufacturing techniques.CONCLUSION In future. and we can easily convert sunlight energy into electrical energy by using PV cells to meet our requirement. The only source available around us is sunlight. The key point is "Start Using Solar Power And Save Earth From Destruction" 81 . Presently.  By Generating Power Through Solar Energy The Cost Of Electricity Can Be Minimized And Occasionally Can Be Provided With Free Of Cost.  Electricity Can Be Supplied Even To Remote Areas With Out The usage Of Transmission Lines. solar systems are developing 2%.

com  www.8.electronicsforu.REFERENCES  Solar Electricity Engineering of Photovoltaic System – by Lorezo E. & Stoica P.wikipedia.F & McGown J.com 82 .  Power Electronics – by Bhimbra P.by Allen Mottershead  Basic Electronics – by Miami A.S  Electronics and Circuits .G  System Identification – by Solderstron T.  Solar Energy – by Maxwell J.com  www.atmel.K  www.

i. 7.5.e. Then Click on Save button above. Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in u r own folder sited in either C:\ or D:\ 6. Atmel…… Click on the + Symbol beside of Atmel . 8. Select the component for u r project.

Then Click on “OK” The Following fig will appear . 11.9. Select AT89C51 as shown below 10.

14. Click on the file option from menu bar and select “new” . 13. you would get another option “Source group 1” as shown in next page.12. Then Click either YES or NO………mostly “NO” Now your project is ready to USE Now double click on the Target1. 15.

asm” and for “C” based program save it with extension “ .C” .16. then save it with extension “. 18. The next screen will be as shown in next page. Now start writing program in either in “C” or “ASM” For a program written in Assembly. and just maximize it by double clicking on its blue boarder. 17.

Now you will get another window. . on which by default “C” files will appear. Now right click on Source group 1 and click on “Add files to Group Source” 20.19.

The new window is as follows .21. 23. Any error will appear if so happen. 25. Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file Click only one time on option “ADD” Now Press function key F7 to compile. 22. If the file contains no error. 24. then press Control+F5 simultaneously.

and check your required port as shown in fig below 28. . 27. Then Click “OK” Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar. Drag the port a side and click in the program file.26.

h> #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> #define Relay RC0 int Printval.2 Program Used In PIC16F877 // With LCD Display #include <pic.h> #include <delay4. char Ostr[5]. float Volt. void main() { TRISA = 0xff. Now keep Pressing function key “F11” slowly and observe. . TRISB = 0xff. 30.h> #include <stdlib.29. You are running your program successfully 6.Volt1. TRISC = 0x80.c> #include <lcdportd.

0. ADCON0 = 0x89. ADCON0 = 0x81."%3d". LCD_SendCmd(0xc0). ADGO = 1. PORTD = 0x00. LCD_SendData(Ostr[1]). ADGO = 1. LCD_puts("Chrgng ").TRISD = 0x00. LCD_SendData('V'). DelayUs(50). LCD_init(). Relay = 0. LCD_SendData('. sprintf(Ostr. LCD_SendCmd(0x80). LCD_SendData(Ostr[2]). LCD_SendData(Ostr[1]). } . if(Volt > 6. Volt = (float)((ADRESH * 256)+ADRESL). LCD_SendData(Ostr[0]). do { ADCON0 = 0x81. LCD_SendData('V'). DelayUs(50).0) { Relay = 1. TRISE = 0x00. LCD_puts("SV:").0. while(ADGO) continue. LCD_SendCmd(0x89). while(ADGO) continue. LCD_puts("BV:"). Volt = Volt / 101. ADCON1 = 0x82.'). LCD_SendData(Ostr[2]). LCD_SendCmd(0x80). sprintf(Ostr."%3d". Volt1 = (float)((ADRESH * 256)+ADRESL).'). DelayMs(200).(int)(Volt1 * 10)). LCD_SendData(Ostr[0]).(int)(Volt * 10)). Volt1 = Volt1 / 102. LCD_SendData('. PORTE = 0x00.

} else { LCD_puts("Volt OK"). }while(1). } DelayMs(200). if(Volt1 < 4.0) { LCD_puts("Lo Volt"). LCD_puts("Nt Chrg"). } .else { } Relay = 0. LCD_SendCmd(0xc9).

and we can easily convert sunlight energy into electrical energy by using PV cells to meet our requirement.  By Generating Power Through Solar Energy The Cost Of Electricity Can Be Minimized And Occasionally Can Be Provided With Free Of Cost. By using the solar energy power generation technology the usage of nonconventional resources can be minimized which not only reduces the resource extinction but helps widely in reducing the environmental pollution.CONCLUSION In future.7. solar systems are developing 2%. Presently. However to extend use of solar power energy to industrial and commercial areas. The only source available around us is sunlight.  Electricity Can Be Supplied Even To Remote Areas With Out The usage Of Transmission Lines. India will have to depend on renewable energy. The key point is "Start Using Solar Power And Save Earth From Destruction" . the growth rate may increase to 7%. the price of PV cells need to be brought down through low-cost manufacturing techniques. By the end of 2010.

➢ Power Electronics – by Bhimbra P.com ➢ www.com .wikipedia.F & McGown J.K ➢ www.by Allen Mottershead ➢ Basic Electronics – by Miami A.REFERENCES ➢ Solar Electricity Engineering of Photovoltaic System – by Lorezo E. ➢ Solar Energy – by Maxwell J.atmel.S ➢ Electronics and Circuits .G ➢ System Identification – by Solderstron T. & Stoica P.electronicsforu.com ➢ www.8.

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