Air Operator Certification Manual 6. High Capacity RPT Operations, Initial Issue of an AOC 6.

19 Extended Range Operations
Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4.7: December 2004
6 6.19 High Capacity RPT Operations, Initial Issue of an AOC Extended Range Operations

6.19.1
AC120-42A GAI-20

Purpose
The purpose of this policy notice is to issue guidance material for Extended Range Operations (ETOPS) that aligns with AC120-42A and ACJ20X6 but has been modified to comply with current CASA legislation. References to AC120-42A throughout this document should also be read as ACJ20X6. This policy notice is applicable to Flying Operations only.


6.19.2
AC120-42A GAI-20

Background
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), and other regulatory bodies have produced guidance material applicable to ETOPS. AC120-42A (FAA) and GAI-20 ACJ 20X6 (JAA) are the relevant documents that have existed for many years. While CASA has previously issued ETOPS approvals to Australian operators, guidance material has never been promulgated and CASA Officers have relied upon CAO 20.7.1B, AD/GEN/69 and more recently CAO 82.0 when actioning a request for ETOPS approval. In relation to flying operations, neither of these references has adequately outlined the requirements to be met by an operator. Hence, a number of irregularities have been identified where ETOPS operations are conducted in a manner that does not align with FAA/JAA and the requirements of other regulatory bodies and in some instances leads to an operation that can be considered less safe.

CAO 20.7.1B CAO 82.0

6.19.3
CAO 82.0

Policy
This policy describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of obtaining approval under CAO 82.0, subsection 3B.9 for two-engine aircraft to operate over a route that contains a point further than one hour’s flying time at the normal one-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate aerodrome. Interpretation of ETOPS Policy 1. If the pre-flight planning weather minima required by CAO 82.0 Appendix 2 paragraph 2.2(a) cannot be met prior to departure, it is admissible to depart provided:

6.19.3.1
CAO 82.0

The aircraft remains within one hour’s flying time at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate aerodrome; or

!

6.19-1

❍ Weather at Osaka not available and all other airports in Japan are not available for use. Darwin. For a flight from Auckland to Nagoya with 120 minutes ETOPS approval: ❍ Adequate aerodromes are Auckland. The point. Initial Issue of an AOC 6. Select Kota Kinabalu instead of Biak.19-2 . Therefore. at this point there must be sufficient fuel on board to enable the aircraft to return to Guam in accordance with the critical fuel scenario. For a flight from Melbourne to Hong Kong with 120 minutes ETOPS approval: ❍ Adequate aerodromes are Melbourne. Hong Kong.0 ❍ Examples: For a flight from Melbourne to Perth: ❍ Weather not available for Kalgoolie and Adelaide. Osaka. only Osaka and Nagoya are available.0 ❍ Other ETOPS alternate aerodromes are available that meet the pre-flight planning weather minima required by CAO 82. ❍ Weather not available for Biak. Biak. ❍ Weather not available for Biak and no other aerodrome can be selected due weather. Biak. ❍ Aircraft may depart and operate to 120 minutes past Guam. Guam. That is. Alice Springs and Kalgoolie. Port Moresby. a valid forecast is obtained for Biak (or some other adequate aerodrome) where the weather is forecast to meet the ETOPS alternate aerodrome criteria. Adelaide. Darwin. Aircraft may depart and remain within one hour flying time at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate aerodrome.7: December 2004 CAO 82. Guam + 120 minutes. ❍ Aircraft may depart and operate to 120 minutes past Darwin.Air Operator Certification Manual 6. Hong Kong.0 Appendix 2 paragraph 2. For a flight from Melbourne to Hong Kong with 120 minutes ETOPS approval: ❍ Adequate aerodromes are Melbourne. or ! 6. That is Melbourne. Rockhampton.) CAO 82. Prior to exceeding 120 minutes from Darwin. becomes a PNR.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4.0 Appendix 2 paragraph 2. (That is.2(a). or Prior to the aircraft entering the area that requires the aerodrome as an ETOPS alternate aerodrome a valid forecast is obtained for that aerodrome and the requirements of CAO 82.2(a) are met. the weather ‘buffers’ are applied. ❍ Weather at Nagoya precludes its use as an ETOPS alternate. High Capacity RPT Operations. within the maximum approved diversion time from those aerodromes and sufficient fuel is carried to meet the ETOPS fuel requirements based on those aerodromes.

5. A non-ETOPS segment is that portion of a route where the aircraft remains within 60 minutes flight time at the approved oneengine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate aerodrome. In any event the ETOPS critical point must be included in the flight plan in order to comply with the ETOPS diversion fuel requirements. 4. If the flight plans do not make this provision. While an aircraft may be dispatched on an ETOPS flight. ! 6. Note: References to the flight plan are references to the flight log and not the ATC flight plan. High Capacity RPT Operations. 6. If this is the case. Initial Issue of an AOC 6. An operator may declare a route segment to be considered ETOPS irrespective of the fact that the aircraft may operate within 60 minutes flight time at the approved oneengine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air). If the flight plans do not make this provision then the aircraft must be equipped to enable the PIC to use FMC information to select particular aerodromes and compile waypoints in order to facilitate equivalent information. a.Air Operator Certification Manual 6. the aircraft must be equipped to enable the PIC to use FMC information to select particular aerodromes and compile waypoints in order to facilitate equivalent information. 3.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4. 2. no knowledge of the weather or condition of the aerodrome(s) is required. the operator must have practices and procedures in place to ensure that if an event that precludes ETOPS operations occurs after the first EEP and the aircraft subsequently enters a non-ETOPS segment. Except when the departure aerodrome is closed for landing current legislation permits an aircraft to operate non-ETOPS without making an assessment of the weather at the adequate aerodrome(s) en-route. It is accepted that ETPs cannot be accurately determined using the FMC. It is desirable that an ETOPS flight plan should provide for an EEP and EXP. That is. The company operating procedures and training must be in place to ensure this occurs. CASR 121 Note: This has been recognized as an undesirable outcome of the CAO and changes will occur with the implementation of CASR 121. particular segments of the route are determined to be either non-ETOPS or ETOPS depending upon the aircraft distance from an adequate aerodrome.19-3 .7: December 2004 The weather is obtained (and is forecast to meet the ETOPS alternate aerodrome criteria) prior to the ETP based on Guam and Osaka. The company operating procedures and training must be in place to ensure this occurs. It is desirable that flight plans provide for ETPs to each pair of adequate aerodromes. the aircraft may remain ETOPS.

GPS/NPA.19-4 . fuel and oil supply. Phone Patch. ! 6. For the purposes of this requirement. d. Subparagraph c. UHF. the communications and navigation facilities. SATCOM. B737 APU failure prior to EEP. That is. and c. fly to and land at the nearest suitable aerodrome unless it has been demonstrated. an aircraft must be able to maintain constant communications with air traffic services. For example. that no substantial degradation of safety results from continuation of the planned flight. in the event of: a. fly to and land at the nearest (in terms of the least flying time) aerodrome suitable [appropriate] for landing. Communications and navigation facilities – Internationally. This communication can be via VHF. changes impacting the status of items on the minimum equipment list. shutdown of a power-unit. alter the flight route or continue as planned. has multiple elements that are described below: a. HF. is deemed to meet the requirements of ‘navigation facility’ and may be used. the operator (through the operational control system). b. the fuel and oil supply is less than expected in accordance with the flight plan then an alternative course of action is required unless the fuel on board is sufficient. b. Initial Issue of an AOC 6. Minimum equipment list – Notwithstanding that ICAO infers the MEL items should be referenced while en-route (given a system or equipment failure). approach and landing at the aerodrome of intended landing.Air Operator Certification Manual 6. High Capacity RPT Operations. DME) as required. at any point during a flight. ACARS or a combination. in accordance with the operator’s fuel policy. ETOPS alternates – During the required validity period the ETOPS alternate aerodrome(s) must be available for use. if available.7: December 2004 6(A) Para 7 (Operational principles) of Attachment E of Part I of ICAO Annex 6 States: An aeroplane that is engaged in an extended range operation should normally. VOR. must be available to enable an approach and landing at the adequate aerodromes during the required period. NDB. Subparagraphs ‘a’ and ‘b’ above are identified as critical system(s) failure(s) that an operator must identify so there are no doubts as to when an aircraft should divert. a single or multiple primary aeroplane system failure. the MEL is a document normally used in the dispatch process and therefore the operator needs to define the critical ETOPS components that prevent ETOPS operations once airborne. Fuel and oil supply – If. and a tower facility during the required period of arrival. c. en-route alternate aerodromes or aeroplane performance. make appropriate adjustments to the flight plan.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4. the aerodrome physical characteristics and the prevailing/forecast weather must be such that any change does not preclude the use of the aerodrome(s) as an ETOPS alternate(s). in view of the flight consequences of the failure and the probability and consequences of subsequent failures. The navigational facilities (ILS.

the availability of a control tower. 7. en-route or at the destination. 9. nil wind and cruise at All Engines Operating Long Range Cruise at the optimum flight level. Aircraft performance – Any change to the performance capability of the aircraft that means particular aerodrome(s) are no longer adequate then a change to the flight plan is required. as an adequate aerodrome.19-5 . adequate aerodromes must be capable of providing air traffic control services—ie. having taken off at structural MTOW. in determining the ETOPS area of operation. The one-engine inoperative cruise speed. Exceptional circumstance may arise where a tower facility is not available but a flight service facility is. adequate aerodromes must be capable of providing RFFS. 75. This is derived from FAA/JAA and ICAO requirements. ISA conditions. 90.7: December 2004 e. 90. when aerodrome lighting is required. 120 and/or 180 minutes. An operator must provide planning documents that show the approved adequate aerodromes together with range rings for 60. must be determined taking into account at least the following: a. 180 minutes flight or other time as designated by CASA.1b Note: If. Reference Weight. Call-out services are acceptable provided the call out can be effected within 30 minutes of notification and the minimum service is equivalent to category 4. PAL is available. as applicable.7.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4.7.Air Operator Certification Manual 6. aerodromes with an MBZ are acceptable provided. For operations inside Australian territory RFFS is not required. 11. 75. For operations outside Australian territory.1b may be considered in lieu of the structural MTOW when calculating the reference weight. 120. Call-out services are acceptable provided the call out can be effected within 30 minutes of notification. for example Honiara. An operator shall provide sufficient information and training to flight crew and dispatch personnel that will enable the aircraft to be operated in compliance with this policy and relevant legislation. or greater time as determined by CASA. Where there is no practical alternative and it is established there are no safety issues then CASA may approve an aerodrome that does not have a tower facility. The aircraft gross weight after 60. normal All Engines Operating climb. for a particular route it is not possible to ever depart at structural MTOW due to limiting performance requirements at departure. 13. For operations outside Australian territory. For operations inside Australian territory. High Capacity RPT Operations. Initial Issue of an AOC 6. Nauru and Tonga. 8. 12. CAO 20. It is not required to provide for a destination alternate aerodrome on the flight plan and in the fuel calculations unless the forecast weather or Legislation requires such a provision. then the maximum RTOW compliant with CAO 20. ! 6.

3 b. The One-Engine Inoperative speed (published as KIAS) used in determining the maximum diversion distance and approved by CASA. The distance covered is the maximum diversion distance used for determining the area of operation. At the applicable reference weight. This speed must be used when determining the Critical Fuel Scenario.19.7: December 2004 b. Approved One-Engine Inoperative Cruise Speed. If terrain is limiting. the associated Mach number and KIAS speed schedule is the Approved One-Engine Inoperative Cruise Speed.Air Operator Certification Manual 6.) Note: The flight level at which this speed can be achieved with One-Engine Inoperative at MCT must not be less than the lowest safe altitude on the route or on any possible diversion routes.19-6 . RNP. It is accepted that Flight Following meets the requirement provided the functions of flight following include the monitoring of weather and facilities for the nominated adequate aerodrome(s). Maximum Diversion Distance.2. descend from the applicable flight level at a speed not less than green dot speed (maximum L/D speed) and not above Mmo/Vmo with OneEngine Inoperative and thrust limited by Max Continuous Thrust. Section 6. CAO 82. Level out at the optimum One-Engine Inoperative flight level for best average TAS and continue One-Engine Inoperative cruise in ISA conditions and nil wind until the applicable diversion time has elapsed.7. This is derived from CAO 82. ! 6. 17. destination aerodrome. the departure alternate aerodrome.0 15. An ETOPS alternate may be the departure aerodrome. 14. (A high cruise speed results in the greatest distance and the highest fuel requirement while a low cruise speed results in the lowest distance and the lowest fuel requirement. which may result in a slower average TAS and hence a smaller area of operation.2.19. Though a manufacturer has not certified an aircraft as ETOPS approved it is possible to approve the aircraft/engine combination to 75 minutes provided the applicable requirements of AC 120-42A are fulfilled.5 specifies required information to be provided to flight crew.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4. when appropriate and when approved should be included with GPS/NPA and other navigation aids in the application of section 6. in ISA conditions and nil wind. c. Initial Issue of an AOC 6. High Capacity RPT Operations. destination alternate aerodrome and any required en-route aerodrome. If the operator takes credit for the increased TAS when descending at a constant Mach number during the applicable portion of the OneEngine Inoperative descent from the normal cruise level to the OneEngine Inoperative diversion flight level. 16. the operator may have to choose a higher flight level.0 Appendix 2 paragraph 2.9(b) (exercise of Operational Control).7.

an adequate aerodrome is an aerodrome having the physical characteristics detailed in paragraph 1 of Appendix 2 of CAO 82. 4 and 5 under 6.) Extended Range Entry Point The extended range entry point (EEP) is the point on the aircraft’s outbound route which is one-hour’s flying time at the approved single-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate aerodrome. See CAAP 234-1(0). CAO 82.10 requires CASA to approve aerodromes that are used as adequate aerodromes.0 Adequate. The current limit for ETOPS operations is 180 minutes.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy. However.Air Operator Certification Manual 6. (See paragraphs 8. (See paragraphs 2. For the purposes of this policy.3. Initial Issue of an AOC 6.) Extended Range Operations For the purpose of this policy. 19.19. High Capacity RPT Operations. ETOPS Alternate. ■ 6.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4.0 Appendix 2 paragraph 2.3. The requirement to consider ATC constraints is not intended to include items such as traffic holding.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy.4 Definitions Aerodrome CAO 82.0. 21.) 6. (See paragraph 6 under 6.19-7 .0 20.3.19. Where an operator has an Area AOC and the systems and processes fulfil the requirements of the assessment for the suitability of the aerodrome to be utilised as an adequate aerodrome then it is accepted that the aerodrome is approved by CASA. extended range operations are those flights conducted over a route that contains a point further than one hour flying time at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate aerodrome.0. future ETOPS operations are likely to be approved to a greater limit and therefore it is appropriate to provide for this in the policy document. 9 and 14 under 6. The 5% contingency fuel requirement should also be applied to the approach fuel allowance.19. Other known ATC constraints such as prohibited or restricted airspace should be considered.19. CAO 82. an ETOPS alternate aerodrome is an adequate aerodrome that also meets the other requirements detailed in paragraph 2 of Appendix 2 of CAO 82.7: December 2004 CAAP 2341(0) 18. For the purpose of this policy.

the specified airframe-engine combination should hold an aircraft ETOPS Type Design Approval and should be evaluated considering the airworthiness and operational concepts outlined in section 6.5. 4 and 5 under 6. Any ETOPS operation shall be based on the maintenance of adequate safety when all factors are considered.) ■ 6.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy.19.19.19-8 . Initial Issue of an AOC 6.1. ■ 6. The aerodromes used in meeting the requirements must be adequate for the aircraft used (ie.Air Operator Certification Manual 6.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy. Aircraft certificated in the transport category that do not hold an ETOPS Type Design Approval may still be eligible to obtain a 75 minute ETOPS approval. available for safe landing at the expected landing weight). (See paragraphs 2.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4. The following considerations shall apply: • • • The character of the terrain The kind of operations The performance of the aircraft.19.5 Eligibility To be eligible for extended range operations.19. where the aircraft has been flying in an ETOPS segment which is one-hour’s flying time at the approved single-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) to an adequate aerodrome.3.) ■ 6. (See paragraph 16 under 6. This is not limited to engine reliability alone.3.7: December 2004 Extended Range Exit Point The extended range exit point (EXP) is the point on the aircraft’s route.6 Common Factors Extended range operations applies to all areas of operations and is not limited to overwater operation.19. High Capacity RPT Operations.

An operator’s MEL may be more restrictive than the MMEL considering the kind of extended range operation proposed and equipment and service problems unique to the operator.7. and specifically apply to extended range operations. or amplify. The data provided with the request should substantiate the operator’s ability and competence to safely conduct and support these operations and should include the means used to satisfy the considerations outlined in this paragraph.7. flight crew training and maintenance programs. Systems considered to have a fundamental influence on flight safety may include. with the required supporting data. past performance. CAO and AIP.) Flight Dispatch Considerations 6.19.9 for extended range operations with two-engine aeroplanes (after providing an acceptable evaluation of the airworthiness requirements) should submit the request. Although many of the considerations in this policy are currently incorporated into approved programmes for other aircraft or route structures. the unique nature of extended range operations with two-engine aircraft necessitates re-examination of these operations to ensure the approved programmes are adequate for this purpose. the requirements contained in CAR.0 Operational Approval Considerations Requesting Approval Any operator requesting approval under CAO section 82.19.7.19-9 . Initial Issue of an AOC 6. an assessment should be made of the operator’s overall safety record.7 6. but are not limited to the following: • • • • • • Electrical.Air Operator Certification Manual 6.19.1 General The flight dispatch considerations specified in this section are in addition to.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4.7.7: December 2004 6. to the controlling CASA office at least 90 days prior to the proposed start of extended range operation with the specific airframe-engine combination.1 CAO 82. High Capacity RPT Operations.0 paragraph 3B.19.2. (Any reliability assessment obtained.2. either through analysis or service experience.2 Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) System redundancy levels appropriate to extended range operations should be reflected in the MMEL. should be used as guidance in support of operational judgements regarding the suitability of the intended operation. 6. In considering the application from an operator to conduct extended range operations. including battery Hydraulic Pneumatic Flight instrumentation Fuel Flight control ! 6.2 6.19.

reliable two-way voice communications between the aircraft and the appropriate air traffic control unit over the planned route of flight and the routes to any ETOPS alternate to be used in the event of diversion b.19-10 .Air Operator Certification Manual 6.3 Communication and Navigation Facilities An aircraft should not be dispatched on an extended range operation unless: a.2.19. (See paragraph 6(A) and 8 under 6. Auxiliary power units Air conditioning and pressurisation Cargo fire suppression Emergency equipment Any other equipment necessary for extended range operations. High Capacity RPT Operations.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4.3. the navigation accuracy necessary for the planned route and altitude of flight. (See paragraph 17 under 6. taking account of the navigation equipment installed in the aircraft.19.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy.) c.19.3. (See paragraph 6(A) under 6.19.3.) 6. Visual and non-visual aids are available at the specified ETOPS alternates for the authorised types of approaches and operation minima. Non-visual ground and/or other navigation aids are available and located so as to provide.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy. Initial Issue of an AOC 6.7. Communications facilities are available to provide under normal conditions of propagation at the normal one-engine inoperative/depressurised cruise altitudes. and the routes to any ETOPS alternate and altitudes to be used in the event of an engine shutdown.7: December 2004 • • • • • • • • • Ice protection Engine start and ignition Propulsion system instruments Navigation and communications.) ! 6.

consideration should be given to flying at an altitude meeting oxygen requirements in the event of loss of pressurisation An approach and landing Navigational accuracy necessary Any known Air Traffic Control (ATC) constraints.4. the critical fuel scenario should allow for: • A contingency figure of 5 percent added to the calculated fuel burn from the critical point to allow for errors in wind forecasts.2.19.) Critical Fuel Reserves • • • • • • 6.4.2. as determined by the approved operator’s fuel policy.7.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy. the applicant is to determine the fuel necessary to fly to the most critical point and execute a diversion to an ETOPS alternate aerodrome under the conditions outlined in section 6.19.7.2 In establishing the critical fuel reserves.) A 5 percent penalty in fuel mileage or.19-11 .2. advantage may be taken of drift-down and at least the following should be considered as applicable: • Current forecast winds and meteorological conditions along the expected flight path at one-engine inoperative/depressurised cruising altitude and throughout the approach and landing Any necessary operation of ice protection systems and performance loss due to ice accretion on the unprotected surfaces of the aircraft Any necessary operation of auxiliary power units Loss of aircraft pressurisation and air conditioning.7. High Capacity RPT Operations. an applicants established value for inservice deterioration in cruise fuel mileage Any Configuration Deviation List items Both airframe and engine anti-icing • • • ! 6.7.3 Critical Fuel Scenario. In consideration of the items listed in section 6.3.4. in lieu.7.19.2.4 Fuel and Oil Supply 6.19.19.7.19. Initial Issue of an AOC 6.19. These critical fuel reserves should be compared to the normal approved operator’s fuel policy requirements for the flight.19.4.Air Operator Certification Manual 6.1 General An aircraft should not be dispatched on an extended range operation unless it carries sufficient fuel and oil to meet the requirements of CAR’s and an operator’s fuel policy and any additional fuel that may be determined in accordance with subparagraph 6.2.2. (See paragraph 6(A) and 8 under 6.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy.7: December 2004 6. (See paragraph 21 under 6.4.2.3.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4. If it is determined by this comparison that the fuel to complete the critical fuel scenario exceeds the fuel that would be on board at the most critical point.1. additional fuel should be included to the extent necessary to safely complete the critical fuel scenario. In computing fuel requirements.

destination and alternate aerodromes. initiation of an approach and execution of a landing. hold for 15 minutes.1B a. consider simultaneous failure of an engine and the pressurisation system (critical point based on time to a suitable alternate at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed). computerized flight plan).4.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4. taking into account wind conditions. • At the critical point. The applicant should confirm the scenario to be used in determining the critical fuel reserve necessary is operationally the most critical considering both time and aircraft configuration (eg.3 Ice accumulation on unprotected surfaces if icing conditions are likely to be encountered during the diversion if the APU is a required power source.7. runway surface conditions and aircraft handling characteristics. and continued cruise at.19. are listed in the flight deck documentation (eg. High Capacity RPT Operations. for the runway expected to be used.7: December 2004 • • 6. CAO 20. the loss of primary aircraft systems or cargo fire.19-12 . permit the aircraft to be stopped within the landing distance available as declared by the aerodrome authorities and computed in accordance with CAO 20.2.7.4.1B. two engine versus one engine at 10000 feet. an aerodrome should not be listed as an ETOPS alternate unless: CAO 20. then its fuel consumption should be accounted for during the appropriate phase(s) of flight. Upon approaching destination.4 • • 6. 10000 feet at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed or continued cruise above 10000 feet if the aircraft is equipped with sufficient supplemental oxygen in accordance with CAO 20. ETOPS alternates should also be identified and listed in the Flight Plan for all cases where the planned route of flight contains a point more than one hour flying time at the oneengine inoperative speed from an adequate aerodrome. Initial Issue of an AOC 6. Immediate descent to.7. Critical Fuel Scenario The following describes a scenario for a diversion at the most critical point. ! 6. including ETOPS alternate aerodromes to be used in the event of engine shutdown or aircraft system failure(s) which require a diversion.2. The aerodrome services and facilities are adequate for the applicant operator’s approved approach procedure(s) and operating minima for the runway expected to be used. non-standard aircraft configuration not shown to be extremely improbable – in accordance with airworthiness requirements). b. Since these ETOPS alternates serve a different purpose than the destination alternate aerodrome and would normally be used only in the event of an engine failure.5 Alternate Aerodromes An aircraft should not be dispatched on an extended range operation unless the required take-off. The landing distances required as specified in the AFM for the altitude of the aerodrome.Air Operator Certification Manual 6.7.19. descend to 1500 feet above destination.

covering ❍ Cruise altitude (altitude coverage including 10000 feet) ❍ Holding Details of any other conditions relevant to extended range operations which can cause significant deterioration of performance. The latest available forecast weather conditions for a period from 30 minutes before the earliest possible time of arrival to 30 minutes after the latest possible time of arrival equals or exceeds the authorised weather minima in paragraph 2 of Appendix 2 of CAO 82. where appropriate. If any conditions are identified (such as weather forecast below the landing minima) which would preclude safe approach and landing. landing distances. the flightcrew are to be informed of any significant changes in conditions at designated ETOPS alternates. The following data should be based on CASA-approved information provided or referenced in the Airplane Flight Manual: • Detailed one-engine inoperative performance data including fuel flow for standard and non-standard atmospheric conditions and as a function of airspeed and power setting. 6.7. High Capacity RPT Operations. d. thrust reverser deployment.0. In addition. and aerodrome services and facilities at designated en route alternates should be evaluated. Ram Air Turbine (RAT) deployment. etc • • ! 6.0 c. for the period from 30 minutes before the established earliest time of arrival to 30 minutes after the established latest time of arrival the forecast crosswind component. During the course of the flight. including gusts.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4. for the landing runway expected to be used should be less than the maximum permitted crosswind for landing taking into account the surface conditions.Air Operator Certification Manual 6. the forecast weather for the time periods established in ‘c’ above. Prior to an extended range flight proceeding beyond the extended range entry point. including nominal fuel flow data.3 Aircraft Performance Data No aircraft should be dispatched on an extended range flight unless the operator’s Operations Manual contains sufficient data to support the critical fuel reserve and area of operations calculation. covering: ❍ Drift-down (includes net performance) ❍ Cruise altitude coverage including 10000 feet ❍ Holding ❍ Altitude capability (includes net performance) ❍ Missed approach Detailed all-engine operating performance data.19.19-13 . such as ice accumulation on the unprotected surfaces of the aircraft. for standard and no-standard atmospheric conditions and as a function of airspeed and power setting. then the pilot must be notified and an appropriate course of action taken. Initial Issue of an AOC 6. where appropriate.7: December 2004 CAO 82.

High Capacity RPT Operations.19. including all contingencies ❍ Flight performance progress monitoring Procedures ❍ Diversion procedures ❍ Use of appropriate navigation and communication systems ❍ Abnormal and emergency procedures to be followed in the event of foreseeable failures. including crew actions taken in response to equipment failures or unavailabilities. these reviews. ■ 6. if required ❍ Crew incapacitation ❍ Use of emergency equipment including protective breathing and ditching equipment • ! 6. Initial Issue of an AOC 6. and participate in.19. thrust settings. airspeeds. including: ❍ Procedures for single and multiple failures in flight that would precipitate go/no-go and diversion decisions ❍ Operational restrictions associated with these failures including any applicable MEL considerations ❍ Procedures for air start of the propulsion systems. The review will include system reliability levels and individual event circumstances. CASA will use the information resulting from these reviews to modify or update flightcrew training programs.7: December 2004 • The altitudes. as necessary.8.2 Flightcrew Training and Evaluation Programme The operator’s training programme in respect to extended range operations should provide training for flight crewmembers followed by subsequent evaluations and proficiency checks in the following areas: • Performance ❍ Flight planning.8. 6. operating manuals. The aviation industry should provide information for.19. CAO and AIP.1 Flightcrew Training. and fuel flow used in establishing ETOPS area of operations for each airframe-engine combination must be used in showing the corresponding terrain and obstruction clearances in accordance with CAR. Evaluation and Operating Manuals Adequacy of Flightcrew Training and Operating Manuals CASA will review inservice experience of critical and essential aircraft systems.19-14 .19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4.Air Operator Certification Manual 6. including the APU.8 6. The purpose of the review will be to verify the adequacy of information provided in training programs and operating manuals. and checklists.

The area that meets the considerations in the first paragraph above may be approved for extended range operations with two-engine aircraft and should be specified in the safety operational specification as the authorised area of operations.7: December 2004 ❍ ❍ ❍ Procedures to be followed in the event that there is a change in conditions at designated en route alternates which would preclude a safe approach and landing Understanding and effective use of approved additional or modified equipment required for extended range operations Fuel management Flightcrew should be trained on the fuel management procedures to be followed during the en route portion of the flight. ! 6.8.1 Operational Limitations Area of Operation An operator may be authorised to conduct extended range operations within an area where the diversion time at any point along the proposed route of flight to an adequate aerodrome is 75. 120 or 180 minutes at the approved one-engine cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air). Only check pilots with a demonstrated understanding of the unique requirements of ETOPS should be appointed to this position. small increases in the diversion time for specific routes may be approved as needed.3.) In the case of operations cleared up to 120 minutes maximum diversion time.9.19. For example.19-15 .3 ETOPS Check Pilot The operator should appoint a check pilot(s) or designate an ETOPS pilot to be responsible for the standardisation of flight-crew practices and procedures and also to emphasize the special nature of ETOPS operations.19. ■ 6.19. Initial Issue of an AOC 6. 6. (See paragraph 19 under 6. High Capacity RPT Operations. if it can be shown that the resulting routing will provide an enhanced overall safety. These procedures should provide for an independent cross-check of fuel quantity indicators.Air Operator Certification Manual 6.9 6.19. fuel flows could be used to calculate fuel burned and compared to indicated remaining fuel.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy. The increases mentioned in the previous paragraph: • • • Will require CASA to assess overall type design including time limited systems and demonstrated reliability Will require an appropriate MEL related to the diversion time required Will not be more than 15 per cent of the original maximum diversion time approved.

The maximum diversion time at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) should not be greater than the value established in the first paragraph of section 6.19-16 . unless it has been demonstrated that no substantial degradation of safety results from continuation of the planned flight.19. 4.2 Criteria for Maximum Diversion Times AC 120-42A The criteria for different maximum diversion times can be found in Appendices 1.3 Safety Operational Specifications An operator’s two-engine aircraft should not be operated on an extended range flight without the written approval of CASA (both maintenance and operations).2 Flight Dispatch Limitation The flight dispatch limitation should specify the maximum diversion time from an ETOPS alternate aerodrome that an operator can conduct a particular extended range operation.10 CAO 82. High Capacity RPT Operations. upon occurrence of an in-flight shutdown of an engine.2 and 4. the pilot should promptly initiate diversion procedure to fly to and land at the nearest aerodrome—in terms of time—determined to be suitable by the flight crew.Air Operator Certification Manual 6. Initial Issue of an AOC 6.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4. 4 and 5 of AC 120-42A.1 Use of Maximum Diversion Time The flight dispatch considerations should ensure that extended range operation is limited to flight plan routes where the approved maximum diversion time at the approved oneengine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) to ETOPS alternate aerodromes can be met.19. ■ 6.2. The operations approval should encompass a safety operational specification as prescribed by CAO 82.0 3B.6 where. 4. 4. A practice to be established such that in the event of a single or multiple primary system failure.9.1. • 6.3.9.2. Safety operational specifications for extended range operations should specifically include provisions covering at least the following: • • Definitions of particular airframe-engine combinations.9.19.9. 4.1.19.6 • Compliance with CAO 20. including the current approved CMP standard required for extended range operation as normally identified in the AFM Authorised area of operation 6.0 paragraphs 3B.7: December 2004 6. 6.9.2. 4.9.19.1. the pilot will initiate the diversion procedure to fly and land at the nearest suitable aerodrome. Operators should provide for: CAO 20. Contingency procedures should not be interpreted in a way that prejudices the final authority and responsibility of the pilot in command for the safe operation of the aircraft.

that any point on the route the aircraft may be from an ETOPS alternate aerodrome for landing Airports authorised for use (See paragraph 21 under 6. Initial Issue of an AOC 6.7: December 2004 • The maximum diversion time. using the specified airframe-engine combination or preferably by use of an approved simulator. The following emergency conditions should be demonstrated during the validation flight unless a successful demonstration of these conditions have previously been carried out in an approved simulator: • • Total loss of thrust of one-engine.19.) Identification of those aircraft designated for extended range operation by make and model as well as serial and registration numbers. ■ 6.19.Air Operator Certification Manual 6. crew workload or performance risk.11 Operational Validation Flight The operator should also demonstrate to CASA.1 Interpretation of ETOPS Policy. • • ■ 6.19-17 .3. at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air). and total loss of engine-generated electrical power. High Capacity RPT Operations. or Any other condition considered to be more critical in terms of airworthiness.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4. that the operator has the competence and capability to safely conduct and adequately support the intended operation.

CAO 82.Air Operator Certification Manual 6.12 Extended Range Operations Approval Following a type design approval for extended range operations in accordance with airworthiness requirements.19. Initial Issue of an AOC 6. High Capacity RPT Operations.13 Continuing Surveillance The CASA controlling office should include ETOPS in the auditing schedule to ensure operations continue to be conducted in accordance with the applicable ETOPS approval. ■ 6. the controlling office airworthiness and flying operations inspector’s recommendations and supporting data should be forwarded to the controlling office airworthiness and flying operations Team Leader’s for review and concurrence. as well as. an applicant may be authorised to conduct extended range operations with the specified airframe-engine combination. the operator’s application. When the operational validation flight has been evaluated and found acceptable. consideration of in-service experience and satisfactory application of the criteria in paragraph 9 and prior to the issuance of safety operational specifications.0 ■ 6. The Approval to conduct ETOPS will include the issuance of safety operational specifications (CAO 82. Following the review and concurrence the operational validation flight should be conducted in accordance with any additional guidance specified in the review and concurrence.7: December 2004 6.19 Extended Range Operations Approved by Group General Managers Air Transport Operations Group and General Aviation Operations Group Version 4.19.0 subsection 4) containing appropriate limitations.19-18 .