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From the high hills of Hebron water flows downhill through underground natural aquifers, which during King Solomon’s reign were elevated above the ground, to Jerusalem and its Gihon Spring. This proposition relies on an assumption supported by hydrological study that water from the Hebron region flows underground to supply the spring known as the Gihon. No specific hydrological study of the Gihon’s local water source exists. Anecdotal evidence in the Biblical record suggests this water source and its location to have been spiritually important to the occupants of the region around the City of David. Archaeologists suggest the motivation for fortification was to control the water and exclusively benefit the local populations during times of war. New evidence suggests the location of the spring to have been a place of ancient worship. This paper is written to support the view that the primary purpose of initial fortification was to protect the sanctity of this location. Notwithstanding the source of the water of the Gihon, which will only be important to the anecdotal evidence, the archaeological record at the sites surrounding the spring increasingly suggest a long span of history and periodic construction by the communities who derived benefit from this perpetual water source. Principle to the archaeological evidence are the following features; 1. The springs water exit from the bedrock 2. The man made underwater wall diverting the water passage to Shiloh 3. The stairwell area presently used to access the spring and bedrock pools 4. The Hezekiah channel 5. The Canaanite channel 6. Warren Shaft system 7. The north wall extending from the mezzanine to the upper Gihon rock platform 8. The south wall extending from the valley floor to the upper Gihon rock platform 9. The upper rock platform bounded by the north and south wall 10. The grave marker (matzevah) area south of the south wall

Using the above features we will deduce a theory of settlement and development in a

chronology as follows; 1. Calcolithic - Early Bronze I - sparse periodic settlement Before the Present (BP) 4300-3700 2. Bronze I - sparse settlement first fortification BP 3700 - 3400 3. Bronze II - sparse periodic settlement BP 3400 - 3200 4. Bronze III - settlement and further fortification BP 3200 - 3000 4. Iron Age I - established settlement and construction BP 3000 - 2800 5. Iron Age II - growth and development BP 2800 - 2400 Using the above chronology the development of archaeological evidence is now ordered earliest to latest to support of the theory proposed in this paper; 1. The spring water exit and well from the bedrock - Calcolithic 9. The upper rock platform (ridge) bounded by a north and south wall - Calcolithic 10. The matzevah area south of the south wall - Bronze I 3. The valley floor stairwell presently used to access the spring and bedrock pools - Bronze I 8. The south wall extending from the valley floor to the upper Gihon rock platform - Bronze I 5. *The Canaanite channel - Bronze III 6. *Warren Shaft system - Bronze III 7. *The north wall extending from the mezzanine to the upper Gihon rock platform - Bronze III / Iron Age I 4. The Hezekiah channel - Iron Age I/II 2. The man made wall diverting the water passage to Shiloh - Iron Age II *change of order can be tolerated A dissertation on the ordering follows; Questions must be asked whether the population density in the region of the Gihon during the Calcolithic period caused a demand for water exceeding supply. There is an abundance of archaeological evidence highlighting the use of wells in the immediate region as well as the extended region from Hebron to to Ber Sheva, indicating generally water was not in short supply. In light of regressive population statistics, it may be reasonable to assume that competition for water was limited to areas of high grazing. It is evident in the archaeological evidence, especially in the water flow from the Gihon, little attempt was made to contain the water until much later in the springs history when in the late Bronze III / Iron Age I and Iron Age II, the natural water flow was channelled. Evidence therefore suggests the water was sufficient to support settlement and little effort was made, if any, to control the water. Instead in the preceding period it was allowed to naturally flow out of the spring into a well and through the bedrock where it rose in an undulating fashion flowing to the low point along the Kidron Valley floor. At some point there became good reason to fortify the area. However, no evidence exists to determine the exact order in which this fortification took place or the reasons for it. This theory proposes the area of the upper rock platform south of the south wall section and west of the platform was the first area to be settled in the late Calcolithic period. Whilst evidence of this settlement may never be discovered the suggestion is supplemental to the main theory. Evidence presently suggests the southern wall was constructed earlier than its northern wall counterpart. The conditions of each wall differ significantly, and the construction of the northern

section appears to be developed to a later construction standard. This would support the view that the southern wall was constructed for some purpose other than to control the water from the Gihon. In its primitive environment the welling of water from the Gihon would have first filled the cave in which it is located (3. The stairwell area presently used to access the spring and bedrock pools) before rising to the level of the bedrock on the valley floor where the first damming pools were constructed as evidenced in the archaeology at the foot of the southern wall section. This paper proposes the first attempt to dam this water is thus connected with the construction of the southern wall section, which was required to secure the upper rock platform. Further, that the purpose of this construction was the containment of water required for the sacrifices offered on the upper rock platform in the area of the matzevah (10. The matzevah area south of the south wall). The ordering of this development chronology is therefore structured to support the importance of the sanctity of the upper rock platform as the motivating reason for its initial fortification. Its spiritual attractiveness, demonstrated by excavations on the platform including the matzevah, sacrificial pad and other features, the pivotal reason demand developed to occupy the area as a city. It is suggested that frequent activity on the upper platform led to its further development and formalization as an area of worship. Its importance is evidenced by the substantial structure eventually built into the bedrock and the matzevah. The southern wall is a component of the surrounding rectangular wall structure enclosing the bedrock at the base, immediately east of the upper rock platform. Water pools at the base indicate a containment (damming) of water within the wall structure where the southeastern corner of the wall is at a lower point (down mountain) than the higher point of the water’s release from the Gihon to the valley floor. In its operative form it would have contained and provided water to facilitate the process of cleaning the upper platform from blood and fats. The initial importance and use of the upper platform is at best sporadic apparently increasing in regularity leading to the construction of the southern wall section and enclosre. Lack of use by populations in the region during Bronze II indicates further development in Bronze III and is supported by the archaeological more detailed evidence of the northern wall and tower over the Gihon spring. This more sophisticated development is apparently motivated by the necessity to protect access to the water source indicating the increased competition for resources, perhaps the result of an expanding population. Further fortification through Bronze III ultimately provides for the extended development of an expanded fortified city which sustains a growing population and is indicated by the expansion of walls along the eastern slope, north and south of containment walls surrounding the bedrock, mezzanine and upper platform. The Canaanite channel improved the provision of water to areas in and outside of the southern wall including the possibility of terraced agriculture to support the cities residents. Operating on similar principles to flow water to the lower pools. The channel constructed in bedrock would have drawn water from the stairwell area (3) filling multiple pools and small reservoirs along its

route and ultimately providing sufficient water to the cavernous cisterns formed in the bedrock to provide long term sustenance and underground access to water for residents of the city, including via Warrens shaft (6). The effect of this channel is the substantial damming of water. The later addition of the Hezekiah channel renders the Canaanite channel redundant causing water to pass directly into open pools deeper in the city and when the water of the Gihon was finally redirected along this channel, it was no longer available to populations in areas outside of the city walls. Cutting off this valuable and precious water supply to the outside caused an increase in competition for access to the inner city precinct and with it demand for control over it.

Upper Rock Platform A conclusion that the area of the upper rock platform was a holy site used for sacrificial purposes supports the evidence that water for survival of the local population is not consistent with the discoveries and therefore was not the motivating reason for fortification. The sanctity of this site is supported by evidence of the specific and unique sampling of human bones discovered as explained in the anecdotal record.

Information relied upon for this paper include;
1.http://www.gsi.gov.il/Eng/_Uploads/163Geotechnical-Hydrogeological-Concern.pdf 2.http://israelpalestineguide.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/lower-aqueduct-wpics.pdf 3.http://www.nelc.ucla.edu/Faculty/Mullins_flies/ANE230_State_Formation_files/ Cahill_Jerusalem_Time_United_Monarchy.pdf 4. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/150492#.TuGSBGOlOHg 5. http://www.antiquities.org.il/IRD_movie_eng.asp

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