Chapter 2 : Locomotion and support 2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals 2.

2 Appreciating a Healthy Musc uloskeletal System 2.3 Support in Plants Biology form5

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals Skeleton Exoskeleton -enclosed the bodies of arthropods (insects and crabs) -supports the important i nternal organs and protects the internal structures from damage -thin and flexib le at joints -on a process called ecdysis, the insects shed their skeleton to in crease in size Endoskeleton Hydrostatic -found in all vertebrates -consists of internal fluids in -hardbskeleton of bone s are the confined body cavity made up of phosphate and -the fluid is held under calcium pressure in compartments surrounded by muscles -important to maintain t he body shape, supports the soft -maintains the shape of softbody tissues and pr otects the bodied organisms,such as internal organs from getting hydra sp, earth worm and sea injured anemones -certain parts of endoskeleton stores minerals Human Skeleton Locomotion

Human Skeleton Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton _____________ The structure of a joint How movement is brought in a limb The structure of a mu scle Consequences of impaired musculoskeleton system on support and locomotion

Human Skeleton Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic The part of the skeleton that forms an imaginary line down the back of the body is known as axial skeleton. The bones that make up the axial skeleton are the sk ull, the vertebral column (cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar verteb rae, sacrum and coccyx), sternum and ribs.

Human Skeleton Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic -contains 22 bones -protects the brain (carnial bones) -provides support for the entrance of the respiratory and digestive systems (facial bones) -Suture (immov able joints that hold the bone which makes up the skull firmly ) .

com . 2 3 4 hsleonhs@hotmail.Human Skeleton Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic 1 The vertebral column is a series of small bones that forms a flexible structure and provides support. Each bone is known as a vertebra. It runs down the dorsal side of a vertebrate animal.

These are the biggest in size. Sometimes known as the tail bone. They join with the hip bone forming the pelvis. They may occur as separate bones in young chil dren. Thoracic .composed of seven vertebrae and forming the neck. Coccyx – formed from the fus ion of two or four vertebrae.composed of twelve vertebrae and joining to the ribcage together forming the thorax. Sacrum – composed o f five fused vertebrae in .Human Skeleton Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic 1 2 3 4 Cervical . hsleonhs@hotmail. Lum bar – composed of five vertebrae.

com .Human Skeleton Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic 1 2 3 4 hsleonhs@hotmail.

com .Human Skeleton Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic 1 2 3 4 hsleonhs@hotmail.

com .Human Skeleton Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic 1 2 3 4 hsleonhs@hotmail.

com .Human Skeleton Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic -protects the heart and lungs -12 pairs of ribs make up the sides of the thoracic cavity -they articulate with th e twelve vertebrae of the thoracic region hsleonhs@hotmail.

triangular-shaped bone. Pelvic girdle – provides connect ion between the axial skeleton and the hind limbs. Ulna – longer bone of the forearm that articulates with the humerus. slightly curved bone in the hand.flat. tibia. that forms the skeletal basis of the sho ulder. .Human Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton The bones that make up the appendicular skeleton are scapula. Scapula . Femur – largest bone in the hum an body. Ra dius – flattened. found along with the tibia. giving skeleta l support to the hsleonhs@hotmail. pelvic girdle and leg. Fibula – shorter and smaller bone. humerus. allowing movement in all d irections. clavicle or collar bone. Humerus – the bone of the upper arm. ulna. its lower end articulates with the tibia to form a hinge joint at the k nee. its upper end articulates with the sca pula to form a ball-end-socket joint at the shoulder. radius. femur.

cushions the joint. protects t he bones from wearing away) -synovial fluid (acts as a lubicant.The structure of a joint -cartilage (reduces friction is a shock ends of the bones) . minimises the f riction between the hsleonhs@hotmail.

.com girdle. the shoulder joint between the humerus and the pectoral hsleonhs@hotmail.The structure of a joint -allow the bones to rotate in all directions -allow the swinging of arms and leg s in a circular motion -example:the hip joint between ferum and the pelvic girdl e.

and phalanges of toes and fingers -allow the lower leg to swing back and forth -allow the movement of bones in on e plate -work like a hinge on a door .The structure of a joint -Also called knee joints -found in the elbows.

To straighten the arm. strong and inelastic strands of dense connective tissues -connects skeletal muscle to the bones Ligaments-holds the bones together -tough sheets o f elastic fibres -connects bone to bone -allows the movements and prevent the di slocation of the joint during movement Antagonistic pairs-a pair of muscles work together to allow coordinated movement of skeletal joints.How movement is brought in a limb . the tricep muscles contract while the bicep muscles relax. The tricep muscles relax as t he bicep muscles become thicker and shorter. The arm is flexed by the contraction of the bicep muscles. namely the biceps and the triceps. hsleonhs@hotmail.( contracts & relaxes ) The movement of the forelimb is brought about by the contraction and relaxatio n of a pair of antagonistic muscles. Contraction of the bicep muscles pu lls the ulna up thus bending the arm at the elbow joint. Contraction of the tr icep muscles pulls the ulna down and arm is straightened.

The structure of a muscle 1 2 3 .

com .The structure of a muscle 1 2 3 Skeleton muscle (such as biceps consists of bundles of muscle fibres and a large supply of nerves and blood vessels. made up of two types of protein) Actin & myosin (interaction of both proteins cause muscle contraction) hsleonhs@hotmail. long cylindrical cell that contains many nuclei) Myofibril (bundles of smaller units made muscle fibre.) Muscle fibre (a single.

The structure of a muscle 1 2 3 .

regular weight-bearing . T is common in the elderly and women after meno pause.Consequences of impaired musculoskeleton system on support and locomotion osteoporosis Muscular dystrophy Arthritis Osteoporosis is a disease where the bone tissue starts eroding. Osteoporosis can be prevented by taking a diet rich in calcium. phosphoru s and vitamin D. hsleonhs@hotmail. making the bones brittle and prone to fractures. and avoiding smoking and exces sive alcohol.

It causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. . caused by an X-linked recessive gene. medicine. or surgery to cure muscular dys trophy or stop the muscles from weakening.Consequences of impaired musculoskeleton system on support and locomotion osteoporosis Muscular dystrophy Arthritis It is a genetic disorder of the muscle tissues caused by the lack of nourishment to the affected muscles. The goal of treatment is to prevent d eformity and allow the child to function as independently as possible. Treatment-There is no known treatment. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. It is usually seen in childr en between two to ten years old. Muscular dystrophy is more common in males than in females.

rheumatoid arthritis and gout. feet and ankles . Is compr ises more than 100 distinct conditions and can affect people at any stage of lif . hsleonhs@hotmail. neck.Consequences of impaired musculoskeleton system on support and locomotion osteoporosis Muscular dystrophy Arthritis Arthritis is the inflammation of one or more joints characterised by swelling. which may cause damage to the cartilage and bone itself. wrists. w armth. redness of the overlying area. The most common forms are osteoarthritis. Oste oarthristis is most common in older people where the top layer of cartilage brea ks down and wears away. Gout is condition tha t results from deposition of uric acid in the joints. jaw. Rheumatoid arthritis causes inflammation of the synovial membrane of the joints in the hands. elbows. pain and restriction of movement.

com .Locomotion Earthworm Grasshopper Fish Bird Frog hsleonhs@hotmail.

-there are two pairs of muscle i. -contraction and retraction of circular and longitudinal mu scle will cause a peristalsis wave and enables it to move forward. hsleonhs@hotmail. circular and longitudinal muscles that a ct antagonistically.Earthworm -Invertebrate which do not have . elongate and protrudes forwa rd. -The movement of the earthworm is aided by hydrostatic pres sure so that the body of the earthworm can shorten. but uses body fluid to maintain a h ydrostatic skeleton.

com .Earthworm hsleonhs@hotmail.

The muscles work in that antagonistic pairs is known as the flexor and extensor muscles. Grasshoppe rs have three pairs of legs.Grasshopper Grasshoppers have an exoskeleton. During flight. The energy stored in the tendon propels t he grasshopper into the air. Energy is stored in the elastic tendons caused by the contraction of both the flexor and the ext ensor . The wings are flattened extensions of the exo skeleton. This produces a lift by driving the air downwards which in turn enables th e grasshopper to lift off and fly. hsleonhs@hotmail. the rear legs are fully flexed. Grasshoppers have a pair of wings. The extensor muscles are attached to the tendons. Muscle bundles on the inside. During jumping. Antag onistic pairs allow movement of the appendage in both the directions. are attached to the exoskeleton. Across the joints. The third pair leg s are long with powerful muscles for jumping. The other three legs pull or push the body forwards. The body is supported on a tripod of three legs in walking. The contraction results in the bend ing of the joint and the relaxation results in the extending of the joint. upwards and downwards through the air owing to contractions of the flight mus cles. Before jumping. The grasshopper can jump 20 times its body length. the flexor muscles relax and the extensor contrac t causing the rear legs to straighten. the wings of the grasshopper move forwards and backward s.

Fish swim by contracting and relaxing a succession of muscle blocks called myotomes. hsleonhs@hotmail. These muscle contract and relax alt ernately on each side of the body. The alternate contracting and relaxing of myotomes. The dorsal and the ventral fins are useful in stabilising the fi sh as it swims. and long and tapering body towards the posterior end.Fish Fish have a streamlined body. smooth and rounded at the anterior part of the fis h. or used with the other fins for applying brakes. The rear part of each wave thrusts against the water an d propels the fish forward. helping to change direction quickly. Fish have fins to overcome the instability in water while swimming. which bends p art of the body first towards the other side. Paired pectoral and pelvic fins help to overcome rolling a nd pitching by stabilising the fish’s . This helps to overcome water resistance while moving in water. result in a series of waves travel ling down the fish’s body. starting at the head and progressing down tow ards the tail.

the contraction of the pectorali s major muscles moves the wing downwards and backwards. .Bird The bird’s wing has a curved shape called an aerofoil. The pectoralis minor handles the up stroke. This pressure diffe rence makes the lifting of the body possible by the wing. Conversely. There are two pairs of antagonistic muscles that are evolved for flight. which needs far less power. The larger pair called the pe ctoralis major contracts for the downstroke. The air on the upper part h as a lower pressure than the air moving over the lower part.

Most frogs can jump ten times their body l ength. .Frog Frogs make use of their long hind legs to effect several kinds of locomotion suc h as jumping. hopping. Frogs crawl by extending and retra cting their fore and hind limbs. When the frogs are at rest . the long hind legs are folded into a ‘Z’ shape. the extensor muscles contract r apidly. The short forelimbs absorb the shock of impact. Frogs land on their short forelimbs. The long hind legs hav e well developed muscles to lift them off the ground. and climbing. causing the hind legs to straighten suddenly. During hopping. hsleonhs@hotmail. A force is produced to pus h the frog upwards and forwards. burrowing.

com .Frog hsleonhs@hotmail.

A good posture while perfoming certain tasks helps to ensur e that the body is always well-supported. -Proper attire for daily activities – Co mfortable clothes and shoes should be worn especially during long walks so that the flow of movement is not hindered. -Exercise – The right amount and the right k ind of exercise are very important for a healthy musculoskeletal system. The cor rect and safe exercise technique should be practised.It is very important to have a diet rich in proteins to build muscles and calcium for strong teeth and bones. -Good posture – A good posture is to be maintained in all occasions and slouchin g should be . 2. Fats and oils should be avoided .-A balanced diet . sprai ns.2 Appreciating a Healthy Musculoskeletal System hsleonhs@hotmail. The wrong kind of exercise can cause serious injuries to the musculoskeletal system. dislocations and fractures. Appropriate precautio ns should be taken during vigorous activities which can result in strains.

3 Support in Plants -To allow growth towards sunlight in order for photosynthesis to take place -To allow leaves be placed in proper position for maximum absorption of light -To al low flowers be placed in a position that they can attract insects for pollinatio n -To allow fruits be placed in strategic places for effective dispersal of seed s Aguatic plants Test Terrestrial plants .

com . These tissues help the leaves and stems of the aquatic plants to float on the surface of the water Air sacs hsleonhs@hotmail.Aguatic plants Submerged Plants Floating plants -Possesses features to help them stay afloat on water -The natural buoyancy of t he water helps the aquatic plants to float -Consists of spongy tissue filled wit h air sacs which are known as aerenchyma tissues.

-the le aves and shoots are waterproof so that water do not seep into the cells causing damage. Lotus Eichhornia sp. growth of roots is straight downwards so that they are more stable. -The roots are fibrous and spreads in the w ater surface so as to prevent them being carried away by the water flow and hold them in place by surface tension. -The air is less compressed compared w ith the water hence making it float. -when there is growth in the middle of the ro . Arenchyma cell hsleonhs@hotmail.Aguatic plants Submerged Plants Floating plants -Floating plant will float because of the stem and leave which consists of paren chyma cells that has a lot of air spaces.

Parenchyma tissues store starch. sugars and water. These cells have slightly thickened walls of cell ulose which give support to the leaf or flower stalk and young stems. .Terrestrial plants Herbaceous plant Woody plants Special They depend on the turgidity of the cells and other supportive tissues for suppo rt. These cells maintain the turgidity of the plants to give support to the plant. Collenchyma tissues suppor t young and herbaceous plants.

com sclereids .Terrestrial plants Herbaceous plant Woody plants Special -supported by sclerenchyma and xylem tissues -Sclerenchyma tissues are composed of cell with secondary cell walls that are usually lignified -Have thick. small and irregular-shaped.) sclereids (short. Found out side the vascular bundles. Found in fruits and seeds) 1 2 fibres hsleonhs@hotmail. thin and straight. rigid and non-stretchable cell walls -support the non-growing parts of plants -divide into 2 types of sclerenchyma tissues: fibres (long.

Terrestrial plants Herbaceous plant Woody plants Special During development . 1 2 . There are dif ferent types of vessels.the cell walls of the xylem vessels and tracheid are thicken ed with lignin which are deposited during plants secondary growth.

-roots are different from others. -important in breat hing and growing thorns Tendrils Twining stem Buttress root Clasping root hsleonhs@hotmail.Terrestrial plants Herbaceous plant Woody plants Special Special structural adaptations for external support in some terrestrial plants -roots come out from the lower part of the trunk and grow into the . -prov ide support for the trees.

What is the tissue represented in B? Parenchyma Collenchymal Sclerenchym a Hyperdermis Hypodermis .Test 1. What is the function of the tissue represented in D? Transport water Tra nsport food Storage Photosynthesis What is the tissue represented in D? Parenchy ma Chloroenchyma Collenchyma hsleonhs@hotmail. What is the tissue enclosed in the oval labeled C? Phloem Xylem Fibers Parenc hyma 4. What is the tisue represented in A? Collenchyma Parenchyma Sclerenchyma Epide rmis 2.

com .Thank You hsleonhs@hotmail.