able 1: Difference Between Work Groups and Teams Work Groups Individual accountability Come together to share information

and perspectives Focus on individual goals Produce individual work products Define individual roles, responsibilities, and tasks Concern with one's own outcome and challenges Purpose, goals, approach to work shaped by manager Teams Individual and mutual accountability Frequently come together for discussion, decision making, problem solving, and planning. Focus on team goals Produce collective work products

Define individual roles, responsibilities, and tasks to help team do its work; often share and rotate them Concern with outcomes of everyone and challenges the team faces Purpose, goals, approach to work shaped by team leader with team members

Types of OD Intervention Information-based Intervention Interventions that define : Activities that specify or clarify the vision, mission, purpose, process, products, services, market position, roles, relationships, responsibilities, outcomes, expectations, and so on. Examples: holding sessions to create vision statements; confirming market direction and market niche; mutually setting performance goals. This intervention is delivered when people are unclear, disagree, or have different expectations; there are conflicting objectives; or people do not have a shared understanding. Interventions that inform: Activities that communicate goals, objectives, expectations, results, discrepancies, and so on. Examples: producing internal newsletters; holding debriefing sessions; giving feedback. This intervention is delivered when information has changed, the people have changed, or the people are uninformed, and the consequence is poor performance; or people don't get the information they need. Interventions that document: Activities that codify information (to preserve it and make it accessible. Examples: setting up libraries; creating manuals, expert systems, job aids, and decision guides. This intervention is delivered when information is not accessible over time or is too complex; job aids, manuals, help screens, and so forth are lacking or inadequate, inaccurate, or hard to access.

creating alternative futures. This intervention is delivered when the current work space. Interventions that counsel: activities and programs that help individuals. Examples: adopting ISO 9000. tools. This intervention is delivered when consequences for poor performance or unacceptable behavior are hidden or not enforced. merging functions. value. double-checking. equipment. and reward desired outcomes. Interventions that (re) design: Activities that result in useful. and so on. Examples: reengineering processes. reviewing. reorganizing responsibilities. materials. either singularly or collectively. maintenance. removing. or differently. easy-to-use. materials. find creative solutions. withholding pay. Design-based Intervention Interventions that organize: Activities that change the structure or arrange business units. and upgrading. service. retirement seminars. adds excess costs. components. tracking means and variance in performance over time. Intervention that measure: Activities and systems that provide metrics and benchmarks so people can monitor performance and have a basis to evaluate it. Or put employees? health and safety at risk. reporting relationships. This intervention is delivered when people don?t know what criteria are being used to judge productivity. and tasks. result in low yields. designing for ease of installation. safe. or there are few incentives for people to-do beater. family. equipment. or measures. and ergonomically designed environments. Examples: offering on-site daycare. and tolls. career. Examples: building in safety features. This intervention is delivered when old attitudes about work are preventing innovation or growth. or measures are inappropriate. Interventions that enforce: Activities that actualize consequences and achieve compliance. This intervention is delivered when the current structure is inefficient. tools. engaging in dialogue/ entering into new alliances. Interventions that reframe: Activities and programs that generate new paradigms so that people can experience new perspectives. Examples: developing a scorecard. eliminate undesirable behaviors. deal with work. Interventions that standardize: Activities that systematize or automate processes and standardize tasks. performance. integrate new concepts into their behavior. implementing uniform standards. and manage change. specifications. Examples: holding public ceremonies and annual recognition events. and financial issue. measures of good performance are lacking. or materials encumber. results in redundancy. Example: policing. common practices. equipment. on-site physical fitness canters. result in non-value adding activity. brainstorming. overly burdens cycle times. more. jobs. workplaces. and so on add extra costs. and they could better control their own performance if they knew what the criteria were. suspending. This intervention is delivered when deviations in equipment. personal. work processes. procedures.Consequences-based Intervention Interventions that reward: Activities and programs that induce and maintain desired behaviors. Examples: challenging assumptions. paying for performance. and cause variance in the quality of work. This intervention is delivered when current incentives either reinforce the wrong behaviors or ignore the desired behaviors. and hides accountability. and employee assistance .

coaching. OD differs from the traditional consulting. there is an increasing trend to maximize an organization's investment in its employees. create better moral and increase organizational profitability. OD offers a variety of methods to strengthen the human side of organizations to the benefit of both the individual and the organization. Organizational development programs are considered long-term efforts of at least one to three years in most cases. In fact. In addition. rather than simply changing isolated behaviors. Traditional group change system focus on identifying problems in an organization and then trying to alter the behavior that creates the problem. evaluate. Examples: offering training. Employees expect more from a day's work than simply a day's pay. focus on identifying the behavioral interactions and patterns that cause and sustain the problems. and they could catch up with the fast pace technological advances and keep their organization attuned with the constant changes in the business environment. OD initiatives on the other hand. it stresses collaborative management. worthwhile tasks and meaningful relationships with . The work force has also changed. OD efforts are aimed at creating a behaviorally healthy organization that will naturally anticipate and prevent or quickly solve problems. IMPORTANCE OF OD Why is OD important for business organization? There are various reasons why OD is an important tool for organizational success. The consultant is always around to monitor. But why should we use OD program when we can simply use the traditional consulting methods? Well. This intervention is delivered when current performance is suffering or future performance will suffer because people lack skills and knowledge. Then. a sense of accomplishment. Companies who are interested in embracing OD concept are those who believe that they would be able to gain competitive advantage. and redirect the organization and see to it that it is navigating into the right direction.programs. They want challenge. Organizational development is important in business organization because when successfully executed by the consultant with the total commitment of top management down to the rankand-file employees. and this is limiting productivity or adding unnecessary costs. whereby managers and employees at different levels of the hierarchy cooperate to solve problems. today. Jobs that previously required physical dexterity now require more mental effort which means that organization need to "work smarter" and apply creative ideas. It is now recognized that the most important assets of organizations are human assets. This intervention is delivered when people are preoccupied with or distracted by personal and career issues. Interventions that develop: Activities and programs that expand skills and knowledge. OD program also recognizes that every organization is unique and that the same solutions cannot necessarily be applied at different companies – this assumption is reflected in an OD focus on research and feedback. and structured on-the-job experiences. it can improve individual performance. recognition.

and refreezing. and data analysis several times during an organizational change. In practice. Lewin's Action-Research Model theory considers that OD can be cyclical for some businesses. greater productivity. . This theory suggests that leadership and external environment impact mission and strategy. Then. To learn more about organizational development theory. and click on the links on the left. All of these aspects have a symbiotic relationship in terms of organizational development. One of the most commonly used OD theories is Lewin's three step theory. The three steps are known as unfreezing. organizational culture. and individual and organizational performance. Changes in organizational development begin to occur during the transformation stage. in the refreezing stop. head to Business. These links contain a plethora of valuable information that can help you determine how organizational development can benefit your business. During the unfreezing step. the organization realizes that there is a need for change in the business. There is also Burke's theory of OD that involves the environment. hypothesis development and testing. and better quality of work life. This theory suggests that OD will go through the entire process of problem identification. there is more than one organizational development theory followed by businesses that are looking to achieve higher profitability.OD THEORIES Organizational Development (OD) is the process by which an organization is improved through the modification and changes of employees' on-the-job behaviors. the implemented changes are made to become a part of the organizational routine.

it achieves real and lasting change in the attitudes and behaviour of employees. 5) Implementation of Interventions: The selected intervention should be implemented progressively as the process is not a one shot. Team Building 8. It is done in order to intervene in the areas of disagreement or confrontation of ideas or opinions. Initial Diagnosis: The initial diagnosis refers to finding the inadequacies within the organisation that can be corrected by OD activities then it is necessary to find out the professionally competent persons within organisation to plan and execute OD activities. 7) Team Building: The consultants explain the advantages of the teams in OD process and encourage the employees throughout the process to form into groups and teams. Action planning and problem solving 7. questionnaires. Consequently. 3. 4) Selection of Interventions: The interventions can be described as the planned activities that are introduced into the system to achieve desired changes and improvements. Initial Diagnosis 2. Evaluation and Follow up 1. Inter-Group Development 9. The outside consultants can be also employed to help in diagnosing the problems and diagnosing OD activities. Data Collection: The survey method is employed to collect the data for determining organizational climate. analysis of documents and reports for diagnosing the problem. 6) Action Planning and Problem Solving: To solve the specific and identified problems by using the collected data. Selection of Interventions 5. It also helps in identifying the behavioural problems that are rising in the organisation. 2. The consultants adopt various methods and that primarily includes interviews. Data Feedback: The collected data are analyzed and reviewed by various work groups that are formed for this purpose.OD PROCESS OF OD The process of Organisational Development comprises of follows steps and they are:1. Implementation of interventions 6. groups prepare recommendations and specific action planning. . direct observation. Data Feedback 4. The suitable interventions are to be selected and designed at this stage. quick cure for organisational problems. Data Collection 3.

but they usually impose a structure and process on the discussions that is designed to move the parties toward mutual understanding and win-win agreements. setting agendas. An attempt is made to restate some of the key principles and practices of process consultation with a view to emphasising its role in providing a model for the helping relationship and an approach to organisational research . Alternatively. paralleling the client-centred approach in counselling. Mediators not only facilitate discussions. and guiding productive discussions. Facilitators will also usually record what was said. helping one side or both sides analyze the conflict and plan an effective response. and then makes a determination of who is right and who is wrong. While some mediators take a stronger role in option identification and selection than others. and may write up a short report summarizing the discussions and any agreements that were reached. and contrasted with consultancy models that are centred on expertise. the arbitrator’s decision is binding and cannot be appealed. most mediators have the conflicting parties sit down together to explain to each other their views about the nature of the problem and how they think it might best be solved. which the disputants may or may not accept. the arbitrator is the most powerful type of intermediary. the other forms of intervention (mediation or facilitation) are often preferred. examines written materials and other evidence relating to a case. Third parties might act as consultants. An arbitrator listens to presentations made by both sides. The mediator often tries to get the disputants to focus on underlying interests (the things they really need or want) more than their initial opening positions (what they initially say they need or want). This does not do justice to what is fundamentally a philosophy of a helping relationship. Arbitration works well when the parties simply want a settlement. For parties that want to maintain control. The most powerful third party role is that of an arbitrator. This is what has been neglected in the literature. Usually. A more active and powerful third party role is that of mediator. so that process consultation has been denigrated into a groupintervention strategy. mediators can usually get the parties to develop a common understanding of the situation. While many different styles of mediation are common. they might act as facilitators. It describes a philosophy of helping that is based on the collaborative working of consultant and client. At most. and do not worry about losing control of the process or the outcome. The effect of this is to confine the notion of process consultation to one particular intervention process.Third Party Intervention The terms "third party" and "intermediary" are both used to refer to a person or team of people who become involved in a conflict to help the disputing parties manage or resolve it. which often yields a solution which satisfies the interests of all parties. The core of the process consultation approach is not so much its applicability to group situations but its articulation and application of a philosophy. mediators do not have the power to impose a solution. or how a conflict should be settled. Process consultations intervertions Process consultation is an approach to organisational intervention created by Edgar Schein. arranging meetings. they can suggest a solution. By clarifying the divergent views and reasons for those views. Thus. The term “process consultation” has become a technical term in organisation development for the concept and practice of working with groups in OD interventions. however.

Major OD Interventions OD interventions aim at improving organizational performance and employees’ well being. . people are involved in the solution.The Effectiveness of Third-Party Process Consultation as a Function of the Consultant's Prestige and Style of Intervention Abstract The present study examines the effects of process consultation on group performance and group cohesiveness. to analyze. and a “contagious of effect” effort. creating with this a shared commitment. which will support the implementation of defined actions in the long term. 5. interpersonal process analysis). Task groups using process analysis. 4. working toward the definition of a future state. plan. Groups which were facilitated by a third party were not significantly different from groups which performed process analysis on their own. or “mix and match” them -based on the expected results and a solid analysis of the organization and its environment. then.d. and employees’ well being. 1. interventions OD professionals must have a solid understanding of the different OD interventions to choose the most appropriate. There were no differences in cohesiveness as a consequence of the two styles of intervention. aimed at improving organizational effectiveness. with or without a consultant. low) and (b) the style of intervention (instrumental process analysis vs. improved more in their work processes and cohesiveness than task groups which did not use process analysis. 3. 2. Instrumental process analysis was followed by greater improvements in work process and performance than was interpersonal process analysis. 2. 5. OD integrates a collection of planned change interventions that relies on humanistic and democratic values. Two factors were studied: (a) the consultant's prestige (high vs. and define the intervention’s outcomes. These interventions start from top levels of the organization. The interaction between prestige and styles of intervention did not follow any consistent pattern. 3. The results of the study are summarized as follows: 1. Large-scale interventions Large scale interventions typically involve a full-size group of stakeholders. 4. Classifications of o. There were no differences due to the prestige of the consultant.

Stages of Group Development . and communities of practice. such as goal setting. decision making. measure. Given its nature. and improve the quality of their leaders Team Development and Group Processes Interventions Team development and group processes interventions aim at improving different aspects of a group performance. and psychology. and their environment. problem solving. and almost all organizations have programs in place to identify. development of interpersonal relations among team members. Their use is wide spread. among other. One of the most important objective of team building interventions relies on improving interdependency of team members. indeed providing an absolute definition of a group. that allow them to better target strategies for competing or collaborating with other organizations. as with much of the theory around group work. TEAM AND GROUP What is A Group: Defining Groupwork Groups may be defined in many ways. Technostructural interventions Technostructural interventions focus on improving the organizational effectiveness and human development by focusing on technology and structure. combined with socio-technical systems and job analysis and design Management and Leadership Development Interventions These types of OD interventions aim to improve organizational performance by increasing effectiveness of formal and informal leaders. However for the purposes of discussing groupwork within a context of working with young people we may define a group as a small gathering of young people. Group work may simplistically be described as the study and application of the processes and outcomes experienced when a small group comes together. These interventions are rooted in the fields of engineering. these OD interventions are the most personalized of all. The most common examples of this type of interventions are learning strategies. mentoring. Individual / Interpersonal Process Individual / interpersonal process interventions aim at improving organizational performance by developing specific skills of individuals.Strategic interventions Strategic intervention help organizations to gain a better understanding of their current state. sociology. life transitions. and probably the most widely used by organizations. among other. and interpersonal communications. is highly problematic and contestable.

as a generalisation. is more predictable than individual behaviour. An internal appraisal of group value and how each individual belongs to the group are key features of this stage. It is now that decisions may be positively challenged or reinforced by the group as a whole.Groups. and trial and error. This is the best stage for a group to complete tasks. are the focus of the group. in fact at this stage it could be said that the group has transformed into a team. some members may not be comfortable with the role or roles which the have been allocated. However many commentators studying group development and dynamics have recognised that group development. This phase involves significant testing. referred to as engagement by Rogers. Stage 5: Mourning The final stage in the life of a group ultimately is its termination. Stage 1: Forming The first stage of this group process is joining. Acceptable and unacceptable behaviours within the group are created and reinforced and thus the `norms` for this group become fabricated. the comfort of the forming stage begins to come under siege. During this stage sub-groups are likely to form in order that a supportive environment is once more created. feelings and experiences with each other. as they may feel some extent of dependency on the group . like individuals are each unique with their own experiences and expectations. The ending of a group can be a very unhappy and distressing time for some members. Stage 2: Storming This stage sees group members begin to confront each other as they begin to vie for roles within the group that will help them to belong and to feel valued. this stage in group development is equally important to positive outcomes. Members experience personal. assuming that task. Thus as members begin to assert their individual personalities. Though often overlooked. intra and inter group conflicts Stage 3: Norming During this stage the group begin to work more constructively together towards formal identified or informal tasks. Initial concerns about openness and support within the group are manifested by a lack of cohesion and a difficulty in sharing thoughts. Stage 4: Performing This stage sees the group performing effectively with defined roles. rather than process and individuals.

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