Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering Process Dynamics and Operations Group ( y p p (DYN

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Process Performance Optimization Short Introduction

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simulation and optimization  But nothing works in reality as planned!  Someone has to bridge the gap between design and reality and make plants meet specs and be profitable  PROCESS OPERATIONS PEOPLE! • Process operations is a scientifically well-founded area of chemical engineering that is indispensable for industry PPO Intro WS 2011/12 D Y N 2 .What is Process Operations About?  What do chemical engineers do? • • • • • Invent new products Invent new processes to produce old or new products I t t d ld d t Design new plants (from basic to detail engineering) Improve the design of existing plants Manage (large) construction projects  Much of these activities are nowadays based on y predictive models.

The Essence of Process Operations: How to Handle Uncertainty  Uncertainty is a pervasive aspect of (bio)chemical process design and operations  Design: Strive for robustness • • • • Important issue in the selection and combination of steps Rarely addressed systematically Safety margins based upon experience Trade-off between performance and robustness  Operations: • REACT to uncertainties  feedforward and feedback • Requires margins • Th subsequent closed-loop operation should b explicitly The b t l dl ti h ld be li itl taken into account in plant and process design y practice  currently not industrial p PPO Intro WS 2011/12 D Y N 3 .

starting with: George Zames: Feedback and Optimal Sensitivity .Model-Reference Transformations.Feedback Control: The Main Means to Counteract Uncertainties  Feedback control is mostly taught as methods to achieve good responses to reference signals  However its main function is to counteract uncertanties • Model errors • Disturbances  (Only) since the 1980s. the issue of the robustness of feedback loops with respect t model errors h b l ith t to d l has been t t d systematically treated t ti ll in the scientific literature. and Approximate Inverses IEEE Tr. on Automatic Control 26 (1981)  Mature theory for linear systems y y PPO Intro WS 2011/12 D Y N 4 . Multiplicative Seminorms.

2 0.2 0.1 GP ( s )  Kp ( s  10)( s  200) 2 Ampli itude 0.3 03 0.2 0.5 05 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.4 04 0.5 Kp = 5 Kp = 2.5 05 0.0 0.9 0.Example: Plant PT1 with P-controller Plant Step Response GP ( s )  1.3 03 0.6 0.5 Kp = 5 Kp = 2.3 0.6 06 PPO Intro WS 2011/12 D Y N 5 .0 0.8 0.4 0.4 04 0.2 02 0.3 0.1 0.8 Amp plitude 0.9 0.5 Kp = 7.9 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.5 0 0.4 0.2 02 0.1 0 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.0 10 0.6 Kp = 7.1 01 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.1 01 0.8 Kp s  10 1.1 0 0.6 06 -2 0 0.5 0.7 0.6 Time Time 4 3 2 1 0 -1 Closed Loop Step Response with P-controller (Kc = 70) 1.6 0.

Example: Control of a Reactive Distillation Column Coolant X T1 G T2 T3 T4 Coolant L   MeOH + HAc  MeAc + H2O  k Reflux Split Acetic Acid Top Product T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12  Integration of reaction and separation. azeotropes are overcome by reaction  S i b h mode Semi-batch d  Manipulated variables • Reflux ratio (RT) ( ) • Feed (HAc) • Heat flow  Measured variables • xMeAc • xH2O • T Temperatures along the t l th column Heat supply PPO Intro WS 2011/12 D Y N 6 .

controllers that were successful for simulation models did not work at the real plant ork  Plant-model mismatch! PPO Intro WS 2011/12 D Y N 7 .The Reactive Distillation Column  Pilot plant: • Diameter: 100 mm • Height: 9 m  Cooperation • Fluid Separation Processes Group • Dynamics and Operations Group  In previous work.

Plant operation (I)   MeOH + HAc  MeAc + H2O  k   R  D  Concentrations in the condensate (top of the c.) MeAc Composition of the product str ream MeOH H2O HAc R Reflux ratio Heating power [kW] Time [h] Feed (HAc) [mol/min] PPO Intro WS 2011/12 D Y N 8 .

Plant operation (II)   MeOH + HAc  MeAc + H2O  k  Concentrations in the vapor from the reboiler Vap por compo osition MeOH H2O Reflux ratio Heating power [kW] time [h] PPO Intro WS 2011/12 Feed (HAc) [mol/min] D Y N 9 .

Disturbance Scenario PPO Intro WS 2011/12 D Y N 10 .

Process Operation Is More Than Control         Optimization (off-line. on-line) p ( . ) Data Reconciliation State Estimation for Monitoring and Control g Process Performance Monitoring Process Simulation Operator Training Systems Management Execution Systems SPC / Six Sigma PPO Intro WS 2011/12 D Y N 11 .

2012 Content Introduction.2012 16. MES SPC / Six Sigma Operation of Life Science Processes.2012 23. Operator Training Systems.11. State Estimation 3L State Estimation 3L Real Time Optimization. Control Structures 3L Control Structures 3L Tutorial: Control Structures 3T Introduction to Optimization.2011 09.2011 05.2011 12 12 2011 19.2011 21.12.10.11.2011 12.2012 30.01.01.10.12.11. Wrap up PPO Intro WS 2011/12 Lecturer Dünnebier/ Engell Dünnebier Tutors Engell Engell Tutors Engell / Tutors Engell Engell Engell / Tutors Dünnebier Dünnebier Dünnebier Dünnebier / Engell Y N 12 Tutorial: Model Predictive Control & State Estimation 3T Tutors D .01.10.Lecture Outline Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Date 10.2011 07.2011 17 10 2011 24.2011 17.10.01.2011 14.2011 31. Linear Programming 3L Nonlinear Programming 3L Tutorial: Linear & Nonlinear Programming 3T Dynamic Optimization 2L + 1T Model Predictice Control. Data Reconciliation 2L + 1T Process Performance Monitoring 2L + 1T Process Simulation.2011 28.11.12.

13:30 – 16:00 Lecture: ZE15 ectu e 5 Tutorial: ZE15 / PC Pool I & III Examination: 15.Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering Process Dynamics and Operations Group ( y p p (DYN) ) Lecture & Tutorial: Mondays. 9am D Y N .2012.02.