APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIGENOMICS IN ANIMAL SCIENCE INTRODUCTION Nutrigenomics applies genomic technologies to study how nutrients affect expression of genes

. With the advent of the post genomic era and with the use of functional genomic tools, the new strategies for evaluating the effects of nutrition on production efficiency and nutrient utilization are becoming available. Nutrigenomics plays an efficient role in various fields of animal health like nutrition, production, reproduction, disease process etc. Nutrigenomic approaches will enhance researchers‟ abilities to maintain animal health, optimize animal performance and improve milk and meat quality. In recent years, nutritional research has moved from classical epidemiology and physiology to molecular biology and genetics. Following this trend, nutrigenomics has emerged as a novel and multidisciplinary research field in nutritional science that aims to elucidate how diet can influence animal health (Canas et al, 2009)5. Genomics is the study of the functions and interactions of all genes in the genome; “nutrigenomics” applies genomic technologies to study how nutrients affect expression of genes. The study of how genes and gene products interact with dietary chemicals to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolize nutrients is called nutritional genomics or “Nutrigenomics” (Kaput et al, 2005). Nutrigenomic studies will be very useful for elucidating the roles of food components in obesity (Chadwick, 2004) in coronary heart diseases (Talmud, 2004) and cancer prevention (Davis and Hord, 2004). Over the last decade, advances in the biochemical technologies available for examining functional genomics have provided a number of new molecular tools for evaluating responses to nutritional strategies. These tools are largely based on an understanding of the expression and control of specific genes and gene products and have led to the development of the sciences associated with Nutrigenomics (Swanson et al., 2003). From the research perspective, to explore the effect of dietary components on the genome, the crucial stages of nutrigenomics are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Application of these modern

research tools, known as “omics” technologies, should yield new knowledge on the course of molecular processes in animal organisms and a more precise evaluation of the biological properties of feeds. A number of molecular tools are used to evaluate the effects of dietary strategies on gene expression and the flow of information from the genetic code (DNA) to biological functions and structure. These include
1) Transcriptomic tools that quantitatively evaluate the formation of m-RNA (gene expression), 2) Proteomic tools which measure the formation of specific proteins (protein expression) 3) Metabolomic tools it can measure the products from the resulting metabolic activities (metabolic

profiling). The most powerful molecular tools for examining nutrient effects at the most basic level comes from highthroughput microarrays (gene chips), that allow for the examination of the expression of thousand genes at a time. These arrays have allowed investigators to directly examine the effects of nutrient supplies in great detail and at the most rudimentary level of gene transcription (gene expression). These techniques not only allow for an understanding of the effects of nutrition on individual genes, but also for the examination and comparison of gene expression profiles (gene interactions). How does diet affects our gene expression? Virtually every day, researchers identify new genes that contribute to health and disease. Conditions like breast cancer (109 genes) and asthma (27 genes) and diabetes (114 genes) highlight how broad these genetic factors will become. At the same time, the new biotechnology methods are pinpointing how molecular nutrients shape genomic activity. For examples, Vitamin A changes activity in over 500 genes; calcium in over 145, zinc over 60. Cholesterol, which is made by the body, influences over 30 genes, which shows that molecular nutrients which might regulate cholesterol production are likely, in turn, to have important second order effects. ( Daniel et al ,2005).

The four basic tenets of Nutrigenomics are: i. Improper diets are risk factors for disease. ii. Dietary chemicals alter gene expression and/or change genome structure iii. The degree to which diet influences the balance between healthy and disease states may depend on an individual’s genetic makeup. iv. Some diet-regulated genes (and their normal, common variants) are likely to play a role in the onset, incidence, progression, and/or severity of chronic diseases. Genes express themselves through proteins. Enzymes are special proteins designed to get things started. Our genome instructs ribosomes to produce many enzymes that destroy toxins. Some foods such as cauliflower, broccoli and brussels sprout contain chemicals that actually tell our genes to direct biosynthesis of these enzymes. In some individuals, genes give unclear instructions for making an enzyme that metabolizes the amino acid, phenylalanine. As a result, this amino acid builds up, thereby causing brain damage. A diet restricting this amino acid will stop the damage if detected in early infancy. Transfer of nutrients from gut to cells requires carrier and receptor proteins. Some individuals have genes that direct overproduction of iron carrying proteins. The resulting iron overload is extremely toxic and may lead to death. One gene that have received considerable attention and around which there has been a great deal of research is the gene for the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Its relation to cardiovascular disease is confirmed. Currently, several nutrition related issues benefit from genetic research. A number of conditions like phenylketonuria, caffeine intake and bone loss in postmenopausal women, folic acid and heart disease, obesity, anorexia nervosa, vitamin C supplementation to reduce cancer risk and low fat diet for high blood cholesterol levels, show the influence of genetic variation on nutrition advice. The majority of practical applications of Nutrigenomics are just beginning to emerge. The trend appears to be that certain individuals with particular variations in their genes will have increased need of specific nutrients in their diet which will result in changes in translation of information in their genes.

The impact of this dietary change on an individual’s gene expression may be animprovement in their projection disease trajectory over a life time.3 (Muller, M., Kersten, S.2003) 1. NUTRIGENOMICS: MEASURING NUTRITION RESPONSIVE GENOME ACTIVITY A way to obtain insight in the methodological approaches of nutrigenomics is to see how an experiment is actually set up and performed. The typical nutrigenomics experiment demands a clear plan based on several a priori choices: 1. the actual approach, 2. the model system, 3. The type of nutrition or diet, 4. the appropriate technological methods. The influence of nutrition on genome activity is studied almost always in a comparative manner either by a direct or an indirect approach. The direct approach involves changes in the nutrients presented to a model system followed by monitoring the changes in gene expression. This includes for instance most of the human intervention studies. The indirect approach involves the study of nutritionrelated traits and disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. In those studies gene expression is compared Nutrigenomics, nutrigenetics, functional foods, personalized diet, networking between subjects with and without the disorder and from the differences scientists hope to deduce the relevant molecular pathways leading from health to disease under the influence of diet and lifestyle. The results of those studies should lead to new targets for pharmacological or dietary intervention and to novel functional foods. In nutrigenomics many different model systems are used ranging from in vitro cultured cells to animals and humans. Many of our genes are active in a tissue- or organspecific manner requiring the analysis of gene expression in the relevant biological material. Although methods for safely taking biopsies from humans are rapidly extending and improving, there will always be at least some medical or ethical restrictions. Therefore, scientists often rely on animal models like mouse, rat or pig, although also other models such as the nematode C. elegans are increasingly used. The technology of generating transgenic, knock-out and knock-in mice has considerably increased the attractiveness of using animal models (Santo et al ,2004).

The result is, that the ApoE3L mouse has a more human-like lipid profile and is therefore a preferred model system for gene-diet interaction in the context of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is a growing number of inbred mutant mouse strains with a monogenic nutrition-related trait which are excellent models for studying the influence of diet on a particular genetic background. In part of the nutrigenomics studies, human or animal tissue-specific cell lines or primary cells are used. An advantage is that the external influences, i.e. the culture conditions, can be easily controlled or manipulated by changing specific nutrients followed by monitoring of the effect on genome activity. In addition, cell lines are clonal in origin avoiding the complication of genetic variation.

UNDERSTANDING DIET EFFECTS ON SPECIFIC GENES Gene expression studies have become increasing valuable as a tool for examining specific effects of nutrients and diseases on gene expression further expression studies have allowed for an improved understanding of the physiological basis on the beneficial global effects of caloric restriction on aging (Lee et al., 2002) and the effects of minerals such as selenium on intestinal function (Rao et al., 2001). In poultry, gene expression studies are better understanding of disease resistance (Liu et al., 2003) and of growth and tissue differentiation. These tools have also been used to differentiate effects of specific nutrient forms. Afrakhte and Schultheiss, 2004 compared two forms of selenium, the inorganic selenite salt and an organic form in selenium yeast, have suggested both functional differences and similarities with these dietary forms. These were easily seen in the expression of some key genes associated with antioxidant systems In addition, it has been possible to show tissue-specific effects of different forms of selenium with selenium yeast inducing greater changes in gene expression in the intestinal tract (991 of 14,000 transcripts examined) and sodium selenite inducing the greater changes in ovarian tissue (4135 of 14,000 transcripts examined). INDIVIDUAL VARIATION WITHIN POPULATIONS Variation of the individual response to diet can be explained by the underlying differences in genetics across a population. Animals and humans have shown that individual genotypic variations can alter nutrient metabolism, from relatively mild conditions like lactase gene polymorphisms that result in lactose intolerance to potentially severe pathological conditions like phenylketonuria (Harvey et al 1998). Obesity and lipid metabolism are currently the most studied examples of genetic influence on the development of a condition resulting from nutrition (Debusk et al., 2005). The quantity and quality of the diet modulates the expression of numerous genes in various tissues. Each individual will respond to a specific diet in a unique manner that corresponds with their genetic profile. One of the goals of nutrigenomics research is the development of consensus responses to specific dietary stimuli so that anomalies can be identified and studied further. It is these anomalies that will provide the basis for understanding how genetic differences are associated with specific response to nutrients, how genetic differences in combination with diet result in maladies like obesity or improved animal performance.

A majority of this research has been fueled by the human and subsequent animal genome projects including that for chicken and turkey, which will ultimately enable scientists to understand the functions of genes and how they are regulated. This knowledge will provide information on how genes and nutrients interact and the effect of individual genetic differences on diet and nutrition. Developing within this genome era were technologies that were increasingly broad in scope that included automation, high throughput, and data intensive. Many of these technologies also involved miniaturization of standard techniques to suit the new high throughput experimental designs. These technologies have significant implications on nutrition research and include aspects of genomics (polymorphism), functional genomics (gene expression), proteomics (protein expression), and a recent addition to the field epigenetics (heritable factors overlaying the genome sequence).

APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIGENOMICS IN ANIMAL SCIENCE The interface between the nutritional environment and cellular/genetic processes is being referred to as “nutrigenomics.” Nutrigenomics seeks to provide a molecular genetic understanding for how common dietary chemicals (i.e., nutrition) affect health by altering the expression and/or structure of an individual’s genetic makeup. The fundamental concepts of the field are that the progression from a healthy phenotype to a chronic disease phenotype must occur by changes in gene expression or by differences in activities of proteins and enzymes and that dietary chemicals directly or indirectly regulate the expression of genomic information. We present a conceptual basis and specific examples for this new branch of genomic research that focuses on the tenets of nutritional genomics:
 Common dietary chemicals act on the genome, either directly or indirectly, to alter gene expression or


Under certain circumstances and in some individuals, diet can be a serious risk factor for a number of diseases.

Some diet-regulated genes (and their normal, common variants) are likely to play a role in the onset, incidence, progression, and/or severity of chronic diseases.

 The degree to which diet influences the balance between healthy and disease states may depend on an individual’s genetic makeup; and

 dietary intervention based on knowledge of nutritional requirement, nutritional status, and genotype

(i.e., “individualized nutrition”) can be used to prevent, mitigate, or cure chronic disease.( Kaput, et al., 2004). 1. To develop animal feed/food matching to its genotype. The goal of nutrigenomics or nutritional genomics is to develop foods and feeds that can be matched to genotypes of animals to benefit health and enhance normal physiological processes. Using gene chips that contain the genetic code of animal, researchers can measure the effects of certain nutritional supplements, and how they alter the gene interactions of the body. 2.To select nutrients fine-tuned with genes of animal. Nutrigenomics is not altering the genetics of an animal nor to genetically modify the animal rather we are altering the activity of genes switching on good genes and keeping bad ones switched down. Through nutrigenomics we are carefully selecting nutrients for fine-tuning genes and DNA present in every cell and every tissue of an animal. For example, keeping stress response genes switched down with proper nutrition so that the animal is healthier, more productive. 3. To understand role of nutritional management in performance (production/disease) of animal. Gene expression studies will allow for the identification of pathways and candidate genes responsible for economically important traits. Dietary manipulations and nutritional strategies are key tools for influencing ruminant production. There is a usual belief that nutrition and genetic makeup both strongly influence the reproductive performance of milking animals. This is particularly important during the transition period and early lactation, when the animal is particularly sensitive to nutritional imbalances. Nutrigenomics and nutritional genomics are providing new tools that can be used to more clearly understand how nutritional management can be applied to address disease, performance and productivity in animals. In the changing scenario of ruminant‟s nutrition the objective of nutrigenomics is to study the effects of diet on changes in gene expression or regulatory processes that may be associated with various biological processes related with animal health and production. In studies of steers under nutritional restriction due to intake of poor quality feeds, expression of specific genes associated with protein turnover, cytoskeletal remodeling, and metabolic homeostasis was clearly influenced by diet(Byrne et al ,2005).

Application of nutrigenomics to resolve the molecular markers important in nutrition research. There is vary scares information about effect of diet on expression of genes related to productive or reproductive traits of livestock, it may be possible to begin to understand the importance of the relationship between individual nutrients and the regulation of gene expression. To understand this concept of nutrigenomics a study of diet induced gene expression is discovered in which selenium deficiency shown to alter protein synthesis at transcriptional level (Rao et al, 2001) It leads to adverse effect like enhancement of stress through upregulation of specific gene expression and signaling pathway. On the other hand genes responsible for detoxification mechanism and protection from oxidative damage were hampered, these consequences ultimately leads to alteration of phenotypic expression of related symptoms of selenium deficiency. From the above example it is apparent that possibly nutrigenomics can be used to identify the specific markers to manipulate gene expression through use of nutrients or their combinations so as to improve productive as well as overall animal performance. Nutrigenomics will be a path-breaking tool through identification of pathways and candidate genes responsible for dietary induced diseases and ultimately reduction in production losses due to these diseases in animals. The discoveries of gene markers related to economically important traits like milk, meat, wool production etc whose expression can be improved by dietary regimens is a need of today’s nutrigenomic research, which will help for sustainable livestock production. 4. Nutrient-Gene interaction. The diet has long been regarded as a complex mixture of natural substances that supplies both the energy and building blocks to develop and sustain the organism. However, nutrients have a variety of biological activities. Some nutrients have been found to act, as radical scavengers known as antioxidants and as such are involved in protection against diseases. Other nutrients have shown to be potent signaling molecules and act as nutritional hormones (Muller and Kersten, 2003). Some of the plant secondary metabolites also known as photochemical act as a modulator of animal health and production.

To understanding the aging process in animals. A nutrigenomic approach can be applied to understanding the aging process in companion animals.

Healthy adult animals given the same foods can be studied to identify the gene expression and biochemical differences characteristic of the aging process. Foods for senior animals can then be rationally designed and evaluated for their ability to modify gene expression profiles in animals to more closely reflect those found in healthy adult animals, which has the potential to improve health and quality of life. In addition, canine and

feline nutrigenomic studies may provide evidence that nutrigenomics can improve health and quality of life for humans. 6.Nutrigenomics and immune system. The concept underlying nutrigenomics is that nutrition is the key element of health maintenance, particularly for the immune system, so that an optimum level of nutrition will ensure optimum animal health. A deficiency of an essential nutrient will eventually affect the body’s performance. The immune system is particularly sensitive to deficiencies, and once the immune system is compromised, negative consequences follows. There is a defined relationship between production and immune status of animals. Higher the production, more sensitive is the immune system of animal. Two decades ago, the main aim of animal nutritionists was to design ration so to avoid deficiencies. Deficiency is now rare in modern livestock production systems. So we can now move to the next stage rather than merely preventing deficiency, we can strive to actually meet the animal’s exact requirements from its diet, in order that it can meet its genetic potential. 8) Nutrigenomics and diseases. Essential nutrients and other bioactive food components can serve as important regulators of gene expression patterns. Macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, and various phytochemicals can modify gene transcription and translation, which can alter biological responses such as metabolism, cell growth, and differentiation, all of which are important in the disease process. Genome wide monitoring of gene expression using DNA microarrays allows the simultaneous assessment of the transcription of thousands of genes and of their relative expression between normal cells and diseased cells or before and after exposure to different dietary components. This information should assist in the discovery of new biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis prediction and of new therapeutic tools. Many diseases and disorders are related to suboptimal nutrition in terms of essential nutrients, imbalance of macronutrients, or event toxic concentrations of certain food compounds. There are multietioetiological diseases which are due to interaction of different nutrients along with several genes (Mariman, 2006). Remarkable diversity in all living beings differences in food digestion, nutrient absorption, metabolism, and excretion have been observed and genetic diseases in these processes have been reported. The functional integrity of gene is mainly depends on metabolic signals that the nucleus receives from internal factors, e.g. hormones, and external factors, e.g. nutrients, which are among the most influential of environmental stimuli.

Genomes evolve in response to many types of environmental stimuli, including nutrition. Therefore, the expression of genetic information can be highly regulated by, nutrients, micronutrients, and photochemicals found in food (Van Ommen, 2004). In eye diseases Recent finding on the implication of nutritional and genetic factors in age-related eye diseases: agerelated macular degeneration (AMD; a degenerative disease of the retina) and cataract (opacification of the lens). Because of direct exposure to light, the eye is particularly sensitive to oxidative stress. Antioxidants, such as vitamin E, C or zinc, clearly have a protective effect in AMD and probably in cataract. In addition, two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, may play a more specific role in the eye: they accumulate in the retina, where they form the macular pigment, and in the lens. Finally, docosahexaenoic acid (an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) is particularly important for the retina, where it exerts structural, functional and protective actions. Besides, these diseases are strongly influenced by genetics, as demonstrated by familial and twin studies. The apolipoprotein E4 allele is associated with a reduced risk of AMD, while an association of AMD with complement factor H polymorphism has recently been demonstrated. (Stintzing et al ,2002) In diabetes Type-2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with impaired carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism. This is further linked to inactive lifestyle and consumption of 'wrong' foods. We know that certain foods that are high in sugar and white starches can make the symptoms of diabetes worse. However, people with diabetes will have different responses to particular foods because of their different genes. For example, a study found that physicians recommend changes to diet and an increase in physical activity for type 2 diabetes patients, but only 20% of patients can actually control symptoms through these interventions. This is where nutrigenomics can help manage type-2 diabetes. Nutrigenomics can come to aid through clinical diagnostics for phenotypes such as insulin level and glucose tolerance, as well as through metabolomics diagnostics in which diabetes biomarkers (biochemical substances viz. glucose, cholesterol, creatine, and fatty acids that indicate the susceptibility and progress of the disease) are assessed. Researches have shown that 'over expression' of SREBP -1a and SREBP -1c (t-RNAs

that activate genes involved in the synthesis and uptake of cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides) play an important role in the development of diabetes. Another research has suggested that presence of certain gut microbes increased fat reserves and insulin resistance, and thus may have an influence on the development of type-2 diabetes. Similarly, certain fibers modulated cholesterol absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, thus playing an important role in defining nutrient bioavailability. This would help experts understand the complex relationship of diet-gene interaction of the diabetic person and provide more efficacious dietary recommendations. In the same way, nutrigenomics can also help in developing treatments for type-2 diabetes through personalized diet. And they have proven to be more effective than certain drugs. For example, the drug, rosiglitazone, commonly used by type-2 diabetics, is known to alter lipid metabolism in liver tissues and adipose tissues leading to liver toxicity with prolonged use. On the other hand, nutrients found in certain diets have the same metabolic pathway as the said drug, but without its side effects. Typical nutritional studies analyzing the response of an intervention group to controls provided the same diet lacking a specific nutrients or nutrients. Simple examples analyzed serum lipid changes in response to a high fat vs control diet or determined differences in nutrient intakes between groups of individuals who have a disease (cases) versus those that do not (i.e., controls). Results of such studies are averages of all members of the control and all members of the intervention group. While population attributable risk yields useful guidelines, it does not provide information for individual members of the group nor can it be confidently applied to individuals not in the study. Low intakes of vitamin D have also been associated with an incidence and pathogenicity of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Kaput et al.,2008) 9.Nutrigenomics And Cancer prevention Cancer incidence is projected to increase in the future and an effectual. Preventive strategy is required to face this challenge. Alteration of dietary habits is potentially an effective approach for reducing cancer risk. Assessment of biological effects of a specific food or bioactive component that is linked to cancer and prediction of individual susceptibility as a function of nutrient nutrient- interactions and genetics is an essential

element to evaluate the beneficiaries of dietary interventions. In general, the use of biomarkers to evaluate individuals susceptibilities to cancer must be easily accessible and reliable. However, the response of individuals to bioactive food components depends not only on the effective concentration of the bioactive food components, but also on the target tissues. This fact makes the response of individuals to food components vary from one individual to another. Nutrigenomics focuses on the understanding of interactions between genes and diet in an individual and how the response to bioactive food components is influenced by an individual’s genes. Nutrients have shown to affect gene expression and to induce changes in DNA and protein molecules. Nutrigenomic approaches provide an opportunity to study how gene expression is regulated by nutrients and how nutrition affects gene variations and epigenetic events. Finding the components involved in interactions between genes and diet in an individual can potentially help identify target molecules important in preventing and/or reducing the symptoms of cancer (Ali M. Ardekani and Sepideh Jabbari, 2009). 10.) Nutrigenomics and reproduction. The science of nutrigenomics has begun to use information obtained from basic studies of the genome to evaluate the effects of diet and nutrient management schemes on gene expression. Preliminary studies have shown the value of such techniques and suggest that it will be possible to use specific gene expression patterns to evaluate the effects of nutrition on key metabolic processes relating to reproductive performance. While the effects of nutrition on fertility are only partially understood, modern nutrigenomics will undoubtedly play a key role in developing strategies for addressing some of the limitations in reproductive performance. Currently, oligo based and cDNA microarray techniques make it possible to understand many of the factors controlling the regulation of gene transcription and globally evaluate gene expression profiles by looking at the relative abundance of gene-specific mRNA in tissues. These techniques provide an unprecedented amount of information and are only now being used to examine key reproductive, developmental, and performance characteristics in cattle. They also promise to provide a tremendous amount of new information that can be used to understand and diagnose key issues that limit reproductive performance (Dawson ,2006). NUTRIGENOMICS AND THE OMIC TECHNOLOGIES The sequencing of the genomes has led to the development of a whole new scientific methodology. These new areas of scientific study usually include the 'omics' suffix. The technical developments have given us novel tools enabling high throughput genome wide approaches. These tools form the basis of the biomics

era; genomics (covering DNA), transcriptomics (RNA), proteomics (protein), metabolomics (metabolites) and systems biology (integrating all of these), with bioinformatics enabling the storage, integration and analysis of the overwhelmingly complex data set produced. Nutrigenomics aims to determine the influence of common dietary ingredients on the genome, and attempts to relate the resulting different phenotypes to differences in the cellular and/or genetic response of the biological system (Mutch et al, 2008). More practically, nutrigenomics describes the use of functional genomic tools to probe a biological system following a nutritional stimulus that will permit an increased understanding of how nutritional molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostatic control. Nutrigenetics, on the other hand, aims to understand how the genetic makeup of an individual coordinates their response to diet, and thus considers underlying genetic polymorphisms. It embodies the science of identifying and characterizing gene variants associated with differential responses to nutrients, and relating this variation to disease states. Therefore, both disciplines aim to unravel diet/genome interactions; however, their approaches and immediate goals are distinct. Nutrigenomics will unravel the optimal diet from within a series of nutritional alternatives, whereas, nutrigenetics will yield critically important information that will assist clinicians in identifying the optimal diet for a given individual, i.e. personalized nutrition. GENOMICS AND INSULTS SET STAGE FOR PROCESS THAT ARE MODIFIED

Credentialing is defined as “omic” changes that bring about a phenotypic change ROLE OF TRANSCRIPTOMICS IN NUTRIGENOMICS Ttranscriptome is the complete set of RNA that can be produced from the genome. Transcriptomics is the study of the transcriptome, i.e. gene expression at the level of the mRNA. Using either cDNA or oligonucleotide microarray technology, it describes the approach in which gene expression (mRNA) is analyzed in a biological sample at a given time under specific conditions. It is the most widely used “omics” technologies. Regulation of the rate of transcription of genes by food components represents an intriguing site for regulation of an individual’s phenotype (Trujillo et al, 2006). The host of essential nutrients and other bioactive food components can serve as important regulators of gene expression patterns. Macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, and various phytochemicals can modify gene transcription and translation, which can alter biological responses such as metabolism, cell growth, and differentiation. The aim of transcriptomics is to determine the level of all or a selected subset of genes based on the amount of RNA present in tissue samples. Transcriptomics is concerned with the expression of genes in animals. In dairy industry, an effective utilization of microarray technology was beneficial to study mammary

gland tissues (milk production and udder health), muscle growth and development and myogenesis process (beef production) and the role of gut microflora on nutritional diet intake in ruminants (health and food safety). ROLE OF PROTEOMICS IN NUTRIGENOMICS Proteomics is the study of all the proteins in a particular cell, tissue or compartment (Banks et al.2000).The major tools of proteomics are two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS). Proteomic analysis was quite effective and useful to evaluate the effect of dietary methionine on breastmeat accretion and protein expression in skeletal muscle of broiler chickens (Corzo et al.,2006) Via a tandem mass spectrometer, a total of 190 individual proteins were identified from Pectorali major muscle tissue; three of them were recognized which differed distinctly between the treatment proteome and could be considered as potential biomarkers regulated by a methionine deficiency in broiler chickens. ROLE OF METABOLOMICS IN NUTRIGENOMICS Metabolomics represents the final step in understanding the function of genes and their proteins. The aim of metabolomics is to determine the sum of all metabolites (other substances than DNA, RNA or protein) in a biological system: organism, organ, tissue or cell (Müller and Kersten, 2003). Techniques employed to investigate the metabolome include nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). These methods are capable of resolving and quantifying a wide range of compounds in a single sample. The main characteristics of these new technologies were miniaturization, automation, high throughput and computerization (Corthesy-Theulaz et al .,2005). In experiments performed by (Bertram et al., 2006) metabolomic analysis was implemented to detect the changes in the biochemical profiles of plasma and urine from pigs fed with high-fibre rye bread ((Bertram et al., 2006)). Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from whole rye and fed to pigs. Using an explorative approach, the studies disclosed the biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine. ARKERS Biomarkers Biomarkers are the genetic variants that predict the risk of disease and improve diagnosis and risk assessment. Genetic polymorphism may be partially responsible for variation in individual’s response to bioactive food component. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are becoming increasingly recognized to

have an important influence on disease risk, for example, inherited polymorphism in BRCA1 is the gene responsible for breast cancer susceptibility. If someone consume less fruits and vegetables were reported to be at the greatest risk of developing breast cancer because of a polymorphism that causes a valine to alanine change in the ninth position in the signal sequence for the enzyme manganese dependent superoxide dismutase. correlations between mildly elevated homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease risk. Methylene tetra hydrofolate reductase helps to convert homocysteine to methionine. Due to SNPs (C677T and A1298C) which reduce MTHFR activity it leads to increase in plasma concentrations of homocysteine and thereby to venous thromboembolic disease, ischemic arterial disease and neural tube defects. Treatment with folic acid supplementation helps to overcome the effects of these polymorphisms in MTHFR gene. Similarly a number of polymorphic genes have been implicated to cancer development e.g. MCIR (melanocortin 1 receptor gene) have been associated with several types of skin and prostrate cancers. There are claims of dietary supplements that protects against diseases like cancer. New foods are developed as functional foods. Obesity has become a major public health problem. Mutations in genes like leptin and leptin receptor genes have emerged as leading candidates towards predicting obesity. Once the mutations are detected in the family, the physician might be in a position to offer diet restriction/intervention at an early stage of life.( Subbiah Ravi et al 2006)



Microarray Technology: A Promising Tool in Nutrigenomics Microarray technology is a powerful tool for the global evaluation of gene expression profiles in tissues and for understanding many of the factors controlling the regulation of gene transcription. This technique not only provides a considerable amount of information on markers and predictive factors that may potentially characterize a specific clinical picture, but also promises new applications for therapy. One of the most recent applications of microarrays concerns nutritional genomics. Nutritional genomics, known as nutrigenomics, aims to identify and understand mechanisms of molecular interaction between nutrients and/or other dietary bioactive compounds and the genome. Actually, many nutrigenomic studies utilize new approaches such as microarrays, genomics, and bioinformatics to understand how nutrients influence gene expression. The

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