RANKINGS

OCTOBER 28 2005

WORLD UNIVERSITY

Aachen RWTH Aarhus University Adelaide University Alabama University Amsterdam University Auckland University Australian National University Basel University Bath University Beijing University Birmingham University Bologna University Boston University Bristol University Brown University Brussels Free University (French) California Institute of Technology Cambridge University Carnegie Mellon University Case Western Reserve University Catholic University of Leuven (Flemish) Catholic University of Leuven (French) Chalmers University of Technology China University of Science and Technology Chinese University of Hong Kong Chulalongkorn University City University of Hong Kong Colorado University Columbia University Copenhagen University Cornell University Curtin University of Technology Dartmouth College Delft University of Technology Duke University Durham University Ecole Normale Supérieure, Lyon Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris Ecole Polytech Fédérale de Lausanne Ecole Polytechnique Edinburgh University Eindhoven University of Technology Emory University Erasmus University Rotterdam ETH Zurich Frankfurt University Free University Berlin Free University of Amsterdam Fudan University Geneva University George Washington University Georgetown University Georgia Institute of Technology Glasgow University Gothenburg University Göttingen University Harvard University Hebrew University of Jerusalem HEC Paris Heidelberg University Helsinki University Helsinki University of Technology Hiroshima University Hokkaido University Hong Kong University Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Humboldt University Berlin IEP Sciences Po, Paris Imperial College London Indian Institutes of Management Indian Institutes of Technology Innsbruck University Jawaharlal Nehru University Johns Hopkins University King’s College London Kobe University Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Korea University Kyoto University La Sapienza University, Rome La Trobe University Lausanne University Leeds University Leiden University Liverpool University Lomonosov Moscow State University London School of Economics Lund University Sweden Maastricht University Macquarie University Madrid Autonomous University Malaya University Manchester University and Umist Maryland University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts University Massey University McGill University McMaster University Melbourne University Michigan State University Monash University Munich University Nagoya University Nanjing University Nanyang University National Autonomous University of Mexico National Taiwan University National University of Singapore New York University Newcastle upon Tyne University Nijmegen University North Carolina University Northwestern University Notre Dame University Nottingham University Novosibirsk State University Osaka University Oslo University Norway Otago University Oxford University Penn State University Pennsylvania University Pierre and Marie Curie University Pittsburgh University Princeton University Purdue University Queen Mary, University of London Queensland University Queensland University of Technology Rice University RMIT Universit Rochester University Royal Institute of Technology São Paulo University School of Oriental and African Studies Seoul National University Shanghai Jiao Tong University Sheffield University Showa University St Andrews University St Gallen University Stanford University State University of New York, Stony Brook Strasbourg University Sussex University Sydney University Tasmania University Technical University Berlin Technical University Munich Technical University of Denmark Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Tel Aviv University Texas A&M University Tohoku University Tokyo Institute of Technology Tokyo University Toulouse 1 Trinity College, Dublin Tsing Hua University Tufts University Université de Montréal Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne University College London University of Alberta University of British Columbia University of California, Berkeley University of California, Los Angeles University of California, San Diego University of California, San Francisco University of California, Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Florence University of Illinois University Lois Pasteur Strasbourg University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of New South Wales University of Newcastle University of South Australia University of Southern California University of Technology, Sydney University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Waterloo University of Western Australia University of Western Ontario University of Wisconsin Madison Uppsala University Utrecht University Vanderbilt University Vienna Technical University Vienna University Virginia University Wageningen University Wake Forest University Warwick University Washington University Washington University, St Louis Yale University York University Zurich University

05

But the results show encouraging stability. but the original model has proved more robust than many of its critics predicted. This indicator sees high scores scattered throughout the ‘The original model has proved to be more robust than many of its critics predicted’ ranking. to avoid claiming what members of the group considered “spurious accuracy”. 2 OCTOBER 28 2005 THE TIMES HIGHER . Other big risers include the Ecole Polytechnique. in 198th place. Harvard University is still well ahead of the pack. with Australian universities repeating last year’s strong showing. but Cambridge leads in the sciences and MIT in technology. particularly outside the top 50. we stressed that the methodology was not sufficiently precise to separate universities whose scores were closely bunched. medicine and social sciences. in Japan. is perhaps the most obvious. While the debate continues on methodology. Each measure is now scored out of 100 (whatever weighting is applied) so that universities’ performance on the different criteria is clearer. This second edition is sure to rekindle the debate. The new approach groups together many universities. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology ‘The new employer survey correlates well with the academic peer review’ is now Harvard’s closest challenger. The University of California. For consistency’s sake. But improvements include a bigger poll of academics. Such variety of outcomes underlines that universities have different missions and different strengths that make them difficult to compare. in North Carolina. Yet there has been significant movement. which enters the top ten from 27th place in 2004. The London School of Economics (fourth in recruiters’ eyes) is the only top institution to be much more popular with employers than with academic peers. jumping to 11th place from outside the top 50. The Ecole Polytechnique owes its spectacular rise partly to the best staffing level in this year’s survey. The LSE again has the highest proportion of international students. the various disciplines also throw up different leaders. Similarly. and nine of last year’s top ten remain in that group. the overall positions disguise considerable variations among the six indicators. this exercise focuses on qualities that should be common to universities that aspire to be global institutions.WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS EDITORIAL Determined challengers keep heat on the elite Familiar names fill the top ranks. Critics of peer review queried whether a ranking so heavily reliant on opinion sampling would be too volatile from year to year to be credible. has slipped from second. which put it in joint fifth with Stanford University and MIT. which have been refined to provide even more detail this year. The new employer survey correlates well with the academic peer review. but the search for the world’s leading universities is surely unstoppable. with ETH Zurich close behind. fascination with international comparisons of universities is undiminished. and there are many new entries lower down. When the first ranking appeared. There have been relatively few dramatic rises or falls. all courtesy of QS Quacquarelli Symonds. However. up more than 40 places to enter the top 50. Showa University. show that those at the summit cannot afford to rest on their laurels. Most leading US universities do well. these rankings follow a similar pattern to last year’s. rather than last year’s four. there has been little argument about the thrust of the world rankings. The City University of Hong Kong pips the LSE to first place for proportion of international staff. but our tables. and Russia’s Novosibirsk University (169th) both outperform the top nine in the overall ranking on this measure. and to find proxies for excellence in teaching and research. An international outlook and a global reputation among academics. students and employers are all important aspects of a university that ranks among the world elite. and more realistically represents relative strengths. As before. Other measures will no doubt be added in future rankings. and Bristol University. Duke University. Readers from every part of the globe pored over the results. and Cambridge University has leapfrogged Oxford University to take third place. Six of the top 100 were not in last year’s ranking. more complete statistics and the addition of a survey of global recruiters. It is second to the California Institute of Technology on citations but has relatively low scores for its staff-tostudent ratio and the proportions of international staff and students. But its new ranking is more in line with its position in the domestic league tables produced by US News & World Report. and ETH Zurich has dropped out of the top ten. Academics see Harvard as pre-eminent in the arts. There is no sign that a high-ranking university in our table is better than one more lowly ranked. John O’Leary writes A year after The Times Higher published its first World University Rankings. and there has been a lively debate about how best to assess universities. Even Harvard emerges as the top university only in the two opinion surveys. And the overall score has been calculated to just three significant figures. The presentation of the main table has also been altered. rather than historical. particularly towards the top of the table. The two measures each carry a weighting of 5 per cent with correspondingly less influence on the final order. Berkeley. both for accessibility and in response to discussions in a Unesco expert working group on international rankings. They strive to be current.

2 37.6 72.9 54. San Francisco University of Chicago Melbourne University Columbia University ETH Zurich National University of Singapore Australian National University Ecole Normale Supérieure.5 59.6 42.9 51.3 33.0 33.1 56.0 34.8 32.6 51.5 53.1 38. St Louis Amsterdam University University of Illinois Purdue University Helsinki University Tsing Hua University Pennsylvania State University Vienna University Copenhagen University Macquarie University US US UK UK US US US US US France US UK UK US China Japan US US Australia US Switzerland Singapore Australia France Canada US US UK Canada UK Japan US Australia Switzerland UK US US Canada Australia Australia Hong Kong US Hong Kong US Germany US Australia Singapore UK India Hong Kong New Zealand Netherlands US Germany US Netherlands US Netherlands US US Finland China US Austria Denmark Australia 100 84 96 93 78 95 71 48 69 37 36 43 59 56 71 73 24 52 66 56 49 62 64 38 52 47 50 46 51 48 57 42 55 22 43 46 52 47 53 50 43 43 43 37 47 28 46 38 28 44 37 45 35 41 39 36 27 25 36 39 36 39 42 34 40 39 34 100 87 73 70 95 62 43 2 32 17 79 86 15 71 37 2 0 47 27 36 7 12 8 23 48 29 14 19 34 47 2 41 19 3 50 32 6 12 4 12 19 0 12 33 12 66 8 12 63 11 12 0 3 3 24 15 32 14 14 16 28 15 4 21 3 13 22 17 12 65 58 10 7 52 27 22 47 24 99 63 11 7 2 4 29 53 11 98 94 52 26 33 9 17 45 40 33 20 20 54 95 47 17 2 63 53 53 82 3 93 34 11 4 53 95 40 1 73 20 55 10 11 5 19 6 18 12 25 12 25 2 26 20 53 23 41 34 37 30 13 27 41 30 36 20 100 51 19 4 12 6 29 36 32 35 45 33 23 31 15 20 46 14 28 9 25 49 65 23 19 11 18 31 34 21 9 28 40 28 20 24 53 25 1 17 25 17 22 21 18 13 17 18 16 20 5 10 1 26 4 42 21 16 20 23 12 7 42 26 20 100 66 20 34 17 26 19 91 27 9 25 37 8 13 65 23 7 21 30 6 15 28 28 7 64 18 17 12 6 7 11 17 10 7 18 14 20 8 7 13 10 14 18 25 16 11 24 5 28 12 11 8 16 18 11 4 15 4 57 53 16 15 56 39 19 100 31 4 10 1 10 23 0 17 44 16 7 17 8 7 13 9 8 54 32 10 22 10 10 15 5 3 6 15 24 17 8 4 4 43 11 10 11 16 7 2 10 20 6 2 3 10 8 6 31 22 14 9 8 7 1 21 14 5 5 100.0 36.5 45.3 42.7 33.9 43.0 52.4 80.9 53.9 34.8 40.5 50.8 43.0 86.0 58. Paris McGill University University of Texas at Austin Johns Hopkins University University College London University of Toronto Edinburgh University Kyoto University Pennsylvania University Monash University Ecole Polytech Fédérale de Lausanne Manchester University & Umist University of Michigan University of California.7 33.7 THE TIMES HIGHER OCTOBER 28 2005 3 .8 34. San Diego Hong Kong University Sci & Technol Carnegie Mellon University Heidelberg University Northwestern University Queensland University Nanyang Technological University Bristol University Indian Institutes of Technology Chinese University of Hong Kong Auckland University Delft University of Technology Boston University Munich University New York University Erasmus University Rotterdam Washington University.9 41.6 42.8 83.5 47.1 59.8 47.7 47.1 54.6 51.4 47.7 71.0 41.4 33.5 38. Berkeley Yale University California Institute of Technology Princeton University Ecole Polytechnique Duke University London School of Economics Imperial College London Cornell University Beijing University Tokyo University University of California.0 44.6 39.9 83.1 32.1 59.5 64.THE TOP 200 WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS THE WORLD’S TOP 200 UNIVERSITIES SC OR E PE (40 ER R %) EVI EW NA ME CO UN IN (5% T'L F ) ACU FA SC CULT OR Y/ E ( ST 20 UD %) EN T CIT SC ATI OR ON E ( S/ F 20 AC %) U LTY OV ER AL LS CO RE SC OR E IEW IN SC T'L S OR TU E ( DE 5% NT ) S EV RE (10 CRU %) ITE RA NK RA NK 05 04 TR Y RR LTY 1 1 2 3 3 6 4 5 5 7 6 2 7 8 8 4 9 9 10 27 11= 52 11= 11 13 14 14 23 15 17 16 12 17= 20 17= 13 19 22 20 19 21 10 22 18 23 16 24= 30 24= 21 26 15 27 25 28 34 29 37 30 48 31 29 32 28 33 33 34 32 35 43 36 31 37 26 38= 46 38= 40 40 36 41 39 42 24 43 42 44 38 45 47 46 73 47 49 48 50 49 91 50 41 51 84 52 67 53 78 54 75 55 99 56 79 57 64 58= 109 58= 98 58= 35 61 59 62= 129 62= 61 64 130 65 94 66 63 67 68 20 20 Harvard University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge University Oxford University Stanford University University of California.5 42.4 34.4 35. Los Angeles University of British Columbia Sydney University University of New South Wales Hong Kong University University of California.6 33.3 46.3 55.5 53.8 35.9 54.9 85.2 48.5 39.8 61.2 37.7 33.4 33.

8 30.4 26.4 27.1 31.WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS THE TOP 200 THE WORLD’S TOP 200 UNIVERSITIES SC OR E PE (40 ER R %) EVI EW IN (5% T'L F ) ACU NA ME CO UN FA SC CULT OR Y/ E ( ST 20 UD %) EN IN SC T'L S OR TU E ( DE 5% NT ) S T CIT AT SC OR ION E ( S/ F 20 AC %) U LTY OV ER AL LS CO RE SC OR E EV IEW RE (10 CRU %) ITE RA NK RA NK 05 04 TR Y RR LTY 68 69 70 71 72 73= 73= 73= 76 77= 77= 79 80= 80= 82 83 84 85 86 87 88= 88= 88= 88= 92 93= 93= 95= 95= 97 98 99 100 101= 101= 103= 103= 105= 105= 105= 108 109= 109= 111 112= 112= 114= 114= 114= 117 118 119 120 121= 121= 121= 124 125= 125= 127= 127= 129 130 131 132 133= 133= 20 45 – 83 61 195 96 86 66 – 93 80 92 96 56 55 128 – – 77 113 – 74 57 – – 154 118 – 195 170 142 51 58 112 76 133 44 118 95 69 – 137 88 87 125 100 156 102 85 138 – 151 120 – 116 71 180 162 105 – – 167 103 132 177 – 134 20 Massachusetts University IEP Sciences Po.9 31.2 32.9 28.7 30.3 31.4 30.9 27.2 29.0 29.4 29.2 26.5 29.9 30.5 26.7 26.8 30.2 27.1 26.2 27.9 28.1 31.2 29.5 28.0 25.3 28.6 29.9 4 OCTOBER 28 2005 THE TIMES HIGHER .0 31.6 28.3 28.6 27.0 28.4 27.4 26.8 28.0 26.7 26.0 28.2 27.5 32.1 27.9 29.7 26. Dublin Humboldt University Berlin Queen Mary. Lyon China University of Sci & Technology Seoul National University Catholic University of Leuven (Flemish) National Autonomous Univ of Mexico Nottingham University La Trobe University Tokyo Institute of Technology Sussex University Glasgow University Curtin University of Technology Leeds University School of Oriental and African Studies Virginia University Technical University Munich Osaka University Wageningen University York University Case Western Reserve University Trinity College.8 26.2 28.1 30.9 25. Paris Eindhoven University of Technology Brown University Fudan University King’s College London Rochester University University Wisconsin–Madison Brussels Free University (French) Hebrew University of Jerusalem Warwick University Lomonosov Moscow State University University of Western Australia Adelaide University RMIT University Durham University Indian Institutes of Management Zurich University Vienna Technical University University of Technology.2 29.0 27.8 27.7 28.8 28.9 26. Sydney Geneva University Washington University Pierre and Marie Curie University Catholic University of Leuven (French) Ecole Normale Supérieure.1 28.6 26.8 27.2 29.3 26.4 30. Rome Texas A&M University Basel University University of Newcastle Nagoya University Bath University University Louis Pasteur Strasbourg Université de Montréal Lausanne University Maryland University US France Netherlands US China UK US US Belgium Israel UK Russia Australia Australia Australia UK India Switzerland Austria Australia Switzerland US France Belgium France China South Korea Belgium Mexico UK Australia Japan UK UK Australia UK UK US Germany Japan Netherlands UK US Ireland Germany UK US Taiwan Germany US Australia UK Netherlands Thailand US France US Italy US Switzerland Australia Japan UK France Canada Switzerland US 38 19 20 27 35 27 24 36 29 36 30 42 29 33 35 24 33 22 33 35 12 28 31 32 16 33 39 24 33 22 34 30 28 26 30 27 20 24 27 28 16 28 20 31 32 24 18 36 33 19 34 25 27 33 31 38 25 39 30 12 30 21 18 24 25 17 22 0 16 3 6 26 17 9 0 3 0 21 3 12 0 0 38 24 0 7 4 3 0 0 5 0 4 0 10 9 38 0 0 0 27 0 22 2 29 12 0 3 5 11 14 0 3 12 0 0 19 0 14 3 16 11 0 12 0 9 0 0 0 35 3 6 2 15 1 25 33 39 13 45 10 0 31 5 50 10 53 53 53 46 2 65 31 53 93 16 25 17 30 6 3 48 3 39 53 6 44 18 54 30 51 7 11 7 28 37 4 17 11 44 2 4 11 15 53 35 33 11 11 13 7 5 14 88 53 9 47 25 55 53 18 12 50 7 19 6 28 24 14 41 13 37 7 29 30 62 22 7 22 32 37 57 10 36 26 18 0 5 20 1 30 26 16 28 15 63 26 74 11 30 8 47 28 22 21 18 35 14 1 17 16 21 21 5 1 12 26 28 5 13 28 25 13 34 35 11 26 16 7 43 54 19 17 17 32 17 20 5 7 11 10 8 4 9 21 29 11 4 29 14 15 9 39 27 14 23 25 10 6 22 15 13 4 10 23 13 16 23 29 12 23 5 16 18 32 15 12 21 3 11 12 12 8 4 17 4 6 26 5 35 7 11 5 27 13 23 – 2 16 1 6 13 11 6 22 4 3 8 8 1 9 – 5 3 1 7 22 6 12 16 1 4 4 0 6 3 10 7 8 1 6 – 14 9 12 12 7 19 8 4 4 14 3 7 15 2 8 13 0 9 – 9 5 13 10 5 6 7 12 13 6 13 32.2 28.3 30. University of London Vanderbilt University National Taiwan University Göttingen University Dartmouth College Queensland University of Technology Liverpool University Utrecht University Chulalongkorn University Michigan State University Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne University of Southern California La Sapienza University.4 28.5 26.

6 25.3 23. Stony Brook Alabama University Nijmegen University City University of Hong Kong Notre Dame University Toulouse 1 Lund University Uppsala University Madrid Autonomous University Korea University McMaster University Free University of Amsterdam Otago University Tel Aviv University Massey University Gothenburg University University of Western Ontario Jawaharlal Nehru University Pittsburgh University Helsinki University of Technology Technion — Israel Inst of Technology São Paulo University Royal Institute of Technology Showa University University of Florence George Washington University Wake Forest University France Japan UK Netherlands Denmark Norway US Germany South Korea UK UK US Japan US Canada China Switzerland US US Australia Denmark Germany Japan Netherlands Italy US Canada US US US Austria Australia Sweden UK China Russia Malaysia Germany Japan Germany US US Netherlands Hong Kong US France Sweden Sweden Spain South Korea Canada Netherlands New Zealand Israel New Zealand Sweden Canada India US Finland Israel Brazil Sweden Japan Italy US US 15 26 19 22 27 29 16 33 26 21 21 21 26 27 24 34 2 20 25 27 23 30 28 16 34 19 21 24 23 15 21 24 24 17 25 16 33 28 24 25 24 18 17 19 18 18 24 24 29 28 18 17 22 25 23 14 11 29 15 22 23 28 19 8 28 22 12 46 0 11 8 6 0 15 0 0 16 17 14 0 8 2 0 14 5 3 0 0 7 0 5 0 26 11 0 0 11 0 0 0 20 26 0 0 0 5 12 0 0 3 0 24 0 0 0 0 0 8 3 0 0 0 0 46 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 9 8 77 7 39 25 28 25 1 11 22 34 36 9 7 5 52 12 85 14 10 53 21 11 3 39 7 9 75 10 17 13 44 53 18 34 15 2 12 11 9 11 7 4 38 100 17 25 15 27 5 7 10 32 31 1 62 27 28 3 23 11 7 10 54 7 6 5 3 30 11 48 15 7 16 12 17 4 27 30 8 8 28 11 5 59 23 12 49 24 25 7 44 9 17 13 6 7 18 47 29 16 32 5 9 7 17 9 24 15 7 11 9 14 32 16 8 9 2 16 14 21 1 20 2 12 6 10 11 1 3 22 19 5 14 6 8 19 13 14 12 13 30 7 7 12 10 13 25 8 13 11 37 19 8 4 10 6 16 20 7 15 9 6 17 16 8 6 20 13 10 45 8 9 21 11 11 7 25 8 13 26 13 7 9 15 7 13 15 5 5 1 6 10 23 20 10 8 9 45 5 13 28 – 11 8 14 9 5 13 6 19 7 8 19 4 11 7 1 – 14 19 1 15 5 9 7 3 11 5 23 13 22 9 5 4 7 0 – 1 6 3 4 15 32 5 4 8 0 7 11 6 1 21 13 3 18 2 37 13 3 11 2 12 3 5 3 6 4 11 25.8 24.2 25.2 25.1 25.9 25.4 24.5 25.5 22.0 21.1 22.2 25.6 23.8 24.0 22.1 25.2 24.5 24.3 23.6 25.5 24.8 24.3 25.5 23.1 21.2 23.8 24.0 24.2 25.7 25.2 22.5 22.9 21.7 24.8 20.8 21.5 21.7 21.7 24.7 25.THE TOP 200 WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS THE WORLD’S TOP 200 UNIVERSITIES IN (5% T'L F ) ACU IN SC T'L S OR TU E ( DE 5% NT ) S NA ME CO UN RE (10 CRU %) ITE FA SC CULT OR Y/ E ( ST 20 UD %) EN T CIT SC ATI OR ON E ( S/ F 20 AC %) U LTY OV ER AL LS CO RE SC OR E EV PE (40 ER R %) EVI EW RA NK RA NK 05 04 TR Y RR LTY SC OR E IEW 133= 136= 136= 138= 138= 138= 141 142 143= 143= 143= 143= 147= 147= 149 150= 150= 150= 150= 154= 154= 154= 157= 157= 159= 159= 159= 159= 163 164 165 166= 166= 168 169= 169= 169= 172= 172= 172= 175= 175= 177 178 179 180= 180= 180= 183 184= 184= 186= 186= 188= 188= 190 191 192 193 194= 194= 196= 196= 198 199= 199= 199= 20 – 153 70 131 127 101 173 157 160 150 126 117 – 65 166 192 – 146 82 – 145 60 – 123 186 165 143 72 107 104 164 161 110 179 – – 89 – – 184 136 90 191 198 – – 171 140 159 – 147 – 114 – 108 – – – – 176 158 – 122 – – – – 20 HEC Paris Tohoku University St Andrews University Leiden University Aarhus University Oslo University Emory University Frankfurt University Korea Advanced Inst of Sci and Tech Sheffield University Birmingham University North Carolina University Hiroshima University Georgia Institute of Technology University of Alberta Nanjing University St Gallen University Rice University University of Minnesota University of South Australia Technical University of Denmark Technical University Berlin Hokkaido University Maastricht University Bologna University Georgetown University University of Waterloo University of California.5 22.0 22.9 20.6 25.0 23.8 THE TIMES HIGHER OCTOBER 28 2005 5 .0 21.1 22.3 23.5 23.5 23.4 24.2 23.3 24. Santa Barbara Colorado University Tufts University Innsbruck University Tasmania University Chalmers University of Technology Newcastle upon Tyne University Shanghai Jiao Tong University Novosibirsk State University Malaya University Free University Berlin Kobe University Aachen RWTH State Univ of New York.8 23.7 22.1 21.4 24.8 23.0 20.8 20.3 21.9 21.1 22.4 24.7 24.

which has long been accepted in academic life and across social research as the most reliable means of gauging institutional quality. But the peers are all experts in their fields. The first reflects their percentage of international staff and the second their percentage of international students. And because we have collected a wealth of data on institutions outside the top 200. It also had to yield roughly equal numbers from the main spheres of academic life: science. of course. Two other columns of data in this table account for 20 per cent each of the final score for each university listed. This has been compiled from staff numbers collected by QS and citations data supplied by Evidence Ltd on the basis of data from Thomson Scientific. The selection was weighted so that just under a third of the academics came from each of the world’s major economic regions — Asia. This removes from the listing a number of high-prestige institutions. We believe we have improved the accuracy of the figures we collect. The core of our analysis is peer review. Nevertheless. These range from the London School of Economics to a large number of technology universities. Data collected in 2005 were supplemented by opinions from our 2004 survey. We have. 14 and 21 and summarised on pages 14-15) and was aggregated to produce the peer-review column of the main table in this supplement. To gauge it. attempt to quantify universities’ international orientation. we have normalised these data to show the top institution scoring 100. Europe and North America — with a smaller number from Africa and Latin America. The point has been made that peer reviewers might be more likely to cite large old universities. The selected academics were asked to name the top universities in the subject areas and the geographical regions in which they have expertise. consultants to The Times Higher and experts in international rankings of MBA courses. that publish few papers in the high-impact journals surveyed. however. This year’s tables are virtually free of gaps in data. we have tried to tease apart large federal universities such as California or London that consist of many in essence 6 OCTOBER 28 2005 THE TIMES HIGHER . social sciences and the arts. We have gathered new data on employers’ opinions of universities around the world (see box on facing page). included universities that teach a broad but not a full complement of subjects. This is 10 percentage points lower than in 2004 because of the addition of data on the opinion of major international employers of graduates. One is the number of citations for academic papers generated by each staff member. Our aim in these tables is to rank large general universities. They were chosen by QS Quacquarelli Symonds. Like citations per staff member. This criterion provides a clear measure of universities’ research prowess. We believe that this two-year rolling average provides improved statistical reliability. Like the other columns we show. It disadvantages some institutions.WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS METHODOLOGY Fine-tuning puts picture in much sharper focus oday The Times Higher publishes the World University Rankings for the second year running. especially those in Asia. says Martin Ince The information derived from the responses was used to generate the facultylevel data on the top institutions for specific subject areas published in The Times Higher this month (October 7. central to the university mission. The citations data.375 research-active academics. biomedicine. where the same question was asked but no individual’s opinion was counted twice. we consider a classic measure of commitment to teaching. this measure depends on accurate staff numbers. Teaching is. especially those with the name of a major city in their titles. The principal motivation for the World University Rankings is our realisation that although scholarship has always been international. and in an improvement on the presentation of the data in 2004. The aim is the same as it was in 2004: to offer a consistent and systematic look at the world’s top universities in the context of the globalisation of higher education. technology. These efforts have resulted in what we believe is the world’s best guide to the standing of top universities. some of which were unknown even to staff of The Times Higher. But we think that this version is more robust and reliable than the first. We have not counted institutions that do not teach undergraduates. less familiar ones. the second Times Higher World Rankings is the best guide to the world’s top universities.000 papers has been applied to eliminate small specialist institutions. any inconsistency is to some extent self-correcting because exaggerating staff numbers would increase a university’s staff-to-student ratio but reduce its citations per staff member. T With its improved accuracy and the inclusion of even more information. We are confident that the sample is large enough and sufficiently well chosen for its aggregate opinion to be statistically valid. A lower cut-off of 5. especially in medicine and business. The peer-review data account for 40 per cent of the available score in the World University Rankings. The final two columns of data we show. but it has some systematic biases. In general. This has allowed us to widen the pool of information we present. but we have gone further and deepened the pool as well. which is worth up to 20 percentage points. each accounting for 5 per cent of the total. The sample used to compile the peer-review column of this table comprises 2. cover the period between 1995 and 2005. we are confident that no institution that should be in these tables has been overlooked. and in their responses they rated as excellent more than 500 universities. which come from Thomson’s Essential Science Indicators. than smaller. A frequent query about the 2004 rankings concerned the level of detail they provided. the world of higher education is becoming one of the most global sectors of the world economy. the staff-to-student ratio.

Jonathan Adams of Evidence Ltd (www. Although the overall score tells the full story. THE TIMES HIGHER OCTOBER 28 2005 7 .evidence. But we have not been able to disaggregate the many US state universities that boast more than one campus. we are interested in suggestions of other measures of university quality that could be gathered consistently from institutions around the world. University of London Queensland University Queensland University of Technology Rice University RMIT Universit Rochester University Royal Institute of Technology São Paulo University School of Oriental and African Studies Seoul National University Shanghai Jiao Tong University Sheffield University Showa University St Andrews University St Gallen University Stanford University State University of New York. Rome La Trobe University Lausanne University Leeds University Leiden University Liverpool University Lomonosov Moscow State University London School of Economics Lund University Sweden Maastricht University Macquarie University Madrid Autonomous University Malaya University Manchester University and Umist Maryland University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts University Massey University McGill University McMaster University Melbourne University Michigan State University Monash University Munich University Nagoya University Nanjing University Nanyang University National Autonomous University of Mexico National Taiwan University National University of Singapore New York University Newcastle upon Tyne University Nijmegen University North Carolina University Northwestern University Notre Dame University Nottingham University Novosibirsk State University Osaka University Oslo University Norway Otago University Oxford University Penn State University Pennsylvania University Pierre and Marie Curie University Pittsburgh University Princeton University Purdue University Queen Mary. consumer goods companies.com). San Diego University of California. Los Angeles University of California. manufacturers in areas such as pharmaceuticals and the automotive industry. and firms involved in international communications and distribution. Lyon Ecole Normale Supérieure. METHODOLOGY WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS Acknowledgments The World University Rankings were coordinated by Martin Ince (martin@martinince. Doing so would have complicated the task too much. Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Florence University of Illinois University Lois Pasteur Strasbourg University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of New South Wales University of Newcastle University of South Australia University of Southern California University of Technology. which provided names of companies that are frequent recruiters of their graduates. Stony Brook Strasbourg University Sussex University Sydney University Tasmania University Technical University Berlin Technical University Munich Technical University of Denmark Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Tel Aviv University Texas A&M University Tohoku University Tokyo Institute of Technology Tokyo University Toulouse 1 Trinity College. There were 333 respondents. We welcome your responses to the World University Rankings and to the faculty-level analyses that The Times Higher has already published. The respondents were guaranteed anonymity. The sample of employers was generated by QS from its own extensive knowledge of graduate recruiters and from universities. It would be wrong to attribute too much weight to the small differences in overall scores between universities lower down the rankings.com). We have managed to remove some ambiguities that were present last year by distinguishing between the Flemish-speaking and Francophone institutions of Belgium and 3 12 5 by providing clearer labelling of the many universities of Paris and other French cities. San Francisco University of California. This year’s World University Rankings feature an extra column of data designed to add another vital dimension by revealing which universities are taken most seriously by the world’s top employers of internationally mobile graduates. Berkeley University of California. Paris Imperial College London Indian Institutes of Management Indian Institutes of Technology Innsbruck University Jawaharlal Nehru University Johns Hopkins University King’s College London Kobe University Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Korea University Kyoto University La Sapienza University. They were asked to identify up to 20 universities whose graduates they prefer to employ most.uk) and their colleagues for their participation in this project. contributing editor of The Times Higher. Paris Ecole Polytech Fédérale de Lausanne Ecole Polytechnique Edinburgh University Eindhoven University of Technology Emory University Erasmus University Rotterdam ETH Zurich Frankfurt University Free University Berlin Free University of Amsterdam Fudan University Geneva University George Washington University Georgetown University Georgia Institute of Technology Glasgow University Gothenburg University Göttingen University Harvard University Hebrew University of Jerusalem HEC Paris Heidelberg University Helsinki University Helsinki University of Technology Hiroshima University Hokkaido University Hong Kong University Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Humboldt University Berlin IEP Sciences Po. As research on composite tables such as these has shown. airlines. it is important to read them with care. Sydney University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Waterloo University of Western Australia University University of Western Ontario University of Wisconsin Madison Uppsala University Utrecht University Vanderbilt University Vienna Technical University Vienna University Virginia University Wageningen University Wake Forest University Warwick University Washington University Washington University.qsnetwork. He would like to thank Nunzio Quacquarelli of QS (www.co. In particular.4 Employer opinion Aachen RWTH Aarhus University Adelaide University Alabama University Amsterdam University Auckland University Australian National University Basel University Bath University Beijing University Birmingham University Bologna University Boston University Bristol University Brown University Brussels Free University (French) California Institute of Technology Cambridge University Carnegie Mellon University Case Western Reserve University Catholic University of Leuven (Flemish) Catholic University of Leuven (French) Chalmers University of Technology China University of Science and Technology Chinese University of Hong Kong Chulalongkorn University City University of Hong Kong Colorado University Columbia University Copenhagen University Cornell University Curtin University of Technology Dartmouth College Delft University of Technology Duke University Durham University Ecole Normale Supérieure. a specific column may be of more interest to a student or researcher contemplating his or her next move. All the companies involved recruit either around the world or on a national scale in large countries. St Louis Yale University York University Zurich University Aachen RWTH Aarhus University Adelaide University Alabama University Amsterdam free-standing colleges. Dublin Tsing Hua University Tufts University Université de Montréal Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne University College London University of Alberta University of British Columbia University of California. They include banks and financial organisations.

But lower down. This year. behind New Zealand’s Otago University.WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS EUROPE Worldly Europe seeks critical mass for greater impact Many European institutions fare well against transatlantic rivals. La Sapienza in Rome. which is 50th in our Rest A of the World ranking and 186th overall. which share 159th world position. The 50th US institution. and it is one of seven US universities in our top ten. The German response was to assert that the main role of universities was to produce trained professionals in large numbers for an advanced economy and that many competent universities were to be preferred to a few elite establishments. Harvard Cambridge: the cream of Europe University is by some distance the best in the world. one of 17 German institutions in the top 200. In the 2004 World University Rankings. argues Martin Ince re Europe’s universities better than North America’s? The tables displayed here and on page 11 showing the top 50 institutions in Europe and North America give one reason for thinking they might be. but Germany has only 8 OCTOBER 28 2005 THE TIMES HIGHER . These statistical differences may reveal something more fundamental about educational cultures in the two regions. But the 50th position in our North American table is a tie between Georgetown University in the US and the University of Waterloo in Canada. is 179th in the world. Heidelberg rises two places to 45th. The 50th ranked European university in our analysis. according to our full World University Rankings. This analysis suggests that it would be wrong to conclude from the World University Rankings that the US has all the excellent institutions. and a pan-EU research council could make them more competitive. is 125th in the world. Notre Dame University. The contrast is even sharper if Canada is omitted from the calculations. European institutions assert themselves in more significant numbers. Based on our criteria. Heidelberg University was the top German university at position 47.

Their only rivals are in Australia and Singapore. Professor Chaniotis said: “We have some of the best science institutes in Europe on our doorstep. the US takes the top eight places in our count of paper citations per staff member.000 students and about 400 professors. with 62 per cent of its undergraduates and postgraduates coming from outside the UK. This is a competition where Switzerland is clear world leader. It became a hub for independent thinkers and developed into a stronghold of humanism. The incentive to produce more highly cited papers will also grow once the European Research Council gets going over the next two years. a specialist humanities and business university. Univ of London Göttingen University Liverpool University Utrecht University Univ Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne La Sapienza Univ. is second. pro-rector for international affairs. Paris University College London Edinburgh University Ecole Polytech Féd Lausanne Manchester University & Umist Heidelberg University Bristol University Delft University of Technology Munich University Erasmus University Rotterdam Amsterdam University Helsinki University Vienna University Copenhagen University IEP Sciences Po. Lyon Catholic Univ Leuven (Flemish) Nottingham University Sussex University Glasgow University Leeds University Soas Technical University Munich Wageningen University York University Trinity College. and its ability to balance religion and science. where years of attempts to enhance European student mobility appear to be bearing fruit. While the official plan for the European Union to devote 3 per cent of its gross domestic product to research by 2010 is certain to be missed. The same applies to students. HEIDELBERG More than 600 years of innovation and independence have made the University of Heidelberg Germany’s top university. the next three places based on this criterion go to European institutions. including — in a rare entry for a Spanish institution — Esade.EUROPE WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS apparent from this analysis — their comparatively low production of highly cited research. Most European universities are far more international than their American or Asian counterparts. European institutions take 13 of the top 20 places in this reckoning. “International students account for about 22 per cent of our student body. It was founded in 1386 by Ruprecht I and acted initially as a centre for theologians and law experts from throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Heidelberg’s modern roots are firmly in the sciences but it retains its metaphysical traditions with large theology and philosophy faculties. research budgets in major EU nations. European universities cannot shift Harvard from the top slot. European universities take 11 of the top 20 places on this measure. But there are nine European entries in the top 20. It has been designed as a counterweight to the National Science Foundation in the US and is intended to increase the amount of high-impact cutting-edge research in Europe by making researchers compete for funding across the EU. While the City University of Hong Kong has the most international staff of any in the world. are on the rise. The most international student body of any US university is that of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. European states have in the main ceded little ground on education to Brussels. The low citations performance of many European institutions is more than compensated for by another measure that might well please Brussels policymakers. Here Europe takes the top four positions: the LSE is the outright winner. ensured a lasting reputation as a haven for open-mindedness. At the moment. On our new criterion of recruiter opinion. Paris Eindhoven University of Technol King’s College London Brussels Free University (French) Warwick University Lomonosov Moscow State Univ Durham University Zurich University Vienna Technical University Catholic Univ Leuven (French) Geneva University Pierre and Marie Curie University Ecole Normale Supérieure. But there are signs that European higher education systems are converging in a way that will affect the region’s rankings in years to come. taking six of the first 20 slots. making it the biggest loser among major entrants. which makes us very much research oriented. which is ranked 27th. This suggests that European universities may begin to redress one area of weakness 1 3 2 4 3 10 4 11= 5 13 6 21 7 24= 8 28 9 30 10 34 11 35 12 45 13 49 14 53 15 55 16 57 17 58= 18 62= 19 65 20 66 21 69 22 70 23 73= 24 76 25 77= 26 79 27 83 28 85 29 86 30= 88= 30= 88= 30= 88= 33 92 34 95= 35 97 36 100 37 101= 38= 103= 38= 103= 40 105= 41 108 42 109= 43 111 44= 112= 44= 112= 46 114= 47 119 48 120 49 121= 50 125= Cambridge University Oxford University Ecole Polytechnique London School of Economics Imperial College London ETH Zurich Ecole Normale Supérieure. The School of Oriental and African Studies. but it is possible that the ERC’s policy of concentrating major sums of money in a few big projects will conflict with the preferred way of working in many continental universities. including the UK.” says Angelos Chaniotis. Its refusal to submit to a set doctrine from the Catholic or Evangelical churches. Rome UK UK France UK UK Switzerland France UK UK Switzerland UK Germany UK Netherlands Germany Netherlands Netherlands Finland Austria Denmark France Netherlands UK Belgium UK Russia UK Switzerland Austria Belgium Switzerland France France Belgium UK UK UK UK UK Germany Netherlands UK Ireland Germany UK Germany UK Netherlands France Italy THE TIMES HIGHER OCTOBER 28 2005 9 .” Clare Chapman EUROPE’S TOP 50 UNIVERSITIES RA NK W OR L NA D RA ME NK CO UN TR Y ‘Most European universities are far more international than their American or Asian counterparts’ nine universities in our top 200. also in London. The first factor is general pressure from Brussels for more research spending by companies and governments. with Sweden’s Gothenburg University the highest placed European entrant at ninth position. The university currently has 26. Dublin Humboldt University Berlin Queen Mary. It is also likely that the European Commission’s own research spending will rise in future years. This may sound fine to planners in Brussels.

the musical synthesiser. McGill University. discovered REM sleep and developed the technology that led to magnetic resonance imaging scans. the university’s president. In the top 50 are six Canadian institutions. twice as many as last year. The US has the world’s top two universities by our reckoning — Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Sun Microsystems and Yahoo! — all companies that Stanford students and faculty helped to create. Jon Marcus 10 OCTOBER 28 2005 THE TIMES HIGHER CORBIS . Up eight places each this year are the University of Toronto at 29 and the University of British STANFORD Stanford University may be 250 years younger than its arch-rival. the university created America’s first high-technology research park. Its researchers invented the laser. the most highly ranked. Harvard University. which emphasises collaboration across disciplines. global positioning systems and IQ testing. has introduced multidisciplinary programmes in bioscience. Dolby Laboratories. “There is no greater thrill than advancing the frontier of knowledge. but it prefers to look forward rather than back. These include Cisco Systems. Only the UK’s Cambridge and Oxford universities and France’s Ecole Polytechnique interrupt US domination of these top places. It is one of the world’s leading research and teaching institutions and a pioneer of new technologies.200 companies. and it has spun off an estimated 1. discovers Martin Ince orth America’s dominance of world higher education is disputed in the lower reaches of our tables. down from 21st in 2004.” said John Hennessy. HewlettPackard. is 24th in the world. In 1951. international affairs and business. neighbours on the Charles River — and seven of the places in our top ten. there is more to North America than the US. Of course. eBay. but it is beyond question at the upper level. Stanford. Google. They carried out the first heart-lung transplants in the US.WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS NORTH AMERICA Giants of the US N face contenders from all corners The ability of institutions in Europe and Asia to attract and fund world-class research teams is cutting into America’s monopoly on innovation in areas such as bioscience.

Many have sizeable war chests for this phase of expansion. one more than last year. By contrast. the elite teaching-only colleges. Despite the name. are independent and gain the bulk of their income from student fees. Lower down. Santa Barbara Georgetown University University of Waterloo US US US US US US US US US US US US Canada US US Canada US US US Canada US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US Canada US US US US Canada US US US US Canada Pre-eminent: Harvard University is still tops THE TIMES HIGHER OCTOBER 28 2005 11 . These institutions are systematically less well funded than their private rivals because they have fewer highprofile research groups and charge lower fees than the big-name private universities. but it does not follow that they will be the ones to benefit. But they tend not to produce many cited papers or to have much of an international profile compared with universities undertaking more significant research. Ingenious US researchers are already finding ways around the Bush Administration’s policies. Berkeley Yale University California Inst of Technology Princeton University Duke University Cornell University UC. The success of this formula is evident in that five of its campuses appear in this North American top 50. the California Institute of Technology. set up in the 19th century as the West Coast’s answer to Harvard. the University of Texas and Carnegie Mellon University. Names prominent in these developments include MIT. along with campuses of the University of California. Over the next decade. Canada has eight of the top 200 world slots. For the same reason. more orthodox state universities appear in numbers. Some. Stanford University. Berkeley’s high research profile means that it appears more prominently in these tables than in US national tables (such as those published by US News & World Report) designed to help students choose universities. A more serious threat is the growing ability of universities such as Cambridge and Oxford in the UK — and a number of Asian institutions in Korea. But this table does not exhibit the strength of another key group of US universities. is only part of the picture. The other US universities operating at this level are both part of the University of California. US universities may have produced the innovations needed to foster globalisation. research awards and fundraising. such as Harvard and MIT. The big-name institutions monopolised the development of the microprocessor and all that came in its wake. not least because of donations from grateful alumni who profited from previous waves of high technology. but these rankings show that they will find it much tougher to keep control of the next phase of innovation.NORTH AMERICA WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS Columbia at 38. Harvard is prominent in such US tables but dominates them less than it does the World University Rankings. CORBIS NORTH AMERICA’S TOP 50 UNIVERSITIES RA NK W OR LD RA NA NK ME CO UN TR Y ‘These rankings show that big-name institutions will find it much tougher to keep control of the next major phase of innovation’ 1 1 2 2 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 8 7 9 8 11= 9 14 10= 17= 10= 17= 12 20 13 24= 14 26 15 27 16 29 17 32 18 36 19 37 20 38= 21 42 22 44 23 46 24 54 25 56 26= 58= 26= 58= 28 61 29 64 30 68 31 71 32= 73= 32= 73= 34 88= 35 105= 36 109= 37 114= 38 117 39 121= 40 124 41 125= 42 132 43 133= 44 141 45 143= 46 147= 47 149 48= 150= 48= 150= 50= 159= 50= 159= 50= 159= Harvard University Massachusetts Inst Technol Stanford University UC. St Louis Purdue University Pennsylvania State Univ Massachusetts University Brown University Rochester University Univ of Wisconsin–Madison Washington University Virginia University Case Western Reserve Univ Vanderbilt University Dartmouth College Michigan State University Univ of Southern California Texas A&M University Université de Montréal Maryland University Emory University North Carolina University Georgia Inst of Technology University of Alberta University of Minnesota Rice University UC. San Francisco University of Chicago Columbia University McGill University University of Texas at Austin Johns Hopkins University University of Toronto Pennsylvania University University of Michigan UC. The promotion of Cambridge and Oxford to third and fourth positions in the World University Rankings and the improved performance of MIT have meant a decline in the relative standing of Berkeley. These charge fees similar to those at better known private universities and tend to have a similarly elite student body. the University of California’s most prestigious campus. The reluctance of the US Government to support research in areas close to human life. This table shows that quality US universities exist in many settings. At a time when confidence is returning to the US high-technology sector. such as the use of stem cells. Institutions with this structure take 13 of the top 15 places. these tables are rich in universities that nourished the IT revolution and are now getting involved in the next wave of technological advance in areas such as robotics and nanotechnology. San Diego Carnegie Mellon University Northwestern University Boston University New York University University of Illinois Washington Univ. which is unique in being the higher level of two state universities alongside California State University. the same may start to happen in China and a greater number of continental universities may adopt similar tactics. most have some research-active staff. Singapore and elsewhere — to attract significant research groups in these areas and fund them at least as well as the US. Los Angeles Univ of British Columbia UC.

000 is one of China’s undergraduates. But there is no doubt that for the most part. This year the top 200 includes 56 from the rest of the world. It has 216 University and research institutions. are emerging into the globalised economy at varying rates. Hong Kong.000 masters the Imperial Capital students. BEIJING Today. The university focuses on research. which comes 15th. which has fallen from 12th slot in 2004. the international the Australian National University. It aims to combine research with training the specialised personnel to join China’s skill-hungry workforce. which makes up for lost ground by having a 12 OCTOBER 28 2005 THE TIMES HIGHER . 4. no African university comes even close to getting into our top 200. University. 81 key national disciplines and 12 national key laboratories.000 was renamed the students taking National Peking correspondence University in 1912 courses or night after the Xinhai Revolution. different countries (about 40 per cent the capital of are from South Yunnan Province. India. in one instance. Beijing is a member of Universitas 21. Beijing is one of the designated “national key universities” and competes with Tsing Hua University Beijing University for top place. and the top 50 appear here. this table reflects excellence in Asia. the rest of the world is a diverse place.000 Second World enrolled from 62 War. the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Beijing is Republic of China also heavily geared in 1949. Some of the countries are affluent — notably Japan with nine entries. Martin Ince reports T here is good news this year for anyone wanting to see more excellent universities outside Europe and North America. Only one non-Asian institution features here. It is probably the world’s largest university in terms of student numbers and is a major force in Mexican public and political life. Then. with more than a third of the slots. Others. which was has about 46. Australia with 17 and New Zealand with two.WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS REST OF THE WORLD Beijing leads Asia’s march Tigers of the Pacific Rim are making their presence felt as more than 50 institutions outside Europe and North America jostle for position in the world’s top 200. It also dropped “National” from its name. Our analysis shows that the world’s top 14 universities are in the US. In 2004. it merged towards scientific with Yenching research. After the founding a comprehensive range of study of the People’s courses. putting it below Melbourne University. the university moved to Kunming. Few universities outside the English-speaking world win any points for highly cited papers in the data available for our rankings. we published tables of the top 50 US and European institutions but only the top 40 from the rest of the world — because there were not 50 candidates in our table of the world’s top 200. or Beijing University Bei Da). the UK and. Unam is joined in the 2005 World University Rankings by São Paulo of Brazil in 196th place. However.000 founded in 1898. students. students — 15. such as China. The universities we list here are in 13 countries. a notable regional rival. with During the almost 2. France. Perhaps more alarmingly. This applies to Beijing.000 doctoral candidates. has dropped from 16th in the world in 2004 to 23rd one year on. Despite Australia’s dominance of this table. The top institution outside this charmed circle is Beijing University. as now. Singapore and South Korea. classes. It was first dubbed 8. It is also one place behind the National University of Singapore. The lowly position of universities outside America and Europe in these tables suggests a substantial quality gap exists. one place ahead of Tokyo University. one fewer than in 2004. but in recent years it has also committed itself to improving teaching standards. But there may be a kinder explanation for the apparent differences. its flagship institution. this gap makes it all but impossible to get among the top institutions. Beijing also has it became the one of the country’s second university largest intakes of in China to accept international female students. moved from the including two city centre to the national engineering research centres. it is notable that it musters only six of the top 50 universities in the world in our main table. oldest universities. but it returned to While offering Beijing in 1946. Korea). then it and about 19. (Beijing Daxue. As 20 percentage points are available for citations. In 1920. Yenching campus in the northwest.

Their research output and their importance as suppliers of trained people are likely to grow. Michael Delaney healthy staff-to-student ratio and being held in high regard by its global academic peers. It is to be expected that such institutions will gain in standing as Asia becomes a more significant centre for the development. is an alumnus. But the focus on stem-cell research in South Korea. South Africa and Mexico contain many more universities on the brink of entering the world top 200 than does China. As ever in this part of the world. We include many big general universities in Asia. suggests that this gap may soon close. recruit many staff and students internationally.REST OF THE WORLD WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS to the forefront servants and lawyers rather than personnel for the private sector may explain why. India. and Mao Zedong was a part-time student. But the list also includes a higher proportion of technology and science universities than we feature from other parts of the world. and on nanotechnology. a cellular biologist who was the first to identify many important fowl infections. One of the few East Asian institutions with a notable citations score is Tokyo University. Our data on leading institutions for medical research also indicate that there are few such centres of renown in Asia (page 11). Sydney China Univ Sci & Technol Seoul Natl University Natl Auton Univ of Mexico La Trobe University Tokyo Inst Technol Curtin University of Technol Osaka University Natl Taiwan University Queensland Univ of Technol Chulalongkorn University University of Newcastle Nagoya University Tohoku University Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol Hiroshima University Nanjing University Univ of South Australia Hokkaido University Tasmania University Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ Malaya University Kobe University City Univ Hong Kong Korea University Otago University China Japan Australia Singapore Australia Japan Australia Australia Australia Hong Kong Hong Kong Australia Singapore India Hong Kong New Zealand China Australia China Israel Australia Australia Australia India Australia China South Korea Mexico Australia Japan Australia Japan Taiwan Australia Thailand Australia Japan Japan South Korea Japan China Australia Japan Australia China Malaysia Japan Hong Kong South Korea New Zealand THE TIMES HIGHER OCTOBER 28 2005 13 . and Zhai Zhonghe. In another decade. universities in smaller states such as Singapore and Taiwan seem to be making the running in this area. pushing Asian institutions up the world rankings. of which some — such as Korea and Tokyo — are in effect national institutions. the godfather of modern Chinese literature. nobody knows how China’s international emergence will pan out. such as Curtin University of Technology in Australia. Its emphasis on supplying politicians. Current academics include Tang Xiaoyan. Taiwan. It is also well liked by its peers yet it has a surprisingly low profile with our recruiters considering its reputation for educating most of Japan’s elite figures. Lu Xun. The Indian Institutes of Technology are already regarded as vital to India’s hightech growth around Bangalore. design and manufacture of high-technology products. who recently won the Vienna Convention Award for her work on ozone layer protection. At present. starting with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology at position 11 in this table and continuing with nine other such institutions. South Korea. NEWSCOM THE REST OF THE WORLD’S TOP 50 UNIVERSITIES RA NK W RA OR NK LD CO UN TR Y NA ME ‘The focus on stem-cell research in Korea suggests the medical research gap may soon close’ network of researchintensive universities. it could be producing a sizeable percentage of the world’s major innovations and housing a quarter of its university students. It remains to be seen whether Japan and India will catch up. which has many medical applications. public 1 15 2 16 3 19 4 22 5 23 6 31 7 33 8 38= 9 40 10 41 11 43 12 47 13 48 14 50 15 51 16 52 17 62= 18 67 19 72 20 77= 21= 80= 21= 80= 23 82 24 84 25 87 26= 93= 26= 93= 28 95= 29 98 30 99 31 101= 32 105= 33 114= 34 118 35 121= 36 127= 37 129 38 136= 39 143= 40 147= 41 150= 42 154= 43 157= 44 166= 45= 169= 45= 169= 47 172= 48 178 49 184= 50 186= Beijing University Tokyo University Melbourne University Natl Univ Singapore Australian Natl University Kyoto University Monash University Sydney University Univ of New South Wales Hong Kong University Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol Queensland University Nanyang Technological Univ Indian Institutes of Technol Chinese Univ Hong Kong Auckland University Tsing Hua University Macquarie University Fudan University Hebrew Univ Jerusalem Adelaide University Univ of Western Australia RMIT University Indian Insts of Management Univ of Technology. Many. But our data suggest that caution may be needed with some of the wilder predictions.

Paris Ecole Polytechnique Pierre and Marie Curie University Lomonosov Moscow State Univ Heidelberg University University of California.6 – 11.5 69.2 19.2 51.1 61.1 – – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29= 29= 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48= 48= 50= 50= Harvard University Cambridge University Oxford University Karolinska University Stanford University Imperial College London Johns Hopkins University Beijing University University of California.3 57 54.7 45.8 12.6 60.6 44.0 17.4 52.5 53.8 49. Santa Barbara UK UK US US US US US Japan US UK US Switzerland Australia China US Japan US France France France Russia Germany US Canada US 100 94.9 3.7 69.1 51.5 37.9 14.4 69.5 56.8 84.2 43.5 12.7 42. San Diego National University Singapore Edinburgh University Heidelberg University Sydney University University of California.7 63.9 59. Berkeley Indian Institutes of Technology Stanford University Imperial College London Cambridge University California Institute of Technology Tokyo University National University of Singapore Beijing University Tokyo Institute of Technology ETH Zurich Oxford University Carnegie Mellon University Delft University of Technology University of New South Wales Tsing Hua University Melbourne University Kyoto University Georgia Institute of Technology Harvard University Ecole Polytechnique Hong Kong Univ of Sci & Technol Monash University Technion — Israel Institute Technol Nanyang Technological University University of Illinois Aachen RWTH Australian National University University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto Vienna University of Technology Technical University Munich Cornell University Purdue University University of California.0 20.3 – 6.5 12.8 – – – 15.4 NA CO UN TOP 50 IN TECHNOLOGY OR E CIT PE ATI R P ON AP S ER Y TR SC NK ME UN ER RA NA CO PE TOP 50 IN BIOMEDICINE OR E CIT PE ATI R P ON AP S ER 28.7 12.2 36.2 46.6 92.6 15.0 6.8 – – – TR Y NK ME UN RA NA CO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36= 36= 38 39 40 41 42= 42= 44= 44= 44= 47 48 49 50 Massachusetts Institute Technol University of California.2 50.0 10.8 8.4 56.5 – 3.4 60.3 79.1 5.8 18.5 36.3 11.1 68.9 11.1 41.5 10.3 36.8 40 39.7 50.1 3.1 3.0 16.0 65.3 43.1 59.5 36.8 65.1 58.4 79.9 22.6 53.0 23.4 7.9 43.1 – – – – 6.7 – – – 4.2 3.5 5.7 44.6 16.7 86.7 16.4 84.4 52.8 60.2 5.8 45.0 4.3 58.0 4.4 78.9 54.2 14 OCTOBER 28 2005 THE TIMES HIGHER PE ER SC CO RE CIT AT PE R P ION AP S ER 11.7 – NK TR NK RA ME RA ME TR Y Y .0 44.1 – 25.5 58.2 43.8 36.7 89.3 49 46.2 3.WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS REPRISE TOP 50 IN SCIENCE PE ER SC OR E CIT PE ATI R P ON AP S ER CO UN NA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25= Cambridge University Oxford University University of California.9 – 17.8 45 44.9 19.6 13.3 38.0 24.8 81.9 60.5 8.5 67.2 67.9 – – – 4.3 39 38.4 – 21.0 95.7 39.5 46.8 46.3 83.3 63.7 36.0 80.2 16.9 45.1 – 4.7 4.2 46.2 20.9 61.2 23. Berkeley Harvard University Massachusetts Institute Technol Princeton University Stanford University Tokyo University California Institute of Technology Imperial College London Cornell University ETH Zurich Australian National University Beijing University Yale University Kyoto University University of Chicago Ecole Normale Supérieure.1 7.3 9. Los Angeles Auckland University York University Fudan University Princeton University Hong Kong University California Institute of Technology Helsinki University Vienna University University of New South Wales Baylor College of Medicine Boston University Munich University University of Michigan Humboldt University Berlin Queensland University Technol Washington University Chinese University of Hong Kong Otago University Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol US UK UK Sweden US UK US China US Australia US Japan US US Singapore UK Germany Australia US Canada Australia UK US Canada US US Japan Australia UK Australia Canada US New Zealand UK China US Hong Kong US Finland Austria Australia US US Germany US Germany Australia US Hong Kong New Zealand Hong Kong 100.6 – 4.6 25= 27 28 29= 29= 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45= 45= 47 48 49 50 University of Texas at Austin La Sapienza University.0 98.6 4.5 50.5 14. San Francisco University of Toronto Australian National University University College London Duke University McGill University Columbia University Cornell University Kyoto University Monash University King’s College London Queensland University University of British Columbia University of California.3 47.1 50.9 12.0 40.5 – 8.5 57.5 51.1 44.7 37.2 14.5 54.1 48.1 13.4 53.2 52.7 46.9 45.2 41 40.7 44.2 3.5 64.3 45.2 45.8 16.6 – 15.6 38.5 9.0 11.1 66.0 – 18.0 55. Rome Utrecht University Munich University University of Illinois Columbia University Melbourne University Göttingen University National University of Singapore Université Paris-Sud 11 Indian Institutes of Technology Sydney University Edinburgh University Monash University University of New South Wales University of Michigan Johns Hopkins University University of British Columbia McGill University China University of Sci & Technol Seoul National University Aarhus University University of California.7 6.2 36.8 37.1 9. Berkeley Melbourne University Yale University Tokyo University Massachusetts Institute Technol University of California.7 – – 21.7 – 16.4 – – – – – – 15.0 53.2 15.8 16.6 57.8 12.1 58.6 59.5 46.9 7.6 49. San Diego Copenhagen University Tokyo Institute of Technology US Italy Netherlands Germany US US Australia Germany Singapore France India Australia UK Australia Australia US US Canada Canada China South Korea Denmark US Denmark Japan PE ER S 46.7 17.2 54.5 40.3 – – 8.8 7. Los Angeles Ecole Polytech Féd de Lausanne Princeton University Catholic University of Leuven (French) Queensland University Manchester University & Umist Korea Adv Inst Science & Technol McGill University Massachusetts University Lomonosov Moscow State Univ Technical University Berlin University of British Columbia Sydney University Auckland University China University Science & Technol US US India US UK UK US Japan Singapore China Japan Switzerland UK US Netherlands Australia China Australia Japan US US France Hong Kong Australia Israel Singapore US Germany Australia US Canada Austria Germany US US US Switzerland US Belgium Australia UK South Korea Canada US Russia Germany Canada Australia New Zealand China 100.4 39.3 80.1 74.6 5.9 51.0 12.0 4.9 87.6 50.7 58.0 56.8 18. Los Angeles University of Toronto University of California.4 6.2 7.8 4.9 – 7.6 49.1 4.9 77.6 21.2 – – – 4.1 54.9 81.5 58.5 36.5 40.7 38.0 45.4 53.1 51.2 67.8 74.6 – 26.6 17.5 60.7 37.2 9.6 5.0 42.9 25.3 27.8 13.0 76.8 10.5 23.8 40.2 18.7 12.2 46.3 8.1 57.6 50.6 43.5 17.5 72.6 48.4 38.

3 63.6 3. We also list the citations per paper for each institution in the respective subject areas.1 38.1 6. we have not published citations data for those disciplines. The tables suggest that in addition to being the world’s best university overall.2 77. seventh in science and fifth in both biomedicine and the social sciences. These tables suggest that Harvard.7 44.0 – 3.5 41.4 2.REPRISE WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS Brand names rule the roost T hese tables show the top universities for each of the principal areas of academic life. we have listed the top-ranking universities as named by our expert peer reviewers.6 7.9 44.5 7.3 41.1 37.6 5.5 39.2 8.1 4. Perhaps most striking is the broad strength of Stanford University in California. But they also bring out the capacity of specialist institutions such as the London School of Economics. TOP 50 IN ARTS AND HUMANITIES OR Y E TR SC NK ME UN ER RA NA CO PE TOP 50 IN SOCIAL SCIENCES SC OR E CIT PE ATI R P ON AP S ER 9. The peer review data were collected by QS Quacquarelli Symonds and the citations by Evidence Ltd.5 52.3 44.9 73.7 45.2 39.1 43. Cambridge.5 7.3 43.9 51.3 9.3 41.3 73.1 61.5 73. Instead.7 46.9 8.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17= 17= 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29= 29= 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42= 42= 44= 44= 46= 46= 46= 49 50 Harvard University London School of Economics Oxford University University California.9 46.3 5.9 69.1 THE TIMES HIGHER OCTOBER 28 2005 15 PE ER .7 3.9 50.1 40.0 84.0 41. Rome Helsinki University School of African & Oriental Studies Oslo University University of Technology.4 44.0 4.9 40.0 58. University of London University College London La Trobe University Monash University Auckland University Georgetown University Edinburgh University Tor Vergata University.1 44.3 88.4 48.6 9.7 7.2 38.2 38.7 45.1 4. Berkeley.6 50.4 37. best known as the technological mainstay of Silicon Valley. Los Angeles Catholic University of Leuven (French) Boston University McGill University University of Toronto Manchester University & Umist Carnegie Mellon University Hong Kong University University of Michigan Munich University Univ Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne RMIT University University College London Kyoto University Northwestern University Massachusetts University Vienna University Warwick University Amsterdam University Bonn University Chinese University of Hong Kong Chulalongkorn University Macquarie University University of British Columbia Copenhagen University US UK UK US US US US UK US US Australia US Singapore Japan Australia US India Australia Australia US Netherlands US China Australia Australia US Belgium US Canada Canada UK US Hong Kong US Germany France Australia UK Japan US US Austria UK Netherlands Germany Hong Kong Thailand Australia Canada Denmark 100.1 40.5 40.9 42. In the natural sciences it comes fourth and in technology a modest 21st.2 48.0 40.4 4.9 – 3.7 44. fourth in biomedicine.5 6.6 42.0 – NK ME UN TR Y RA NA CO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18= 18= 20 21= 21= 23= 23= 25= 25= 27= 27= 29= 29= 29= 29= 33 34= 34= 36= 36= 36= 39= 39= 41= 41= 41= 44 45= 45= 45= 48= 48= 50 Harvard University Oxford University Cambridge University University of California.9 43. using the Thomson Scientific Essential Science Indicators data for 1995 to 2005.7 56.7 81.8 6.3 80.2 37.7 44.6 63. medicine and the social sciences.6 42. and Sweden’s Karolinska Institute. Oxford universities and other brand-name institutions are strong across the board.2 60.2 47.6 48.2 4.2 4.8 77. It is not possible to collect detailed data on topics such as staff numbers or international students for each of the five areas we have analysed here. which is second in the social sciences and ninth in the arts and humanities. Because of the ESI’s very low coverage of the arts and humanities.7 56.5 53.7 45.7 40.5 41.4 37.9 63.1 39.4 – – 5.4 39. Berkeley Stanford University Yale University Massachusetts Institute Technol Cambridge University Chicago University Princeton University Melbourne University Columbia University National University of Singapore Tokyo University Australian National University Cornell University Indian Institutes of Management Monash University Sydney University New York University Erasmus University Rotterdam University of Pennsylvania Beijing University University of New South Wales Queensland University University of California.2 39.6 – – – 5.7 47.4 45.9 56.3 6.2 50.2 47. It is ranked fourth in technology.5 57.7 2. Harvard University is top in the arts and humanities.7 39.4 37.1 56.1 39.3 49.7 46.1 47.0 96.7 44.9 4.4 – 3.5 41.9 52.6 – 8.9 44.5 50.0 4.4 85. They are based on the more detailed tables that have been published in The Times Higher throughout October. Sydney Chicago University University of British Columbia University of Michigan Hebrew University of Jerusalem Macquarie University Sydney University Calcutta University Sussex University University of California.9 8.7 60. Los Angeles Heidelberg University Pennsylvania University Brown University Chinese University of Hong Kong Malaya University University of Western Australia Pontifical Catholic University of Chile Massachusetts University Johns Hopkins University US UK UK US US China US Australia UK Australia US US France Italy Canada Japan US Denmark Japan Mexico UK UK Australia Australia New Zealand US UK Italy Finland UK Norway Australia US Canada US Israel Australia Australia India UK US Germany US US Hong Kong Malaysia Australia Chile US US 100.6 – 3. Rome McGill University Tokyo University University of Texas at Austin Copenhagen University Kyoto University Natl Autonomous Univ of Mexico Queen Mary.4 77.7 46.2 43.8 41.0 2.0 46.3 42.4 70.0 68.6 42. Berkeley Yale University Beijing University Princeton University Melbourne University London School of Economics Australian National University Columbia University Massachusetts Institute Technol Univ Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne La Sapienza University.6 3.8 – 3.

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