Baseline Report, 2011

Baseline Study on the Status, Family and Socio-Economic Conditions of Persons with Disabilities in Bawku West District

BAWKU WEST DISTRICT ASSEMBLY I

Bawku West District
September 2011

Baseline Study on the Status, Family and Socio-Economic Conditions of Persons with Disabilities in Bawku West District

Led and prepared by Monaliza V. Calapini Gender Development Advisor VSO Volunteer Bawku West District Assembly

Prepared for Department of Social Welfare Bawku West District Zebilla Upper East Region GHANA

Supported by World Vision Ghana ADP-Bawku West Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO)

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© Bawku West District Assembly
Copyright 2011 All rights reserved. Published 2011 Printed in Ghana Bawku West District Assembly Department of Social Welfare P.O. Box 1 Bawku West District Zebilla Upper East Region GHANA Telephone: Fax: E-mail: bawkuwest@ghanadistricts.gov.gh bawkuwest.socialwelfare@hotmail.com Website: www.bawkuwest.ghanadistricts.gov.gh This study has been funded and supported by World Vision Ghana Bawku West ADP and Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) - Ghana This report is available electronically in PDF and HTML formats on Bawku West District Assembly website: www.bawkuwest.ghanadistricts.gov.gh

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Table of Contents
Bawku West District Assembly © Bawku West District Assembly Table of contents List of tables List of Figures List of abbreviations and acronyms Preface Acknowledgements Executive Summary Introduction Chapter I: Context in which disabled persons live 1.1 The geography, socio-economy and socio-demography of Bawku West District 1.2 Definition of disability 1.3 Development Context Chapter II: Policies, legislations and legal framework of Ghana in mainstreaming disability 2.1 Disability Policies in Ghana 2.2 The Disability Act Chapter III: Findings of the study 3.1 Personal characteristics of respondents 3.1.1 Marital status 3.1.2 Religious affiliation 3.1.3 Registration status 3.2 Socio-economic condition 3.2.1 Current schooling status and educational attainment 3.2.2 Occupation, employment and labor market for Persons with Disabilities 3.2.3 Housing conditions and facilities 3.2.4 Properties/ materials owned 3.3 Socio-demographic condition 3.3.1 Age group distribution 3.3.2 Household living arrangements 3.3.3 Family members who left abroad 3.4 Organizational affiliation 3.5 Nature, causes and treatment of disability 3.6 Health condition 3.7 Health care 3.8 Government role as seen by Persons with Disabilities 3.8.1 Assistance from local government 3.8.2 Awareness of laws, policies and legislations that is supportive of PWDs 3.9 Children and Women with disabilities 3.9.1 Children with disabilities 3.9.2 Women with disabilities Chapter IV: Conclusion and recommendations 4.1 Conclusion 4.2 Recommendations Chapter V: Institutions involved in disability work in Ghana List of References Appendices Appendix 1. List of personnel involved in the survey Appendix 2. Persons with Disability Act 715, 2006 Appendix 3. Baseline survey tool Iii Iv V Vi Vii Viii 1 2 4 4 8 9 11 11 12 14 14 15 16 18 19 19 23 26 32 37 37 38 39 40 42 46 51 55 59 60 63 63 69 74 74 75 77 83 84

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List of Tables
Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Table 9. Table 10. Table 11. Table 12. Table 13. Table 14. Table 15. Table 16. Table 17. Table 18. Table 19. Table 20. Table 21. Table 22. Table 23. Objectives of the Disability Act Zone composition and sex distribution Percentage according to age distribution by sex Religious affiliation of PWDs Educational attainment, status and reason of discontinuation and inability to attend school Top five (5) appliances owned by PWDs Total of PWDs raised/ owned livestock/ poultry Percentage according to crops produced by PWDs and other households Vehicles owned/ used by PWDs Household condition of PWDs according to structure, relation to dwelling and source of income Awareness of laws, legislations, policies supportive of PWDs and sources of information Nature, causes and treatment of disabilities of PWDs Health condition of PWDs and other family members Health care status and payment system Suggestions of PWDs addressed to local government on how they can help the PWDs Perceived roles of the local government in relation to regional and/or country in general Aspiration as a person and for community and society as a whole PWDs wish to be the state of District‟s local economy Dreams of WDs to be the condition of District‟s natural environment PWDs‟ desired role in local governance Percentage of children with disability reported by their mother or caretaker according to type of disability Nature of disability and health condition of children with disabilities Nature of disability and health condition of women with disabilities iv

List of Figures

Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20.

Percentage according to marital status by sex Percentage according to religious affiliation Percentage according to educational status and attainment Percentage according to educational level by sex Percentage of PWDs who have desire to return to formal school Percentage according to registration status of PWDs in the Department Social Welfare Percentage according to occupation and sex distribution Percentage according to household living arrangement Percentage of PWDs owned appliances/ consumer durables Percentage of livestock/ poultry raised/ owned by PWDs including other households Percentage according to land owned by PWDs by size Percentage according to housing condition Percentage according to source of potable and domestic water Percentage according to source of power in the household Percentage according to garbage disposal system Percentage of PWDs who have family members abroad Percentage according to organizational affiliation Percentage according to awareness of disability policies, legislations or laws Percentage according to sources of information Percentage according to support acquired from the government

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List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

AACT CDD GAB GFD GNAD GPRS GSPD GSS HIRD ILO LEAP MDG NHIS OPWD PACID PWD CRC UNCRPD UNESCO VSO

Autism Awareness Care and Training Centre Center for Democratic Development Ghana Association of the Blind Ghana Federation of Disabled Ghana National Association of the Deaf Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy Ghana Society of the Physically Disabled Ghana Statistical Service High Impact Rapid Delivery International Labor Organization Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty Millennium Development Goal National Health Insurance Scheme Organizations of Persons with Disabilities Parents Association of Children with Intellectual Disability Persons with Disabilities Convention on the Rights of the Child United Nation Convention on the Rights of PWDs United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Voluntary Service Overseas

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Preface

This report presents results of the Baseline Study on the Status, Family and Socio-Economic Conditions of Persons with Disabilities in Bawku West District conducted from June to September, 2011 to provide indicators for Persons with Disabilities Programmes. The study is a paramount programme of the District Assembly as Persons with Disabilities are concerned. The survey was initiated by the Bawku West Social Welfare Department with support from World Vision Ghana, Bawku West ADP, Voluntary Service Overseas-Ghana and Bawku West District Assembly. The study responds to the need to have baseline data to support the implementation of disability programmes in Bawku West District. It was designed to provide district level indicators to capture and monitor progress on issues relating to persons with disabilities in the District. Furthermore, the baseline study was developed within the framework of Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy that identifies ineffective and insufficient safety nets in health, education and welfare provisions as a key cause of poverty especially for persons with disabilities who are considered as poorest and most vulnerable in Ghana due to negative social and cultural behavior. The survey findings provide a wealth of data to enhance the effectiveness of programme implementation and for monitoring the situation of persons with disabilities in general and in particular in the context of The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

James A. Ayesake
District Director Department of Social Welfare Bawku West District Zebilla

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Acknowledgement

The successful execution of this Baseline Study of Persons with Disabilities in Bawku West District was due to the invaluable support from institutions, organizations and individuals to whom we owe a great deal of gratitude. The Bawku West District Assembly, through the Department of Social Welfare, initiated the project and the World Vision Ghana Bawku West ADP organization provided funding for the study. We appreciate their effort in helping us to implement this initiative. We are also grateful to Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) for the immense and diverse contribution ranging from provision of expertise, technical assistance and logistical support. Ms. Monaliza V. Calapini, Gender Development Advisor, a VSO Volunteer assign in Bawku West District was the leader and writer of this study. We are thankful to the Bawku West District Assembly (BWDA) for the support in photocopying the questionnaires. We acknowledge the Community Development Department of Bawku West District for its substantial contribution to the survey, releasing staff to participate in fieldwork. We are thankful to the entire project staff of the survey, the District Director of Social Welfare Department, Mr. James A. Ayesake; District Social Welfare Staff, Edward A. Akiribila; District Community Development Staff, Samuel Awinzor; and Student on Attachment , Apanga A. Grace for their immense contribution to the implementation of the study. We appreciate the support of other VSO Volunteers, Raj Kumar Prasad and Nancy Keith for their tireless support, dedication and professionalism and

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other contribution in different phases of the study that has produced a very good quality of data. The contribution of other individuals, particularly the officers of Ghana Federation of Disabled Persons in Bawku West District, who worked behind the scene in various ways to assist the survey team, is acknowledged. Their names have been printed in the appendix in recognition of their contribution. We thank the contributors to the survey and this report for the good work done. Their names have been mentioned individually in the report. The final and sincere thanks go to all study respondents who prepared themselves to be interviewed and contributed to the success of the Baseline Study on the Status, Family and Socio-Economic Condition of Persons with Disabilities in Bawku West.

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Executive Summary

The Baseline Study on the Status, Family and Socio-economic Condition of Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) in Bawku West District aims to contribute to research on the common and general situation of PWDs and the problems they face. The study also attempts to find solutions to these problems and future challenges. In Ghana, a simple look at different projects aimed at mainstreaming various vulnerable groups reveals evidence of how society is trying to reduce poverty. Apart from wealth, human development encompasses a long lifespan, access to health care, enjoyment of human rights and fundamental liberties. It includes the possibility of easily obtaining a basic education as well as securing a certain level of security. Since the Ghana independence, the above mentioned components of human development were part of both individual and collective efforts to improve the standard of living standard for Ghanaians. The government of Ghana set the availability of services in order to eradicate the marginalization of persons with disabilities. Rehabilitation services, special schools and centres were created in different places. However, they are not sufficient compared to the demand. These services should be included in hospitals, schools and within administratively decentralized structures such as at sector levels. Different ministries are legally required to take actions to ensure the welfare of PWDs. The strategy to strengthen the well-being of PWDs is to mainstream them in the existing system and establishing concrete provision of services including instituting special centres. In Ghana, inclusion of persons with disabilities directly contributes to the achievement of global development objectives enshrined in Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

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Introduction

Human development has been the main objective for every society and particularly for developing societies. A simple look at different projects aimed at mainstreaming various vulnerable groups in Bawku West reveals evidence of how society is trying to reduce poverty. Apart from wealth, human development encompasses a long lifespan, access to health care, enjoyment of human rights and fundamental liberties. It includes the possibility of easily obtaining a basic education as well as securing a certain level of security. This report is based on the baseline survey with PWDs at the district level, carried out by Bawku West Department of Social Welfare, in partnership with World Vision and Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). The survey was based on the evaluation of status, family and socio-economic condition of PWDs particularly the women and children with disabilities. The study area covered the eleven (11) zones of Bawku West District in Upper East Region. The study was conducted on the basis of the need to have a baseline data to help the policymakers, service providers, facilitators, advocates, catalyst and orchestrators in mainstreaming PWDs in development. In the last decades, several donor-specific programmes and projects have been implemented in Ghana. The level of implementation differed from one donor to another at the national, regional and district level. Accordingly, many international organizations aim to improve the condition of women, children and PWDs. Given the marginalization of persons with disabilities of all ages with any form of disability continues to be an obstacle and to achieve the full and accelerated implementation of the national social development action plan. PWDs can take their rightful place in the community through gaining increased access to available programs and services of the government and other resource institutions. This situation constrained the PWDs mostly the women and children to enjoy their full potentials as human beings and as a part of society.

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Based on the High Impact Rapid Delivery Survey conducted by Ghana Statistical Service, in Ghana, persons with physical disability are estimated to be approximately ten percent (10%) of the total population. It indicates that PWDs constitute a significant portion of Ghana‟s population, and promotion of improve and quality life and living conditions of PWDs signify an important obligation of government and its partners including other institution working on PWDs. Hence, recognizing the need of PWDs to achieve equal enjoyment of all human rights and development for all is therefore a call to address and take into account in all policy-making, programming of the government and its partners. This report presents a comprehensive analysis of study on the status, family and socio-economic condition of PWDs in Bawku West District. Given the short timescale of the study, which was conducted over a three (3) month period between June to September 2011, the review of policy, official statistics and research could not be exhaustive. However, we hope that it provides an overview of existing knowledge about disabled people in Bawku West District, the linkages between different areas of social policy and other institutions.

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CHAPTER 1
Context in which Persons with Disabilities’ live

Chapter 1 contains the study about disability in Bawku West which is contextualized under the aspects of socio-economy and geography of Bawku West District. It emphasizes the context in which persons with disabilities (PWDs) live. Likewise, it also includes the definition of disability and associations and centres working with disability in Ghana particularly in Bawku West District.

The geography, socio-economy and demography of Bawku West District
A. GEOGRAPHY1 1) Location and size The Bawku West District lies within the Upper East Region of Ghana. It was carved out of old Bawku District under the new local government system in 1988. It lies roughly between latitudes 100 30‟N and 110 10‟N, and between longitudes 00 20‟E and 00 35‟E. The District shares boundaries with Burkina Faso in the North, Bawku Municipality to the East, Talensi/Nabdam District to the West and East Mamprusi District to the South. Two important tributaries of the Volta River namely the White and Red Volta ran contiguous to the Districts‟ Eastern and Western boundaries respectively. The District covers an area of approximately 1,070 square kilometers, which
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MOFA Website

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constitutes about 12% of the total land area of the Upper East Region. It is the fifth biggest district in the Upper East Region in terms of land area. 2) Topography and Drainage The relief of flat the district to is

generally from 1-5%. ranges outcrops intrusions.

gently

undulating with slopes ranging These plains are from or either rocks granite ranges lie broken in some places by hills or formed of Birimian

(greenstones)

These

along the border with BurkinaFaso, north of Zebilla, and turn south-west from the Red Volta north of Nangodi in the Talensi/Nabdam district. The granite areas are generally low to gently rolling (120-255m a.s.1). The District is drained by both the White and Red Volta and their tributaries. The rivers over flow their banks during the rainy season (April-October). During the dry season there is always an inflow of water from the Bagre dam which makes it possible for farmers to pump for irrigation from the White Volta. The flow from Bagna dam also causes flooding in the District destroying farms and houses. 3) Climate The general climate of the district can be summarized by the long-term records at Manga-Bawku Agricultural station, which are very representative of the Bawku West District. The area experiences a unimodal rainfall regime lasting 4 to 6 months and a long dry period of 6 to 8 months in a year.

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4) Environmental

Situation

The natural environment is highly degraded by land clearing for farming, fuel wood harvesting, overgrazing, bush fire and harvesting of poles for construction. The gold deposits found in the rocks north of Zebilla and south of Sapelliga has increased the desire for mining by the youth. This is very clear in the Widna – Teshie zone where illegal surface mining and stone quarrying are prevalent resulting in serious land degradation and the pollution of surface water bodies.

B. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS2 1) Labour Force The Bawku West District has a total labour force of 133,889 who are engaged in agricultural and non-agricultural activities. Out of this population, 80% are actively involved in agricultural production with the remaining engaged in other activities. The District has an active farming population of 107, 111 farmers made up of 48,930 males and 58,181 females engaged in agricultural production. The demand for labour is at its peak in the rainy season for most of the farming activities. The youth is the major source of the causal labour that can be tapped for both agriculture and non agriculture jobs. 2) Agriculture Agriculture plays an important role in the socio economic development of the Bawku West District. It provides incomes and employment for over 80% of the population. The total cultivable area is 58,406 hectares and uncultivable area of 33,687. The principal agricultural produce in Bawku West are: Tree Crops: Mangoes, Cashew. Industrial Crops: Sheanut trees, Tomatoes, Soyabean, Dawadawa, Rice. Roots & Tubers: Sweet Cereals potatoes, Frafra potatoes. : Millet, Sorghum, Maize, Rice.

Fruits & Vegetables: Onions, Tomatoes, Pepper, Okra, Leafy vegetables, Watermelon.

2

MOFA Website

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Legumes

: Cowpea, Soyabean, Bambara nuts, Groundnuts.

Almost ninety eight percent (97.7%) PWDs in Bawku West are involved in agricultural activities particularly faming. 3) Livestock Apart from crop production, livestock and poultry rearing is the second most important agricultural activity undertaken by farmers in the District. The production is largely at subsistence level. The livestock reared include, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and donkeys, while the poultry are guinea fowls, fowls, ducks and turkeys. C. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS3 The demographic characteristics in Bawku West District include large household sizes, high illiteracy rates, that is, about 80 percent in the southern part of the district, high birth and fertility rates. 1) Age and Sex Distribution of Population The district has a total usual resident population of 38,034 in 2000 according to the 2000 Population and Housing Census and this represents 24 percent increase over the 1984 Census figure of 66,973. The population of the district is 9.0 percent of the total population of the Upper East Region and this is about 0.3 percent increase over the 1984 Census figure.

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MOFA Website

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Definition of Disability

1. GHANAIAN PERSPECTIVE4 a. Government definition  Disability means a person has a problem with a part of the body or mind. b. Societal classification  A person who is deformed as a punishment from the god or from his /her own misdeeds or for the misdeeds of his /her families.  PWD in Ghana are identified by their disabilities and not by their name.  PWDS are disgrace/stigma to families  PWDS cannot do anything (liabilities)  PWDS are objects of scorn and pity

2. UN CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES The Convention adopts a social model of disability, and defines disability as including: those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.

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Rehabilitation Centre – Kumasi, Department of Social Welfare

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Development Context

Disability is a critical human rights issue. Each person is entitled to quality persons of life. It is estimated live in approximately six hundred million with disabilities developing world. By World Bank statistics almost 3.5 billion people are directly affected by having a family member who has a disability. It is then the responsibility of nations to highlight in their Social Development Agenda the challenge of extending persons with disabilities what is due to them as human beings.5 The 2002 Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS) identifies inadequate and ineffective safety nets in health, education and welfare provision as a key cause of poverty. Persons with disabilities are among the poorest and most vulnerable in Ghana due to the combination of lack of safety net provision together with prevailing negative social and cultural behaviors. Stigma, discrimination and lack of economic opportunities also make them more susceptible to HIV infection and vulnerable to the impact of HIV and AIDS.
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The government of Ghana has articulated its acceptance of social responsibility for persons with disabilities by enshrining in the Constitution a provision...” that persons with disabilities shall be protected against exploitation, all regulations and all treatment of discrimination, abusive and degrading nature.” Practical reflection of the government of Ghana‟s commitment is expressed in the National Disability Policy, which outline its mission as:7

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VSO Ghana Disability Programme Area Plan VSO Ghana Disability Programme Area Plan 7 VSO Ghana Disability Programme Area Plan

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1. To enact appropriate legislation, and make functional existing ones, to promote full integration of persons with disabilities into the national economy and to protect their rights as citizens of Ghana as defined by the Standard Rules of the Equalization for Person with Disability; 2. To create an enabling environment for person with disabilities to promote their economic well being and enhance their capacity to perform better to improve their socio-economic status; and

3. To create awareness of the plight of persons with disabilities and to improve national support (including the use of local resources) to promote their welfare.

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CHAPTER 2
Policies, legislations and legal framework of Ghana in mainstreaming Persons with Disabilities

Chapter 2 presented the policies, legislations and legal framework of Ghana in mainstreaming disability.

Legal framework of mainstreaming disability in Ghana: PERSONS WITH DISABILITY ACT 715, 2006

A. Disability Policies in Ghana
The 1992 Constitution guarantees certain basic rights for PWDs. These include the right to live with their families or with foster parents and to participate in social, creative or recreational activities and the right not to be subjected to differential treatment in respect of their residence other than that required by their condition or by the improvement which they may derive from the treatment. PWDs are also guaranteed protection against all exploitation and treatment of a discriminatory, abusive or degrading nature. In addition, every place to which the public have access shall as far as practicable have appropriate facilities for PWDs. Provision is also made for special incentives to be given to PWDs engaged in business and also to business organizations that employ PWDs in significant numbers. To give effect to these rights of PWDs, the Constitution further mandates Parliament to enact such laws as are necessary to ensure their enforcement. Thus far, the Persons with Disability Act 715 remain the main enactment in this regard.8

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VSO, Attitudes towards Disability in Ghana 2009, p.24-25.

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B. The Disability Act
The process of developing a policy on disability has been long and tedious. Cabinet passed the National Disability Policy Document in December 2000. The Disability Act was finally passed in June 2006. The Disability Act guarantees PWDs access to public places, free general of and the specialist Act). It also regulates the commitments and other medical care, education, employment and transportation (see table 5 for the main objectives responsibilities of public and private service providers. The transitional period of the Act makes provision for a 10-year moratorium for compliance with the provisions on access and mobility because of the substantial investment needed to make all existing public infrastructure disability-friendly. The Act established the National Council on Persons with Disability with the goal of proposing and evolving policies and strategies to enable PWDs to enter and participate in the mainstream of the national development process of Ghana. The official inauguration of the Council has taken place on 7 April 2009. The Council is made up of high-ranking representatives from a number of key ministries as well as from OPWDs and organizations or institutions working for PWDs. The Council will coordinate overall disability related activities in Ghana and function as advisor to the government on disability issues. The council will also act as a watchdog and monitor the implementation of the Disability Act.

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Public knowledge of the Disability Act is low, even among PWDs themselves. This makes it hard for them to make use of the provisions under the Act. According to CDD, both government and OPWDs should raise awareness of the Act.

Table 1. Objectives of the Disability Act9

To educate Ghanaians on the rights, potentials and responsibilities of both society and PWDs To generate and disseminate relevant information on disability To create an enabling environment for the full participation of PWDs in national development To ensure access of PWDs to education and training at all levels To facilitate the employment of PWDs in all sectors of the economy To promote disability friendly roads, transport, and housing facilities To ensure access of PWDs to effective health care and adequate medical rehabilitation services To ensure that women with disabilities enjoy the same rights and privileges as their male counterparts To ensure that law enforcement personnel in cases of arrest, detention, trial and confinement of PWDs take into account the nature of their disabilities To encourage full participation of PWDs in cultural activities To ensure access of PWDs to the same opportunities in recreational activities and sports as other citizens To promote CBR programmes as a means of empowering and ensuring the full participation of PWDs in society

 

   

 

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Attitudes Towards Persons with Disabilities in Ghana

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CHAPTER 3
Findings of the study

Chapter 3 explores on the findings of the different conditions of persons with disabilities (PWDs) in areas of Binaba, Gbantongo, Saka/Yikurugu/Kobore, Sapeliga, Tanga, Teshie, Tilli, Timonde, Widnaba, Zebilla and Zongoyire. The chapter identified nature, causes, status, health, family conditions of PWDs. Likewise, the discussion also uncovers their socio-economic and demographic characteristics, their experience and most of all, the effect of disability in their daily life as housewives, husband, children, individuals and their relationships with their respective spouses, family members and community. Furthermore, it also present notion of community about their viewed towards PWDs.

I. Personal Characteristics
A total of 795 PWDs interviewed from the eleven (11) zones of Bawku West District viz. Binaba (4.4%), Gbantongo (8.1%), Saka/Yikurugu/Kobore (10.7%), Sapeliga/Googo (16.4%), Tanga (5.9%), Teshie (10.7%), Tilli (3.8%), Timonde (6.3%), Widnaba (8.8%), Zebilla (2.3%) and Zongoyire (22.8%). Among the respondents, 57% are female and 43% are males.
Table 2. Zone Composition and Sex Distribution
SEX
Binaba Gbanto ngo Saka/ Yikurugu/ Kobore 59 26 85 (10.7%) Sapeliga/ Googo

COMMUNITY ZONES
Tanga Teshie Tilli Timonde Widnaba Zebilla Zongoyire

TOTAL

Female Male GENERAL TOTAL

16 19 35 (4.4%)

31 33 64 (8.1%)

76 54 130 (16.4%)

26 21 47 (5.9%)

45 40 85 (10.7%)

21 9 30 (3.8%)

28 22 50 (6.3%)

39 31 70 (8.8%)

8 10 18 (2.3%)

104 77 181 (22.8%)

453 342 795 (100%)

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Marital Status

Fifty seven percent of PWDs are married, 17.6% are single while 1.1% is divorced. The widowed is 24.3% which were noted in 11 zones. Analyzed by sex, widowed women (19.5%) are higher than widowed men (5.2%).

Figure 1. Percentage according to marital status by Sex

Marital Status of PWDs
30.0%

25.0%

20.0%

15.0%

10.0%

5.0%

0.0% Female Male

Single 8.9% 8.7%

Married 28.4% 28.6%

Widowed 19.1% 5.2%

Divorced 0.5% 0.6%

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Religious Affiliation

Three main religious groupings of PWDs found in the district are: Traditional (51.9%), Christian (26.4%) and Islam (14.1%). Zongoyire has the highest proportion of Traditionalists (17.2%) followed by the Teshie, Sapeliga/ Googo zones (6.7%). The lowest proportion of Traditional followers is in Tilli (0%) where Christianity is the predominate religion (2.3%). Other respondents had no answers (7.5%).

Figure 2. Percentage according to religious affiliation

No response

Traditionalist

Muslim

Christian

0.0% Female Male

10.0% Christian 15.8% 10.6%

20.0% Muslim 8.7% 5.4%

30.0%

40.0% Traditionalist 27.8% 24.2%

50.0%

60.0% No response 4.7% 2.9%

Given the strong traditional culture in Bawku West, analysis showed that some respondents, when seeking treatment, give primary importance to the role of ancestors and local divinities with (1.9%) seeking traditional treatment for their disabilities. Different culture view disability quite differently and that affects the way the PWDs see themselves and their hope for treatment. 16

Table 4. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION OF PWDs Percentage of PWDs according to religious affiliation by sex and area, Bawku West District, 2011 Christian Muslim Traditionalist No response Sex Male Female Zone Binaba Gbantongo Saka/Yikurugu/Kobore Sapeliga/Googo Tanga Teshie Tilli Timonde Widnaba Zebilla Zongoyire Area Village Town Age 5-15 y/o 16-25 y/o 26-35 y/o 36-45 y/o 46-55 y/o 56-65 y/0 66-75 y/o 76-85 y/o 86-98 y/o Education None Primary JHS SHS Vocational/ College

Total

10.3% 15.3% 2.1% 2.8% 2.6% 2.3% 2.5% 3.3% 2.3% 1.4% 3.9% 1.1% 2.1% 25.3% 1.1% 1.6% 3.9% 3.9% 2.4% 2.8% 4.5% 3.8% 2.1% 0.6% 23.3% 1.4% 0.3% 0.5% 0.3%

5.7% 8.7% 0.1% 3.4% 6.8% 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.9% 0.8% 13.3% 0.9% 0.5% 1.4% 0.6% 1.0% 2.5% 3.3% 3.0% 1.6% 0.4% 13.7% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%

23.5% 26.2% 2.3% 5.0% 4.3% 6.7% 0.9% 6.7% 4.5% 4.3% 0.1% 17.2% 51.9% 0.1% 1.8% 1.6% 2.1% 3.6% 6.0% 11.4% 12.3% 8.9% 1.1% 48.3% 0.6% 0.1% -

3.5% 6.8% 0.1% 0.4% 0.6% 1.9% 0.3% 1.1% 0.4% 0.1% 2.6% 7.4% 0.1% 0.4% 0.5% 1.0% 2.6% 2.5% 0.0% 1.8% 1.1% 1.0% 10.7% 0.3% -

43.00% 57.00% 4.4% 8.0% 10.7% 16.4% 5.9% 10.8% 3.8% 6.3% 8.9% 2.2% 22.7% 97.9% 2.2% 4.3% 7.4% 7.6% 9.6% 13.8% 19.2% 20.9% 13.7% 3.1% 96.0% 2.6% 0.5% 0.6% 0.4%

General Total

25.7%

14.3%

49.7%

10.3%

100.0%

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Registration Status

Data showed that 75% of persons with disabilities are not registered with the Department of Social Welfare. Only 24% of them are registered while the remaining 1.0% has no response.

Figure 6. Percentage according to registration status of PWDs in Department of Social Welfare

PWDs' Registration Status
Female Male

42.9% 35.3%

13.7% 7.4% 0.4% Registered Not Registered 0.3%

No answer

Part of the study is registration of persons with disabilities living in Bawku West. The objectives of the Department of Social Welfare is to update the list of PWDs and to harmonize the database at the district, regional and national level.

Registration of PWDs will serve as a guide and reference for the local government and health units in planning and implementing employment services and other for treatment, for rehabilitation, disability prevention, measures

integrating the PWDs into the mainstream of society. This move is meant to synchronize the information and establish a unified database of information about PWDs and enable monitoring and evaluation.

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II. Socio-economic conditions

Current Schooling Status and Educational Attainment
Among the persons with disability, 93.5% were unable to attend school; 4.0% had studied up to Primary level; 1.0% up to junior high school; 0.9% studied up to senior high school; and 0.6% had undergone special training, vocational and university standard.

Figure 3. Percentage according to educational status and attainment

Educational Attainment
100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%4.0% Primary 1.0% Junior High 0.9% Senior High 0.6% Vocational, University 93.5%

None

19

Of the respondents, 2.3% of them were students. Of them 3.1% were studying in the primary; 0.3% in junior high school and 0.2% in senior high school. 0.5% is out-of-school.

Analyzed by sex, educational status revealed that more than half of illiterate PWDs are female (55.1%). In both sexes, males had more number whilst of educations than female from primary to vocational and university study.

Figure 4. Percentage according to education level by sex

Educational Level by Sex

None

Voc, Univ.

Senior High

Junior High

Primary 0.0% Male Female Primary 2.5% 1.5% 10.0% 20.0% Junior High 0.9% 0.1% 30.0% Senior High 0.8% 0.1% 40.0% 50.0% Voc, Univ. 0.5% 0.1% 60.0% None 38.4% 55.1%

20

Those who had not undergone any formal studies or had discontinued their education were asked to state the reason for doing so. Twenty two percent cited economic reasons including their disability; 7.2 % said their disability was the preventing factor; and 54.7% because the school is not common during their time. This factor is universal for those aged from 56 to 98 years old. Among other reasons cited were lack of transportation and lack of interest on the part of their parents. When asked whether they would continue if they could receive assistance, 2.0% of respondents were willing to re-start their education while 98% do not want to go back to school due to old age and disability. Only 0.2% preferred to undergo special training that can be used for employment or livelihood opportunities.

Figure 5. Percentage of PWDs who have desire to return to formal school

Desire to Return to Formal School

60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Female Male

Want re-start their education 0.6% 1.4%

Do not want to go back to school 56.4% 41.6%

21

Table 5. Educational attainment, status and reason of discontinuation and inability to attend school
Percentage of PWDs according to educational attainment, status and discontinuation and inability to attend school, Bawku West District, 2011
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Primary Junior High Senior High Vocational/ University No Education Educational Status InOu-ofschool school Reason of discontinuation and inability to attend school Due to Due to School Disability economic is not and commo disability n

Sex Male Female Zone Binaba Gbantongo Saka/Yikurugu/ Kobore Sapeliga/Goog o Tanga Teshie Tilli Timonde Widnaba Zebilla Zongoyire Area Village Town Age 5-15 y/o 16-25 y/o 26-35 y/o 36-45 y/o 46-55 y/o 56-65 y/0 66-75 y/o 76-85 y/o 86-98 y/o 1.0% 1.0% 3.0% 3.0% 5.0% 6.0% 11.0% 20.0% 20.0% 13.0% 2.0% 1.0% 2.0% 3.0% 3.0% 5.0% 6.0% 11.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 20.0% 20.0% 13.0% 2.0% 2.0% 1.0% 2.0% 95.0% 3.0% 7.0% 2.0% 21.0% 57.0% 1.0% 4.0% 8.0% 10.0% 16.0% 6.0% 10.0% 4.0% 6.0% 9.0% 2.0% 22.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 2.0% 2.0% 1.0% 2.0% 4.0% 1.0% 4.0% 1.0% 2.0% 2.0% 2.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% 7.0% 12.0% 2.0% 5.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 0.0% 15.0% 2.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.0% 0.0% 41.0% 55.0% 2.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.0% 4.0% 9.0% 14.0% 22.0% 33.0%

General Total

3.0%

0.0%

0.0%

1.0%

96.0%

3.0%

0.0%

8.0%

23.0%

55.0%

22

Occupation, Employment and Labor Market for Persons with Disabilities
As far as occupation was concerned, 97.7% of persons with disabilities in Bawku West District are engaged in agricultural activities; 0.4% are are self-employed; 0.1% are employed; and 6.8% are unemployed or unable to work due to the effect o their disability. Analyzed by sex, shows that the percentages of female respondents who are engaged in farming (53.7%) and other work (0.5%) is higher than of males (39.0%). Further, self employed respondents are involved in petty trading such as selling of consumable and leather goods and mobile phone credits while the one employed person is a seamstress.

In the Bawku West case, a majority of respondents have a preference to receive skills training such as soap making, computer skills training, leather making, and chair and furniture making for economic or livelihood opportunities. At the same time some are capable of working in the professional or vocational sector or teaching.

Figure 7. Percentage according to occupation and sex distribution

Occupation of PWDs
Unable to work Employed

Self-employed

Farming 0.0% Male Female Farming 39.0% 53.7% 10.0% 20.0% Self-employed 0.0% 0.4% 30.0% 40.0% Employed 0.0% 0.1% 50.0% 60.0%

Unable to work 4.0% 2.8%

23

In Article 13 of the Persons with Disability Act 715, it is stated that appropriate shall be training for Where the the unemployed person with disability provided. name of a person with disability remains on a job search list for more than two years, the Ministry shall take the name of that person off the list, and where applicable: a. c. give that person appropriate training; assist that person to access loan capital to start a business.

b. provide that person with necessary working tools and materials; and

This implies that, though various welfare schemes are designed to provide employment or self-employment for persons with disabilities, these schemes have not yet reached the PWDs in most areas, particularly the village zones.

Labor Market for PWDs10 Previously, a quota system was in effect so that employers with a certain number of employees were obliged to have a percentage of PWDs employed. However, the system was poorly monitored and has been dropped. In the public sector, according to an administrative directive, PWDs employed are entitled to a disability allowance of 48 cedis (less than 50 USD) every 3 months. The allowance was previously paid out of the monthly payroll by the national government but since this practice has been decentralized, the institutions where PWDs are employed are responsible for paying the allowance. This is the case only if the budgets are not exhausted, which means that, in reality, very few receive the allowance, because the earmarked funds are used for other purposes. In general, few PWDs are aware of their rights as employees and few use the policies and systems in place to assist them.
10

Ghana Federation of Disabled Website

24

Alexander Tetteh who is the National Administrator of Ghana Society of the Physically Disabled conducted a study focused on the employment challenges faced by persons with disabilities in Ghana. The findings revealed that national legislation focuses inadequately on people with disabilities.

The study revealed that, as a consequence of their disability, disabled persons have a reduced capability of activity that causes many difficulties to life, work and studies. The impact of disability on life activities may be different and depends upon the specific context such as the environment -urban or rural - and type of country- developed or less developed - and cultural/societal norms relating to people with disabilities. The employment rate of persons with disability tends to be considerably lower than that of non-disabled people in Ghana, as in most countries, regardless of the overall employment rate.
11

Social barriers are another factor encountered by persons with disability in Ghana. This includes issues of stereotyping and preconceived notions of other colleagues regarding their abilities.

11

Alex Tetteh, Employment Challenges faced by Persons with Disabilities in Ghana

25

Housing Conditions and Facilities
I. Housing Condition

Most of the respondents (92.3%)) own their houses while other respondents are living with their families (7.3%). Most of which them are children and youth with disabilities. In Tanga and Zongoyire the study noted respondents who have no home (0.4%). Most dwellings (99.6%) are constructed in a compound structure because most of the families are extended in nature (Please refer to Figure 8. Household Living Arrangements).

Figure 12. Percentage according to housing condition

Housing Condition
Table 11. Summary of Household Population of Women Micro-Entrepreneurs in Three GREAT Areas 60.0%
50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Female Male Owned 54.7% 37.6% Live with family 2.1% 5.2% No permanent home 0.1% 0.3%

26

I.

Sources of Potable and Domestic Water

Water supply for most respondents came from a borehole (98.9%) while the remaining (1.1%) get water from waterworks. Most of the respondents are using other sources of water such as rain. Wells is the other supply of potable water including water for domestic use. Some households have two or more sources of water.

Figure 13. Percentage according to sources of potable and domestic water

Source of Water

Water System

Borehole

0.0% Male Female

10.0% Borehole 42.5% 56.4%

20.0%

30.0%

40.0%

50.0% Water System 0.5% 0.6%

60.0%

27

II.

Source of Power in the Household percent of respondents from all zones have no electricity

Ninety-seven

connections while other three percent have electrical power in their households.

Figure 14. Percentage according to source of power in the households

Source of Power

97.5%

2.5%

Electricity

None

28

III.

Garbage Disposal

It was identified that a majority of respondents (97.7%) are disposing garbage through burning. Respondents living in town practiced putting garbage in a cellophane (garbage bag) and throwing them in a vacant lot (2.3%).

Figure 15. Percentage according to garbage disposal system

Garbage Disposal System
Table 11. Summary of Household Population of Women Micro-Entrepreneurs in Three GREAT Areas

2.3% Thrown in a vacant lot

Burning

97.7%

0.0%

20.0%

40.0%

60.0%

80.0%

100.0%

120.0%

29

Table 10. Household condition of PWDs according structure, relation to dwelling and source of income
Percentage of PWDs according to household structure, relation to dwelling and source of income, Bawku West District, 2011 Household Structure Percen tage of nuclear family Sex Male Female Zone Binaba Gbantongo Saka/Yikur ugu/Kobore Sapeliga/G oogo Tanga Teshie Tilli Timonde Widnaba Zebilla Zongoyire Area Village Town Age 5-15 y/o 16-25 y/o 0.0% 0.0% 1.1% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.9% 0.0% 0.4% 0.8% 0.0% 2.4% 0.8% 0.5% 4.4% 8.1% 9.6% 16.4% 5.7% 10.7% 2.9% 6.3% 8.4% 1.5% 22.8% 95.1% 1.5% 4.3% 6.9% 4.4% 8.1% 10.7% 16.4% 5.9% 10.7% 3.8% 6.3% 8.8% 2.3% 22.8% 91.8% 2.3% 4.3% 7.4% 2.4% 7.8% 10.2% 15.7% 5.8% 10.7% 3.5% 5.8% 7.4% 2.3% 20.8% 84.3% 2.3% 4.2% 7.3% 2.0% 0.3% 1.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 1.0% 1.4% 0.0% 2.0% 9.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.2% 0.0% 4.4% 8.1% 11.2% 16.7% 5.9% 10.7% 3.8% 6.8% 8.8% 2.3% 23.0% 93.5% 2.3% 4.3% 7.4% 3.9% 8.1% 10.6% 16.1% 5.9% 10.6% 3.3% 6.3% 7.3% 1.3% 19.4% 85.4% 1.3% 3.9% 6.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.3% 0.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.0% 1.4% 1.0% 3.3% 5.8% 1.0% 0.4% 0.5% 4.4% 8.1% 10.7% 16.4% 5.9% 10.7% 3.8% 6.3% 8.8% 2.3% 22.8% 91.8% 2.3% 4.3% 7.5% 3.9% 8.1% 10.4 % 16.1 % 5.9% 10.6 % 3.5% 6.3% 7.2% 1.0% 9.5% 64.6 % 2.2% 3.2% 6.4% 0.2% 6.2% 16.5% 1.0% 0.1% 0.1% 3.3% 3.5% 0.3% 0.1% 6.9% 2.3% 1.1% 4.3% 7.4% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 1.4% 1.0% 3.3% 0.5% 4.4% 8.1% 10.7% 16.4% 5.9% 10.7% 3.8% 6.3% 8.8% 2.3% 22.3% 91.8% 0.9% 2.5% 42.1% 54.5% 43.0% 57.0% 37.9% 54.7% 5.0% 2.1% 0.2% 0.1% 43.1% 56.9% 38.9% 53.7% 0.0% 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 2.8% 4.0% 41.8% 58.2% 53.1 % 37.3 % 57.0% 0.8% 1.0% 0.3% 0.4% 0.0% 0.3% 2.8% 43.0% 4.0% Percent age of extende d family Total Household Description Owned Live with family No perma nent house Total Household Primary Source of Income Farming Self employ ment Emplo yed Unable to Work/ Not working Total Household Estimated Income per Month GHc 1030.00 GHc 4060.00 GHc 70100.0 0 GHc 101.00 up No Incom e Total

0.1%

30

Household Structure Percen Percent Total tage of age of nuclear extende family d family 26-35 y/o 36-45 y/o 46-55 y/o 56-65 y/0 66-75 y/o 76-85 y/o 86-98 y/o Education None Primary JHS SHS Vocational/ College General Total 1.0% 0.2% 0.5% 1.8% 0.5% 0.5% 0.2% 6.7% 9.7% 13.7% 19.2% 20.9% 13.8% 3.1% 93.0% 2.2% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 7.7% 9.7% 13.9% 19.2% 20.9% 13.8% 3.1% 93.5% 4.0% 1.0% 0.9% 0.6%

Household Description Owned Live No Total with perma family nent house 7.6% 9.7% 13.1% 19.1% 20.3% 13.4% 3.2% 90.1% 3.7% 0.6% 0.8% 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.5% 0.1% 0.2% 3.1% 0.3% 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 7.8% 9.9% 13.4% 19.4% 20.9% 13.5% 3.4% 93.5% 4.0% 1.0% 0.9% 0.6%

Household Primary Source of Income Farming Self Emplo Unable Total employ yed to ment Work/ Not working 7.4% 0.3% 7.7% 9.1% 0.6% 9.7% 13.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.5% 13.9% 17.5% 0.3% 1.7% 19.5% 18.7% 12.7% 2.6% 86.5% 3.2% 1.0% 0.8% 0.5% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 2.2% 0.7% 0.5% 7.0% 0.4% 20.9% 13.4% 3.1% 93.5% 4.0% 1.0% 0.9% 0.6%

Household Estimated Income per Month GHc GHc GHc GHc No Total 104070101.00 Incom 30.00 60.00 100.0 up e 0 7.0% 3.0% 4.4% 14.6 % 18.3 % 11.1 % 2.1% 68.7 % 2.1% 0.8% 0.8% 0.3% 5.6% 6.7% 1.6% 0.7% 0.6% 0.3% 16.1% 0.2% 0.2% 1.2% 2.1% 0.5% 2.2% 1.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 6.5% 0.4% 1.2% 13.8% 2.1% 0.7% 3.1% 93.5% 4.0% 1.0% 0.9% 0.6% 0.7% 1.1% 1.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 20.9% 7.7% 9.7% 13.9% 19.1%

3.4%

96.6%

100.0 %

92.6%

7.1%

0.3%

100.0 %

92.6%

0.4%

0.2%

6.8%

100.0 %

90.4 %

1.8%

0.7%

0.3%

6.8%

100.0 %

31

Properties/ Materials Owned

I.

Appliances/ Consumer Durables

Among the respondents, only 8.1% owned appliances or consumer durables while the remaining 91.9% have none of these devices. This is likely due to the fact that almost all PWDs are economically marginalized.
Figure 9. Percentage of PWDs owned appliances/ consumer durables

Appliances/ Consumer Durables Ownership
100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Yes No 8.1% 91.9%

Table 6 shows the top five appliances owned by PWDs from eleven (11) zones of Bawku West District. (Note: respondents have multiple responses when a PWD owns more than one appliance)

32

Table 6 . Top five (5) appliances owned by PWDs

Appliances 1. Radio/ Cassette 2. Cell phone 3. Television 4. Electric fan 5. Refrigerator

# of Respondents Female 16 1 2 1 Male 18 5 2 2 1 Total 34 6 4 2 2

II.

Livestock/Poultry Raised

Most of the respondents (75.5%) have no livestock or poultry to rear. Of the remaining respondents, 23.8% raised livestock and poultry. Most of the animals being reared are present in the eleven (11) zones of the study, except horse, sheep and donkey which were not mentioned in Gbantongo, Sapeliga/ Googo, Tanga, Teshie, Tilli, Widnaba and Zongoyire. Table 7 highlights the type of livestock/poultry raised in their backyards. (Note: respondents have multiple responses, indicating tht a PWD raised more than one livestock/ poultry)
Figure 10. Percentage of Livestock/ Poultry Raised/ Owned by PWDs including other household

Livestock Raised/ Owned
Don’t know 0%

Yes 24%

None 76%

33

Table 7. Total of PWDs raised/ owned livestock/poultry

Type of Livestock

# of Respondents Female

Male 56 25 13 7 5

Total 117 54 21 10 6 3 1

1. Fowl 2. Goat 3. Guinea Fowl 4. Cow 5. Donkey 6. Sheep 7. Horse

61 29 8 3 1 3 1

This indicates that fowl, goat and guinea fowl are most preferred to raise by the persons with disabilities because: (1) they are cheaper in terms of buying price; and (2) their size makes them relatively easier in terms of management practices.

III.

Crops Produced

All of the crops enumerated below (Table 8) are produced in the eleven (11) zones. Sapeliga/ Googo have a higher percentage of PWDs who produce maize (3.7%) while majority of respondents from Timonde produced millet (6%). For other crops, respondents did not specify what types of other crops they produced, while in Sapeliga/ Googo, Teshie, Tilli and Zongoyire, respondents identified fruit trees (0.6%) , soy beans (0.2%) and vegetables (0.1%).

Table 8. Percentage according to crops produced by PWDs and other households

SEX

Female Male GENERAL TOTAL

STATUS Kind of Crop Maize Millet 10.9% 7.9% 10.0% 11.6% 20.8% 19.4%

Rice 2.4% 2.5% 5.0%

Groundnut 0.6% 0.6% 1.2%

Soybean 0.0% 0.2% 0.2%

Vegetable 0.0% 0.1% 0.1%

Tree 0.3% 0.2% 0.6%

No crop 32.1% 20.3% 52.3%

Don't know 0.1% 0.2% 0.3%

TOTAL (%) 54.3% 45.7% 100.0%

34

IV.

Vehicles

A majority of PWDs, including their households, use their feet for mobility. There are a few who own bicycles (7.2%) and motorcycles (0.1%). In Saka/Yikurugu/Kobore and Widnaba respondents were identified also noted as being used in Zebilla. owning both

bicycle and motorcycle (2.8%) as a means of transportation. Tricycle (0.3%) is

Table 9. Vehicles own/use by PWDs

SEX

TRANSPORTATION MEANS Mode
Bicycle Motorcycle Tricycle Bicycle and Motorcycle

TOTAL Walking

Female Male GENERAL TOTAL

4.0% 3.1%
7.2%

0.1% 0.0%
0.1%

0.1% 0.1%
0.3%

1.4% 1.4%
2.8%

51.3% 38.4%
89.7%

57.0% 43.0% 100.0%

35

V.

Land Ownership It is

Eighty percent of PWD respondents do not own any land property.

predominant in all zones particularly respondents from Zongoyire and Sapeliga/ Googo. Less than a hectare is owned by 1.4% of the respondents in Sapeliga/ Googo, Teshie, Timonde, Zebilla and Zongoyire. Owning 1-2 hectares (12.2%) and 3-5 hectares (3.9%) is more is common in all zones. Owning more than five hectares (2.0%) was identified only in Zongoyire.

Figure 11. Percentage according to land owned by PWDs by size

Land owned by PWDs according to size
1% 12% 4% 2% 1%

80%

Less than 1 hectare 1-2 hectare 3-5 hectare More than 5 hectare Yes only Don’t own land

36

III. Socio-demographic conditions

Age Group Distribution
Most of respondents (60.4%) belong to the Productive Working Group age (1565 years old). Respectively, the communities from 11 zones of Bawku West have this age group. The remaining PWD respondents (37.9%) are 66 – 100 years old and (1.8%) are 5-10 years of age.

Table 3. Percentage according to age distribution by sex
Age/ Years Female %
0.6% 1.1% 2.5% 0.8% 1.6% 2.6% 2.9% 1.9% 4.9% 3.9% 5.2% 6.9% 6.5% 6.2% 5.8% 2.1% 1.3% 0.0% 0.1% 57.0%

Male %
1.1% 1.4% 2.5% 1.6% 1.4% 2.0% 2.3% 2.6% 2.1% 2.9% 3.3% 3.9% 3.3% 4.9% 4.4% 1.5% 1.4% 0.4% 0.0% 43.0%

Total %
1.8% 2.5% 5.0% 2.4% 3.0% 4.7% 5.2% 4.5% 7.0% 6.8% 8.4% 10.8% 9.8% 11.1% 10.2% 3.6% 2.6% 0.4% 0.1% 100.0%

5-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91-95 96-100 TOTAL % according to Sex

37

Household Living Arrangements

In the population studied, almost ninety-seven percent of respondents live in homes where the common household kitchen arrangement is designed for extended families. Only 3.4% of families studied have a nuclear structure, composed only of the immediate family.

Figure 8. Percentage according to living arrangements

Household Living Arrangements

Nuclear

Extended

0.0%

10.0%

20.0% Extended 42.1% 54.5%

30.0%

40.0%

50.0% Nuclear 0.9% 2.5%

60.0%

Male Female

38

Family members who left abroad
The data shows that 99% of respondents do not have relatives abroad while the remaining 1.0% of respondents had family members (2 males and 8 females) who have left for work abroad. Destinations are not clear to the respondents due to long time separation with these relatives and others are not close to them. One among the respondent identified that her family member is now in U.S.A. to pursue further study.

Figure 16. Percentage of PWDs who have family members abroad

PWDs who have Family Members Left for Abroad

60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Female Male

Yes 1.0% 0.3%

No 56.0% 42.8%

39

IV. Organizational Affiliation

The numbers of persons with disability involved in community projects and social groups are also a reflection of the degree of awareness and community support. In the case of Bawku West, 98.7% of the total PWD respondents are not affiliated with any organization. Only 1.3% of PWDs were engage in community groups.

Among those persons with disability who never involve themselves in social activities, the majority stated their disability as the reason; some of them mentioned it is due to lack of awareness and a few attributed it to their age, particularly children and the elderly. This would suggest that it would help large numbers of respondents if they were more involved and felt accepted in community and social assemblies, so they do not feel they must live isolated from social activities.
Figure 17. Percentage according to organizational affiliation

Organizational Affiliation
60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0% Female Male

Yes 0.4% 0.9%

None 56.6% 42.1%

40

On the level of those who are involved in organizations, 1.2% of them are regular members, while 0.1% actively participate as an officer with the position as Secretary.

Benefits/Assistance Received by the Members of Organizations

On

benefits

acquired from

during

membership gained

organization, skills on

0.3% of total respondents have knowledge, training in areas such as soap making and HIV and AIDs. There are members who gained more confidence different in people themselves during their particularly through dealing with membership.

Given the statistics, small numbers of PWDs are able to access skills training for their personal development.

Number of Years in the Organization

Among the respondents, only 0.2% of PWDs remember the length of their membership with their organization. Both of them are female. The remaining PWDs who have affiliation have difficulty in recalling the years of their membership. This indicates: (1) most of them are not active. This may be due of their disability or health condition; and/ or (2) the organization is not actively operating.

41

V. Nature, Cause and Treatment of Disabilities
I. Causes of disability

As regards the cause of disability, respondents responses were:      Diseases, mentioned by 32.1%. Awareness about what kind of diseases can cause disability is low and therefore prevention is also limited. Accidents, mentioned by 13.0%. Disability at birth, mentioned by 7.4% Due to old age, mentioned by 0.9% Spiritual attack, mentioned by 2.0%. (see chameleon and placed inside the tree), The majority of respondents who believed in spiritual causes have a low level of education. Most respondents with a disability are not aware of the cause of their own disability (44.6%). Of these, 0.8% of them developed disability during childhood.

II.

Treatment

Many respondents think treatment of disability is not possible, although many mentioned medical intervention (62.3%). Some of them sought treatment from traditional healers (1.9%). The remaining 35.8% have never undergone any treatment. Analyzed by sex, the percentage of female (35.8%) who sought treatment was slightly higher than male (28.3%). Among 1.9% of respondents who sought traditional treatment, males (1.3%) were higher than females (0.6%). Among those who sought tradition treatment, the reasons given included lack of medical access, inability to pay and overall lack of knowledge.

42

III.

Nature of disability

The categories of disabled persons identified are: 1. Visually Impaired 2. Hearing Impaired 3. Orthopedically handicapped 4. Leprosy Deformity 5. Deafness 6. Epilepsy 7. Mental Illness/ Mental Retardation

Visual and hearing impairments and observable physical disabilities are clearly recognized as disabilities. But respondents have intellectual disabilities and mental illnesses and their disabilities. limited knowledge about different characteristics.

Analyzed by sex, females with disabilities (57%) outnumber males (43%) with

43

Table 12. Nature, Causes and Treatment of Disabilities of PWDs

Percentage of PWDs according to nature, causes and treatment of disabilities, Bawku West District, 2011

Nature of Disability Visuall y Impair ed Hear ing Impa ired Deaf Orthop edically Handic apped Ment al Illne ss Lepr osy Defo rmity Epile psy Difficu lty in Movin g, Weak ness, Stiffne ss Others Total Disabi lity of Birth Disability due to accident Disability due to sickness

Cause of Disability Disabi lity due to old age Tradition al Belief (e.g. witchcraft , leaving the person under the tree, etc.) Don’t Know Other cause/s Total Hospital (Medical) Treatme nt related to disability

Treatment Traditio nal (Indige nous) Treatm ent No Treatm ent Total

Sex Male Female Zone Binaba Gbantongo Saka/Yikuru gu/Kobore Sapeliga/Go ogo Tanga Teshie Tilli Timonde Widnaba Zebilla Zongoyire Area Village Town Age 5-15 y/o 16-25 y/o 0.5% 0.8% 0.3% 0.6% 0.4% 0.3% 1.3% 0.7% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.1% 3.1% 3.1% 1.1% 1.5% 0.7% 0.1% 0.8% 0.2% 0.4% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 1.9% 4.0% 2.0% 3.3% 0.1% 0.5% 2.5% 3.2% 4.6% 7.0% 67.9% 0.2% 12.3 % 1.8% 0.3% 10.6% 0.3% 0.6% 0.4% 2.3% 0.6% 0.8% 0.3% 1.2% 0.3% 98.1% 1.6% 7.3% 0.1% 12.8% 0.1% 30.9% 1.1% 0.9% 2.9% 33.8% 0.8% 9.1% 0.1% 97.7% 2.1% 61.7% 1.3% 1.9% 34.2% 1.0% 97.8% 2.3% 2.4% 5.7% 8.1% 0.1% 2.0% 0.1% 0.5% 0.0% 1.0% 1.8% 0.1% 0.4% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.1% 4.4% 8.1% 10.7% 0.3% 0.6% 0.3% 2.6% 1.5% 2.6% 3.8% 1.0% 0.6% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 5.3% 0.1% 2.5% 4.4% 8.1% 10.7% 3.5% 7.8% 6.7% 0.1% 0.8% 0.3% 4.0% 4.4% 8.1% 10.7% 29.7% 39.9% 4.0% 8.2% 1.0% 1.0% 5.7% 5.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 1.1% 1.1% 0.1% 0.6% 0.7% 0.3% 43.0% 57.0% 3.8% 3.6% 6.4% 6.5% 12.7% 19.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.9% 2.0% 15.3% 19.2% 3.5% 5.8% 43.0% 57.0% 27.0% 35.3% 1.3% 0.6% 14.7% 21.1% 43.0% 57.0%

12.2% 3.0% 5.2% 2.4% 4.3% 7.0% 1.8% 17.6%

2.5% 1.8% 2.0% 0.8% 0.8% 0.5% 0.0% 1.8%

0.4% 0.3% 0.8%

0.6% 1.0% 2.1% 0.6% 0.8% 0.8% 0.3% 1.8%

0.1% 0.1% 0.4%

0.5% 0.1% 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% -

0.4% 0.1% -

0.1% 0.1% 0.3%

16.3% 5.9% 0.3% 10.7% 3.8% 0.3% 6.4% 8.8% 2.4% 23.0% 3.0% 0.4% 0.1% 1.5% 0.1% 2.1% 1.3% 0.1% 1.9% 0.8% 0.6% 2.6% 1.1% 7.2% 1.0% 1.1% 5.7% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 1.4% 6.2%

0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.6% 0.8% 0.3% 2.8% 3.3% 0.8% 6.2% 0.5% 0.3% 0.1% 5.2% 3.8% 6.3% 8.8% 2.3% 22.8% 0.9% 5.1% 6.5% 1.3% 10.7% 2.6% 0.1% 10.7% 5.6% 4.9% 5.9% 2.1% 7.7% 0.4% 16.4% 12.8%

3.6% 3.8% 1.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 3.8%

16.4% 5.9% 10.7% 3.7% 2.7% 1.1% 2.3% 1.0% 11.8% 6.3% 8.8% 2.3% 22.8%

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Nature of Disability Visuall y Impair ed Hear ing Impa ired Deaf Orthop edically Handic apped Ment al Illne ss Lepr osy Defo rmity Epile psy Difficu lty in Movin g, Weak ness, Stiffne ss 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 66-75 y/o 76-85 y/o 86-98 y/o Education None Primary JHS SHS Vocational/ College General Total 69.1% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 12.0 % 0.1% 0.1% 1.9% 0.1% 9.5% 1.0% 0.2% 0.2% 0.7% 0.6% 0.1% 2.2% 0.7% 1.0% 97.7% 1.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 7.3% 0.2% 0.1% 12.6% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 23.1% 0.5% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 11.3% 8.0% 0.8% 0.6% 0.1% 0.1% 1.2% 0.6% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 8.9% 0.8% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 1.3% 3.8% 0.3% 14.3% 13.4% 0.5% Others Total Disabi lity of Birth Disability due to accident Disability due to sickness

Cause of Disability Disabi Tradition lity al Belief due to (e.g. old witchcraft age , leaving the person under the tree, etc.) 0.3% 0.5% 0.1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.6% 0.7% 0.3% 0.4%

Don’t Know

Other cause/s

Total

Hospital (Medical) Treatme nt related to disability

Treatment Traditio No nal Treatm (Indige ent nous) Treatm ent

Total

26-35 y/o 36-45 y/o 46-55 y/o 56-65 y/0

1.3% 2.0% 5.3% 11.3%

0.4% 0.8% 0.4% 0.4%

0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1%

0.9% 0.8% 1.1% 1.3%

0.3% 10.0 % 0.1%

-

0.8% 0.7% 0.0%

0.3% 0.3%

4.1% 5.2% 17.5%

1.5% 0.4% 0.4%

0.7% 0.5% 2.7%

1.0% 2.4% 2.9% 13.5% 7.3%

0.7% 1.5% 7.8% 9.8% 7.4% 5.4% 1.1%

0.5% 1.0% 1.0% 2.0% 2.3% 1.5% 0.3%

4.7% 6.0% 15.0% 31.2% 21.7% 13.1% 2.5%

5.1% 6.0% 9.0% 13.2% 12.7% 10.0% 1.0%

0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.1% 0.1%

4.3% 5.7% 4.9%

9.7% 12.1% 14.3% 18.4%

1.5% 3.8% 3.2% 5.2% 5.4% 3.6% 1.0%

18.1% 13.7% 2.1%

0.9% -

2.7% 0.1% 0.1% -

33.9% 0.6% -

9.2% 0.1% -

-

60.2% 1.2% 0.2% 0.5%

1.7% 0.1% 0.1% -

35.8% -

2.1% -

0.2% 1.9%

69.6%

12.2 %

2.0%

10.9%

0.7%

0.7%

2.2%

0.7%

1.0%

100.0 %

7.4%

12.9%

32.1%

0.9%

2.9%

34.5%

9.3%

100.0 %

62.3%

35.8%

100.0 %

45

Health Condition

Most services

of

the use more

people public than

with health people

disabilities

without disabilities. Right from the time of birth of disabled child or from the day a person she/he clinics suspect‟s visits impairment, and

hospitals

numerous times for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, second opinion, etc. Moreover, many people with disability need medical help to take care of secondary conditions, like pressure sores, fatigue, pain, etc. Persons with disabilities make up nearly 15-20%12 of the poor population in developing countries. Disability, poverty and poor health are inter-related. Poverty leads to poor nutrition, lack of access to health, unhealthy and unsafe living and working conditions, which can lead to impairments and diseases. After the onset of a disability, physical and social barriers to health facilities, education, employment, and other aspects of life can trap people in a cycle of poverty. In Persons with Disability Act 715, 2006, Article 31, it is stated that in formulating health policies, the Ministry of Health shall provide free general and specialist medical care, rehabilitative operations, treatment and appropriate assistive devices for persons with total disability. Further, Article 32 states that the Ministry of Health shall include the study of disability and disability-related issues in the curricula of training institutions for health professionals in order to develop appropriate human resources to provide general and specialized rehabilitation services.

12

Sunanda Reddy, Major Issues Concerning Disabled People

46

Article 25 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) states that "persons with disabilities have the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health without discrimination on the basis of disability". The Eleventh Five Year Plan also has mandates related to Disability Certificate, aids & appliances, mental health, rehabilitation, etc. In order to fulfill these commitments, a concerted effort is required from all concerned Ministries and stakeholders. These national and international mandates make it clear that health services need to cater to all, including people with disabilities. Services are required for people with various those disabilities, disabilities, with deafparticularly multiple

deteriorating conditions, leprosy, blindness, spinal injuries, mental disabilities, a range of syndromes, and many more. However, in various studies in Ghana, a huge gap is apparent in terms of health services for persons with disabilities in the country. For persons with disabilities in Bawku West District, 40.6% have long-standing illnesses and health problems aside from their disabilities that limit their activities or kind of work that they can do. Issues range from inaccessible medical buildings and diagnostic equipment, lack of transport to reach the health centre, (particularly for those who live in villages far from the town), to negative/stereotypical attitudes of health professionals or their ignorance or lack of training to communicate with people with hearing/speech impairment or mental disability, or total expense of treatment/rehabilitation.

47

Many times, the health of caretaker in the family or family members (45.3%) too becomes an added concern, but they have extra burdens and are sometimes neglected. Family resources get depleted as disabled parents, heads of the family or family members move from one hospital or doctor to another, in search of cure, treatment or rehabilitation for their disabled child/ disabled family members or their own disability. Some of them also seek out “traditional” treatment in a quest to cure for their own sickness or disabilities.

48

Table 13. Health condition of PWDs and other family members
Percentage of PWDs according to health condition aside from disabilities that has effect on their work/ activities including other family members, Bawku West District, 2011
PWDs' Health Condition Illness/ Health Problem Disability No Health Proble m Epile psy Mental Illness Other Household Health Condition Illness/ Health Problem Disability No Health Problem Epile psy

Sto mac h Prob lem Sex Male Female Zone Binaba Gbantongo Saka/Yikuru gu/Kobore Sapeliga/Go ogo Tanga Teshie Tilli Timonde Widnaba Zebilla Zongoyire Area Village Town Age 5-15 y/o 0.1% 2.0% 0.5% 0.1% 0.1% 0.6% 1.5%

Diffic ulty Man uring

Body Pain

Hear t Pain

Brea st Mas s

Hea dach e

Skin Ras hes

Goit er

Hernia

Feve r

Elep hanti asis

Diffic ulty seei ng

Diffic ulty spea king

Difficult y Walking / Weak legs

Difficu lty Hearin g

Diarr hea

Cou gh

Heart Proble m

Diffic ulty Seei ng

Orth oped ically hand icap ped 0.1%

0.2% -

2.1% 2.1%

0.6% 0.5%

0.1%

0.2% 0.8%

0.1%

0.2%

0.1% -

0.1%

0.1% 0.1%

5.4% 7.6%

0.2% -

2.3% 4.0%

0.3% 0.7%

0.2% 0.3%

0.1%

26.2% 33.2%

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.3% 0.1%

0.2%

21.7% 33.0%

-

0.1% 1.0%

0.1%

0.1%

0.3%

-

-

-

-

-

5.6%

-

0.1%

0.3%

0.2%

-

2.6% 7.9% 1.3%

-

-

-

-

-

0.2%

1.3% 8.1% 5.5%

0.5%

1.2%

0.1% 0.3% 0.6% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%

0.1% 0.1% -

0.1% 0.8% 0.7% 5.0% 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1% -

0.3%

-

0.1% 0.1% -

0.1% -

-

0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 2.2% 4.4% 0.1% 0.1%

0.6% 0.7% 0.2% 1.7% 0.2% 0.2% -

0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% -

16.0% 4.5% 6.7% 1.6% 1.8% 2.5% 1.8% 21.3%

-

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.5% -

0.1% 0.1% -

2.4% 3.4% 9.9% 2.3% 3.1% 7.3% 1.3% 20.0%

0.3%

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.1% 0.2% -

0.1% -

0.3%

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.1% -

0.3% -

12.9 % -

0.9% 0.2% 4.8% 0.2% -

0.5% -

0.1% -

68.0% 1.8% -

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.5% -

0.2% -

0.2% -

63.3% 1.3%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

0.2%

0.1%

0.1%

2.8%

3.1%

49

PWDs' Health Condition Illness/ Health Problem Disability No Health Proble m Epile psy Mental Illness

Other Household Health Condition Illness/ Health Problem Disability No Health Problem Epile psy

Sto mac h Prob lem 16-25 y/o 26-35 y/o 36-45 y/o 46-55 y/o 56-65 y/0 66-75 y/o 76-85 y/o 86-98 y/o Education None Primary JHS SHS Vocational/ College General Total 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 0.7% 0.1% 0.5% -

Diffic ulty Man uring

Body Pain

Hear t Pain

Brea st Mas s

Hea dach e

Skin Ras hes

Goit er

Hernia

Feve r

Elep hanti asis

Diffic ulty seei ng

Diffic ulty spea king

Difficult y Walking / Weak legs 0.3% 0.6% 0.2 1.2 1.2 1.8 0.7 0.1%

Difficu lty Hearin g

Diarr hea

Cou gh

Heart Proble m

Diffic ulty Seei ng

0.1% 0.1% -

0.1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 1.2% 0.8% 0.1%

0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% -

0.1% -

0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% -

-

0.1% 0.1% -

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.2% 0.1% 0.5% 1.5% 2.6% 4.9% 2.3% 0.5%

0.2% -

0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% -

0.2% 0.1% 0.1% -

0.1% -

5.0% 4.7% 4.7% 7.6% 13.3% 11.6% 8.0% 1.2%

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.2% 0.2% -

Orth oped ically hand icap ped 0.1% 0.1% -

0.1% 0.1% -

4.9% 4.5% 4.6% 6.0% 9.0% 12.0% 9.0% 1.3%

0.2% -

4.2% -

1.1% -

0.1% -

1.0% -

0.1% -

0.2% -

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.2% -

12.4 % 0.6% -

5.9% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1%

1.0% -

0.5% -

0.1% -

34.8% 2.5% 0.6% 0.8% 0.7%

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.4% -

0.1% -

0.2% -

28.8% 3.5% 0.5% 0.7% 0.6%

2.1%

0.2%

4.2%

1.1%

0.1%

1.0%

0.1%

0.2%

0.1%

0.1%

0.2%

13.0 %

0.2%

6.3%

1.0%

0.5%

0.1%

59.4%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

0.4%

0.1%

0.2%

54.7%

50

Health Care
Of the PWD respondents in

Bawku West, 42.3% have health insurance. Most of them are selfpay, payers(30.2%); out-of-pocket 10.8% are

government funded; 0.9% have payments made by their family members while the remaining 0.4% pay by private insurance (0.2%) and church (0.2%). The remaining 57.7% have no health insurance. Good health care policies that will provide access for the needs of persons with disabilities is a necessity that the Persons with Disability Act (715, section 31) emphasizes: “The Ministry of Health in formulating health policies shall provide for free general and specialist medical care, rehabilitative operation treatment and appropriate assistive devices for persons with total disability.” It appears that the general conditions of persons with disabilities are already overburdened with educational, social, architectural, their transportation, institutional and information barriers, as well as poverty. Free access to health care might lessened plight.

The government of Ghana is trying to improve the lives of persons with disabilities in the country, a fact attested to by the passage of the disability law, the inauguration of the National Council on Persons with Disability, and the recent appointment of an acting Executive Secretary for the council. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was founded as one of the key pillars of Poverty Reduction of the government. It was introduced in 2003 through the National Health Insurance Act, Act 650, with the view to improving

51

financial access of Ghanaians, especially the poor and vulnerable, to quality basic health services.13 In 2005, a national health

insurance scheme was launched by the government of Ghana, to give the population health are from access to affordable unless they facilities. as the

However, in the case of PWDs, classified paying indigents, they are not entitled to exemption subscription fee, an option which, according to the plan, may be granted to poor people. Moreover, experience shows that, when exemption is granted, payment to the scheme is picked up by the Common Funds, a practice which the PWDs consider an improper use of the funds. While the insurance will cover most ordinary diseases and some types of accidents, rehabilitation services, appliances, and prostheses are not included in the insurance scheme. The information about the insurance is however not designed for PWDs.14

Article 25 of United Nation Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) states, “Prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities in the provision of health insurance, and life insurance where such insurance is permitted by national law, which shall be provided in a fair and reasonable manner”.

13 14

National Health Insurance Scheme Website Ghana Federation for the Disabled People

52

Ideally, all disabled people should have access to government and private insurance schemes. However in reality, many persons with disabilities do not have health care insurance. It is easy to understand that persons with disabilities, in general, incur more expenditures than non-disabled people on medical and related expenses such as prescribed medications, care for preventing secondary conditions, support services, etc. Recognizing this fact, in other countries such as the U.S and UK, they have designed excellent health insurance plans supported by the government for disabled people and elderly, covering a wide range of expenses including, hospital insurance and medical insurance. Hospital Insurance covers care in hospitals as an inpatient, critical access hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, hospice care, and some home health care. Medical Insurance covers Doctors‟ services, outpatient hospital care, and some other medical services and home health care.

53

In Ghana, health care services may become affordable for all only when the changes in policy take into account all marginalized groups in a Social Security Net. Specific policies and laws identifying services for PWDs is one of the solutions that can be considered.

Table 14. Health Care Status and Payment System
Percentage distribution of PWDs according to health care including payment, Bawku West District, 2011 Health Care Government Funding Self pay, out of pocket 12.3% 17.9% 2.6% 3.0% 5.7% 5.9% 2.3% 4.0% 1.4% 2.9% 0.5% 0.1% 4.8% 33.1% 0.1% 1.2% 2.0% 2.0% 3.5% 4.5% 8.5% 7.1% 4.0% 1.0% Private Insurance Family Member Pays Others (e.g. Church, etc. 0.1% 0.1% 0.5% 0.4% 0.9% No Health Care

Sex Male Female Zone Binaba Gbantongo Saka/Yikurugu/Kobore Sapeliga/Googo Tanga Teshie Tilli Timonde Widnaba Zebilla Zongoyire Area Village Town Age 5-15 y/o 16-25 y/o 26-35 y/o 36-45 y/o 46-55 y/o 56-65 y/0 66-75 y/o 76-85 y/o 86-98 y/o Education None Primary JHS SHS Vocational/ College 10.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.1% 33.0% 0.7% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.8% 0.1% 0.2% 45.5% 1.5% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 10.1% 1.1% 0.3% 0.6% 0.7% 1.2% 1.2% 3.3% 2.2% 1.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.9% 5.1% 5.7% 0.6% 0.4% 2.0% 0.3% 3.4% 1.0% 1.1% 2.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.6% 0.2% 0.1% 0.6% 21.6% 31.8% 0.5% 5.1% 4.6% 8.3% 3.2% 6.3% 2.4% 0.0% 7.3% 1.1% 14.6% 52.3% 1.1%

0.1% 0.1% -

0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% -

0.1% 0.1% -

1.5% 2.3% 2.0% 2.0% 6.0% 7.1% 8.3% 6.0% 1.0%

GENERAL TOTAL

10.8%

30.2%

0.2%

0.9%

0.2%

53.4%

54

VI. Government role as seen by Persons with Disabilities

This section provides information about the perception of PWDs about government‟s role in Bawku West. The PWDs were asked series of questions to identify the needs and awareness of PWDs about the role of government in PWDs issue.

1. What would you suggest to the local government about how they can help PWDs?

Table 15. Suggestions of PWDs addressed to local government on how they can help PWDs Suggestion of PWDs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Support for farming e.g. farm inputs, technical assistance and financial support Assistance for livelihood including business expansion Provide financial assistance e.g., micro-credit, loan and cash Aid for food Provide animals to rear Educational support Infrastructure Provide employment opportunities Provide medical assistance Support for water Self-reliance No suggestion GENERAL TOTAL Female 15.5% 15.1% 15.1% 6.8% 1.0% 0.9% 0.8% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 57.0% Male 14.6% 10.2% 4.4% 6.7% 1.1% 1.1% 1.0% 0.9% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 43.0% Total 30.1% 25.3% 19.5% 13.5% 2.1% 2.0% 1.8% 1.3% 1.1% 1.1% 1.1% 1.1% 100.0%

2. What role do you like your district to perform in relation to the “outside world”, i.e., the region and/ or country as a whole?

55

Table 16. Perceived roles of the local government in relation to regional and/ or country in general Perceived roles Female Male Total

1

Increase expansion of infrastructure e.g., CHP centers, public toilets, bridges, boreholes, schools for PWDs, roads Provision of loans, micro-credit and other financial assistance for PWDs Provision of assistance for farming Provision of employment seat opportunities for PWDs Donate food for PWDs Provision of electricity to households Provision of educational support Don’t know GENERAL TOTAL

11.9%

9.2%

21.1%

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8.4% 10.1% 6.5% 5.2% 4.9% 0.9% 9.1% 57.0%

8.8% 5.9% 4.7% 5.8% 5.7% 1.3% 1.8% 43.0%

17.2% 16.0% 11.2% 10.9% 10.6% 2.1% 10.8% 100.0%

3. What do you want your people (men and women) to be? What are your aspirations as a people?
Table 17. Aspiration as a person and for community and society as a whole

Aspirations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Have sufficient food to eat The respect for PWDs by community and able people Access to quality health care Unity among PWDs More awareness on the Rights of PWDs Able to do farming and contribute to the development of the nation Access support for life Contribute to the development of the nation Provide support for the government in terms of infrastructure, e.g., free labor and maintenance Jobs for PWDs Access to skills training Community and able people to love the PWDs Access to financial assistance e.g., loans, micro-credit for livelihood activities Come out of poverty Have animals to rear for living Be part of the society like able people Community and other people not discriminate PWDs Don’t know what to say, no suggestion GENERAL TOTAL

Female 11.6% 9.1% 6.5% 5.9% 1.1% 1.1% 1.4% 1.1% 0.9% 1.1% 1.1% 1.4% 1.1% 1.1% 1.1% 0.9% 0.0% 10.3% 57.0%

Male 5.5% 5.7% 4.9% 3.4% 1.6% 1.4% 1.1% 1.3% 1.4% 1.1% 1.1% 0.9% 1.0% 0.8% 0.8% 0.9% 0.9% 9.3% 43.0%

Total 17.1% 14.7% 11.4% 9.3% 2.8% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.1% 1.9% 1.9% 1.8% 0.9% 19.6% 100.0%

56

4. What hopes do you have for the state and local economy?
Table 18. PWDs wish to be the state of District’s local economy PWDs wish Female 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Increased number of citizens who will pay taxes Increased farm production Financially independent Constituents are educated Accessible water system/ source of water Intensified infrastructure Have sufficient resources (raw materials, financial, etc.) Expanded business Adequate food for the people Increased animals raised Fair treatment Accessible electrical power Self reliance No suggestion GENERAL TOTAL 9.8% 7.4% 9.4% 3.4% 3.3% 3.4% 3.0% 2.9% 4.2% 3.8% 2.9% 0.0% 0.0% 3.5% 57.0%

Male 6.5% 5.8% 1.1% 4.4% 4.0% 3.8% 4.0% 4.0% 1.9% 0.6% 0.0% 2.4% 1.4% 3.0% 43.0%

Total 16.4% 13.2% 10.6% 7.8% 7.3% 7.2% 7.0% 6.9% 6.0% 4.4% 2.9% 2.4% 1.4% 6.5% 100.0%

5. What do you dream to be the condition of your District Assembly’s natural environment?
Table 19. Dreams of PWDs to be the condition of District’s natural environment Dreams of PWDs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 People have respect to PWDs Facilities are available e.g. schools for PWDs, CHP centers, boreholes Farmers, particularly PWD farmers, supported by farming inputs Food enough for the people. PWDs are not deprived of food Contribute to country development People have good health, particularly the PWDs Local government, community give support to PWDs in any ways Self reliance Government and community acknowledge PWDs to be part of decision making People are responsible PWDs are able to attend school/ PWDs are educated PWDs have access to financial support Unity among PWDs Community is aware on the Rights of PWDs Jobs are available for PWDs PWDs are able to visit/ come to District Assembly Live a good life No Suggestion GENERAL TOTAL Female 6.7% 6.7% 4.9% 6.9% 4.9% 4.9% 1.4% 1.4% 0.0% 1.3% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.1% 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% 11.2% 57.0% Male 8.4% 4.2% 5.9% 3.4% 2.1% 0.5% 3.4% 2.9% 3.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 8.7% 43.0% Total 15.1% 10.8% 10.8% 10.3% 7.0% 5.4% 4.8% 4.3% 3.1% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.1% 1.0% 0.5% 0.3% 19.9% 100.0%

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6. What do you want to be role of PWDs in local governance

Table 20. PWDs’ desired role in local governance Desired role in local governance 1 2 3 4 5 6 Be part of decision-making and representation Pay tax Increase farm income Vote Be involved in awareness raising on the Rights of PWDs Assist the government in infrastructure development e.g., construction, fetching water, plastering, maintenance Involved in community activities Support the government through prayers Initiate voluntary service for the government Contribute to economy through involvement in incomegenerating activities Be educated and learn skills To share ideas Support the family Promote peace Don't know, no suggestion GENERAL TOTAL Female 9.8% 8.4% 7.4% 2.4% 0.5% 0.4% Male 9.6% 5.9% 6.2% 2.5% 0.4% 0.1% Total 19.4% 14.3% 13.6% 4.9% 0.9% 0.5%

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.0% 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 26.2% 57.0%

0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 17.3% 43.0%

0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 43.5% 100.0%

58

Assistance from local government
A large majority of respondents (97.7%) are not aware of any assistance, programs or services of the government design for PWDs. The remaining respondents (2.3%) revealed that they aware and have acquired a some assistance from the government, such as financial support from the LEAP Programme of the Department of Social Welfare.
Figure 20. Percentage according to support acquired from the government

Support from Government

0.0% Female Male

20.0%

40.0%

60.0%

80.0%

100.0%

No support acquired 56.2% 41.5%

Received support 0.8% 1.5%

From the discussions and interviews in this study, a majority of responding PWDs are of the opinion that PWDs should be entitled to financial support from the government. It also became clear that most respondents do not know if the government provides any programmes, services or support for them. Most respondents do feel that the government should support PWDs more, in ways such as giving them loans for livelihood activities, a seat for employment, medical support, free education and skills training, free access to public transport and to other infrastructure such as schools for PWDs, public toilets, roads, water and electrical power. (Please refer to Table 15. Suggestions of PWDs addressed to local government on how they can help PWDs).

59

Awareness of Laws, Policies and Legislations that is supportive of PWDs
Among the respondents, only 18.2% are aware of the existence of the Disability Act whilst those who are not aware are 81.8%. As shown in Figure 18, of these respondents who are not aware of any legislation or laws of PWDs, females (46.5%) are, to some extent, higher than males (35.2%). Awareness among respondents with educational level (6.5%) and respondents who are members of organizations or community groups (1.3%) was somewhat higher than the awareness of those without any organizational affiliation and educational attainment. Respondents, who said they are aware of any legislation or law, were asked if they knew the name of this legislation or law. Some of them mentioned the Disability Act 715 while others mentioned international legislation like the UN Convention on the Rights of PWDs. The other respondents were not able to mention any law and those respondents who are aware of the existence of the Act are mostly not aware of its contents.
Figure 18. Percentage according to awareness of disability policies, legislations or laws

Awareness on Disability Policies
50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Female Male

Aware 10.4% 7.8%

Not Aware 46.5% 35.2%

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Source of Information Respondents identified the sources of their information about laws supportive of PWDs as:      District Assembly, mentioned by 11.4%. Media, mentioned by 19.7%. Colleague or neighbor, mentioned by 0.9% NGOs and other organizations, mentioned by 0.4% Respondents who are not aware and have no access to information, mentioned were 67.5%

Figure 19. Percentage according to sources of information

Sources of Information
80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% District Assembly 4.7% 6.8%

Media 8.1% 11.7%

Collegue 0.5% 0.4%

NGOs 0.4% 0.0%

None 29.4% 38.1%

Male Female

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Table 11. AWARENESS ON LAWS, LEGISLATIONS AND POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF PWDs AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION Percentage of PWDs according to awareness on laws, legislations or policies supportive of PWDs and sources of information, Bawku West District, 2011 Awareness on Law, Policies supportive of PWDs Aware Sex Male Female Zone Binaba Gbantongo Saka/Yikurugu/Kobore Sapeliga/Googo Tanga Teshie Tilli Timonde Widnaba Zebilla Zongoyire Area Village Town Not Aware District Assembly Source of Information

Media

Neighbor/ NGOs Colleague

None

7.8% 10.4% 2.9% 3.8% 2.9% 2.4% 0.3% 1.6% 1.6% 1.3% 1.4% 0.1% 16.9% 1.4%

35.2% 46.5% 1.5% 8.1% 6.9% 13.5% 3.5% 10.4% 2.1% 4.7% 7.5% 0.9% 22.6% 80.8% 0.9%

4.7% 6.8% 2.4% 4.4% 0.1% 1.8% 0.1% 1.9% 0.5% 0.3% 11.0% 0.5%

8.1% 4.7% 0.3% 2.5% 1.1% 0.8% 1.6% 6.2% 0.8% 1.4% 5.2% 18.5% 1.4%

0.5% 0.4% 0.9% 0.9% 0.0%

0.4% 0.3% 0.1% 0.4% 0.0%

29.4% 38.1% 0.9% 8.1% 6.3% 13.7% 3.0% 9.6% 2.0% 10.0% 6.2% 0.4% 17.4% 77.2% 0.4%

General Total

18.2%

81.7%

11.5%

12.8%

0.9%

0.4%

67.5%

62

VII. Children and Women with disabilities

I.

Children with Disabilities Among provisions in the Eleventh Five Year Plan with respect to Children with Disabilities, „Towards Women‟s Agency & Child Rights‟, under the section, „Providing for Special Needs of Differently-abled Children‟, it states: “Discrimination and often

abandonment is a reality for them. Ensuring access to education, health, and nutrition for children with disabilities is a formidable challenge for the Eleventh Plan. The Plan will ensure among other things, provision of ramps in schools, development of disabled-friendly curricula, and training and sensitization of teachers. It is critical to see disability as a child protection issue as well. Even today, data related to disability among children varies with source. It is estimated that hardly 50% of disabled children reach adulthood, and no more than 20% survive till the fourth decade of life. Although there is very little information regarding the nutritional status of children with disabilities, it is recognized that disabled children living in poverty are among the most deprived in the world.” One of the human rights goals of Ghana is to protect children against abuse, exploitation and violence, including the elimination of discrimination against children with disabilities. A guarantee to provide special treatment for PWDs is stated in 1992 Republican Constitution of Ghana. Efforts have been made to provide necessary services including facilities for the development of children with disabilities. As this study in Bawlu West demonstrates, disabled children and adults still face many challenges due to the disability, to poverty and to social attitudes.

63

In the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, a child is considered to be any human being below the age of 18 [CRC Article 1]. The definition therefore includes babies, small children, older children and young people. Many obstacles for to providing with

services

children

disabilities in Ghana stem from negative perceptions that have existed in Ghana‟s culture for centuries. In areas where traditional beliefs are strong, the birth of a disabled child comes with additional difficulties for the family. When a child is born with a disability, the fault is assigned primarily to the mother because she is seen to have failed in her role in childbirth. Failure to produce a healthy child is traditionally attributed to past disobedience or wrongdoing committed either by the mother or by her family. Families are often hesitant to seek assessment service, and they tend to provide alternative explanations for impairment, such as “a tree fell on the child,” in order to avoid spiritual prejudices. To look further at the way parents may understand their child‟s disability, in a study conducted by Ghana Statistical Service in 2007, the following information was generated about the percentage of children aged two (2) to nine (9) years of age with disability reported by their mother or caretaker listed according to the type of disability.

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Table 21. Percentage of children with disability reported by their mother or caretaker according to type of disability Percentage of children 2-9 years of age with disability reported by their mother or caretaker according to type of disability (HIRD Supplementary Survey, 2007) Percentage of children aged 2-9 years with reported disability by type of disability 1 2 3 4 5 Delay in sitting, standing or walking Difficulty in seeing either in the day time or at night Appears to have difficulty hearing Not understanding of instruction Difficulty in walking, moving, moving arms, weakness or stiffness 6 Have fits, become rigid, lose consciousness 7 Not learning to do things like other children his/her age 8 No speaking, cannot be understood in words 9 Appears mentally backward, dull or slow Percentage of children 2-9 years of age with at least one reported disability Number of children aged 2-9 years 10 Speech is not normal Number of children aged 3-9 years 11 Cannot name at least one object Number of children aged 2 years General total according to percentage General total according to total number of children aged 2-9 years
* Source: High Impact Rapid Delivery (HIRD) Supplementary Survey, 2007

1.8% 1.6% 2.7% 0.2% 1.3% 2.3% 1.3% 1.6% 1.4% 10.9% 404 3.1% 354 11.6% 50 39.8% 808

65

It is well recognized that the first three to four years of a child‟s life are crucial to both cognitive and emotional development. Particularly, the more a child is spoken to and read will to in a and nurturing develop. that of In lack environment, the more she/ he respond and Equally, isolation studies show

stimulation can slow down and negatively impact a child‟s development.

many countries, the child with disability is often given least attention and nurturance in the family and is frequently isolated from society. In the study of Ghana Statistical Service in 2007, those parents, particularly the mothers with education, pay attention and take enough care for the early childhood needs of their children particularly the children with disabilities. In other words, the education of parents of a disabled child may have a positive influence on the child‟s growth and development.

66

Table 22. Nature of Disability and Health Condition of Children with Disabilities
Percentage of children with disabilities according to nature of disability and health condition, Bawku West District, 2011
Nature of Disability Visually Impaired Heari ng Impair ed Orthoped ically handicap ped Deaf Epilep tic Lepro sy Mental Illness Others (e.g., smaller than the his age, have big mass on the navel) 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% Body pains Other illness/ health condition aside from disability Leg/ knee/ foot problem, swollen Ear pain Eye pain Skin disease Stoma ch pain Res pons e is "yes" only 0.1% 0.8% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.9% 0.4% 0.5% 0.8% 0.1% No other illness

Sex Male Female Zone Binaba Gbantongo Saka/Yikurugu/ Kobore Sapeliga/Googo Tanga Teshie Tilli Timonde Widnaba Zebilla Zongoyire Area Village Town Age 5-15 y/o 16-25 y/o Education None Primary JHS SHS

0.5% 0.4% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.9% 0.4% 0.5% 0.3% -

0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% -

1.3% 1.3% 0.4% 0.1% 0.6% 0.3% 0.1% 1.0% 2.5% 0.6% 1.9% 0.8% -

0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% -

0.1% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 0.3% 0.1% 0.4 -

0.1%

0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.1% 0.4% -

0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% -

0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.5% 0.4% 0.1% 0.4% 0.1% -

0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% -

0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% -

0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% -

0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% -

2.6% 1.6% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.9% 0.4% 0.5% 0.8% 0.1% -

0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% -

67

Visually Impaired

Heari ng Impair ed -

Orthoped ically handicap ped -

Nature of Disability Deaf Epilep Lepro tic sy

Mental Illness

Vocational/ College

-

-

-

-

-

Others (e.g., smaller than the his age, have big mass on the navel) -

Body pains

-

Other illness/ health condition aside from disability Leg/ knee/ Ear Eye Skin Stoma Res foot pain pain disease ch pain pons problem, e is swollen "yes" only -

No other illness

-

General Total 0.9% 0.5% 2.5%

0.3 %

0.4%

0.1%

0.4%

0.3%

0.1%

0.5%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

0.9 %

0.9%

68

II.

Women with Disabilities Women with disabilities are the poorest of the poor around the world. In every sphere of life, a majority disabilities, of women particularly with in

developing countries, suffer the triple discrimination of: (1) being female; (2) being disabled; and (3) being poor. They face infringement of rights at every level. Almost all are considered a financial burden and social liability by their families. They face more violence than non-disabled. Most of them experience a high incidence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse. From the fact sheet prepared by Rehabilitation International and World Institute on Disability, basic facts and data on the worldwide situation of women and girls with disabilities provided to delegates to the UN 4th World Conference and associated NGO Forum: In some countries disabled females have a higher excessive mortality rate than do disabled males. For example, although polio strikes females and males equally, research in one country recorded more than twice the number of boys with effects of polio than girls. This unusual finding was explained by the fact that boys survived polio twice as often while many girls may have died before they could be counted in the study.
15

This study supports the common

observation in many developing countries that families take sickness or disability among male children more seriously than that of girls, resulting in more visits for boys to medical and health services. Women make up more than 65% of the world's illiterate--about 600 million

15

Prejudice and Dignity, United Nations Development Program, 1992 p.33

69

women do not know how to read or write. 85%.
17

16

In Africa, this percentage rises to

Recent UNESCO studies have suggested that only approximately 1-2%

of disabled children in developing countries receive any education, and it is wellknown from field studies that disabled boys attend schools much more frequently than disabled girls. These studies are confirmed by presentations made to the UN Experts Seminar on Women and Disability (Vienna 1990), that in many countries it is still the norm that a girl with a disability will be hidden at home. A 1994 conference on "Blind Women in Africa" presented information from 32 countries, demonstrating that access to literacy programs and education was often their only way to avoid a life of begging in the streets for survival. Regardless culture, developed of from country the or least disabled
18

developed to the most highly nations, women are employed at rates far lower than disabled men. The pattern is established early on and is similar from country to country: as girls they have less as access to education; adolescents,

they have fewer chances to socialize or receive guidance about planning their futures; and as adults they have fewer chances to receive rehabilitation services and enter training programs or the labor market. Additionally, unlike other women, they have little chance to enter a marriage or inherit property which can offer a form of economic security. (Studies include: Vocational Rehabilitation of Disabled Women in the European Community, 1988; Vocational Rehabilitation of Women with Disabilities, I.D., 1988; Women with Disabilities, the Economics of Double Jeopardy, RI, 1992, World Congress Proceedings).

16 17

World of Work, ILO May/ June, 1995 p.4 Women and Disability, UN Non-Governmental Liason Service, 1991 p.31 18 World Blind, July 94 – March 95, 00. 66-69

70

For women in any society, having a disability signifies dependency, weakness, loss of status and relegation to an unproductive, genderless role in the community. Any girl or woman with a disability who chooses to fight this demeaning stereotype and take part in her community and society has an uphill, lonely battle. Studies have shown that the disabled women who do manage to break through the walls of prejudice and discrimination usually have benefited from strong role models and/or support groups of their peers. Strong networks, are needed to enable girls and women with disabilities to support each other in their efforts to join the world.
19

Further,

physical

and

sexual

violence against disabled girls and women occurs at alarming rates within families, in institutions, and throughout society. Disabled women's groups are beginning to address this issue through selfdefense courses, political pressure for studies of the situation, and pressure for inclusion of disabled women within shelters and other services for abused women. The world over, responsibility for care of people with disabilities, from infancy to aging parents, is overwhelmingly consigned to women. The Alternative Copenhagen Declaration (1995 World Summit on Social Development) called for men to begin sharing the responsibility for assistance needed by children and adults with disabilities.

19

Pride against Prejudice, 1991, London

71

Table 23. Nature of Disability and Health Condition of Women with Disabilities
Percentage of women with disabilities according to nature of disability and health condition, Bawku West District, 2011
Nature of Disability Visually Impaired Heari ng Impair ed Orthope dically handica pped Difficulty moving, weaknes s, stiffness 6.7% 0.5% 1.1% 1.0% 0.1% 1.8% 0.6% 0.3% 1.3% 6.4% 0.3% 0.1% 1.1% 0.8% 1.5% 1.8% 0.8% Deaf Epilep tic Leprosy Mental Illness Others disabili ty Stomach disease Other illness aside from disability Heart problem Head ache Fever Breast nodule Difficu lty manu ring Body pains Goiter

Sex Male Female Zone Binaba Gbantongo Saka/Yikurug u/Kobore Sapeliga/Goo go Tanga Teshie Tilli Timonde Widnaba Zebilla Zongoyire Area Village Town Age 5-15 y/o 16-25 y/o 26-35 y/o 36-45 y/o 46-55 y/o 56-65 y/0 66-75 y/o

38.6% 0.9% 2.8% 5.7% 6.3% 1.5% 2.4% 1.8% 2.0% 4.4% 1.0% 9.9% 37.6% 1.0% 0.3% 0.8% 1.6% 4.5% 9.2% 10.1%

7.8%

5.2% 0.5% 0.9% 0.1% 0.4% 0.8% 1.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.9% 5.2%

1.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 1.0% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1%

0.9% 0.5% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.9%

0.6% 0.4% 0.3% 0.6%

0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4%

0.1% 0.1% 0.1%

1.5% 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1% 0.4% 0.4% 1.5%

0.6% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.6%

0.8% 0.4% 0.1%

0.1% 0.1% 0.1%

0.1% 0.1% 0.1%

0.1% 0.1% 0.1%

2.5% 0.6% 0.1% 0.8% 0.6% 0.3% 0.1% 2.4% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5%

0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3%

0.1% 1.5% 1.9% 0.9% 1.0% 0.8% 0.8% 0.1% 0.8% 7.8%

0.3% 0.8%

1.0% 1.0% 0.9% 1.0% 1.6% 1.9%

0.8% 1.0% 0.4% 0.8% 0.9% 1.1%

0.3% 0.6% -

0.3% 0.4% -

0.1% 0.1% 0.1%

0.1% -

0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.6% 0.3% 0.3%

0.1% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1%

0.1% 0.1% 0.3%

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.1% -

0.1% 0.1%

72

Visually Impaired

Heari ng Impair ed 0.4%

Orthope dically handica pped 0.3%

76-85 y/o 86-98 y/o Education None Primary JHS SHS Vocational/ College

6.0% 0.8% 38.1% 0.5% -

Nature of Disability Difficulty Deaf Epilep moving, tic weaknes s, stiffness 0.4% 0.1% 6.7% 1.3% 0.9% -

Leprosy

Mental Illness

Others disabili ty

Stomach disease

Other illness aside from disability Heart Head Fever Breast Difficu problem ache nodule lty manu ring 0.6% 0.1% 0.1% 0.8% 0.1% 0.1% -

Body pains

Goiter

0.6% -

0.4% -

0.1% -

1.4% 0.1% -

0.3% 2.5% -

0.3% -

7.7% 0.1% -

4.3% 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3%

0.1% -

General Total

38.6%

7.8%

5.2%

6.7%

1.3 %

0.9%

0.6%

0.4%

0.1%

1.5%

0.6%

0.8%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

2.5%

0.3%

73

CHAPTER 4
Conclusions and Recommendations

Chapter 4 looks at the conclusions and recommendations of the study.

I.

Conclusion

Ghana is well positioned to promote the inclusion of PWDs. Disability Act 715 reformed the way of thinking in Ghana since most of policies take into account the situation of PWDs and seeks to find a way of integrating them. The government obligated itself, through its Constitution, to work with all its financial and political capacity to care for the needs of marginalized and vulnerable people, including PWDs. The organizations and associations of PWDs should reinforce their advocacy and execute a much needed opinion poll of PWDs as soon as possible. Equally, the government should adopt policies and appropriate legal mechanisms to integrate PWDs in the existing system. Further, allotment of adequate budget to increase provision of services for the welfare of PWDs is also necessary. Resource institutions such as non-government organizations should work closely with PWD associations and organizations including government entities to improve awareness of society on the problem being faced by PWDs.

74

II.

Recommendations

The results of this study stem from the recommendations of PWDs during discussion and community survey which should be taken for consideration: To government Efficient To association/ To organizations

federation of PWDs

working with PWDs

implementation Go all-out to disseminate Support the government and interest as member to promote and sensitize the people on the rights of PWDs. This may either be technical or funding assistance or both

of 2% common fund for the promotion of welfare and associations of PWDs PWDs disbursement

Provision

of

effective Support the government

health care for PWDs i.e., and organizations working health insurance scheme, with PWDs monitoring Facilitate and provision other of Involve in community health programs for PWDs special policy for PWDs rehabilitation of PWDs access to public buildings and other infrastructures Provision of sufficient facility and equipment for children with disabilities to enable suitably Develop public awareness programmes PWDs Install clear policy to employ or for employing or information collaterals on them to study

75

PWDs Develop government teachers, staff trained e.i., health

personnel, social workers to provide extra care for PWDs Initiate preventive disability Provision of rehabilitation of PWDs Assist the organization of PWDs and other resource institution PWDs working with and promote on measures

The study showed that there is a greater degree of disability among illiterate families due to lack of awareness on disability and the rights of persons with disabilities. Other recommendations listed below: 1. Promotion of awareness on disabilities. Promotion of awareness through intensified Information Education and Communication (IEC) Campaigns for all segments of the population. 2. Peer Education among PWDs. Training of PWDs to train other PWDs about their rights and capabilities.

3. Coverage of assistive devices for PWDs in the National Health Insurance Scheme. Include assistive devices (e.g., crutches, callipers, wheelchairs, white-canes, hearing aids) and rehabilitative operation treatment in the coverage of NHIS.

76

CHAPTER 5
Institutions involved in disability work in Ghana

Chapter 5 aims to give description of the institutions/ organizations involved in disability work in Ghana. I. Organizations of persons with disabilities20

In Ghana, local associations provide for relief and assistance to persons with disabilities. Their work mostly in advocacy, awareness raising and total integration of PWDs in the society. They are also offering services to disabled people.

Ghana Federation of the Disabled Ghana Federation of the Disabled (GFD) was established in 1987 as a national umbrella organization of PWDs. The mission of GFD is “to create awareness about the capacities and capabilities of PWDs and to promote the equalization of opportunities of PWDs through advocacy, lobbying and collaboration with other relevant agencies.”* To create this awareness, GFD educates executives of Ministry Departments and government agencies about the Disability Law and other issues concerning disability. GFD tries to strengthen its members at district level to enable them to access the percentage of the common fund which is given out at through the District Assemblies.

Ghana Association of the Blind GAB was founded in 1963. Its mission is “to advocate for the blind, and work for their total integration into society through the development of services in education, rehabilitation, awareness creation and the promotion of the rights of women, youth and children”. GAB raises public awareness about the need for
20

Ghana Federation of the Disabled website

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inclusion of people with a visual impairment in the society; encourages parents to send their children to school; sponsors children with a visual impairment to go to school; and engages the civil society. Besides these activities GAB also educates people with a visual impairment about their rights and encourages them to accept their disability and to use their potentials.

Ghana National Association of the Deaf The mission of GNAD is “to mobilize members, remove communication barriers, create awareness on deaf issues, and advocate for equal opportunities for the deaf”. GNAD encourages self-employment for the hearing impaired and embarks on income generating activities like batik, crop farming and citrus farming. GNAD organizes workshops for its members to convince them that they are capable of doing everything a person without a disability can do. It also encourages people with a hearing impairment to get higher education to serve as a role model. GNAD educates the public and parents about causes and prevention of deafness and the capabilities of people with hearing impairments. GNAD has published a Deaf Awareness Book which is spread to policy makers to make them aware of the situation of people with hearing impairments.

Ghana Society of the Physically Disabled GSPD was founded in 1980. It promotes the welfare of its members by creating awareness of the capacities and capabilities of persons with physical disabilities through advocacy and by lobbying for their rights. GSPD has a chalk factory where persons with physical disabilities can work and organizes cultural activities and sports tournaments for the physically disabled. GSPD has awareness-raising programs for the public in communities, health centres and churches about the capacities, needs and rights of PWDs and the challenges they meet in terms of health, education and employment. Through radio shows PWDs inform the public about their disability and people can call in and ask questions. GSPD also offers a

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training program for persons with a physical disability to learn leadership skills and to enable them to manage, advocate and lobby for their own rights.

Parents Association of Children with Intellectual Disability PACID was established in September 2001 to give support to the many parents and guardians of children having an intellectual disability in Ghana and also advocates for policies and programmes that will serve their interest. PACID is made up of parents, guardians, teachers, doctors and other professionals throughout Ghana. The main objectives of PACID are to spread education, awareness and good news about children with intellectual disability. The activities of the branch of PACID in Ho are focused on organizing and supporting parents and educating them how to handle and take care of their child with an intellectual disability. Mothers are taught how to train their children in eating, bathing and getting dressed so the children will be able to do things by themselves. PACID Volta also encourages parents to get their children outside the houses and gives education in communities and churches about intellectual disabilities.

II.

National and International Organization Working for PWDs

Both International and local organizations have strong dedication to support the persons with disabilities. They work towards integrating PWDs in the mainstream of societies. World Vision21 World Vision is a Christian relief, development and advocacy organization dedicated to working with children, families and communities to overcome poverty and injustice.

21

World Vision Ghana website

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Inspired by Christian values, World Vision is dedicated to working with the world‟s most vulnerable people. We serve all people regardless of religion, race, ethnicity, or gender. World Vision is an international partnership of Christians whose mission is to follow our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ in working with the poor and oppressed to promote human transformation, seek justice, and bear witness to the good news of the Kingdom of God. Voluntary Service Overseas22

VSO is an international development agency that has been working in Ghana since 1958. VSO has been supporting PWDs as a priority area for over 10 years. The organization aims to support and complement the effort of government and nongovernmental organizations to assist PWDs to realize their potential and claim their rights as equal and active members of Ghanaian society. VSOs approach to disability is based on the principles that (1) disability is a human rights and a development issue and (2) disability in development is primarily about promoting inclusive development. VSO aims to remove the barriers within society that prevent PWDs from fully enjoying their human rights and to support people with disabilities in exercising their rights and to promote their full inclusion and active participation as equal members of their families, communities and societies.

Center for Democratic Development23 CDD is an independent research-based and policy-oriented think tank in Accra, founded in 1998. It is dedicated to the promotion of democracy, good governance and the development of a liberal political and economic environment in Ghana in particular and Africa in general. In so doing, CDD-Ghana seeks to enhance the

22

Voluntary Service Overseas website

23

Attitudes towards People with Disabilities in Ghana

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democratic content of public policy and to advance the cause of constitutionalism, individual liberty, the rule of law, and integrity in public life.

Sightsavers24 Sightsavers works towards total elimination of the conditions that cause blindness and the ultimate inclusion of blind people in society. The organization supports people who are irreversibly blind by providing education, counselling and training. Sightsavers has been working in Ghana since the 1950s and currently works in the Western, Eastern, Volta and Greater Accra Region. Sightsavers Ghana is working with the Ministry of Health to support the current five-year action plan for eye care at both regional and national levels. Sightsavers also cooperates with the Ministry of Education to enable children with a visual impairment to attend regular schools in their community to enable them to grow up in their own environment and not be cut off from their family. Sight Savers supports the Special Education Division with logistics like teaching materials. III. Special Schools and Rehabilitation Centres

Aside from the associations and organizations mentioned above, there are also public centres that offer services to disabled people. The main ones are listed below. Dzorwulu Special School It was started in 1968 by a non-governmental group called the Friends of the Mentally Retarded. It became a public, government-funded school in 1970. Further challenges to providing services at Dzorwulu Admission to Dzorwulu is contingent upon additional assessment as well as availability of openings. include the accommodation of diverse ethnic and linguistic backgrounds, curriculum development, inadequate dormitory facilities and insufficient faculty and staff to provide for a growing student body, and lack of government funding to finance expansion.
24

Attitudes Towards Persons with Disabilities in Ghana

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Autism Awareness Care and Training Centre (AACT) The ACCT was founded in 1998 and became affiliated with the Global Autism Project (GAP) in February, 2005 and currently operates, with funding from GAP, as a nongovernmental, non-profit organization. Challenges to providing services through the AACT include particularly rigorous parent expectations in a third world country: admission fees, provision of transportation and an attendant for their student, and involvement in the PTA. Edwenase Rehabilitation Centre for PWDS It's a government institution under the Ministry of Social Welfare. The Centre was established by the first President of Ghana, Dr Kwame Nkrumah in 1958. The Centre provides rehabilitation and vocational services to persons with disabilities from age 13 and above. Currently, there are about 70 trainees in the Centre. The Center can take about 300 trainees. Many PWDS who have trained in the Centre became craft teachers in primary schools while majority of them are self employed.

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List of Reference

         

Ghana Statistical Service, High Impact Rapid Delivery Supplementary Survey, 2007. Monitoring the situation of children and women, Upper East Region Alexander Tetteh, Employment Challenges for People with Disabilities Jacqueline Slikker, May 2009, Attitudes towards People with Disabilities in Ghana Rehabilitation Centre – Kumasi, Department of Social Welfare, powerpoint presentation on disability United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Seven Hundred and Fifteenth Act of the Parliament of the Republic of Ghana entitled Persons with Disability Act 715, 2006 Fact Sheet, Rehabilitation International and World Institute on Disability CRC Article 1, United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child Eleventh Five Year Plan, Towards Women‟s Agency and Child Rights Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO)

Ghana Federation of the Disabled website, www.gfdgf.org National Health Insurance Scheme, www.ghanaweb.com

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Appendices
Appendix 1. List of personnel involved in the survey
Management Team James A. Ayesake Sergious Before Monaliza V. Calapini

District Director, Department of Social Welfare World Vision, ADP-Bawku West Gender Development Advisor, VSO Volunteer/ Research Project Leader

Field Interviewers/ Researchers James A. Ayesake Edward A. Akiribila Monaliza V. Calapini Samuel Awinzor Field Liasons Solomon Ayaba Victor Ayambire Hemidu Alaaba Siedu Adabogo Akulobe Agesah Benjamin Atiah Daniel Atiah Monica Azougo Robert Asaa Samson Ayadago Paul Apandago Awagbilla Ndedago Alekari Victor Imoro Sumani Alaldago Ayadago Ayarik Adaabil

Zebilla Saka/ Yikurugu/ Kobore Sapeliga/ Googo Timonde/ Tanga Binaba/ Gbantongo Tilli Zongoyire Teshie Widnaba

Data Entry Listers/ Tabulators Monaliza V. Calapini Edward A. Akiribila Apanga A. Grace Consultant/ Editor Nancy Keith Raj Kumar Prasad Report Writer Monaliza V. Calapini

VSO Volunteer VSO Volunteer

Gender Development Advisor, VSO Volunteer/ Research Project Leader

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Appendix 2. Person with Disability Act 715, 2006

The Seven Hundred and Fifteenth Act of the Parliament of the Republic of Ghana Entitled Persons with Disability Act, 2006, an Act to provide for persons with disability, to establish a National Council on person with disability and to provide for related maters. The Act on the Rights of Persons with Disability was assented on 9th August 2011 and enacted by the President and Parliament. Article 1: Right to family life and social activities Section 1: A person with disability shall not be deprived of the right to live with that person‟s family or the right to participate in social, political, economic, creative or recreational activities. Article 2: Differential treatment in respect of residence Section 2: Except as otherwise required by the condition or the need for improvement of a person with disability, a person shall not subject a person with disability to differential treatment in respect of residence. Article 3: Living conditions in specialized establishments Section 3: Where a person with disability has to be put in a specialized establishment, the environment and living conditions of the establishment shall, except as otherwise required by the condition of the person with disability, be as close as possible to those of a person without disability of the same age as the person with disability. Article 4: Exploitation of and discrimination against persons with disability Section 4: (1) A person shall not discriminate against, exploit or subject a person with disability to abusive or degrading treatment.

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(2) An employer shall not discriminate against prospective employee or an employee on grounds of disability unless the disability is in respect of the relevant employment. Article 5: Party to Judicial Proceedings Section 5: Where a person with disability is a part in judicial proceedings, the adjudicating body shall take into account the condition of the persons with disability and provide appropriate facilities that enable the persons with disability to participate effectively in the proceedings. Article 6: Access to public place Section 6: The owner or occupier of a place to which the public has access shall provide appropriate facilities that make the place accessible to and available for use by a person with disability. Article 7: Access to public service Section 7: A person who provides any service to the public shall put in place the necessary facilities that make the service available and accessible to a person with disability. Article 8: Penalty for contravention Section 8: A person who contravenes section 1,2,4,6 or 7 commits offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding fifty penalty units or to a term of imprisonment not exceedingly three month or to both.

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The Education Policy for the Disabled Persons Article 16: Education of a child disability Section 16: (1) A parent, guardian or custodian of a child with disability of school going age shall enroll the child in a school. (2) A parent, guardian or custodian who contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceedingly ten penalty units, or to a term of imprisonment not exceeding fourteen days. Article 17: Facilities and equipment in education institutions Section 17: The Minister of Education shall by legislative Instrument designate schools or institutions in each region which shall provide the necessary facilities and equipment that will enable the persons with disability to fully benefit from the school or institution. Article 18: Free education and special schools Section 18: The Government shall: (a) Provide free education for a person with disability; and (b) Establish special schools for persons with disability who by reason of their disability cannot be enrolled in formal schools. Article 19: Appropriate training for basic school graduates Section 19: Where a person with disability has completed basic education but is unable to pursue further formal education, the Ministry shall provide the person with appropriate training. Article 20: Refusal of admission on account of disability Section 20: (1) A person responsible for admission into a school or other institution of learning shall not refuse to give admission to a person with disability on account of the disability unless the person with disability has been assesses by the Ministry 87

responsible for Education in collaboration with the Ministries responsible for Health and Social Welfare to be a person who clearly requires to be in a special school for children or person with disability. (2) A person who contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceedingly fifty penalty units or imprisonment for a term not exceedingly three month or to both. Article 21: Special education in technical, vocational and teacher training institutions Section 21: The Minister of Education shall by legislative instrument designate in each region public technical, vocational and teacher training institutions which shall include in their curricula special such as sign language and Braille writing and reading. Article 22: Library facility Section 22: A public library shall as far as practical be fitted with facilities that will enable a person with disability to use the library.

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Health policies Article 31: Medical treatment Section 31: The Ministry of Health in formulating health policies shall provide for free general and specialist medical care, rehabilitative operation treatment and appropriate assistive devices for persons with total disability. Article 32: Training of health professional Section 32: The Ministry of Health shall include the study of disability and disability related issues in the curricula of training institutions for health professionals to develop appropriate human resources to provide general and specialized rehabilitation services. Article 33: Health programmes Section 33: The Ministry of Health shall include education on disability and disability issues in health care programmes. Article 34: Periodic screening of children Section 34: The Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Ministries responsible for Education and Social Welfare shall provide for the periodic screening of children in order to detect, prevent and manage disability. Article 35: Establishment of assessment centres Section 35: The Ministry of Health in collaboration with District Assemblies and the Ministry responsible for Social Welfare shall establish and operate health assessment and resource centers in each district and provide early diagnostic medical attention to mothers and infants to determine the existence or onset of disability.

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Employment Policy Article 9: Public employment centres Section 9: The Ministry shall through the public employment centres, assist to secure jobs for persons with disability. Article 10: Promotion of employment of persons with disabilities Section 10: (1) The Government shall grant a person with disability an annual tax rebate of the taxable income in respect of each person with disability employed as shall be prescribed in Regulations made under this Act. (2) The Government shall grant special incentives to persons with disability engaged in business and also to business organizations that employ person with disability. Article 11: Provision of tools Section 11: Required by the persons with disability for the efficient performance of the functions required by the employment Article 12: Posting, transfer and redeployment of persons with disability Section 12: (1) An employer shall not post or transfer a person with disability to a section or place of the establishment not suited for the person. (2) Where a person n employment suffers a disability as a result of the employment, the employer shall counsel, re-train and re-deploy the person to another section more suited to the person with disability and this shall be in addition to any other relief which the employee is entitled to under the Workmen‟s Compensation Law, 1987 (PNDCL 187). Article 13: Appropriate training for the unemployed person with disability

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Section 13: (1) Where the name of a person with disability remains on a job search list for more than two years, the Ministry shall take the name of that person off the list, and where applicable: d. give that person appropriate training e. f. provide that person with necessary working tools and materials, and assist that person to access loan capital for that person to start a business. (2) A person with disability who sells the tools or materials received under subsection (1) and a person who buys the tools or materials given to a person with disability under subsection (1) commits an offence and each person is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding two hundred and fifty penalty units o to a term of imprisonment not exceeding one year or to both. Article 14: Rehabilitation centres Section 14: (1) The Ministry shall progressively establish rehabilitation centres in region and in districts for persons with disability (2) A rehabilitation centres shall offer guidance, counseling and appropriate training for person with disability who are unable to enter into the mainstream of social life. (3) A rehabilitation shall be provided wit the staff and other facilities that are necessary for the performance of its functions. Article 15: Community-based rehabilitation Section 15: The Ministry shall ensure that as far as practicable person with disability, shall be rehabilitated in their communities, to faster their integration.

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Other Policies Article 34: Periodic screening of children Section 34: The Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Ministries responsible for education and Social Welfare shall provide for the periodic screening of children in order to detect, prevent and manage disability. Article 35: Establishment of Assessment Centers Section 35: The Ministry of Health in collaboration with District Assemblies and the Ministry responsible for Social Welfare shall establish and operate health assessment and resource centres in each district and provide early diagnostic medical attention to mothers and infants to be determine the existence onset of disability. Article 36: Incentive for Manufacturers of Technical Aids and Appliances Section 36: A person who manufactures technical aids or appliances in the country for the use of persons with disability shall be giving tax exemption that the Ministries in consultation with the Minister for Finance may determine regulations. Article 37: Derogatory names Section 37: (1) A person shall not call a person with disability derogatory names because of disability of the person (2) A person who contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding fifteen penalty units or to a term of imprisonment not exceeding three months or to both. Article 38: Access to sporting event, festivals and cultural activities Section 38: The Ministry responsible for Education and Sports, the district assemblies and the National Commission for Culture shall as practicable ensure,

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through the provision of adequate facilities, programs and incentives, that person wth disability have access to sports and cultural events. Article 39: Participation in national activities Section 39: A person or institution which organizes a national, regional or district activity, shall as far as practicable ensure that facilities are made available for the participation in the activity by persons with disability Article 40: Law enforcement and persons with disability Section 40: (1) Law enforcement agencies shall take into consideration a disability of a person on arrest, detention, trial or confinement of the person and provide for that person accordingly. (2) Institutions for the training of law enforcement personnel, shall have as part of their curricula, the study of disability and disability related issues. Article 41: Establishment of National Council on Persons with Disability Section 41: There is established by this Act a body to be known as the National Council on Persons with Disability.

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Appendix 3. Baseline Survey Tool

BASELINE STUDY ON THE STATUS, FAMILY AND SOCIO ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN BAWKU WEST DISTRICT
Zone:…………………………….. Village:……………………………

SURVEY FORM #___
Name: ………………………………………………… Age: ……… Sex: ( ) Male ( ) Female Home Address: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Religion: …………………… Civil Status: …………… No. of Children: …………………… Current schooling status: ( ) In school ( ) Out of school What was the highest grade completed? ( ) Primary: ………. ( ) Junior High: ………. ( ) Senior High: …………… ( ) College/ University: ……………………………………………………........................... ( ) Vocational Education/ Training: …………………………………………………………… ( ) Others: ……………………………………………………………………………………….. If not studying or had stop in schooling, please state the reason: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Registered in Social Welfare Department?: ( ) No ( ) Yes If NO, please explain: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………… Do you have any health problems? ( ) None ( ) Yes If YES, please state your health problem/s and explain the effect in your activities in anyway: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Do you or any one else in the household have any long-standing illnesses, health problems or disabilities that limit your/ their activity or the kind of work that you/ they can do? ( ) None ( ) Yes

I. GENERAL INFORMATION:

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If YES, please explain why: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Do you stay in your family house? ( ) No ( ) Yes If NO, please state where and why? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

II. NATURE, CAUSE AND TREATMENT OF DISABILITY/ IES
1. Nature of Disability/ ies: ( ) Visually Impaired ( ) Hearing Impaired ( ) Orthopedically handicapped ( ) Leprosy deformity ( ) Mental Illness ( ) Mental retardation ( ) Others (please specify): …………………………………………… 2. Cause of Disability/ies: ( ) Disability at birth ( ) Disability due to accident ( ) Disability due to old age ( ) Others (please specify):…………………………………………… 3. Have you undergone treatment on your disability/ies? ( ) No ( ) Yes If YES, please state the treatment: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

III. EMPLOYMENT STATUS
1. Occupation: ( ) Employed (please state the work/ profession): …………………………… ( ) Self-employed (please state the work activity/ies): ………………………. ( ) Do not want ( ) Unable to work ( ) Would like to work but not available to start or not seeking ( ) Others (please specify)……………………………………………………… 1. Do you have any personal relation to your employer? ( ) None ( ) Yes If YES, how are you related to him/her? ………………………………………………… 2. What is your employment status? ( ) Regular ( ) Seasonal ( ) Contractual ( ) Others (please specify): ……………………………………………… 3. How long have you been employed? ………………………………………………….. 4. What do you do in your work? ………………………………………………………….. 5. Are you being paid for your work? ( ) No ( ) Yes

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If YES, how are you paid? ( ) Daily rate ( ) Weekly rate ( ) Monthly rate ( ) Others (please specify): ……………………………………………… 6. How many hours of work do you render in a typical day? …………………………. 7. On average, how much do you receive in a month? ………………………………… 8. What are the benefits claimed from the employer? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

IV. HOUSEHOLD ROSTER
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Name of the household member? ……………………………………………………… How is (THE NAME OF HH) related to the respondent? …………………………… Is (NAME OF HH) male or female? ( ) Male ( ) Female How old is (NAME OF HH MEMBER) now? ……………………………………………. What is the religion of (NAME OF HH MEMBER)? …………………………………… What is the main occupation of NAME OF HH MEMBER? …………………………. What is the marital status of (NAME OF HH MEMBER? ( ) Single ( ) Married ( ) Widowed ( ) Separated

8. Current schooling status by (NAME OF HH MEMBER) ( ) In school ( ) Out of School ( ) Others (please specify): …………………………………………………….. 9. What was the highest grade that was completed by (NAME OF HH MEMBER)? ( ) Primary ( ) Junior High School ( ) Senior High School ( ) College ( ) Others (please specify):……………………………………………………… 10. Any family members now living abroad? ( ) None ( ) Yes If YES, please specify how is he/she related to the respondent: …………………… 11. Age ……………… 12. Sex: ( ) Male ( ) Female 13. Country:…………

14. Reason of staying abroad: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15. List of IMMEDIATE Family Members Name of Members Family Relationship Age Occupation Estimated Income per Month

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NOTE: Please use separate sheet if needed. 16. Do you have electricity? 17. Do you have your own water facility? ( ) None ( ) None ( ) Yes ( ) Yes

V. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
1. Please describe the home where you live: ( ) It is owned or being brought by you ( or someone in the household) ( ) Rented for money by you (or someone in the household) ( ) Occupied without payment ( ) Live with friends ( ) Live with family ( ) No permanent residence 2. Do you have any health care? ( ) None ( ) Yes If YES, how do you pay for your health care?: ( ) Government funding ( ) Private Insurance ( ) Self pay, out of pocket ( ) Others (please specify): ……………………………………………

VI. PROPERTIES/ MATERIALS OWNED
1. Appliances/ consumer durables? ( ) Television ( ) Gas range ( ) Radio/ Cassette ( ) Gas Stove ( ) Stereo ( ) Electric fan ( ) DVD/ VCD Player ( ) Couch Set ( ) Refrigerator ( ) Dining set ( ) Cellular phone ( ) Electric iron ( ) Others (please specify): ……………………………………………………. 2. Livestock/ Poultry? ( ) Cow ( ) Fowl ( ) Horse ( ) Donkey ( ) Goat ( ) Guinea Fowl ( ) Other poultry (please specify): ………………………………………………

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3. Crops? ( ( ( ( (

) Vegetable (please specify the type): ……………………………………… ) Grains ( please specify the type): ………………………………………… ) Fruit trees (please specify the type): ……………………………………… ) Root crops (please specify the type): ……………………………………. ) Others (please specify): …………………………………………………….

4. Vehicles? ( ) Bicycle ( ) Motorcycle ( ) Car ( ) Others (please specify):…………………………………………………… 5. Land, how many hectares? Or square meters? ( ) More than 5 hectares ( ) 3 – 5 hectares ( ) 1 – 2 hectares ( ) Less than 1 hectare ( ) None

VII.

SOCIO ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS

1. Number of household members, including the respondent: …………………………… Number of males:……………………… Number of females: ……………

2. Household structure (household-common kitchen arrangements): ( ) Nuclear ( ) Extended 3. Number of children below 0 – 4 years old: ……………………………………… 4. Number of household members 5 – 14 yrs old: ………………………………… 5. Number of household members 15 -64 yrs old: ……………………………….. 6. Primary source of household income: …………………………………………..

VIII.
1. 2. 3. 4.

ORGANIZATIONAL PARTICIPATION

Name of organization? …………………………………………………………………… Position (If officer, please specify): ……………………………………………………. How many years involve in the organization? ……………………………………… Do you have any skills acquired during your membership? ( ) No ( ) Yes If YES, what are the skills you acquired: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….

IX. AWARENESS AND AVAILMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE/ PROGRAMS FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
1. Are you aware of laws, policies that are supportive of PWDs? ( ) No ( ) Yes If YES, what are these laws or policies? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

2. What is/are your sources of information for these? ( ( ( ( ( ) Media ) District Assembly ) Neighbor/ Collegues ) Information materials eg. Posters, pamphlets etc. ) Others (please specify): ……………………………

3. Is there any support or services obtained from the local government? ( ) No ( ) Yes If YES, please state the support acquired from the government: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Is there any allowance or financial support acquired from government or from other organization? ( ) None ( ) Yes If YES, please identify the institution and estimated amount received: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

X. GOVERNMENT ROLE FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
1. What would you suggest to the local government how they can help PWD? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. What role do you like your municipality to perform in relation to the “outside world”, i.e.,the region and/or the country in general? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3. What do you want your people (men and women) to be? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..… 4. What are your aspirations as a people? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5. What do you desire to be the state of your local economy? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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6. What do you want to be the role of PWD in economic development? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7. What do you dream to be the condition of your District Assembly’s natural environment? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8. What do you desire from your local government? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9. What do you want to be the role of PWD in local governance? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

XI. EMPOWERMENT
1. Do you desire to undergo skills training? ( ) Yes ( ) No If YES, what kind of skills would you like to learn?: ......................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................. 2. Do you have a desire to return to formal education? ( ) Yes ( ) No If NO, why?: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Are you involve in any income generating activity? ( ) Yes ( ) No If YES, please specify: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………

ADMINISTERED BY:

……………………………………………………. Date:………………………………………….......

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