Reviewer Psychology Psychology – the study of behaviors and mental processes.

Behaviors - refers to observable actions or responses in both humans and animals. Mental Processes – refers to a wide range of complex mental processes such as thinking, dreaming and etc.. Goals • • • • of Psychology Describing The Way organisms behave Explaining the Causes Of Behavior Predicting How organisms will behave Controlling an Organism’s behavior

Different Approaches in Understanding Behavior • Biological Approach - focuses on how our genes, hormones and nervous system interact with our environments to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation and etc.. • Cognitive Approach – examines how we process, store, and use information and how it influences what we attend to perceive, learn, remember, believe and feel. • Behavioral Approach - Studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones.. • Psychoanalytic Approach – stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires, motivations and the development of personality traits. • Humanistic Approach / Personal Disposition– emphasizes the each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future, a large capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount or intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for fulfillment. • Cross Cultural Approach – examines the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on the psychological and social functioning of a culture’s members • Evolutionary Approach – studies how evolutionary ideas, such as adaptation and natural selection, explain human behaviors and mental processes. • Eclectic Approach – Using the Seven Different Approaches. 3 Factors Changing a Person • Family • School • Personal Disposition Historical Approaches to Psychology • Structuralism (Elements of the Mind) – Wilhelm Wundt build the first psychology lab in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany. - Structuralism - the study of the most basic elements, primarily sensations and perceptions that make up our conscious mental experiences. - Introspection – method of exploring conscious mental processes by looking inwards and being aware of one’s sensation and perception/ • Functionalism (Functions Of the Mind) – William James is the first author to publish a psychology book. - The Study of the functions rather than the structure or consciousness. - Focuses on goals, purposes and functions of the mind.

Gestalt Approach (Sensation Vs. Perception) – introduced in 1912 by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka. o Gestalt is German word for “Whole pattern” Phi Phenomenon - Apparent motion or illusionary movement. • Behaviorism (Observable Behaviors) – in 1913 John B. Watson published a landmark called “Psychology as a Behaviorist Views it”..

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