Aneriza Lim English Commentary Reviewer Setting Character Action Idea Style

An Inside View: A Rural, Irish Perspective The Early Purges    Theme: the loss of innocence, The coming of age The poem is about how a Heaney/ Narrator. The kid in the poem witness kittens drown at the age of 6, He also sees other animals gets killed around the farm such as rats, rabbits, crows, and hen’s. We can see the emphasis of the themes in the poem particularly in the first and the last line o I was six when I first saw kittens die – this shows us Heaney’s first encounter with kittens being in killed. This line could convey how Heaney was shocked and upset about the event since he just witnessed this as a kid not knowing anything about death and the life span of animals in the farm o But on well run farms pests have to be kept down- the last line of the poem shows us a complete opposite in view to when the poem was opened. In the last line we could see how Heaney has coped up with the reality of death. As Heaney got older he was able to accept death as to his 6 year old self.

Digging      Theme: sensual love for his native ground Similar to follower , but ha a much looser structure, looks at 2 memories his father and grandfather Heaney Justifies his decisions to become a poet rather than a farmer We would keep the Irish agricultural traditions alive through his writing, he sees himself as the voice of Irish culture Heaney metaphorically compares his pen to the spade of his forefathers. He will dig through his memories, and through writing he will explore his own history and that of Ireland. He vows to preserve agricultural traditions by capturing them in poetry rather than becoming his father Heaney Challenges the stereotype of being a farmer, he states that being an Irish Farmer shows the dignity in their labor by praising and remembering his grandfather. He also sees their sense of work ethic, his father digs at an old age, grandfather when he was working he can barely stop to drink The poem ends by seeing the pen as a weapon for digging, it’s a shovel for memories – The squat pen rests. I’ll dig with it. Then fell to right away/ Nicking and slicing neatly, heaving sods/ over his shoulder, going down and down/ For the goof turf. Digging.”

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Ill dig with it. the first poem of his first collection. But Ive no spade to follow men like them. his vision of poetry as a traditional. and will not follow their vocation. Death of a Naturalist (1966). and sustaining craft. as nature starts and finishes in the bog. whose lives were spent literally digging the soil. however. mythology and folklore   . But at the start of his career. his fascination with work and all kinds of tools. This is the start of Heaney really digging into the darkness. Digging. first bog body poem This is one of the first collection of poems which explores the Irish bogs Bogs became the symbol for the whole of Ireland. the squelch and slap Of soggy peat. Between my finger and my thumb The squat pen rests. The bogs come to represent deep areas of memory and history. the curt cuts of an edge Through living roots awaken in my head. he vows to translate their virtues into another kind of work: The cold smell of potato mould. is quoted in almost every discussion of Heaneys work for its prescient statement of the themes that would dominate his poetry: his sensual love of his native ground. In this poem Heaney describes an archaeologist digging through the bog and finding many things : “The Great Irish Elk”. a commitment from the poet to his father and grandfather.   The most important thing about Digging. exposing cycles of nature. like farming. instead. is that it takes the form of a promise. “waterlogged trunks/ of great firs” rich valuable wealth that is discovered in the Bog Such as men digging for turf are digging through history. he explores the past showing that the bog can preserve things for millions of years. “butter”. laborious. Heaney acknowledges that he is not a farmer. I’ll dig with it – Heaney resolves his guilt by vowing to continue the rural traditions of Ireland in his poetry.  – Heaney describes his grand father at work on the farm( a memory from his childhood) He describes his grandfather’s skill and precision as a farmer . Bogland    1969-1970 early 70’s. he mirrored his own expertise as a writer/ poet to choose exact verbs to recreate the scene so precisely But ive no spade to follow men like them – Heaney suggest a sense of guilt or remorse that he cannot follow in the family tradition of farming Between my finger and my thumb/ The squat pen rests.

The ground conserves rather than destroys. appropriately entitled Bogland. to Northwest Europe. it at first reveals nothing. black butter". but this is connected to a larger pattern here. There is a suggestion of a continuous enrichment.. The poem conceives the past as a dimension to be explored dynamically rather than simply received.. each layer a page of history. a final center but conceding that this center is ‘bottomless’.kind. as "every layer they strip/seems camped on before". endless in both horizontal and vertical dimensions. the memory of the landscape. not the realm of fire but of water "they’ll never dig coal here/only the waterlogged trunks of great firs". in an exploration attempting to find a core. as Heaney speaks of "our unfenced country" and "encroaching horizon". with the connection between violence and religion. bringing treasures to light. to convey a sense of unity with the land. so that the land seems to stretch forever. The bog bodies help Heaney explore Irish conflicts as he looks to the past to understand the future The earliest bog poem. The beginning of the poem sets the nationalistic tone clearly as the possessive pronoun ‘we’ is used more than once. In the first lines "we have no prairies/To slice a big sun at evening". as "butter sunk under/more than a hundred years/ was recovered salty and white". which are more deeply concerned with mythical associations. yet like the encroaching horizon. revealing it’s secrets as it is "melting and opening underfoot.         Bog body poems the bog has kept even greater secrets perfectly preserved. "our pioneers keep striking/Inwards and downwards" which again in the use of the word ‘pioneers’ connects to America. what is ostensibly a negative statement of absence is turned into a positive assertion. At the heart of the poem. layers of history ‘bog that keep crusting’ in continuous expansion. The land is "itself. beyond the overlapping of the past and present." This brings in the motif of digging and exploration. . The poem ends with a reference to something greater. constructed from a drive to establish a connection between forces shaping a nation’s consciousness. is the timelessness of nature. At the same time the poem emphasizes the layers of the land. while it relates to a tradition of Irish poets to the diggers. linking the present to the past through the constancy of the land. emphasizing again the metaphor of the bog as history. is more nationalistic and more about the essence of Ireland than the later poems. seems a statement of absence. The bog is in layers. The poem establishes the bog as the source of all Irish memory and ancestry. perhaps the seed of the myth of the North in the later bog poems. The ‘Atlantic seepage’ and ‘the wet center’ is a reiteration of an earlier point "they’ll never dig coal here" the earth is preserving and not consuming.

his feet are not big enough for him to be steady on the uneven land. The father is sturdy while the child falls . stiffen my arm”). the brother died due to a car accident. but now his father walks behind (this metaphor runs through the poem). he writes poetry in order to inwards at himself and his history. the loss of his childhood innocence due to the exposure of death and brutality of the world The title suggest a holiday but the break does not happen for pleasant reasons “Snowdrops/ and candles soothed the bedside” – Heaney describes how people need ceremony and ritual to soothe the pain of loosing a loved one No gaudy scars. but later learns how skilled the work is  He recalls his admiration of his father then.  “Mapping the furrow” is like navigating a ship. the bumper knocked him clear/ a four foot box. a foot for every year – the painful event of losing his brother. but the poet is troubled by his memory: perhaps he feels guilt at not carrying on the tradition of farming.Estrangement: Distance from the background Mid-term Break       Theme: coming of age Shocking family tragedy. Effectively their positions are reversed. such as the child's following in his father's footsteps and wanting to be like shoes how Heaney followed his father literally and metaphorically  The child sees farming as simply imitating his father's actions (“close one eye.  The child stumbles “in his wake” and dips and rises on his father's back. to set the darkness echoing – here Heaney summaries his reasons for writing. or feels he cannot live up to his father's example. There are many nautical references:  The father's shoulders are like the billowing sail of a ship. He lost his 4 year old brother. In these images the farmer is not shown as simple but highly skilled.  Personal Helicon  I rhyme/ To see myself.  The poem has several developed metaphors.  The “sod” rolls over “without breaking” (like a wave). His father is not literally behind him. he was forced to grow up. He is willing to explore the darkness negative elements of himself  this will lead him on the explore the darkness of Ireland which is its brutal and violent past and present . he can tell that the brother’s age by the size of the box Follower The title of the poem is ambiguous.

The springs were said to be the source of poetic inspiration and they were very sacred to the muses. to express himself. Another line “others had echoes. The poem talks about wells and mentions dark drops. the poem remains just as mysterious and intriguing. The poem could also be about coming of age and the transition for childhood into adulthood.   By the end of his first collection. Helicon. reflections. and echoes which could signify that Heaney gets the inspiration for his work from himself. by looking deep into his soul just as the narrator of the poem looks into wells. the gods and goddesses who inspire literature and art. The words “When you dragged out long roots from the soft mulch a white face hovered over the bottom. This meaning is furthered through several lines in the poem. This suggests that the poem “Personal Helicon” is about Heaney’s own inspiration for his writing. Heaney feels he knows why he writes. “Personal Helicon” has a deeper meaning.” for example. could be referring to the narrator tracing back the roots of his family tree to discover his own identity. Even the last line of the poem. In the last few lines of the poem the author mentions that exploring wells is “beneath all adult dignity” therefore the poem could be about childhood innocence and how the simplicity of youth is lost when a person grows up.” could be saying that the author uses poetry as a way to discover himself and to gain insight. The narrator is recalling a childhood spent exploring wells and old pumps however. Whatever the meaning Heaney intended for the audience to take away. a mountain situated in Boeotia. gave back your own call with a clean new music in it” could mean that Heaney sees poetry as a way of restating his thoughts and emotions in a more beautiful and musical way. “I rhyme to see myself. A lot of the depth in this poem can be seen just from examining the title.       . Or the meaning could be just as simple and straightforward as meets the eye. he is able to find the motivation and vision necessary to create his literary works.a man remembering a favourite childhood pastime and reminiscing about the good old days. His poems are a reflection of himself and. It forces the audience to think and ask questions and is captivating from start to finish. like most poems. and at the same time to explore the whole Irish culture and history Helicon – mythical place to get inspiration The poem “Person Helicon” by Seamus Heaney is a curious and thoughtprovoking work about a child’s fascination with wells. to set the darkness echoing. was celebrated in Greek mythology because of the two springs that were located there. On the surface. the poem is very straight forward. Greece.

. knew they would does this mean that hopes are not disappointed after all?  How far is this poem about something particular or about life in general? . “fur”. using every available container to hold the fruit they have picked.referring to sweet “flesh”. He uses many adjectives of colour (how many can you find?) and suggests the enthusiasm of the collectors. Like many of Heaney's poems it is full of monosyllabic nouns: “clot”. “cache”. Heaney suggests that what is true of blackberries may be true of good things generally. (Now that many people in the west have freezers. as the fungus set in and the fruit fermented. too. We see the view of a frustrated child in “I. Nowadays we can preserve our fruit by freezing it . “bush”. to “summer's blood” and to “lust”. But it is really about hope and disappointment (how things never quite live up to our expectations) and blackberry picking becomes a metaphor for other experiences.always a failure. and relates it to a familiar childhood experience.  In the first half of the poem Heaney describes the picking . The poem has a clear structure . “cans”. But do many young people still go to pick blackberries?) In the first section Heaney presents the tasting of the blackberries as a sensual pleasure . “flesh” and “rot” (there are others). This poem is ambiguous in its viewpoint.the transitoriness of pleasure (how good things do not last). “pots”. as “lovely canfuls” smell “of rot”.. “knot”. but a more detached adult view in the antithesis of “Each year I hoped they'd keep. “pricks”. and life Blackberry Picking  Theme: the loss of innocence This poem gives a vivid account of picking blackberries. death.from the appearance of the first fruit to the frenzy of activity as more fruit ripens. There is also a hint that this picking is somehow violent . “blobs”.” The poem looks at a theme that is as old as poetry itself .  The second half of the poem concerns the attempt to preserve the berries .felt like crying” and “It wasn't fair”. “byre”.after the “blood” comes the claim that the collectors' hands were “sticky as Bluebeard's” (whose hands were covered with the blood of his wives). this problem is solved. But this is argument by analogy.Unflinching Honesty: relationship.the two sections match the two stages of the poet's thought. The lusciousness of the fresh fruit contrasts with what it quickly becomes “fur” and “rat-grey fungus”. The poem is set out in iambic pentameter couplets with half rhyme.

as Heaney witnesses a plague of frogs like something from the Old Testament. The young Heaney was used to seeing nature close up.he thinks of the bubbles from the process as gargling “delicately”.. Does this poem give the viewpoint of a child or an adult or both? Can you explain why Heaney. since you can see if it is raining or sunny by direct observation . The 21st century child knows all about the frogs' habitat and behaviour from wildlife documentaries. (Not really very helpful. “obscene” and “gathered.. the poet notes the festering in the flax-dam.when he sees what nature in the raw is really like. as it appeared to the young boy. says that he “hoped” for something. but perhaps never got beyond the very simple account of “mammy” and   . If we strip away the effect of imagination. He has an almost scientific interest in knowing the proper names (“bullfrog” and “frogspawn”) rather than the teacher's patronizing talk of “daddy” and “mammy”. But here the experience is almost like a nightmare.but you will find a note below. He is confident in taking the frogspawn . and in the idea of forecasting the weather with the spawn. but has never seen so many frogs at close range in real life. in a poem that falls into two parts. even though he “knew” it would not happen? Death of a naturalist   Theme: the loss of innocence This poem is similar to Blackberry-Picking in its subject and structure here.for vengeance”. too. but can cope with this familiar scene of things rotting and spawn hatching. This part of the poem is ambiguous . But we can also see the scene more objectively . You do not need to know what a flax-dam is to appreciate the poem.he does it every year. Heaney explains a change in his attitude to the natural world. as an inquisitive child he felt some pride in not being squeamish . he is terrified. Perhaps. a sort of before and it really was.we see the horror of the plague of frogs. in the last line. and watches the “jellied specks” become “fattening dots” then turn into tadpoles. This may bring out a difference between a child in the 1940s and a child in the west today.   Explain how the poem contrasts ideas of expected pleasure and disappointment. as Heaney describes the features that are relevant to what happened there . Click here to see this explanation. In the first need to look at the frogspawn. we are left with a swarm of croaking amphibians.) The second section appears like a punishment from offended nature for the boy's arrogance .

therefore.  Ambivalence: Relationship to Irish Nationalism and “the struggles” Requiem for the croppies    In this poem Heaney tell us the story of part of the rebellion of 1798 in which catholic rebels met English soldiers in the Battle of vinegar hill. The poem has some echoes of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner. Heaney uses terms we do not expect to see in poetry. and presents nature as the very opposite of beautiful. Wordsworth suggests that poets should use everyday a shorter and more comic version: the would-be naturalist is.  The arrival of the frogs is like a military invasion . used by British soldiers from the Great War to modern times). scythes .they are “angry” and invade the dam. the rebel's point of view.“daddy” frogs.but with no division into stanzas. The poem describes the struggle the Irish rebels had to undergo. Heaney focuses on the old-fashioned weapons .pike. revolted by “slimy things”.this suggest the cyclical nature of violence: just as the crops grow annually. “slap and plop”. the Ancient Mariner learns to love them as God's creatures.the frogs. the boy ducks “through hedges” to hide from the enemy. “obscene threats” (suggesting swear words).14 lines . “farting” and “slime kings”. like the mariner. The poem is written in sonnet form . Heaney indulges in a riotous succession of disgusting descriptions: “gross-bellied”.      . Heaney anticipates another catholic uprising He sees the catholic defiance at vinegar hill as the seed for future rebellion Heaney tells the story of the 1798 rebellion though the voice of a random dead croppy boy and. Like firearms. In this poem. in colour and shape. This poem Heaney refers specifically to a particular event from Irish History They Buried us without shroud or coffin/ and in august the barely grew up out of the grave.the rebels used. they are “cocked”. The teacher presents the amphibians as if they were people. resemble the Mills Hand Bomb. or they are “poised like mud grenades” (a grenade is a hand-bomb .

Heaney expresses the vast amount of blood that was shed The rebels who died were buried without a coffin or even a shroud. Relationship to violence Strange Fruit    Final poem about a bogy body Refers to a greek historian from 1st century AD. Vinegar Hill in Wexford was the site of the battle in which the rebels were defeated. The poem shows how the rebels used clever tactics to attack the superior army. The first line and the last line both mention barley. The events of the past are linked with the present day. who recorded his reactions to murder and violence commenting that with each atrocity he became more desensitized Heaney worries that the present day community is becoming used to the present day sectarian violence. The setting of the last lines of the poem is Vinegar Hill where the rebels were defeated. led the rebellion in Wexford. Father John Murphy. A priest. and farmers. the food that sustained the rebels and grew out of their unmarked graves. as in so many of Heaney’s poem . tramps.        The rebels also used herds of cattle to stampede into the lines of British solders. By describing the hillside as "blushing". The rebels included priests.

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