A 8LÞC81 Cn LLvLL

MLASu8lnC lnS18uMLn1S




5obmltteJ by



Þ8ASAnnAkuMA8ŦA
L1/CƎl/l8
S¥NCÞSISť
SŦNC DLSCkIÞ1ICN
1 Introduct|on
2 Þr|nc|p|es of Leve| Measurement
3 Means of convent|ona| |eve| measurement
4 Þressure based |eve| measurement
S 1rans|t t|me based |eve| measurement
6 Attenuat|on based (rad|at|on type) |eve| measurement
7 Conduct|v|ty based |eve| measurement
8 Capac|tance type |eve| measurement
9 Conc|us|on














1Ŧ Introduct|onť
Level measurlng lnsLrumenLs are used Lo measure fluld (llquld or gas) level elLher
conLlnuously or dlscreLe dependlng on Lhe Lype of appllcaLlonŦ 1hese lnsLrumenLs
may be lndlcaLorsţ whlch dlsplays llquld levelŦ 1ransmlLLersţ whlch carrles level
lnformaLlon ln Lhe form of ac slgnals for conLrol purposeŦ Level swlLches are used
Lo monlLor hlgh or low level of llquld dependlng on Lhe seL polnLŦ ulfferenL Lypes
of level lnsLrumenLs work on dlfferenL Lypes of prlnclplesŦ 1he selecLlon of a
parLlcular level lnsLrumenL depends on process parameLers llke pressureţ
LemperaLureţ medlum and envlronmenLal condlLlons eLcŦ 1he varlous prlnclples of
level measuremenL are dlscussed ln deLallŦ
2Ŧ Þr|nc|p|es of Leve| Measurement
1he mojor princip/es in /eve/ meosurement ond its c/ossificotion
1Ŧ Þressure based or ulfferenLlal pressure based level measuremenL
2Ŧ 1ranslL Llme based level measuremenL
a) ulLrasonlc based level measuremenL
b) 8adar based level measuremenL
lŦ ALLenuaLlon based level measuremenL / 8adlaLlon based level
measuremenL
4Ŧ ConducLlvlLy based measuremenL( LlecLrlcal measuremenL)
5Ŧ CapaclLance based level measuremenL
1ypes of measuremenLť
1Ŧ ConLlnuous measuremenL
2Ŧ ÞolnL measuremenL
continuous meosurementť
lor conLlnuous measuremenLţ Lhe level ls deLecLed and converLed lnLo a slgnal
LhaL ls proporLlonal Lo Lhe levelŦ Mlcroprocessor based devlces can lndlcaLe level
or volumeŦ ulfferenL Lechnlques also have dlfferenL requlremenLsŦ lor exampleţ
when deLecLlng Lhe level from Lhe Lop of a Lankţ Lhe shape of Lhe Lank ls requlred
Lo deduce volumeŦ When uslng hydrosLaLlc meansţ whlch deLecLs Lhe pressure
from Lhe boLLom of Lhe Lankţ Lhen Lhe denslLy musL be known and remaln
consLanLŦ


Point uetection
ÞolnL deLecLlon can also be provlded for all llqulds and solldsŦ 1he Cn/Cll
swlLchlng acLlon ls Lyplcally used for sLopplngţ sLarLlng or alarmlngŦ 1hey may also
be used as process or safeLy proLecLlon devlces ln con[uncLlon wlLh conLlnuous
measurlng equlpmenLŦ Cverflll or empLy proLecLlon can be a sLaLuLory
requlremenL wlLh some process maLerlalsţ and Lhls may have llmlLaLlons on Lhe
Lechnology used and Lhe lnLerface Lo assoclaLed clrculLsţ whlch ofLen are requlred
Lo be hardŴwlredŦ
A level measurlng sysLem ofLen conslsLs of Lhe sensor and a separaLe slgnal
condlLlonlng lnsLrumenLŦ 1hls comblnaLlon ls ofLen chosen when mulLlple ouLpuLs
(conLlnuous and swlLched) are requlred and parameLers may need Lo be alLeredŦ
3Ŧ Means of Convent|ona| |eve| measurementť
lŦ1 6ouqinq kod Method
1hls very slmple and cheap meLhod of accounLlng for levelŦ1hls meLhod can be
applled Lo llqulds and bulk maLerlalsţ and welghLed sLeel Lapes can be used ln
very Lall sllosŦ Servlce sLaLlons use Lhls meLhod for ƌdlpplngƌ Lhelr Lanksţ whlch use
a noLched dlpplng rodŦ A common example ls Lhe oll level ƌdlp sLlckƌ ln a moLor
vehlcleŦ
1hls meLhod ls prlmarlly deslgned for aLmospherlc condlLlonsŦ Sllp Lubes can be
used for pressurlzed vesselsţ buL requlre Lhe venLlng of process gas or fluld lnLo
Lhe aLmosphereŦ 1hese devlces are hazardous Lo personnel and should noL be
used ln deslgnaLed safe areas or for conLrol as parL of an auLomaLed processŦ








6ouqinq rod

@e meosotemeot ls teoJ ftom wete te Jlpploq toJ cootocts te bottom of te
vesselŦ
Advantages
ŴSlmple and lnexpenslveŦ
D|sadvantages
ŴSampled measuremenL only
ŴPazards assoclaLed wlLh pressurlzed measuremenL
ŴLlmlLed accuracy
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
1hls ls noL sulLable for lndusLrlal processes requlrlng conLlnuous measuremenLŦ
1hls Lype of measuremenL ls Lop access only and ln some cases may requlre Lhe
use of sLep ladders Lo access Lhe senslng equlpmenLŦ AppllcaLlons are llmlLedţ
especlally for pressurlzed vesselsŦ
1hls meLhod ls prone Lo errors due Lo operaLor lnLerpreLaLlon and readablllLy of
Lhe gradaLlons on Lhe measurlng rodŦ lL ls also llmlLed Lo Lhe resoluLlon of Lhe
gradaLlonsŦ 1he resoluLlon or besL accuracy can be assumed Lo be one half of Lhe
smallesL marked dlvlslonŦ
3Ŧ2 8uoyoncy 1ope 5ystems
1here are Lwo maln Lypes of buoyancy Lape sysLems avallableť
ŴlloaL and Lape sysLems
ŴWlre gulded floaL deLecLors
l/oot ond 1ope 5ystems
Cne common form of level measurlng sysLem uses a Lape or servo moLor whlch ls
connecLed Lo a floaLŦ 1he helghL can be read as Lhe floaL moves wlLh llquld levelŦ
CLher sysLems use Lhe floaL meLhod by senslng Lhe poslLlon of Lhe floaL
magneLlcally or elecLrlcallyŦ lloaL sysLems can also be used when measurlng
granular sollds as well as llquldsŦ
D|sadvantages
ŴPlgh malnLenance
ŴLxpenslve
wire 6uided l/oot uetectors
lor large level measuremenLs (leŦ 20m)ţ wlreŴgulded floaL deLecLors can be usedŦ
1he gulde wlres are connecLed Lo Lop and boLLom anchors and asslsL ln
poslLlonlng Lhe floaL as lL moves wlLh Lhe fluld levelŦ 1he Lape ls connecLed Lo
Lhe Lop of Lhe floaL and runs dlrecLly up and over pulleys Lhen down Lo Lhe
gauglng head whlch ls ouLslde Lhe Lank aL a sulLable level for vlewlngŦ
1he perforaLed Lape ls recelved ln Lhe gauge head by a sprockeLed counLer drlveŦ
Any slackness ln Lhe Lape ls Laken up by Lhe Lape sLorage reel whlch ls LenslonedŦ
1enslonlng of Lhe Lape sLorage reel ls sufflclenL Lo ensure correcL measuremenLţ
whlle noL affecLlng Lhe poslLlon of Lhe floaLŦ
1he shafL on Lhe counLer drlve roLaLes as Lhe floaL moves Lhe perforaLed Lape up
and downŦ 1he roLary moLlon of Lhe shafL ls used Lo glve a meLrlc readouLŦ
ln aLmospherlc condlLlonsţ a seal ls used Lo proLecL Lhe senslng head from Lhe
process fluldŦ Powever ln pressurlzed appllcaLlonsţ lL ls beLLer Lo flll Lhe head wlLh
Lhe senslng fluldţ parLlcularly lf Lhe fluld ls clean and lubrlcaLlngŦ
wireŴquided f/oot detectors ond detoi/s of heod

1yp|ca| App||cat|ons
1hls Lype of level measuremenL usually flnds lLself applled Lo large fuel farmsţ
especlally when lnLrlnslc safeLy ls slgnlflcanLŦ
Advantages
ŴLarge level measuremenL
ŴlnLrlnslcally safe
D|sadvantages
ŴlnsLallaLlon cosLs
ŴMechanlcal wear
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
lloaL and Lape sysLems have a common problem wlLh Lhe Lape hanglng upŦ 1hls
ofLen occurs lf Lhe long gulde plpes are noL perfecLly verLlcalţ where Lhe Lape rubs
agalnsL Lhe lnslde of Lhe plpesŦ
AnoLher common problem ls wlLh corroslon or dlrLţ where Lhe Lape can be held ln
place whlle Lhe floaL ls movlngŦ 1hese problems are more llkely Lo resulL ln a
lower Lhan acLual readlngŦ 1he force from Lhe floaL welghL ls usually greaL enough
Lo overcome Lhe frlcLlon of Lhe Lape agalnsL Lhe lmpurlLlesţ whereas Lhe force of
Lhe LakeŴup devlce may noLŦ 1anks conLrolled uslng Lape level gauges wlll ofLen
overflow when Lhe Lape ls sLuckŦ 1hls problem can be proLecLed agalnsL by Lhe
use of a separaLe hlgh level swlLchŦ
More advanced conLrollers are avallable LhaL monlLor Lank capaclLy and pumplng
raLes Lo check Lhe acLual levelţ raLe of change and dlrecLlon of changeŦ
Cne of Lhe maln llmlLaLlons ls Lhe hlgh malnLenance requlred ln order Lo keep Lhe
Lape clean and prevenL lL from gummlng upŦ 1hls ls old Lechnology and ls seldom
usedŦ
4Ŧ Þressure based |eve| measurement
nydrostat|c Þressure
Some of Lhe dlfferenL Lypes of level measuremenL wlLh pressure areť
ŴSLaLlc pressure
ŴulfferenLlal pressure
Ŵ8ubble Lube meLhod
Ŵulaphragm 8ox
ŴWelghlng
Ŵ Level measuremenL for changlng producL denslLles
4Ŧ1 5totic Pressure
1he basls of hydrosLaLlc pressure measuremenL for level ls such LhaL Lhe
measured pressure ls proporLlonal Lo Lhe helghL of llquld ln Lhe Lankţ lrrespecLlve
of volumeŦ 1he pressure ls relaLed Lo Lhe helghL by Lhe followlngť Þ ƹ hŦpŦg
Whereť Þ ƹ pressure h ƹ helghL p ƹ relaLlve denslLy of fluld g ƹ acceleraLlon due Lo
gravlLy
lor consLanL denslLyţ Lhe only varlable LhaL changes ls Lhe helghLŦ ln facLţ any
lnsLrumenL LhaL can measure pressure can be callbraLed Lo read helghL of a glven
llquldţ and can be used Lo measure llquld level ln vessels under aLmospherlc
condlLlonsŦ
MosL pressure sensors compensaLe for aLmospherlc condlLlonsţ so Lhe pressure
on Lhe surface of llqulds open Lo Lhe aLmosphere wlll be zeroŦ 1he measurlng
unlLs are generally ln Þascalţ buL noLe LhaL 1 Þa ls equlvalenL Lo 1 m head of
waLerŦ
PydrosLaLlc pressure Lransducers always conslsL of a membrane whlch ls
connecLed elLher mechanlcally or hydraullcally Lo a Lransducer elemenLŦ 1he
Lransducer elemenL can be based on such Lechnologles as lnducLanceţ
capaclLanceţ sLraln gauge or even semlconducLorŦ
4 pressure qouqe used to meosure the heiqht of o /iquid in on open tonk

1he pressure Lransducer can be mounLed ln many Lypes of pressure sensor so
LhaL Lhe appllcaLlon can be qulLe speclflc Lo Lhe requlremenL of Lhe process
condlLlonsŦ Slnce Lhe movemenL of Lhe membrane ls only a few mlcronsţ Lhe
semlconducLor Lransducer ls exLremely lnsenslLlve Lo dlrL or producL bulldŴupŦ
1hls makes Lhls Lype of measuremenL useful for such appllcaLlons as sewage
waLerţ sludgeţ palnL and ollsŦ A seal ls requlred for corroslve or vlscous llqulds or
ln Lhe case where a plpe ls used Lo hydraullcally LransmlL Lhe pressure Lo a gaugeŦ
Slnce Lhere ls no appllcaLlon of movemenLţ Lhere ls no relaxlng force Lo cause
hysLereslsŦ
A pressure sensor ls exposed Lo Lhe pressure of Lhe sysLemţ and Lherefore needs
Lo be mounLed aL or near Lhe boLLom of Lhe vesselŦ ln slLuaLlons where lL ls noL
posslble Lo mounL Lhe sensor dlrecLly ln Lhe slde of Lhe vessel aL Lhe approprlaLe
depLhţ lL can be mounLed from Lhe Lop of Lhe vessel and lowered lnLo Lhe fluld on
Lhe end of a rod or cableŦ 1hls meLhod ls commonly used for appllcaLlons ln
reservolrs and deep wellsŦ
lf Lhe use of exLenslon nozzles or long plpes ls unavoldableţ precauLlons are
requlred Lo ensure Lhe fluld wlll noL harden or congeal ln Lhe plpeŦ lf Lhls occursţ
Lhen Lhe pressure deLecLed wlll no longer be accuraLeŦ ulfferenL mounLlng
sysLems or plpe heaLers could be used Lo prevenL LhlsŦ
lL ls a requlremenL of Lhls Lype of measuremenL LhaL sLaLlc pressure ls measuredŦ
1he sensor Lhereforeţ should noL be mounLed dlrecLly ln Lhe producL sLream as
Lhe pressure measured wlll be Loo hlgh and Lhe level readlng lnaccuraLeŦ lor
slmllar reasonsţ a pressure sensor should noL be mounLed ln Lhe dlscharge ouLleL
of a vessel as Lhe pressure measuremenL wlll be lncorrecLly low durlng dlschargeŦ
Advantages
ŴLevel or volume measuremenL
ŴSlmple Lo assemble and lnsLall
ŴSlmple Lo ad[usL
Ŵ8easonably accuraLe
D|sadvantages
ŴuependenL on relaLlve denslLy of maLerlal
ŴMore expenslve Lhan slmpler Lypes
ŴLxpenslve for hlgh accuracy appllcaLlons
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
Level measuremenL can be made uslng Lhe hydrosLaLlc prlnclple ln open Lanks
when Lhe denslLy of Lhe maLerlal ls consLanLŦ 1he sensor needs Lo be mounLed ln
an open Lank Lo ensure LhaL Lhe llquldţ even aL Lhe mlnlmum level always covers
Lhe process dlaphragmŦ
Slnce Lhe sensor ls measurlng pressureţ lL ls Lherefore senslLlve Lo sludge and dlrL
on Lhe boLLom of Lhe LankŦ 8ulldŴup can ofLen occur around or ln Lhe flange
where Lhe sensor ls mounLedŦ 8ore waLer can also cause calclum bulldŴupŦ
lL ls also crlLlcal LhaL Lhe pressure measuremenL ls referenced Lo aLmospherlc
condlLlonsŦ
Leve| Measurement W|th Chang|ng Þroduct Dens|ty
lf Lhe maLerlal belng measured ls of varylng denslLlesţ Lhen accuraLe level
measuremenL ls lmpalredŦ Poweverţ sensors are avallable LhaL compensaLe for
varlous denslLlesŦ ln such sensorsţ mounLlng an exLernal llmlL swlLch aL a known
helghL above Lhe sensor makes correcLlonsŦ When Lhe swlLch sLaLus changesţ Lhe
sensor uses Lhe currenL measured value Lo auLomaLlcally compensaLe for any
denslLy changeŦ
lL ls opLlmal Lo mounL Lhe exLernal llmlL swlLch for Lhls compensaLlon aL Lhe polnL
where Lhe level lncreases or decreasesŦ 1hls correcLlon for denslLy changes ls besL
when Lhe dlsLance beLween Lhe llmlL swlLch and Lhe sensor ls made as large as
posslbleŦ
varlaLlons ln Lhe LemperaLure also affecL Lhe denslLy of Lhe fluldŦ Wax ls a blg
problem where Lhe plpes are heaLed wlLh even sllghL varlaLlons ln LemperaLure
cause noLlceable changes ln Lhe denslLyŦ
Vo|ume Measurement Ior D|fferent Vesse| Shapes
Level measuremenL ls easlly obLalned by hydrosLaLlc pressureŤ however Lhe
volume of fluld wlLhln a vessel relles on Lhe shape of Lhe vesselŦ lf Lhe shape of
Lhe vessel does noL change for lncreaslng helghL Lhen Lhe volume ls slmply Lhe
level mulLlplled by Lhe crossŴsecLlonal areaŦ 8uLţ lf Lhe shape (or conLour) of Lhe
vessel changes for lncreaslng helghLţ Lhen Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe helghL
and Lhe volume ls noL so slmpleŦ
1o accuraLely descrlbe Lhe volume ln a vesselţ a characLerlsLlc curve ls used Lo
descrlbe Lhe funcLlonal relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe helghL (h) and Lhe volume (v) of
Lhe vesselŦ 1he curve for a horlzonLal cyllnder ls of Lhe slmplesL Lype and ls ofLen a
sLandard characLerlsLlc offered by mosL suppllersŦ uependlng on Lhe
sophlsLlcaLlon of Lhe manufacLurer's sensorsţ oLher curves for varlous vessel
shapes can also be enLeredŦ
1he ouLpuL of Lhe sensor can be llnearlzed uslng characLerlsLlc curves whlch are
descrlbed by up Lo 100 reference polnLs and deLermlned elLher by fllllng Lhe
vessel or from daLa supplled by Lhe manufacLurerŦ
vo/ume meosurementť enterinq o chorocteristic curve

4Ŧ2 uifferentio/ Pressure
When Lhe surface pressure on Lhe llquld ls greaLer (as may be Lhe case of a
pressurlzed Lank) or dlfferenL Lo Lhe aLmospherlc pressureţ Lhen a dlfferenLlal
pressure sensor ls requlredŦ 1hls ls because Lhe LoLal pressure wlll be greaLer Lhan
Lhe head of llquld pressureŦ WlLh Lhe dlfferenLlal pressure sensorţ Lhe pressure on
Lhe surface of Lhe llquld wlll be subLracLed from Lhe LoLal pressureţ resulLlng ln a
measuremenL of Lhe pressure due Lo Lhe helghL of Lhe llquldŦ
ln applylng Lhls meLhod of measuremenLţ Lhe LÞ (lowŴpressure) slde of Lhe
LransmlLLer ls connecLed Lo Lhe vessel above Lhe maxlmum llquld levelŦ 1hls
connecLlon ls called Lhe dry legŦ 1he pressure above Lhe llquld ls exerLed on boLh
Lhe LÞ and PÞ (hlghŴpressure) sldes of Lhe LransmlLLerţ and changes ln Lhls
pressure do noL affecL Lhe measured levelŦ






lor o pressurised tonkţ the /eve/ is meosured usinq differentio/ pressure methods

Insta||at|on 1echn|ques
When uslng dlfferenLlal pressure sensors for Lhls purposeţ lL ls qulLe common for
Lhe llquld belng measured Lo flnd lLs way lnLo Lhe dry legŦ 1hls can resulL from
condensaLlon or splash overŦ Changes ln head pressure are Lhenţ usually on Lhe
lowŴpressure slde of Lhe LransmlLLerŦ Llquld ln Lhe dry leg can cause a zero shlfL ln
Lhe measuremenLŦ A common soluLlon Lo Lhls problem ls Lo flll Lhe prevlously dry
reference leg wlLh elLher Lhe llquld used ln Lhe vessel or a seallng llquldŦ 1hls weL
leg ensures a consLanL reference pressureŦ
8ecause lL has a hlgher pressureţ changes Lo Lhe dry reference leg reverse Lhe LÞ
and PÞ connecLlons Lo Lhe LransmlLLerŦ 1he helghL of Lhe llquld ln Lhe reference
leg needs Lo be equal Lo or greaLer Lhan Lhe maxlmum level ln Lhe vesselŦ As Lhe
level lncreasesţ Lhe pressure on Lhe sensor aL Lhe base of Lhe vessel wlll lncreaseţ
and Lhe dlfferenLlal pressure on Lhe LransmlLLer decreasesŦ When Lhe Lank ls
fullţ Lhe llquld pressure wlll be equal Lo Lhe reference pressure and Lhe
dlfferenLlal pressure wlll be recorded as zeroŦ
CorrecLlon of Lhls ls slmple and lnvolves reverslng Lhe PÞ and LÞ or Lhe elecLrlcal
ouLpuL from Lhe LransmlLLerŦ 1he blaslng ls also used Lo allow for Lhe PÞ
referenceŦ

Us|ng DÞ for f||tersť
ulfferenLlal pressure measuremenL for level ln pressurlzed Lanks ls also used ln
fllLers Lo lndlcaLe Lhe amounL of conLamlnaLlon of a fllLerŦ lf Lhe fllLer remalns
cleanţ Lhere ls no slgnlflcanL pressure dlfference across Lhe fllLerŦ As Lhe fllLer
becomes conLamlnaLedţ Lhe pressure on Lhe upsLream slde of Lhe fllLer wlll
become greaLer Lhan on Lhe downsLream sldeŦ
Advantages
ŴLevel measuremenL ln pressurlzed or evacuaLed Lank
ŴSlmple Lo ad[usL
Ŵ8easonably accuraLe
D|sadvantages
ŴuependenL on relaLlve denslLy of maLerlal
ŴCulLe expenslve for dlfferenLlal pressure measuremenL
Ŵlnaccuracles due Lo bulldŴup
ŴMalnLenance lnLenslve
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
1he denslLy of Lhe fluld affecLs Lhe accuracy of Lhe measuremenLŦ uÞ lnsLrumenLs
should be used for llqulds wlLh relaLlvely flxed speclflc gravlLyŦ Also Lhe process
connecLlons are suscepLlble Lo plugglng from debrlsţ and Lhe weL leg of Lhe
process connecLlon may be suscepLlble Lo freezlngŦ
4Ŧl 8ubb/e 1ube Method
ln Lhe bubble Lype sysLemţ llquld level ls deLermlned by measurlng Lhe pressure
requlred Lo force a gas lnLo a llquld aL a polnL beneaLh Lhe surfaceŦ
1hls meLhod uses a source of clean alr or gas and ls connecLed Lhrough a
resLrlcLlon Lo a bubble Lube lmmersed aL a flxed depLh lnLo Lhe vesselŦ
1he resLrlcLlon reduces Lhe alrflow Lo a very small amounLŦ As Lhe pressure bulldsţ
bubbles are released from Lhe end of Lhe bubble LubeŦ Þressure ls malnLalned as
alr bubbles escape Lhrough Lhe llquldŦ Changes ln Lhe llquld level cause Lhe alr
pressure ln Lhe bubble Lube Lo varyŦ AL Lhe Lop of Lhe bubble Lube ls where a
pressure sensor deLecLs dlfferences ln pressure as Lhe level changesŦ
MosL Lubes use a small vŴnoLch aL Lhe boLLom Lo asslsL wlLh Lhe release of a
consLanL sLream of bubblesŦ 1hls ls preferable for conslsLenL measuremenL raLher
Lhan lnLermlLLenL large bubblesŦ
8ubb/e tube method


4ir bubb/er tube notch voriotions


8ubblers are slmple and lnexpenslveţ buL noL exLremely accuraLeŦ 1hey have a
Lyplcal accuracy of abouL 1Ŵ2ƷŦ Cne deflnlLe advanLage ls LhaL corroslve llqulds or
llqulds wlLh sollds can only do damage Lo Lhe lnexpenslve and easlly replaced
plpeŦ 1hey do however lnLroduce a forelgn subsLance lnLo Lhe fluldŦ
AlLhough Lhe level can be obLalned wlLhouL Lhe llquld enLerlng Lhe plplngţ lL ls sLlll
posslble Lo have blockagesŦ Poweverţ blockages can be mlnlmlzed by keeplng Lhe
plpe Llp 73mm from Lhe boLLom of Lhe LankŦ
Advantages
ŴSlmple assembly
ŴSulLable for use wlLh corroslve fluldsŦ
ŴlnLrlnslcally safe
ŴPlgh Lemp appllcaLlons
D|sadvantages
Ŵ8equlres compressed alr and lnsLallaLlon of alr llnes
Ŵ8ulldŴup of maLerlal on bubble Lube noL permlsslble
ŴnoL sulLed Lo pressurlzed vessels
ŴMechanlcal wear
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
8ubble Lube devlces are suscepLlble Lo denslLy varlaLlonsţ freezlng and plugglng or
coaLlng by Lhe process fluld or debrlsŦ 1he gas LhaL ls used can lnLroduce
unwanLed maLerlals lnLo Lhe process as lL ls purgedŦ Also Lhe devlce musL be
capable of wlLhsLandlng Lhe maxlmum alr pressure lmposed lf Lhe plpe should
become blockedŦ 8oddlng Lo clean Lhe plpe ls asslsLed by lnsLalllng a Lee secLlonŦ





4Ŧ4 uiophroqm 8ox
1he dlaphragm box ls prlmarlly used for waLer level measuremenL ln open
vesselsŦ 1he box conLalns a large amounL of alrţ whlch ls kepL wlLhln a flexlble
dlaphragmŦ A Lube connecLs Lhe dlaphragm box Lo a pressure gaugeŦ
1he pressure exerLed by Lhe llquld agalnsL Lhe volume of alr wlLhln Lhe box
represenLs Lhe fluld pressure aL LhaL levelŦ 1he pressure gauge measures Lhe alr
pressure and relaLes Lhe value Lo fluld levelŦ
1here are Lwo common Lypes of dlaphragm boxes Ŷ open and closedŦ 1he open
dlaphragm box ls lmmersed ln Lhe fluld wlLhln Lhe vesselŦ 1he closed dlaphragm
box ls mounLed exLernally from Lhe vessel and ls connecLed by a shorL lengLh of
plplngŦ 1he open box ls sulLable ln appllcaLlons where Lhere may be some
suspended maLerlalţ and Lhe closed Lype ls besL sulLed Lo clean llqulds onlyŦ
uiophroqm box meosurements

1here are also dlsLance llmlLaLlons dependlng on Lhe locaLlon of Lhe gaugeŦ
Advantages
8elaLlvely slmpleţ sulLable for varlous maLerlals and very accuraLe
D|sadvantages
8equlres more mechanlcal equlpmenLţ parLlcularly wlLh pressure vesselsŦ
very seldom usedŦ

4Ŧ5 weiqhinq Method
1hls lndlrecL Lype of level measuremenL ls sulLed for llqulds and bulk solldsŦ
AppllcaLlon lnvolves uslng load cells Lo measure Lhe welghL of Lhe vesselŦ WlLh
knowledge of Lhe relaLlve denslLy and shape of Lhe sLorage blnţ Lhe level ls easy Lo
calculaLeŦ
Leve/ Meosurement usinq weiqht

Insta||at|on 1echn|ques
SLraln gauges can be mounLed on Lhe sLeel supporLs of a vessel or blnŦ
CallbraLlon ls done qulLe slmply by measurlng Lhe ouLpuL when Lhe Lank ls empLy
and agaln when fullŦ
Advantages
Ŵvery accuraLe level measuremenL for maLerlal of consLanL relaLlve denslLy
D|sadvantages
Ŵ8equlres a large amounL of mechanlcal equlpmenL
Ŵvery cosLly
Ŵ8elles on conslsLenL relaLlve denslLy of maLerlal
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
A large amounL of mechanlcal equlpmenL ls requlred for Lhe frameworkţ and ls
also needed Lo sLablllze Lhe blnŦ
MeasuremenL resoluLlon ls reduced because prlorlLy ls glven Lo Lhe accuracy of
Lhe overall welghLŦ unsLable readlngs occur when Lhe bln ls belng fllled or
empLledŦ 8ecause Lhe overall welghL ls Lhe sum of boLh Lhe producL and conLalner
welghLs wlnd loadlng can cause slgnlflcanL problemsŦ lor Lhese reasons mosL
lnsLallaLlons use a fourŴload cell conflguraLlonŦ
4Ŧ6 Leve| measurement w|th chang|ng product dens|t|es

Steam drum |eve| measurementť
When Lhe process fluld ls bolllngţ such as ln a sLeam drumţ a weL reference leg ls
malnLalned by a condensaLe poLţ whlch dralns back lnLo Lhe sLeam drum so LhaL
Lhe level of Lhe weL leg ls kepL consLanLŦ Changes ln amblenL LemperaLure (or sun
exposure) wlll change Lhe waLer denslLy ln Lhe reference leg andţ Lhereforeţ
LemperaLure compensaLlon (manual or auLomaLlc) ls neededŦ 1he above flgure
descrlbes a Lyplcal Þower planL sLeam drum level appllcaLlonŦ 1he dlfferenLlal
pressure deLecLed by Lhe level d/p cell lsť
d]p ƹ h1SG1 + h2SG2 Ŵ h3SG3
d]p ƹ 0Ŧ03h1 + 0Ŧ76h2 Ŵ 0Ŧ99h3
noLe LhaL Lhe SC of Lhe saLuraLed sLeam layer (0Ŧ03) and LhaL of Lhe saLuraLed
llquld layer (0Ŧ76) vary noL only wlLh drum pressure buL also wlLh sLeamlng raLeŦ
1hls causes Lhe swelllng of bubbles when Lhe sLeamlng raLe rlses (and SC2 drops)ţ
as well as Lhelr collapse when Lhe sLeamlng raLe drops (and SC2 rlses)Ŧ 1hereforeţ
Lo make an accuraLe deLermlnaLlon of boLh Lhe level and Lhe mass of Lhe waLer ln
Lhe sLeam drumţ Lhe calculaLlon musL conslder noL only Lhe d/p cell ouLpuLţ buL
also Lhe drum pressure and Lhe prevalllng sLeamlng raLe


SŦ 1rans|t based |eve| measurement
SŦ1 U|trason|c Measurement
Princip/e of Operotion
ulLrasonlc level sensors work by sendlng sound waves ln Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe level
and measurlng Lhe Llme Laken for Lhe sound wave Lo be reLurnedŦ As Lhe speed
of sound ls knownţ Lhe LranslL Llme ls measured and Lhe dlsLance can be
calculaLedŦ
ulLrasonlc measuremenL generally measures Lhe dlsLance beLween Lhe conLenLs
and Lhe Lop of Lhe vesselŦ 1he helghL from Lhe boLLom ls deduced as Lhe
dlfference beLween Lhls readlng and Lhe LoLal helghL of Lhe vesselŦ ulLrasonlc
measuremenL sysLems are avallable LhaL can measure from Lhe boLLom of Lhe
vessel when uslng llquld










u/trosonic meosurement


1he orlglnal sound wave pulse has a Lransmlsslon frequency beLween 3 and 40
kPzŤ Lhls depends on Lhe Lype of Lransducer usedŦ 1he Lransducer and sensor
conslsL of one or more plezoŴelecLrlc crysLals for Lhe Lransmlsslon and recepLlon
of Lhe sound slgnalŦ When elecLrlcal energy ls applled Lo Lhe plezoŴelecLrlc
crysLalsţ Lhey move Lo produce a sound slgnalŦ When Lhe sound wave ls reflecLed
backţ Lhe movemenL of Lhe reflecLed sound wave generaLes an elecLrlcal slgnalţ
Lhls ls deLecLed as Lhe reLurn pulseŦ 1he LranslL Llme ls measured as Lhe Llme
beLween Lhe LransmlLLed and reLurn slgnalsŦ
5e/ection ond 5itinq
8elow are llsLed some Lyplcal manufacLurer's opLlonsŦ
Automat|c Irequency Adapt|on
CpLlmum Lransmlsslon relles on a cerLaln resonance frequency whlch ls
dependenL on Lhe LransmlLLer and appllcaLlonŦ 1hls resonanL frequency ls also
dependenL on Lhe bulldŴup of dusLţ condensaLlon or even changes ln
LemperaLureŦ
1he sensor elecLronlcs can measure Lhe free resonanL frequency durlng Lhe
currenL rlnglng of Lhe membrane and changes Lhe frequency of Lhe nexL
LransmlLLed pulse Lo achleve an opLlmum efflclencyŦ
LxacL deslgn speclflcaLlons depend upon Lhe manufacLurerŦ
Some manufacLurers may vary Lhe pulse raLe and/or Lhe galn (power)Ŧ As a guldeţ
Lhe Lransducer frequency should be chosen so LhaL Lhe acousLlc wavelengLh
exceeds
Lhe
granule slze (medlan dlameLer) by aL leasL a facLor of fourŦ
Acoust|c Wave|ength |n A|r vs Irequencyţ 1emperature
lrequency (kPz) WavelengLh (mm) aL 0
o
C WavelengLh (mm) aL 100
o
C
3 66 77
10 33 39
20 17 19
30 11 13
40 8 10

Spur|ous Lcho Suppress|on
AlLhough ulLrasonlcs can produce a good slgnal for levelţ Lhey also deLecL oLher
surfaces wlLhln a vesselŦ CLher ob[ecLs LhaL can reflecL a slgnal can be lnleLsţ
relnforcemenL beams or weldlng seamsŦ 1o prevenL Lhe devlce readlng Lhese
ob[ecLs as a levelţ Lhls lnformaLlon can be suppressedŦ Lven Lhough a slgnal may
be reflecLed from Lhese ob[ecLsţ Lhelr characLerlsLlcs wlll be dlfferenLŦ
Suppresslon of Lhese false slgnals ls based on modlfylng Lhe deLecLlon LhresholdŦ
MosL suppllers have models LhaL map Lhe bln and Lhe dlglLal daLa ls sLored ln
memoryŦ 1he readlng ls ad[usLed accordlngly when a false echo ls deLecLedŦ
Vo|ume Measurement
MosL modern ulLrasonlc measuremenL devlces also calculaLe volumeŦ 1hls ls
qulLe slmple lf Lhe vessel has a consLanL cross secLlonal areaŦ More complexţ
varylng cross secLlonal area vessels requlre shapes of known geomeLry Lo
calculaLe vessel volumeŦ Conlcal or square shapes wlLh Laperlng near Lhe boLLom
are noL uncommonŦ
5e/ection considerotions

ŴulsLance Lo be measured
1he Lype of ulLrasonlc devlce musL be able Lo cover Lhe dlsLance requlredŦ 1hls ls
usually lncluded ln lLs speclflcaLlon sheeLsŦ noLe LhaL Lhe general speclflcaLlons
are for clean alr and a flaL surfaceŦ 1he reason for varlaLlon ln range ls slmply LhaL
a sysLem deslgned for hlgh accuracy and shorL dlsLances wlll noL be powerful
enough for longer dlsLancesŦ Slmllarly a more powerful sysLem may be Loo sLrong
for shorL dlsLances and cause Loo much echo and lnduced nolseŦ lL should be
noLed LhaL new sysLems do have auLomaLlc varlable galn Lo compensaLe for LhlsŦ
1emperaLure changes or dusLţ dlrL and condensaLlon on Lhe sensor hamper Lhe
operaLlon of Lhe devlceŦ
ŴSurface of maLerlal
lL ls a fundamenLal requlremenL ln Lhls Lype of measurlng sysLem LhaL parL of Lhe
LransmlLLed slgnal ls reflecLed back from Lhe surface of Lhe producL Lo be
measuredŦ 1he more dlsLlncL Lhe measurlng surfaceţ Lhen Lhe more accuraLe and
rellable Lhe measured valueŦ
1he clarlLy of Lhe surface can be obscured byť
Ŵlayer of foam on a llquld surface
Ŵflne granules on bulk maLerlal
Ŵexcesslve dusL cloud wlLh ore Lransfer
ln Lhe case of llquldţ opLlons can lnclude measurlng from Lhe boLLom of Lhe
vesselţ Lo lnsLalllng a mechanlcal form of foam removalŦ uusL exLracLlon or a
seLLllng Llme may be requlred for Lhe case or sollds Lransfer where clouds are a
problemŦ Small occurrences of elLher condlLlon generally do noL affecL Lhe
measuremenLŦ
ŴLnvlronmenLal condlLlons
Slnce Lhe ulLrasonlc slgnal musL pass Lhrough Lhe alr where lL ls lnsLalledţ such
facLors as dusLţ sLeamţ pressureţ LemperaLure and gas need Lo be conslderedŦ
ŴAcousLlc nolse
A common form of acousLlc nolse occurs when a Lruck Llps a load of ore lnLo a
sLorage bln or hopperŦ 1he nolse generaLed from Lhe Lransfer of ore can affecL
and degrade Lhe reLurn slgnal quallLyŦ
ŴÞressure
ln generalţ ulLrasonlc measuremenL sysLems are noL affecLed by pressure
varlaLlonsŦ 1he only llmlLaLlons LhaL are lmposed are due Lo Lhe mechanlcal
consLralnLs of Lhe equlpmenLţ and ln Lhe case of low pressureţ Lhe ablllLy Lo
LransmlL sound energyŦ
Cne llmlLaLlon wlLh pressurlzed vessels are LhaL slnce Lhey are fully enclosed
Lhere may be a problem wlLh second or repeaLed echo'sŦ
Ŵ1emperaLure
Changes ln LemperaLure affecL Lhe speed of Lhe sound wave and ulLlmaLely Lhe
LranslL LlmeŦ 1he LemperaLure sensor makes correcLlve ad[usLmenLsŦ Lrrors can
occur ln slLuaLlons where Lhere ls a varylng LemperaLure gradlenL over Lhe
dlsLance of Lhe measuremenLŦ
CperaLlon of ulLrasonlc equlpmenL can be up Lo 170
o
Cţ wlLh Lhe llmlLaLlon belng
due Lo Lhe Lransducer consLrucLlon houslngŦ
ŴCas
As menLloned prevlouslyţ Lhls Lype of measuremenL ls dependenL on Lhe speed of
soundŦ 1he speed of sound noL only varles wlLh changes ln LemperaLureţ buL also
wlLh dlfferenL medlaŦ ConsequenLlyţ Lhe speed of sound varles for dlfferenL gases
or vapoursŦ 1he maln recommendaLlon ls Lo conslder Lhe use of separaLe
LemperaLure sensors ln Lhe case of hlghly varlable LemperaLuresţ whlch form ln
warm Lo hoL llquldsŦ
Gas Speed of sound (m]sec) at
0oC
Alr 331
Ammonla 413
Carbon uloxlde 239
LLhylene 317
Pellum 963
Pydrogen Chlorlde 206
MeLhane 430
nlLrogen 334
Cxygen 316
Sulphur uloxlde 213

5peed of sound in vorious
qoses
ŴMounLlng
Slnce Lhe ulLrasonlc devlce ls lnLended Lo measure Lhe levelţ lL requlres an
unobsLrucLed paLh so LhaL Lhe only slgnal reflecLed ls LhaL of Lhe maLerlal Lo be
measuredŦ 1he paLh of falllng producLţ and reflecLlons from surfaces of Lhe
holdlng vessel should be avoldedŦ 1he boLLom surface needs Lo be angled so LhaL
Lhe reflecLed slgnal ls dlrecLly back Lo Lhe LransmlLLer for a valld measuremenLŦ
lf Lhe boLLom of Lhe vessel ls aL an angle so LhaL Lhe slgnal ls reflecLed from a
number of wallsţ Lhe ouLpuL from Lhe devlce can be unpredlcLableŦ
1he ulLrasonlc beam cannoL be narrowed buL a focallslng cone can be usedŦ All
sensors have a dead zoneţ or blanklng dlsLance aL whlch lengLh Lhey cannoL sense
any sound wavesŦ 1hls dlsLance corresponds Lo Lhe lengLh of Lhe LransmlLLed
slgnal and prevenLs Lhe LransmlLLed slgnal belng deLecLed as a reLurn slgnalŦ
ŴSelfŴcleanlng
ln appllcaLlons where splashlng can occurţ selfŴcleanlng probes may be requlredŦ
CondensaLlonţ llquld and dusL are aLomlzed on conLacL wlLh Lhe hlghly acLlve
Lransducer faceŦ 1hls makes selfŴcleanlng probes reslllenL Lo bulld up reduclng
rouLlne malnLenanceŦ



1ransducer 8eam
d|ameter
8|ank|ng d|stance Þrocess mater|a|
10kPz 6o 1000mm Llqulds/dusLy
sollds/powder/sLeam

20kPz 8o 600mm Llqulds/clean sollds
30kPz 7Ŧ3o 300mm llqulds

1ronsducer 5e/ections
WlLh dual
sysLemsţ
boLh Lhe Lransducer frequencles musL be Lhe sameŦ 1he blanklng dlsLance also
varles wlLh Lhe appllcaLlonŦ
lnsto//otion 1echniques
When measurlng Lhrough dusLţ Lhe LransmlLLed slgnal ls greaLly aLLenuaLed and
Lhe senslng equlpmenL has Lrouble ln deLermlnlng Lhe levelŦ 1here are Lwo maln
componenLs of an ulLrasonlc slgnalţ Lhe slgnal power and lLs frequencyŦ lL should
be noLed LhaL alLhough lower frequency sound ls less aLLenuaLed by dusLţ lL
reverberaLes wlLhln Lhe vessel creaLlng a poor echoŦ A soluLlon Lo measurlng Lhls
Lype of process ls Lo use a hlgh frequency slgnal wlLh hlgh acousLlc powerŦ
8eposlLlonlng of Lhe sensor ls qulLe common for solvlng ulLrasonlc measurlng
problemsŦ
4dvontoqes
Ŵnon conLacL wlLh producL
ŴSulLable for wlde range of llqulds and bulk producLs
Ŵ8ellable performance ln dlfflculL servlce
Ŵno movlng parLs
ŴMeasuremenL wlLhouL physlcal conLacL
ŴunaffecLed by denslLyţ molsLure conLenL or conducLlvlLy
ŴAccuracy of 0Ŧ23Ʒ wlLh LemperaLure compensaLlon and selfŴcallbraLlon

uisodvontoqes
ÞroducL musL glve a good reflecLlon and noL absorb sound

ÞroducL musL have a good dlsLlncL layer of measuremenL and noL be obscured by
foam or bubbllngŦ
ŴnoL sulLable for hlgher pressures or ln a vacuum
ŴSpeclal cable ls requlred beLween Lhe Lransducer and elecLronlcs
Ŵ1he LemperaLure ls llmlLed Lo 170
o
C
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
1he performance of an ulLrasonlc level LransmlLLer ls hlghly dependenL on Lhe
echo lL recelvesŦ 1he echo may be weak due Lo dlsperslon and absorpLlonŦ
ulsperslon may be a problem on Laller vessels and can be reduced by uslng a
focallzlng coneŦ
ln Lhe case of sound absorblng maLerlalsţ Lhe echo slgnal can be greaLly reducedţ
ln whlch case hlgher energy sysLems may be requlredŦ
ln applylng ulLrasonlc level measurlng equlpmenL for more dlfflculL appllcaLlonsţ
sulLablllLy may rely on pasL experlence or requlre LesLlng before permanenL
lnsLallaLlon ls carrled ouLŦ
Summary
1hls Lype of level measuremenL has excellenL rellablllLy and very good accuracyŦ
1he oLher maln advanLage ls LhaL lL ls a nonŴconLacL Lechnologyţ whlch llmlLs
corroslon and conLamlnaLlon wlLh Lhe conLenLs of Lhe vesselŦ
1he large number of frequency LransmlLLers avallable allows Lhls Lype of senslng
Lo be cusLomlzed for each appllcaLlonŦ





SŦ2 kadar based measurement
8adar gauges dlffer from ulLrasonlc ln LhaL Lhey use mlcrowaves lnsLead of sound
wavesŦ Llke ulLrasonlc devlces Lhey measure from Lhe Lop of Lhe vessel Lo
deLermlne Lhe producL levelŦ
1wo examples of radar gauges are Lhe 3Ŧ8CPz and 24CPz sysLemsŦ 1he hlgher
Lransmlsslon frequency can be used Lo deLecL dryţ nonŴconducLlve maLerlals wlLh
very low bulk denslLyŦ
kodor differentio/ pressure hybrid system

Advantages
Ŵused on dlfflculL 'hardŴLoŴhandle' appllcaLlons
ŴPlgh accuracy
ŴnonŴconLacL
ŴMeasure level Lhrough plasLlc Lanks
ŴMonlLor conLenLs of boxes or oLher mulLlŴmedla maLerlal
ŴueLecL obsLrucLlons ln chuLes or presses


D|sadvantages
ŴSenslLlve Lo bulldŴup on sensor face
Ŵvery expenslveţ dependlng on accuracy
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
8adar gauges are qulLe speclflc ln Lhelr appllcaLlon of useŦ 8adar level
measuremenL should be avolded on sollds due Lo Lhe weak slgnal reflecLlon LhaL
occursŦ
AlLhough radar sensors cannoL measure all Lhe appllcaLlons LhaL nuclear radlaLlon
canţ radar sensors are used ln preference Lo ulLrasonlc or laser Lechnology ln
appllcaLlons LhaL conLaln large amounLs of Lhe followlngť
Ŵsensor coaLlng
Ŵllquld Lurbulence
Ŵfoam
Summary
8adar level measuremenL ls malnly used where LemperaLure and pressure ls a
problemŦ
6Ŧ Attenuat|on based or kad|at|on type Measurement
Camma radlaLlon sources are chosen for use ln level deLecLlng equlpmenL
because gamma rays have greaL peneLraLlng power and cannoL be deflecLedŦ
Level measuremenL wlLh radlaLlon works on Lhe prlnclple of passlng gamma
radlaLlon Lhrough Lhe maLerlal Lo be measuredŦ As Lhe radlaLlon passes Lhrough
Lhls maLerlalţ Lhe level can be deLermlned by Lhe amounL of aLLenuaLlonŦ
1he Source
1he maln componenL of Lhls Lype of measurlng devlce ls Lhe radloacLlve sourceŦ
1he Lwo common Lypes of radloacLlve sources are Caeslum 137 (Cs 137) and
CobalL 60 (Co 60)Ŧ
1he acLlvlLy of Lhe radloacLlve subsLance decreases wlLh LlmeŦ 1he Llme Laken for
Lhe acLlvlLy of such a subsLance Lo halve ls Lermed lLs halfŴllfeŦ CobalL 60 has a
halfŴllfe of 3Ŧ3 years whlle Caeslum 137 on Lhe oLher hand has a halfŴllfe of 32
yearsŦ
WlLh Caeslum 137 havlng such a long halfŴllfeţ Lhere ls less need Lo apply any
correcLlon for Lhe decreaslng acLlvlLy levelŦ CobalL 60ţ whlch decays a llLLle more
qulcklyţ requlres a halfŴllfe correcLlon facLor Lo compensaLe for Lhe decay ln
acLlvlLyŦ Modern measuremenL equlpmenL now has auLomaLlc halfŴllfe correcLlonţ
and as such Lhe cholce of source ls no longer a crlLlcal facLorŦ
lL should also be noLed LhaL alLhough Lhe source decaysţ Lhe elecLromagneLlc
energy LhaL ls produced cannoL lnduce oLher maLerlals Lo become radloacLlveŦ
1hls means LhaL gamma sources can be used around such maLerlals as food and
also on food grade packaglng maLerlalsŦ
Source S|z|ng
Cne of Lhe advanLages of Lhls Lype of level measuremenL ls LhaL lL can be
mounLed ouLslde of Lhe vessel of Lhe maLerlal Lo be measuredŦ
ln such lnsLallaLlonsţ Lhe radlaLlon of Lhe source musL peneLraLe subsLances oLher
Lhan alrŦ 1here ls a llmlL on Lhe mlnlmum radlaLlon fleld lnLenslLy aL Lhe deLecLor
and Lherefore conslderaLlon of Lhe aLLenuaLlon of Lhe source Lhrough Lhe vessel
walls and process maLerlal musL be Laken lnLo accounLŦ 1hls ensures LhaL Lhe
radlaLlon lnLenslLy does noL go below Lhe requlred senslng level aL Lhe deLecLorŦ
1hls lnformaLlon lnvolves numerous varlables and ls well researched and
documenLedŦ Poweverţ slzlng of Lhe source ls probably more easlly and
accuraLely obLalned from Lhe suppller when speclfylng and selecLlng Lhe
measurlng equlpmenLŦ
ln large vessels whlch requlre a large source Lo overcome Lhe aLLenuaLlon Lhrough
Lhe maLerlalţ Lhe source slze may lnhlblL Lhe use of such a measuremenL
LechnlqueŦ ln such appllcaLlonsţ a cord may be selecLed whlch reduces Lhe
amounL of aLLenuaLlon of Lhe source due Lo Lhe reduced area of maLerlal and
Lherefore Lhe source slze ls kepL Lo a mlnlmumŦ
ke/otive /ocotions of rodiotion sources ond detectors

1he Str|p Detector
1he deLecLor for conLlnuous measuremenL ls a Lype of sclnLlllaLlon counLer and
phoLomulLlpllerŦ 1hls Lype of senslng has Lhe advanLage of hlgh senslLlvlLy of Lhe
sclnLlllaLlon crysLals (compared Lo Celger counLers) coupled wlLh Lhe safeLy and
economy of a polnL sourceŦ
1he rod sclnLlllaLlon counLer ls a rod of opLlcally pure Þerspex wlLhln whlch
sclnLlllaLlon crysLals are unlformly dlsLrlbuLedŦ ln Lhe presence of gamma
radlaLlonţ Lhe sclnLlllaLlon crysLals emlL flashes of llghL whlch are Lhen deLecLed by
a phoLomulLlpller aL Lhe base of Lhe rod and converLed lnLo elecLrlcal pulsesŦ
A conLlnuous serles of reference flashes are generaLed by an LLu onLo a flbre
opLlc llnk Lhrough Lhe LoLal lengLh of Lhe sclnLlllaLor rodŦ 1hls ls done Lo monlLor
Lhe crlLlcal opLlcal llnk beLween Lhe sclnLlllaLlon rod and Lhe phoLoŴmulLlpllerŦ
lrrespecLlve of wheLher Lhe rod ls exposed Lo radlaLlonţ Lhese reference flashes
musL be sensed by Lhe phoLomulLlpllerŦ An alarm ls acLlvaLed lf Lhey are noL
recelvedŦ
1he level of radlaLlon ls converLed lnLo a ÞCM (Þulse Code ModulaLed) slgnal by
Lhe elecLronlcs mounLed ln Lhe deLecLor and LransmlLLed Lo Lhe measuremenL
ampllflerŦ
6Ŧ1 Þo|nt Leve| Measurement
1he deLecLor ls mounLed ad[acenL Lo Lhe source and ls Lhe measurlng devlceŦ
lor level swlLchlng Lhere are Lwo commonly used Lypesť
1he CelgerŴMueller (CŴM) Lube
1he Cas lonlzaLlon chamber
1he CŴM Lube has a wlre elemenL anode ln Lhe cenLre of a cyllndrlcal caLhodeŦ
1he area beLween Lhe anode and caLhode ls fllled wlLh an lnerL gas and sealedŦ A
volLage ls applled across Lhe Lermlnals (230Ŵ300 v)Ŧ When Lhe gamma radlaLlon
lonlzes Lhe lnerL gasţ Lhere ls an elecLrlcal breakdown beLween Lhe anode and
caLhodeŦ
1he frequency of Lhe breakdowns ls relaLlve Lo Lhe lnLenslLy of Lhe gamma
radlaLlonŦ 1he fleld sLrengLh ls deLermlned by counLlng Lhe pulses produced over
a glven Llme lnLervalŦ
1he oLher common deLecLor ls Lhe gas lonlzaLlon chamberŦ 1he lonlzaLlon
chamber ls slmllar Lo Lhe CŴM Lube ln LhaL lL ls fllled wlLh an lnerL gas and sealedŦ
1he maln dlfference ls LhaL lnsLead of applylng a breakdown volLageţ a lower
volLage (Lyplcally 6v) ls applled across Lhe LermlnalsŦ When Lhe chamber ls
exposed Lo gamma radlaLlonţ lonlzaLlon occurs and a conLlnuous currenL ls
emlLLed from Lhe deLecLorŦ As Lhe vessel flllsţ gamma energy ls blocked from
reachlng Lhe deLecLor causlng less lonlzaLlon produclng a proporLlonal change ln
Lhe slgnalŦ A hlgh level resulLs ln a low currenL ouLpuLţ wlLh a low level produclng
a hlgh ouLpuLŦ
6Ŧ2 Cont|nuous Leve| Measurement
1here are Lwo common sources for conLlnuous level measuremenLť
ŴSLrlp source
ŴÞolnL source
8oLh of Lhese meLhods use Lhe sLrlp deLecLorŦ
1he sLrlp source ls more accuraLe as lL radlaLes a longţ narrowţ unlform beam ln
Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe deLecLorŦ As Lhe level changesţ Lhe deLecLor ls covered and
proLecLed from Lhe source and Lhe correspondlng response changesŦ 1he
response ls unlform and llnear over Lhe enLlre spanţ produclng a llnear slgnal LhaL
corresponds wlLh changes ln levelŦ LxcepLlons are aL 0Ʒ and 100Ʒ where
nonŴllnear end effecLs occurŦ
LffecLs of denslLy changes can be overcome by slzlng Lhe source for Lhe lower
denslLy so LhaL hlgher denslLles do noL affecL Lhe readlng on Lhe deLecLorŦ


continuous /eve/ detection by use of strip source ond e/ectronic ce// receivers
1he sLrlp source ls accuraLe and provldes a good llnear responseŤ however lL ls Lhe
more expenslveŦ 1he polnL source ls a cheaper alLernaLlveŦ
1he polnL source works ln a slmllar way Lo Lhe sLrlp source sysLemţ ln LhaL Lhe
sLrlp deLecLor measures Lhe radlaLlon from Lhe sourceŦ 1he radlaLlon sensed by
Lhe deLecLor ls sLlll aLLenuaLed wlLh levelŤ however Lhe polnL source sysLem
produces a nonŴllnear response wlLh level changeŦ
1he source holder generally has an exlL angle of 20 or 40 degreesŦ 1he radlaLlon
beam leaves Lhe aperLure dlrecLly and musL be almed by Lhe mounLlng of Lhe
source holderŦ 1he angle of Lhe source holder ls half LhaL of Lhe radlaLlon exlL
angleţ allowlng Lhe source holder Lo be mounLed aL Lhe hlghesL measurlng polnLŦ
noLe LhaL Lhe low level gamma energy LhaL ls emlLLed from Lhe source does so aL
a preclse shape Lhrough Lhe vessel wallŦ lL ls Lhen measured on Lhe oLher slde
wlLh Lhe deLecLorŦ
1here are a number of facLors LhaL change when Lhe level rlses and fallsť
ŴLhlckness of maLerlal
ŴgeomeLry of radlaLed source
ŴdlsLance from Lhe source Lo Lhe deLecLor
Ŵfree space
1hls sysLem nonŴllnearlLy can be recLlfled elecLronlcally ln Lhe recelver
kodiotion instrument insto//otion

Ways Lo lmprove llnearlLy and accuracy aL Lhe lower end ls Lo use one sLrlp
deLecLor and Lwo or more polnL sourcesŦ Cbvlously cosL may be an lnhlblLlng
facLorŦ







1wo point sources with o strip detectorŦ

1roub|eshoot|ng
1he meLhod for LesLlng and callbraLlng radlaLlon level deLecLors ls qulLe slmpleŦ
1esLlng of 100Ʒ full ls done by closlng Lhe source shuLLerţ as lf Lhe vessel were
fullŦ 1o LesL or callbraLe for Lhe acLual levelţ a porLable Celger counLer ls usedŦ
8y runnlng Lhe Celger counLer down Lhe wall beLween Lhe vessel and Lhe
deLecLorţ Lhe level ls Lhe polnL where Lhe llquld screens off Lhe source and Lhe
counLer readlngs decrease rapldlyŦ
Advantages
ŴSulLable for a varleLy of producLs
ŴMounLed wlLhouL obsLrucLlon
ŴCan be mounLed exLernal Lo Lhe vessel


D|sadvantages
ŴMusL always be mounLed on Lhe slde of Lhe vessel
ŴSpeclal safeLy measures are requlred for Lhe use of gamma radlaLlon
ŴMay also lnvolve llcenslng requlremenLs
ŴLxpenslve
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
1he polnL source meLhod of conLlnuous level measuremenL ls cheaper Lhan Lhe
sLrlp sourceŦ Poweverţ lf noL properly correcLedţ Lhe nonŴllnearlLy can cause
problems wlLh conLrol sysLems performlng conLlnuous conLrolŦ 1hls ls of
parLlcular concern lf operaLlng over a slgnlflcanL rangeţ ln whlch case changes ln
accuracy may become an lssueŦ
1he polnL source ls hlghly sulLable where varled alarm or lndlcaLlon levels are
requlred and also provlde an added advanLage ln Lerms of radlaLlon safeLyŦ
SLrlp sources are llmlLed Lo Co60 due Lo Lhe welghL of Cs137Ŧ LlmlLaLlons also
apply Lo Lhe sLrlp source of Co60ţ whlch ls qulLe heavyţ cumbersome and
expenslveŦ
Summary
1he advanLage of Lhls Lype of measuremenL ls LhaL lL can be performed from
ouLslde Lhe vesselŦ Such slLuaLlons may be ln Lhe use of very coarseţ abraslveţ
corroslve or exLremely adheslve producLsŦ AppllcaLlons wlLh very hlgh pressures
or LemperaLures such as reacLors or furnaces may also requlre exLernal
measuremenL LechnlquesŦ
1hls Lype of measuremenL ls very seldom used due Lo Lhe expense and safeLy
regulaLlons LhaL are requlred Lo operaLe radloacLlve equlpmenLŦ





7Ŧ L|ectr|ca| Measurement
7Ŧ1 conductive /eve/ detection
8as|s of Cperat|on
1hls form of level measuremenL ls prlmarlly used for hlgh and low level deLecLlonŦ
1he elecLrode or conducLlvlLy probe uses Lhe conducLlvlLy of a fluld Lo deLecL Lhe
presence of Lhe fluld aL Lhe senslng locaLlonŦ 1he slgnal provlded ls elLher on or
offŦ
When Lhe fluld ls noL ln conLacL wlLh Lhe probeţ Lhe elecLrlcal reslsLance beLween
Lhe probe and Lhe vessel wlll be very hlgh or even lnflnlLeŦ When Lhe level of Lhe
fluld rlses Lo cover Lhe probe and compleLe Lhe clrculL beLween Lhe probe and Lhe
vesselţ Lhe reslsLance ln Lhe clrculL wlll be reducedŦ
Þrobes used on vessels consLrucLed of a nonŴconducLlve maLerlal musL have a
good earLh connecLlonŦ 1he earLh connecLlon does noL need Lo be an earLhlng
wlre Ŷ lL could be a feed plpeţ mounLlng brackeL or a second probeŦ
Corroslon of Lhe elecLrode can affecL Lhe performance of Lhe probeŦ ulrecL
currenL can cause oxldaLlon as a resulL of elecLrolyslsţ alLhough Lhls can be
mlnlmlzed by uslng AC powerŦ
conductive /eve/ detection
lor level conLrolţ as opposed Lo level deLecLlonţ Lwo probes can be usedŦ
1here are many dlfferenL Lypes of probes avallableŦ ln Lhe case of llqulds LhaL
leave a resldual coaL on Lhe probeţ a low reslsLance verslon ls requlredŦ 1hls
verslon ls capable of deLecLlng Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe acLual producL when
Lhe probe ls lmmersed and a resldual reslsLance when Lhe probe ls exposedŦ
Such appllcaLlons for Lhls Lype of sensor are producLs whlch froLhţ such as mllkţ
beer or carbonaLed drlnksŦ
Some of Lhe dlsadvanLages wlLh conducLlvlLy swlLches are LhaL Lhey only work
wlLh conducLlve and nonŴadheslve fluldsŦ Also ln lnLrlnslcally safe appllcaLlonsţ
where sparklng ls noL permlsslbleţ Lhe sensors musL operaLe aL very low powerŦ
ConducLlvlLy swlLches are low cosL and slmple ln deslgnŦ
1hey are a good lndlcaLlon for proLecLlon on pumps ln Lhe case of dry runnlng
deLecLlonŦ
Se|ect|on and S|z|ng
ln assesslng Lhe appllcaLlon for a conducLlvlLy probeţ a small AC volLage from a
Lransformer can be applled Lo a meLal rod Lo slmulaLe Lhe probe and Lhe vessel
wallŦ lor accuracyţ Lhls needs Lo be aL Lhe same poslLlon and dlsLance from Lhe
wall as Lhe probeŦ 1hen wlLh abouL 30mm of Lhe rod lmmersed ln Lhe fluldţ Lhe
currenL can be measured and Lhe reslsLance calculaLedť
8 ln ohms ƹ v ln volLs / l ln amps
lf Lhe calculaLed reslsLance ls less Lhan LhaL requlred for Lhe lnsLrumenLţ Lhen a
conducLlvlLy probe and ampllfler can be usedŦ 1hls ls noL a hlghly accuraLe means
of deLermlnlng Lhe sulLablllLyŤ however lL does glve a reasonable lndlcaLlonŦ
Þroblems wlLh Lhls LesL vary as lL depends on Lhe surface area of conLacL and Lhe
locaLlon of Lhe probeŦ
Insta||at|on 1echn|ques Ŵ MounLlng ln Lanks
Llqulds causlng bulldŴupť verLlcal mounLlng ln Lhe Lank from above ls
recommended when uslng llqulds whlch leave a conducLlve deposlL on Lhe
lnsulaLlonŦ LaLeral mounLlng ln a Lank ls sulLable lf Lhe llquldţ afLer clearlng Lhe
lnsulaLlonţ only leaves a layer whlch ls a poor conducLorŦ
MounLlng polnLť lL musL be ensured LhaL Lhe llquld does noL Louch Lhe
conducLlvlLy probes when Lhe Lank ls fllllngŦ 1he probes should also noL Louch Lhe
meLal walls or any oLher elecLrlcally conducLlve lnsLallaLlonsŦ
MounLlng from aboveť lf mounLlng from aboveţ lL should be noLed LhaL Lhe level
aL whlch Lhe swlLch ls Lrlggered may be uncerLalnŦ 1he swlLch may acLlvaLe wlLh
only a few mllllmeLres of llquld coverlng Lhe probesţ or on less conducLlve
maLerlal lL may requlre Lhe probe Lo be fully lmmersedŦ
MounLlng from Lhe sldeť Þrobe lengLhs greaLer Lhan 120mm are generally
adequaLe for slde mounLlngŦlf lL ls unavoldable and Lhe probe has Lo be mounLed
ln a Lank where Lhe llquld can cause bulldŴupţ Lhen longer probes may be
requlredŦ Longer probes have a hlgher conLacL reslsLance raLlo beLween covered
and free probes LhaL have lnsulaLlon wlLh some conducLlvlLyŦ lf Lhe probe ls Lo be
mounLed from Lhe sldeţ Lhen lL should be polnLed sllghLly downwards Lo enable
Lhe llquld Lo drlp off more easllyŦ 1hls can asslsL ln reduclng Lhe conducLlve
bulldŴup on Lhe lnsulaLlonŦ
Insta||at|on 1echn|ques Ŵ MounLlng ln plpes
SelecLlng probe lengLhsť 1he shorLesL posslble probe lengLh should be usedŦ 1hls
mlnlmlzes Lhe effecLs on Lhe flow and also slmpllfles mounLlngŦ
MounLlng polnLť ln flow appllcaLlonsţ Lhere can be conslderable loadlng on Lhe
probeŦ When lnsLalllng Lhe probeţ Lake lnLo accounL Lhe maxlmum laLeral load
of Lhe probeŦ MounL Lhe probe away from Lhe flow by Laklng lnLo accounL Lhe
flow veloclLyţ vlscoslLy and plpe dlameLerŦ
ConLamlnanLsť Pard solld parLlcles ln Lhe llquld can lead Lo wear of Lhe lnsulaLlonţ
Lhls ls parLlcularly for flow appllcaLlonsŦ AnoLher problem occurs when long and
flbrous debrls seLLles on Lhe rod probes and produces errors ln measuremenLŦ






lnsto//otion exomp/es




Advantages
Ŵvery slmple and lnexpenslve
Ŵno movlng parLs
ŴCood for dual polnL conLrol (level swlLchlng conLrol) ln one lnsLrumenL
ŴCood for hlgh pressure appllcaLlons
D|sadvantages
ŴConLamlnaLlon of probe wlLh adherlng maLerlals can affecL resulLs
ŴLlmlLed appllcaLlon for producLs of varylng conducLlvlLy
ŴlnLrlnslc safeLy deslgns need Lo be speclfled lf requlred
Ŵ8esLrlcLed Lo conducLlve and nonŴcoaLlng processes
ŴÞosslble elecLrolyLlc corroslon
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
Cne of Lhe maln llmlLaLlons ls LhaL Lhe llquld needs Lo be conducLlveŦ 1he
manufacLurer speclfles Lhe requlred conducLlvlLy levelŦ A Lyplcal flgure for
effecLlve operaLlon would be below 10
8
ohm/cm reslsLlvlLyŦ
Þroblems may arlse when deLecLlng llquld LhaL ls belng aglLaLed or ls LurbulenLŦ
uue Lo Lhe low cosL of Lhls Lype of measuremenLţ lL may be deslrable Lo lnsLall
Lwo probes Lo deLecL Lhe same levelŦ AlLernaLlvelyţ a small verLlcal dlsLance
beLween Lhe Lwo probes can be used Lo provlde a dead band or neuLral zoneŦ 1hls
can proLecL agalnsL cycllng should splashlng occur (a Llme delay serves Lhe same
purpose)Ŧ
7Ŧ2 lie/d £ffect Leve/ uetection
Whereas Lhe conducLlve probe relles on Lhe conducLlvlLy of Lhe fluldţ Lhe fleld
effecL probe relles on Lhe fluld (or maLerlal) havlng elecLrlcal properLles dlfferenL
Lo alr (or Lhe vold medlum)Ŧ
1he fleld effecL probe produces a fleld beLween Lhe meLalllc cap and Lhe meLalllc
glandŦ 1he meLalllc cap ls locaLed aL Lhe end of Lhe probeţ wlLh Lhe gland abouL
200mm away aL Lhe mounLlng lnLo Lhe vesselŦ
When a llquldţ slurry or even solld maLerlal breaks Lhe fleldţ Lhe hlgh frequency
currenL lncreases and Lrlggers Lhe swlLchŦ
lie/d effect /eve/ switch ond its insto//otion

AdvanLages and dlsadvanLages are slmllar Lo Lhose for Lhe conducLlvlLy probe
wlLh Lhe followlng dlfferencesť
Advantages
ŴSulLable for conducLlve or nonŴconducLlve appllcaLlons
D|sadvantages
ŴLlmlLed ln hlgh pressure and LemperaLure appllcaLlons
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
uue Lo Lhe added expenseţ wlLh only a llmlLed number of advanLagesţ only a few
manufacLurers use Lhls Lechnology ln Lhelr producLsŦ

8Ŧ copocitive Leve/ Meosurement
8as|s of Cperat|on Ŵ nonŴconducLlve process maLerlal
CapaclLlve level measuremenL Lakes advanLage of Lhe dlelecLrlc consLanL ln all
maLerlals Lo deLermlne changes ln levelŦ 1he dlelecLrlcţ ln Lerms of capaclLanceţ ls
Lhe lnsulaLlng maLerlal beLween Lhe plaLes of Lhe capaclLorŦ 1he dlelecLrlc
consLanL ls a represenLaLlon of a maLerlals lnsulaLlng ablllLyŦ
CulLe slmplyţ a capaclLor ls no more Lhan a palr of conducLlve elecLrodes wlLh a
flxed spaclng and dlelecLrlc beLween LhemŦ
CapaclLance ls noL llmlLed Lo plaLesţ and can be measured beLween probes or any
oLher surface connecLed as an elecLrodeŦ When a probe ls lnsLalled ln a vesselţ a
capaclLor ls formed beLween Lhe probe and Lhe wall of Lhe vesselŦ 1he
capaclLance ls well deflned for many maLerlalsţ and ls qulLe low when Lhe probe ls
ln alrŦ When Lhe maLerlal covers Lhe probeţ a clrculL ls formed conslsLlng of a
much larger capaclLance and a change ln reslsLanceŦ lL ls Lhe changes ln Lhe
dlelecLrlc consLanL LhaL affecLs Lhe capaclLance and ls ulLlmaLely whaL ls
measuredŦ
5imp/ified circuit dioqrom showinq copocitonce meosurement with fu//y
insu/oted probes

An alLernaLlve Lo Lhls ls Lhe measuremenL of capaclLance beLween Lwo probes
(elecLrodes)Ŧ
8as|s of Cperat|on Ŵ ConducLlve process maLerlal
Slmple capaclLlve measuremenL ls generally performed on nonŴconducLlve
process maLerlalŦ ln slzlng an appllcaLlon for sulLablllLyţ one of Lhe concerns ls Lhe
conducLlvlLy of Lhe maLerlalŦ Þroblems arlse when uslng a conducLlve maLerlal as
Lhls connecLs Lhe plaLes LogeLher (an elecLrlcal shorL)Ŧ As capaclLance relles on Lhe
lnsulaLlon (or dlelecLrlc)ţ Lhen Lhe ablllLy Lo measure capaclLance ls lmpalredŦ
ln conducLlve appllcaLlonsţ Lhe process maLerlal ls grounded by lLs conLacL wlLh
Lhe vessel wallŦ 1he only lnsulaLlon (or dlelecLrlc) ls Lhe lnsulaLlon on Lhe
capaclLlve probeŦ As suchţ Lhe rlslng process maLerlal does noL lncrease Lhe
capaclLance by lnserLlng lLself beLween Lhe plaLes as ln Lhe case of a
nonŴconducLlve maLerlalŦ Poweverţ lL lncreases capaclLance by brlnglng more of
Lhe ground plaLe ln conLacL wlLh Lhe probe lnsulaLlonŦ
1he added advanLage of Lhls Lype of measuremenLţ ls LhaL noL only ls Lhe
capaclLance measurableţ buL also slmpllfled because Lhe measuremenL ls
lndependenL of Lhe dlelecLrlc consLanL of Lhe process maLerlalŦ
Se|ect|on and S|z|ng
nonŴconducLlve process maLerlals would lnclude hydrocarbonsţ ollsţ alcoholsţ dry
sollds or slmllarŦ Þrocess flulds LhaL are waLerŴbased and aclds can be consldered
as conducLlveŦ
lf Lhe conducLlvlLy exceeds a speclflc low Lhresholdţ Lhen any changes ln Lhe area
beLween Lhe probe and Lhe wall wlll noL be deLecLedŦ A useful numerlcal crlLerlon
ls LhaL maLerlals wlLh a relaLlve dlelecLrlc consLanL of 19 or moreţ or a
conducLlvlLy of 20 mlcro ohms or moreţ may be consldered conducLlveŦ lf
uncerLalnţ Lhe process maLerlal should be consldered as belng conducLlveŦ
lor conducLlve appllcaLlonsţ Lhe capaclLlve probe wlll need Lo be lnsulaLedŦ 1hls ls
Lyplcally done wlLh 1eflonŦ
Screenlng on Lhe probe prevenLs bulldŴup of maLerlal or condensaLlon ln Lhe
vlclnlLy of Lhe process connecLlonŦ Þrobes LhaL have acLlve bulldŴup compensaLlon
for llmlL swlLchlng cancel ouL Lhe effecLs of bulldsŴup on Lhe probeŦ
1here are a number of verslons of probe deslgns LhaL accounL for conducLlvlLy
and bulldŴupŦ 8elow ls a llsL of some of Lhe advanLages when selecLlng a parLlcular
probe Lypeť
1 Ŵ Þrobe wlLhouL ground Lubeť
for conducLlve llqulds
for hlgh vlscoslLy llqulds
for bulk sollds
2 Ŵ Þrobe wlLh ground Lubeť
for nonŴconducLlve llqulds
for use ln aglLaLor vessels
3 Ŵ Þrobe wlLh screenlngť
for long nozzles
for condensaLlon on Lhe roof of Lhe vessel
for bulldŴup on Lhe vessel wall
4 Ŵ Þrobe wlLh fully lnsulaLed screenlng
Ŵ exLra proLecLlon especlally for corroslve maLerlals
3 Ŵ Þrobe wlLh acLlve bulldŴup compensaLlon for llmlL deLecLlon
Ŵfor conducLlve bulldŴup on Lhe probe
6 Ŵ Þrobe wlLh gas LlghL gland
Ŵfor llqulfled gas Lanks (lf requlred)
ŴprevenLs condensaLlon formlng ln Lhe probe under exLreme LemperaLure
changes
7 Ŵ Þrobe wlLh LemperaLure spacer
Ŵ for hlgher operaLlng LemperaLures

Probe versions

Insta||at|on 1echn|ques
ln pracLlce for capaclLlve level measuremenLţ Lhe capaclLor ls formed from Lhe
wall of Lhe vesselţ and an lnsulaLed probe mounLed ln Lhe wallŦ ln Lhe case of
nonŴconducLlve walls (egŦ relnforced concreLe) lron relnforcemenL ls adequaLe Lo
acL as one plaLe of Lhe capaclLorŦ lor plasLlc Lanksţ a meLal plpe or a grlll placed
around Lhe probe or even a meLal sLrlp placed on Lhe ouLslde of Lhe Lank may be
usedŦ
ln deslgnlng a capaclLlve measuremenL sysLemţ Lhe Lhree maln areas for
conslderaLlon are MounLlngţ Surface and ulsLanceŦ









1ypico/ copocitonce probe insto//otion

MounLlngť
nozzles are used ln mounLlng Lhe probeŦ 1hese ofLen have flanges and care needs
Lo be Laken Lo ensure LhaL sedlmenL cannoL bulldŴup ln any volds around Lhe
flangeŦ 1he chances of sedlmenL belng deposlLed ln Lhe nozzle are hlghŦ 1hls ls
also exacLly where Lhe probe ls mosL senslLlveţ as lL ls Lhe closesL area beLween
Lhe probe and Lhe vesselŦ
CondensaLlon ls also a problem and can occur ln volds much Lhe same as Lhe
conLamlnanLs already menLlonedŦ
ConLamlnaLlon of Lhe nozzle can be avolded by pro[ecLlng Lhe probe lnLo Lhe
vesselŦ Cne of Lhe common meLhods ls Lo replace Lhe connecLlon Lube wlLh a
Lhreaded sockeLţ whlch ls welded dlrecLly lnLo Lhe wall of Lhe vesselŦ 1he screw
connecLor of Lhe probe flLs dlrecLly lnLo Lhlsţ and Lhe probe wlll Lhen pro[ecL
dlrecLly lnLo Lhe vesselŦ 1hls Lype of flLLlng ls also less expenslveŦ
AnoLher meLhod of avoldlng conLamlnaLlon of Lhe nozzle ls by uslng a probe LhaL
ls lnacLlve along LhaL parL of Lhe sLemŦ ln cases where lL ls noL posslble Lo modlfy
an exlsLlng nozzle because of hlgh pressureţ Lhen a probe wlLh an lnacLlve lengLh
can be usedŦ ln such a caseţ Lhe acLlve parL of Lhe probe ls separaLed from Lhe
area mosL suscepLlble Lo condensaLlon or conLamlnaLlon by Lhe lnacLlve secLlonŦ
Surfaceť
1he change ln capaclLance can be qulLe small ln appllcaLlons LhaL have a low
dlelecLrlc consLanL or a shorL probeŦ 1o lncrease Lhe change ln capaclLance and
ulLlmaLely Lhe senslLlvlLy of Lhe devlceţ Lhe capaclLance can be lncreasedŦ
lncreaslng Lhe surface area of Lhe probe ls an easy way Lo lncrease Lhe
capaclLanceŦ 8ecause of Lhelr hlgh relaLlve permlLLlvlLyţ conducLlve llqulds do noL
requlre an lncreased surface areaŦ
ulsLanceť
1he change ln capaclLance can also be lncreased by decreaslng Lhe dlsLance
beLween Lhe Lwo capaclLor plaLesŦ 1he mosL common example of Lhls ls Lhe use of
a ground Lube probe whlch ellmlnaLes Lhe nonŴllnear slLuaLlonŦ
lnsulaLlonť
1he screwŴln boss secLlon or flange of a capaclLance probe wlll always be
lnsulaLed from Lhe vessel buL Lhe probe rod lLself can be elLher fully or parLlally
lnsulaLedŦ ln analogue level measuremenLţ a fully lnsulaLed probe ls always used
Lo prevenL capaclLlve shorLŴclrculLlngŦ lf a parLlally lnsulaLed probe ls used for
analogue measuremenL ln a conducLlve maLerlalţ Lhen a readlng of 100Ʒ occurs
when Lhe conducLlve maLerlal compleLes Lhe clrculLŦ
Level llmlL swlLches can use boLh fully lnsulaLed and parLlally lnsulaLed probesŦ
ÞarLlally lnsulaLed probes are less expenslve and glve a larger change ln
capaclLanceŦ Agalnţ for conducLlve fluldsţ only fully lnsulaLed probes are usedŦ
1hls also applles for maLerlals LhaL can conLamlnaLe Lhe probeŦ
CapaclLlve level measuremenL ls sulLable for boLh llmlL deLecLlon and conLlnuous
level measuremenL of llquldsţ pasLes and llghL bulk solldsŦ CapaclLlve sysLems
work rellably and accuraLely ln exLreme LemperaLures (boLh hlgh and low)ţ hlgh
pressure and vacuumţ where Lhere ls bulldŴup of maLerlalţ exploslonŴhazardous
areas and hlghly corroslve envlronmenLsŦ
1yp|ca| App||cat|ons
CapaclLlve level measurlng lnsLrumenLs are used for level deLecLlon ln sllosţ Lanks
and bunkersţ for boLh llmlL deLecLlon and conLlnuous measuremenLŦ 1hese
lnsLrumenLs are Lyplcally used ln all areas of lndusLry and are capable of
measurlng llqulds as well as solld maLerlalsŦ
Advantages
ŴPlghly sulLable for llqulds and bulk sollds
Ŵno movlng parLs
ŴSulLable for hlghly corroslve medla
D|sadvantages
ŴLlmlLed ln lLs appllcaLlon for producLs of changlng elecLrlcal properLles (especlally
molsLure conLenL)
App||cat|on L|m|tat|ons
Cenerallyţ capaclLance level sysLems requlre callbraLlon afLer lnsLallaLlonţ
alLhough some excepLlons do exlsLŦ
1hey are llmlLed ln appllcaLlons where levels of foam or oLher process maLerlals
wlLh alr bubbles occurŦ
Insta||at|on Cons|derat|ons
Atmospher|c Vesse|s
MosL lnsLrumenLs lnvolved wlLh level deLecLlon can be easlly removed from Lhe
vesselŦ 1op mounLlng of Lhe senslng devlce also ellmlnaLes Lhe posslblllLy of
process fluld enLerlng Lhe Lransducer or sensor houslng should Lhe nozzle or
probe corrode or break offŦ
Many level measuremenL devlces have Lhe added advanLage LhaL Lhey can be
manually gaugedŦ 1hls provldes Lwo lmporLanL facLorsť
ŴMeasuremenLs are sLlll posslble ln Lhe evenL of equlpmenL fallure
ŴCallbraLlon and polnL checks can provlde vlLal operaLlonal lnformaLlon
Cne common lnsLallaLlon crlLerla for polnL deLecLlon devlces ls LhaL Lhey musL be
mounLed aL Lhe acLuaLlon levelţ presenLlng accesslblllLy problemsŦ
Þressur|zed Vesse|s
1wo maln conslderaLlons apply wlLh level measuremenL devlces ln pressurlzed
vesselsť
ŴlaclllLles for removal and lnsLallaLlon whlle Lhe vessel ls pressurlzedŦ
Ŵ1he pressure raLlng of Lhe equlpmenL for Lhe servlceŦ
Þressurlzed vessels can also be used Lo prevenL fuglLlve emlsslonsţ where an lnerL
gas such as hydrogen pressurlzes Lhe process maLerlalsŦ CompensaLlon wlLhln Lhe
level devlce needs Lo also be accounLed for as Lhe headŴpressure changesŦ
1he accuracy of Lhe measurlng devlce may be dependenL on Lhe followlngť
ŴgravlLy varlaLlons
ŴLemperaLure effecLs
ŴdlelecLrlc consLanL
Also Lhe presence of foamţ vapor or accumulaLed scum on Lhe Lransducer affecLs
Lhe performanceŦ
Impact on the Cvera|| Contro| Loop
Level senslng equlpmenL ls generally fasL respondlngţ and ln Lerms of auLomaLed
conLlnuous conLrolţ does noL add much lag Lo Lhe sysLemŦ
lL ls good pracLlce Lhoughţ Lo lnclude any hlgh and low swlLch llmlLs lnLo Lhe
conLrol sysLemŦ lf Lhe lnsLrumenLaLlon does fall or goes ouL of callbraLlonţ Lhen
Lhe process lnformaLlon can be acqulred from Lhe hlgh and low llmlLsŦ AparL from
Lhe hard wlred safeLy clrculLsţ lL ls good pracLlce Lo lncorporaLe Lhls lnformaLlon
lnLo Lhe conLrol sysLemŦ




Conc|us|onť
1he cosL of senslng equlpmenL ls noL a ma[or conslderaLlon compared wlLh Lhe
economlcs of conLrolllng Lhe processŦ 1here ls Lherefore a growlng demand for
accuracy ln level measurlng equlpmenL
newer models lncorporaLe beLLer means of compensaLlonţ buL noL necessarlly
new LechnologlesŦ lor exampleţ lncorporaLlng a LemperaLure compensaLlon
deLecLor ln Lhe pressure senslng dlaphragm provldes compensaLlon and acLs an
alLernaLlve Lo remoLe pressure sealsŦ 1hls ensures Lhe accuracy and sLablllLy of
Lhe measuremenLŦ
CreaLer demands ln planL efflclency may requlre an lmproved accuracy of a
devlceţ noL [usL for Lhe acLual measuremenLţ buL also Lo lncrease Lhe range of
operaLlonŦ lf Lhe safeLy llmlLs were seL aL 90Ʒ due Lo lnaccuracles wlLh Lhe
senslng devlceţ Lhen an lncreased range could be achleved by uslng more
accuraLe equlpmenL
uemands are also lmposed on processes Lo conform Lo envlronmenLal
regulaLlonsŦ AccuraLe accounLlng of maLerlals asslsLs ln achlevlng LhlsŦ Such
Lechnologles as 8l admlLLance or ulLrasonlc mlnlmlze Lhe expense of Lhls
envlronmenLal compllanceŦ
Þroblems occur ln Lrylng Lo sense level ln exlsLlng vessels LhaL may be
nonŴmeLalllcŦ 8l flexlble cable sensors have an lnLegral ground elemenL whlch
ellmlnaLes Lhe need for an exLernal ground reference when uslng Lhe sensor Lo
measure Lhe level of process maLerlals ln nonŴmeLalllc vesselsŦ 1hermalţ vlbraLlng
and opLlcal swlLches are also ln developmenL

$ 

-9   -                                         

9@- ° n° 9°n½ ¾€  , f¾ ¯ ° , f°¾€n° °°f  ¯ f¾ ¯ ° 9 ¾¾ 
f¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ ° @f°¾¯ 
f¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ °  °f°
f¾ %f f°½ %  ¯ f¾ ¯ °

° n
f¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ °

f½fnf°n ½   ¯ f¾ ¯ ° .

°n¾° .

    ° n°    ¯ f¾°–°¾¯ °¾f ¾ ¯ f¾ € % –f¾%     n°°¾ ¾n   ½ ° °–° ½ €f½½nf° @ ¾ °¾¯ °¾ ¯f  ° nf¾  n ¾½f¾       @f°¾¯ ¾  n nf ¾    °€¯f°° €¯€fn¾–°f¾€n°½½¾   ¾n ¾f ¾  ¯°–  €  ½ ° °–° ¾ ½° €€  °½ ¾ €    °¾¯ °¾  ° €€  ° ½ ¾ € ½°n½ ¾  @  ¾  n° € f ½fnf    °¾¯ ° ½ ° ¾ ° ½n ¾¾ ½ff¯  ¾   ½ ¾¾   ¯½ f ¯ ¯f°  °°¯ °fn° °¾ n @ f¾½°n½ ¾€   ¯ f¾ ¯ °f  ¾n¾¾ ° f   9°n½ ¾€  . f¾ ¯ °  @ ¯f©½°n½ ¾°  ¯ f¾ ¯ °f° ¾nf¾¾€nf°   9 ¾¾  f¾ €€  °f½ ¾¾  f¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ °   @f°¾¯  f¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ ° f% Df¾°n f¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ ° % f f f¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ °    °f° f¾     ¯ f¾ ¯ ° $ f f° f¾     ¯ f¾ ¯ °   .

° n f¾ ¯ f¾ ¯ °% nnf¯ f¾ ¯ °%   .

f½fnf°n  f¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ ° @½ ¾€¯ f¾ ¯ °    .

°°¾¯ f¾ ¯ °   9°¯ f¾ ¯ ° .

n½n ¾¾ f¾  n ¾nf°° nf     ¯  €€  °  n° ¾ f¾ f  €€  °   ¯ °¾   f¯½   °  n°–   €¯ ½€ff°  ¾f½ € f°¾   .°°¾¯ f¾ ¯ °   n°°¾ ¯ f¾ ¯ °       ¾  n  f°  n°   ° f ¾–°f f¾½½°f    .

f°¾€. n  ¯  J ° ¾°–  ¾fn ¯ f°¾  n  n¾   ½ ¾¾  €¯   ¯ €   f°   °   °¾ ¯¾  °° f°   ¯f° n°¾f°     9°  n°  9°  n° nf° f¾  ½  € f  ¾ f°  ¾ ¾  @  -$ ¾n°–fn°¾½nf¾ €¾½½°– ¾f°–ff¯°– @ ¯ff¾  ¾  f¾ ½n ¾¾  ¾f€  ½ n° n ¾ ° n°©°n°  n°°¾ ¯ f¾°– ½¯ °   €  ¯½ ½ n° nf°  f ¾f   ¯ °  ¾¯  ½n ¾¾ ¯f f¾  f°  ¾ ¯f f  ¯f°¾ °    n°–¾ f°  ° €fn f¾¾nf nn¾ n€ °f     f        ¯ f¾°– ¾¾ ¯ € ° n°¾¾¾ €   ¾ °¾ f°  f ¾ ½ff  ¾–°f n° °°–°¾¯ ° @¾n¯ °f°¾€ °n¾ ° °¯½ ½¾ %n°°¾f° ¾n %f   f° ½ff¯  ¾¯f°  f     .

   @¾   ¾¯½  f°  n f½ ¯   € fnn°°– €    @¾ ¯   nf°  f½½    ¾ f°   ¯f f¾  f°   –  ¾  f½ ¾ nf°  ¾  °  f¾¾  n ¾f°¾¾ ¾¯  € ½½°–  f°¾ n¾  f °n  ½½°–    n¯¯° f¯½  ¾       ½ ¾n  ° f ¯  n   @¾ ¯   ¾ ½¯f ¾–°  € f¯¾½ n n° °¾  ½  ¾ nf°  ¾ €½ ¾¾  ¾¾ ¾        °°–€½n ¾¾–f¾€  °   f¯¾½   @ ¾  n ¾ f  ff ¾  ½ ¾°°  f°  ¾  °  ¾ ° ¾–°f ¾f€ f f¾€n°f¾½f€f°f¯f ½n ¾¾      .° °°f  ¯ f¾ ¯ °   f–°– .

     f–°–    @ ¯ f¾ ¯ °¾ f €¯    ½½°– n°fn¾  ¯€   ¾¾     f°f– ¾  ¯½ f° ° ½ °¾     ¾f f°f– ¾  f¯½ ¯ f¾ ¯ °°  ff ¾f¾¾nf ½ ¾¾ ¯ f¾ ¯ °  ¯ fnnfn  .

½½nf°¯f°¾  @¾ ¾ ° ¾f   € ° ¾f ½n ¾¾ ¾  °– n°°¾ ¯ f¾ ¯ °   @¾ ½ €¯ f¾ ¯ °¾½fnn ¾¾°f°  °¾¯ nf¾ ¾¯f     ¾  € ¾ ½ f ¾  fnn ¾¾   ¾ °¾°– ½¯ °  ½½nf°¾ f  ¯  ¾½ nf€½ ¾¾  ¾¾ ¾   @¾ ¯   ¾½°  ¾  ½ f° ½ f°f°  f f €   –f f°¾ °   ¯ f¾°–    ¾ f¾ ¯      ¾° €   –f f°¾ @  ¾° ¾fnnfnnf° f¾¾¯  ° f€€  ¾¯f ¾¯f  ¾°     f°n@f½ ¾ ¯¾  @  f ¯f°½ ¾€ f°nf½ ¾¾ ¯¾fff    ff° f½ ¾¾ ¯¾  J – €f  n¾  ff° @f½ ¾ ¯¾  ° n¯¯°€¯€  ¯ f¾°–¾¾ ¯¾ ¾ff½ ¾ ¯n¾ n°° n f€f @  –nf°  f f¾ €f¯ ¾       ¾¾ ¯¾ ¾    €f ¯    ¾ °¾°–   ½¾° €   €f ¯f–° nf   nnf  f ¾¾ ¯¾ nf° f¾  ¾   ° ¯ f¾°– –f°f¾ ¾f¾ f¾ ¾  ¾f f°f– ¾  –¯f° °f°n   ½ °¾   J  f  n¾  f–   ¯ f¾ ¯ °¾% ¯%  – €f  n¾nf° ¾   @  –   ¾ f  n°° n   ½ f°  ¯ f°n¾ f°  f¾¾¾ ° ½¾°°–   €f f¾  ¯ ¾    €       @  f½  ¾ n°° n     ½ €   €f f°  °¾  n ½ f°    ½ ¾  ° °    –f–°– f n¾¾  f°ff¾f    € °–   @ ½ €f f½ ¾ n  ° –f–  f  f¾½n  n°     °¾fn° ¾¾° f½ ¾f °½  f½ ¾f–  n¾ °¾°  .

nf°nf f  ½½nf°¯f°¾  .@ °¾°°–€ f½ ¾f–  ¾¾€€n ° °¾ n n¯ f¾ ¯ °   °f€€ n°– ½¾°€ €f   @ ¾f€° n°   f ¾f¾ €f¯ ¾ ½ €f f½ ½ f°  ° @ f¯°€ ¾f€¾¾ – f¯ n f    ° f¯¾½ n n° °¾  f ¾ f ¾ ¾   ½ n   ¾ °¾°–  f  €¯   ½n ¾¾€   °½ ¾¾ f½½nf°¾ ¾  €  f   ¾ °¾°–€ ½fnf€ € ¾n f°f°  nf°–   J – €f  n¾f°  f¾€ f    @½nf½½nf°¾  @¾ ½  €    ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾f €° ¾ ¾ € f½½   f–  €  €f¯¾  ¾½ nf °°°¾n¾f€ ¾¾–°€nf°    f°f– ¾  f–   ¯ f¾ ¯ °  °°¾nf¾f€   ¾f f°f– ¾  °¾ff°n¾¾  .

ff° f½ ¾¾ ¯¾ f fn¯¯° ½  ¯    f½ f°–°– ½ @¾ € °nn¾€ °–– ½½ ¾f °½ € n nf    f½  ¾ f–f°¾ °¾ € ½½ ¾   ° n¯¯°½  ¯¾n¾°     f½ nf°   ° ½fn      €f ¾ ¯°–  @ ¾  ½  ¯¾ f  ¯      ¾ ° f  f°fnf f °– @ €n €¯ €f –¾¾f– f °–  n¯  €n°€ f½ f–f°¾ ¯½ ¾   f¾ €n €   f ½ n  ¯f °  @f°¾ n°  ¾°– f½     –f– ¾  € °  €  °   f½  ¾ ¾n  @¾ ½  ¯ nf°  ½ n  f–f°¾    ¾ €f¾ ½ff –  ¾n   . f f°n n° ¾f fff  f¯°f°nf½fnf° ½¯½°– f ¾n n fnf   f €nf°– f°   n°€nf°–   ° € ¯f°¯f°¾¾ –¯f° °f°n   °  ½  f½ n f°f° ½  °€¯–¯¯°–½ @¾¾  n°–f° ¾¾  ¯ ¾    9 ¾¾  f¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ °  ¾fn9 ¾¾   ¯ €  €€  °½ ¾€  ¯ f¾ ¯ °½ ¾¾ f   fn½ ¾¾   €€  °f½ ¾¾      ¯    f½f–¯   J –°–    ¯ f¾ ¯ °€nf°–°–½ n °¾ ¾  fn9 ¾¾   @  f¾¾ €  ¾fn ½ ¾¾  ¯ f¾ ¯ ° €    ¾ ¾n f   ¯ f¾ ½ ¾¾ ¾½½°f  –€ ° f°  ¾½ n  €¯ @ ½ ¾¾ ¾ f   –  €°– 9  ½ –  .

J  9 ½ ¾¾   –½  f  °¾€€ – fnn  f°   –f   n°¾f° °¾    ° ff   f nf°– ¾ ¾    –  ° €fn  f° °¾¯ °fnf°¯ f¾ ½ ¾¾ nf° nf f  f  –€f– °   f°  nf°  ¾   ¯ f¾       °  ¾¾ ¾ °  f¯¾½ n n° °¾   .¾ ½ ¾¾  ¾ °¾¾ n¯½ °¾f  € f¯¾½ n n° °¾  ¾   ½ ¾¾  °   ¾€fn  €  ¾ ½ °    f¯¾½         @  ¯ f¾°– °¾ f  – ° f ° 9f¾nf   °  f  9f ¾ f °   ¯  f  € f     ¾fn ½ ¾¾  f°¾ n ¾ ff¾ n°¾¾ € f ¯ ¯ f°  n ¾ n°° n    ¯ nf°nf   fnf  f f°¾ n   ¯ °  @  f°¾ n   ¯ ° nf°  f¾  ° ¾n  n°– ¾ f¾ ° nf°n  nf½fnf°n ¾f°–f–   °¾ ¯n° n   ½ ¾¾ –f– ¾ ¯ f¾   –€f °f°½ °f°   @  ½ ¾¾  f°¾ n  nf°  ¯°  ° ¯f° ½ ¾ € ½ ¾¾  ¾ °¾ ¾ f   f½½nf° nf°    ¾½ n€n      ¯ ° €   ½n ¾¾ n° °¾  °n    ¯ ¯ ° €   ¯ ¯ f°  ¾ ° f €  ¯n°¾    ¾ ¯n° n f°¾ n  ¾  ¯  °¾ °¾     ½ n  ½   @¾ ¯f ¾ ¾ ½  € ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ € € ¾n f½½nf°¾ f¾ ¾ f–  .

  ½ °¾ f°¾¯½ ½ ¾  ½ °¾ €–fnnfnf½½nf°¾  ½½nf°¯f°¾  .f  ¾ – ½f°f° ¾ ¾ f¾  €n¾ ¾n¾ ¾ ° nf¾   f½½ ¾¾  fnff°¾¯ ½ ¾¾ f–f–     °n     ¾ ° f½½nf° € ¯ ¯ °     ¾ °  f°– €n   nf¾  ¾  ¾¾   ½ ¾¾ ¾ °¾¾ ½¾  ½ ¾¾ € ¾¾ ¯ f°   € ° ¾  ¯° f° f  ¯€  ¾¾    °¾f°¾  ¾° ½¾¾  ¯° ¾ °¾  n° ¾ €  ¾¾ f f½½½f  ½ nf° ¯° €¯ ½€  ¾¾ f°   ° € °   °  € f    nf   @¾ ¯   ¾ n¯¯° ¾  € f½½nf°¾ °  ¾ ¾f°  ½ ¾   €   ¾  €  °¾° ° ¾  °– ½½ ¾ ¾ °f f   ½ nf°¾ f     °¾  € °f °n°– f° ½½ €¾nn¾   °   ½ ¾¾   n   ° °–   fnnf  €€  ° ¯°°– ¾¾ ¯¾½½  f ¾n  ¾ ½  °¾  ¾f  ¯ °€¾½ €¯ f¾ ¯ °f¾fn½ ¾¾ ¾¯ f¾   @  ¾ °¾   €  ¾  °  ¯°   n °   ½ n ¾ f¯ f¾   ½ ¾¾  ¯ f¾     – f°        f °– °fnnf    ¾¯f f¾°¾ f½ ¾¾ ¾ °¾¾ ° ¯° °  ¾nf–   €f ¾¾ f¾ ½ ¾¾ ¯ f¾ ¯ ° °n n °– ¾nf–    f°f– ¾    ¯ ¯ f¾ ¯ °  ¯½ f¾¾ ¯  f° °¾f  ¯½ f ©¾   f¾°f fnnf   ¾f f°f– ¾   ½ ° °° f  °¾€¯f f  .

f¾ ¯ °J.   ¯ f¾ ¯ ° nf°  ¯f  ¾°–    ¾fn ½°n½  ° ½ ° f°¾  °  °¾€ ¯f f¾n°¾f° @ ¾ °¾° ¾ ¯° ° f°½ °f° °¾ f    °f ¯°¯¯  ff¾n ¾  ½n ¾¾ f½f–¯   °n  ¾ °¾¾¯ f¾°–½ ¾¾ ¾  € ¾ °¾ ¾ – f°   °   ¯ €   f°   ½ nf° € ° nn f°   °   €f°–     ¾ °¾¾¯°   f nf°f¾nf¾ nfn¯  ½    ¾ f¾ nnf f   ½ ¾¾  ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾  €  °n   f¯¾½ n n° °¾     .

f¾ ¯ °€€  °I ¾¾ f½ ¾     ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ f¾  f°    ¾fn ½ ¾¾       ¯ €€ °f ¾¾   ¾°  ¾f½ €   ¾¾  €  ¾f½ €    ¾¾   ¾ ° nf°–  € °n f¾°–  –  °   ¯  ¾ ¾¯½      ¯½    n¾¾ ¾ n°ff f    € ¾f½ %n°%€   ¾¾  nf°– ¾ € °n f¾°–  –   °    f°¾½  °    – f°  ¯ ¾°¾¾¯½   @ fnnf  ¾n    ¯  ° f  ¾¾   f nffn ¾n n  ¾ ¾   ¾n  €°n°f f°¾½  °  –%%f°  ¯ %I%€ .f°–°–9 n °¾  €   ¯f f °– ¯ f¾  ¾ € f°– °¾ ¾   ° fnnf     ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ ¯½f      ¾ °¾¾ f  fff   f n¯½ °¾f  € f¾ °¾ ¾ °¾n¾ °¾¾ ¯°°–f°  °f¯¾nff°°  –f   ¾ °¾¯f ¾n n°¾ J ° ¾n¾f¾nf°– ¾   ¾ °¾ ¾ ¾   n ° ¯ f¾  f   f¯fnf n¯½ °¾f  € f° °¾nf°–   ¾½¯f¯°   °f¯¾n€¾n¯½ °¾f°f ½°      °n f¾ ¾ n f¾ ¾ @¾n n°€ °¾nf°– ¾¾ ¾  °   ¾f°n   °   ¯ ¾n f°    ¾ °¾ ¾ ¯f  f¾ f–  f¾ ½¾¾    Iff°¾ °    ¯½ f  f¾ f€€ n   °¾ €   €  Jf ¾ f – ½  ¯      ½½ ¾ f   f    ° ¾– ff°¾ °  ¯½ f  nf¾ °n f  nf°– ¾°  °¾   I¯ .

  ¾¾  @ n €f°fn° ¾€ ¾¯½ ¾½ f° ¾€ °f ¾f° f  nffn ¾n €€    ¯¾ ¾½½ ¾   ½ ° °– °   ¾½¾nf° €   ¯f°€fn #¾ ¾ °¾¾    n ¾ € f¾  ¾¾  ¾f½ ¾nf°f¾  °    @ ½€ ¾ °¾nf° ° f  ¾°–nffn ¾nn ¾nf  ¾n   ½    €  °n  ½°¾ f°   ¯°     €°–    ¾¾ €¯ ff¾½½   ¯f°€fn    I¯ ¯ f¾ ¯ °  ° °–fnffn ¾nn     €€  °f9 ¾¾   J °   ¾€fn  ½ ¾¾  °     ¾ – f  %f¾ ¯f    nf¾  € f ½ ¾¾  f°%  €€  °    f¯¾½ n ½ ¾¾   ° f €€  °f ½ ¾¾ ¾ °¾¾  @¾¾ nf¾  f½ ¾¾  – f f°   f € ½ ¾¾ J  €€  °f½ ¾¾ ¾ °¾  ½ ¾¾ °  ¾€fn €   ¾ fn €¯ f½ ¾¾  ¾°–°f ¯ f¾ ¯ °€ ½ ¾¾     –€    ° f½½°– ¾ ¯   € ¯ f¾ ¯ °    9 % ½ ¾¾ % ¾  €   f°¾¯  ¾ n°° n      ¾¾  f     ¯f¯¯       @¾ n°° n°¾nf    – @ ½ ¾¾ f    ¾   °    9 f°  9 %– ½ ¾¾ % ¾ ¾ €   f°¾¯   f°  nf°– ¾ ° ¾ ½ ¾¾  °f€€ n ¯ f¾       .

      f½ ¾¾¾ f°    ¾¯ f¾ ¾°– €€  °f½ ¾¾ ¯  ¾   °¾ff°@ n° ¾  J °¾°– €€  °f½ ¾¾ ¾ °¾¾€¾½½¾ ¾ n¯¯°€     °– ¯ f¾   €°  ¾ f °     –  @¾ nf°  ¾ €¯ n° °¾f°  ¾½f¾    .

f°– ¾ °  f  ½ ¾¾  f   °  ¾f °    ½ ¾¾ ¾ € f°¾¯   °   –nf°nf¾ f ¾€°  ¯ f¾ ¯ ° n¯¯°¾°¾½  ¯¾€ ½ ¾   €  °n  –    ¾ °  ¾¾ f¾ f°– @¾   – °¾ ¾fn°¾f° €  °n ½ ¾¾   nf¾ f¾f– ½ ¾¾ nf°– ¾   €  °n  –  ¾  9 f°  9n°° n°¾   f°¾¯  @  –€  °   €  °n   –° ¾  f– f f° ¯f¯¯  °  ¾¾    ¾  .

  °n f¾ ¾  ½ ¾¾ ° ¾ °¾f  f¾ €  ¾¾ °n f¾  f°    €€  °f ½ ¾¾  °   f°¾¯  n f¾ ¾   J °   f° ¾ €      ½ ¾¾    f     €  °n  ½ ¾¾  f°    €€  °f½ ¾¾   n f¾    .

   .  ½ °¾ € €€  °f½ ¾¾ ¯ f¾ ¯ °  °fnnfn ¾    ½  . n°€¾¾¾¯½ f° ° ¾  ¾°– 9f° 9   nnf ½ €¯   f°¾¯    @  f¾°– ¾ f¾ ¾   f €   9  €  °n    D¾°–9€€ ¾   €€  °f ½ ¾¾  ¯ f¾ ¯ ° €    ° ½ ¾¾  f°¾ ¾ f¾ ¾  ° € ¾  ° nf    f¯° € n°f¯°f° € f €    €   €   ¯f°¾ n f°     ¾ ° ¾–°€nf° ½ ¾¾  €€  °n  fn¾¾   €   ¾   €  n¯ ¾ n°f¯°f    ½ ¾¾  °   ½¾ f¯ ¾  €   €   n¯ – f f°°  °¾ f¯¾    f°f– ¾    ¯ f¾ ¯ °°½ ¾¾  fnf f°  ¯½ f ©¾   f¾°f fnnf   ¾f f°f– ¾   ½ ° °° f  °¾€¯f f  .f° °f°n ° °¾   ½½nf°¯f°¾  @  °¾€ € f€€ n¾ fnnfn€ ¯ f¾ ¯ ° 9°¾¯ °¾ ¾   ¾  €  ¾   f  €  ¾½ n€n –f  ¾   ½n ¾¾ n°° n°¾ f  ¾¾n ½    ½––°– €¯ ¾  f°       – €   ½n ¾¾n°° n°¯f ¾¾n ½  € °–       @ .

°     ½ ¾¾ ¯     ¾  ¯°   ¯ f¾°–  ½ ¾¾    €n f–f¾°f ff½° ° f ¾€fn   @¾ ¯   ¾ ¾ f ¾n  € n f° f  –f¾ f°  ¾ n°° n  – f  ¾n°f    ¯¯ ¾ ff€  ½°  ¾¾    @  ¾n° n ¾ f€f ¾¯ff¯° ¾ ½ ¾¾   ¾    ¾f   f¾ €¯  ° €     9 ¾¾ ¾¯f°f° f¾ f   ¾ ¾nf½  –     .

¾  ¾ ¾  f ¾¯f I °n f   ¯  f¾¾¾      f¾  € f n°¾f°¾ f¯€   ¾ @¾¾½ € f  €n°¾¾ °¯ f¾ ¯ °f  f°° ¯ °f–    ¾      ¯     .f°– ¾ °        nf¾    f ½ ¾¾  °         f     ½ €        ¾    f ½ ¾¾ ¾ °¾  n¾ €€  °n ¾°½ ¾¾ f¾   nf°– ¾   .

nf°nf f  ½½nf°¯f°¾  .     °nff°¾      ¾ f  ¾¯½  f°  ° ½ °¾   °  ¯  fnnf  @  f  f ½nffnnfn€f   °  €° f f°f– ¾fn¾  ¾  ¾  ¾ ¾ nf° °  f¯f–     ° ½ °¾  f°  f¾  ½fn  ½½ @    ° n f€ –°¾ ¾f°n ° €   –   nf°  f°    ° °– ½½°– ¾¾ ½¾¾  f  nf– ¾     nf– ¾nf° ¯°¯   ½°–  ½½ ½¯¯€¯  ¯€ f°    f°f– ¾  ¯½ f¾¾ ¯   f  €¾ n¾ € ¾   °°¾nf¾f€   – ¯½f½½nf°¾  ¾f f°f– ¾    ¾n¯½ ¾¾ ff° °¾ff°€f° ¾   ½€¯f f°    °½ ¯¾¾    -¾ ½ ¾¾  ¾¾ ¾  .

    n ¾f ¾¾n ½   °¾ff°¾ € °–f° ½––°– nf°–    ½n ¾¾ €   ¾  @  –f¾ f ¾ ¾  nf° ° n  °f°  ¯f f¾ °   ½n ¾¾ f¾  ¾ ½–  ¾   n  ¯¾  nf½f   € ¾f° °–   ¯f¯¯ f ½ ¾¾  ¯½¾  €   ½½  ¾  n¯  n  °–n f° ½½ ¾f¾¾¾  °¾f°–f ¾ n°         f½f–¯   @  f½f–¯  ¾ ½¯f ¾  € f     ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ° ½ °  ¾¾ ¾  @   n°f°¾ f f–  f¯° € f  n ¾  ½ ° f €    f½f–¯    n°° n¾  f½f–¯ f½ ¾¾ –f–   @  ½ ¾¾          f–f°¾   ¯  € f °     ½ ¾ °¾ € ½ ¾¾ ff   @ ½ ¾¾ –f–  ¯ f¾ ¾ f ½ ¾¾ f°  f ¾ f €      @  f  n¯¯° ½ ¾€ f½f–¯  ¾ ½ °f° n¾  @ ½ ° f½f–¯  ¾¯¯ ¾ °  €  °  ¾¾   @ n¾  f½f–¯ ¾¯°   °f€¯  ¾¾ f° ¾n°° n  f¾ °–€ ½½°–  @  ½ °  ¾ ¾f   ° f½½nf°¾       ¯f  ¾¯  ¾¾½ ° ¯f f f°  n¾ ½ ¾ ¾¾ n f° ¾°     f½f–¯ ¯ f¾ ¯ °¾  .

f¾ ¯ °D¾°–J –  .    @¾ °  n ½  €    ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ ¾  €  ¾ f°   ¾ ¾  ½½nf° ° ¾ ¾°– f  n ¾  ¯ f¾     – €    ¾¾   J ° – €  f  °¾f° ¾f½ € ¾f–  °    ¾ f¾ nfnf     . @  f f¾ ¾f°n ¯f°¾ ½ ° °–° nf°€ –f–    f°f– ¾   f ¾¯½ ¾f  €f¾¯f f¾f°  fnnf   ¾f f°f– ¾    ¾¯ ¯ nf°nf ½¯ ° ½fnf½ ¾¾  ¾¾ ¾  I ¾  ¯¾     J –°–.

 °¾ff°@ n° ¾  f° –f– ¾ nf°  ¯°  °   ¾  ¾½½¾ € f  ¾¾   °   .

f f°¾ °  ¾¯½ ¯ f¾°– ½ ° f°¾ ¯½ f° f–f° °€    f°f– ¾  I fnnf   ¯ f¾ ¯ °€¯f f€n°¾f° f  °¾  ¾f f°f– ¾    ¾ff– f¯°€¯ nf°nf ½¯ °  I n¾    ¾°n°¾¾ ° f  °¾€¯f f  ½½nf°¯f°¾   f–  f¯° € ¯ nf°nf ½¯ ° ¾    €   €f¯   f°  ¾ f¾° ¾f    °   . f¾ ¯ °  ¾° ¾  n  nf¾  ½ ¾ – °    fnnfn €    f  –  D°¾f    f °–¾ nn  °   ° ¾ °– €   ¯½  nf¾   f –¾ ¾¯€  ½ nf° n°f°  .

 –¾ °  f °– nf° nf¾  ¾–°€nf° ½  ¯¾     ¾   f¾°¾ ¯¾ °¾ff°¾¾ f€ f n n°€–f°      ¯ f¾ ¯ °nf°–°–½ n °¾ ¾   f¯ ¯  ¯ f¾ ¯ °  J ° ½n ¾¾€ ¾ °– ¾nf¾°f¾ f¯ ¯ f  €  °n  –¾ ¯f°f°  fn° °¾f ½ n f°¾ fn° ¾ f¯ ¯¾f    €   –¾ ½n°¾f° .

f°– ¾°f¯  ° ¯½ f %¾° ½¾ %  nf°–    f  °¾ °    €  °n   – f°    €   ¯½ f  n¯½ °¾f° %¯f°f  f¯fn% ¾ °  @  f   €–  ¾n ¾ f ½nf 9  ½f° ¾ f¯ ¯    f½½nf°  @  €€  °f ½ ¾¾   n      $½n ¾  $½ +  $½  +    -  f    €   ¾ff  ¾ f¯ f  % % f°  f €   ¾ff   f % %f°° ¯½ ¾¾  f¾¾ f¯°–f  @¾nf¾ ¾ ¾ °–€   ¾ ° ¾ f¯°–f ¾ ¾%f°  ½¾%  f¾ f¾ nf½¾  ° ¾ f¯°–f  ½¾%f° ¾ ¾% @  €  ¯f f°fnnf   ¯°f°€    f°  ¯f¾¾€ f °  ¾ f¯ ¯   nfnf°¯¾n°¾  °°  $½n ½   f¾  ¯½ ¾¾ f°  ½ f°–¾ f¯°–f    .

f¾ ¯ °  9°n½ €½ f°  Df¾°n  ¾ °¾¾ ¾ ° °–¾° f ¾°   n°€    f° ¯ f¾°– ¯ f °€ ¾° f   °   ¾ ¾½  € ¾°  ¾ °°    f°¾ ¯  ¾ ¯ f¾  f°    ¾f°n  nf°  nfnf   Df¾°n ¯ f¾ ¯ ° – ° f ¯ f¾ ¾   ¾f°n   °   n° °¾ f°    ½ €    ¾¾   @   – €¯   ¯ ¾ n  f¾   €€  °n   ° ¾  f °– f°    f  – €    ¾¾   Df¾°n ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾¾ ¯¾ f  fff   f nf° ¯ f¾  €¯   ¯ €    ¾¾  °¾°–            Df¾°n¯ f¾ ¯ °  . @f°¾ f¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ °  Df¾°n.

  @  –°f ¾°  f  ½¾  f¾ f f°¾¯¾¾° €  °n  °  f°     ¾ ½ ° ¾ °   ½  € f°¾ n  ¾  @  f°¾ n  f°  ¾ °¾ n°¾¾€°  ¯  ½   nnn¾f¾€ f°¾¯¾¾°f°  n ½° €   ¾°  ¾–°f  J °  nnf ° – ¾ f½½     ½   nn n¾f¾  ¯ ½ n f¾° ¾–°f J ° ¾° f ¾ € n  fn    ¯ ¯ ° €    € n  ¾°  f  – ° f ¾ f°  nnf ¾–°f  ¾ ¾  n  f¾    ° ½¾  @  f°¾ ¯  ¾ ¯ f¾  f¾   ¯   ° f°¾¯ f°  °¾–°f¾     n°f° °–  f ¾ ¾¯ ½nf¯f°€fn #¾½°¾   ¯fn  °n f½°  ½¯¯ f°¾¯¾¾°   ¾ ° f n f°  ¾°f°n  €  °n n ¾ ½ ° ° °   f°¾¯  f°  f½½nf°   @¾  ¾°f° €  °n ¾ f¾ ½ ° ° °    ½ € ¾  n° °¾f°   ° nf°– ¾ °  ¯½ f   @  ¾ °¾  n°n¾ nf° ¯ f¾    €   ¾°f° €  °n °–   n ° °–°– €   ¯ ¯ f°  f°  nf°– ¾   €  °n €   °  f°¾¯ ½¾ fn  f°½¯¯ €€n °n    .

              fn ¾–° ¾½ n€nf°¾ ½ °  ½°   ¯f°€fn   ¯ ¯f°€fn ¾¯ff ½¾ f f° $ –f°%½ % ¾f–    f°¾ n  €  °n ¾   n¾ ° ¾ f   fn¾n f  °– n ¾    –f° ¾ %¯ f° f¯  % f f¾f€fn€€   n¾nJf  °–°¾  °n @ ¯½ f     °n%%            Jf  °–%¯¯%f.

            Jf  °–%¯¯%f.

¾ ¾½½ ¾ f  ¯ ¾ f ¯f½   ° f°    –f ff ¾ ¾  ° ¯ ¯ @  f °–¾f ©¾ fnn °– °f€f¾  n¾  n   I¯ . f¾ ¯ °  .¾ ¯ ° f¾°n ¯ f¾ ¯ ° n ¾ f¾ nfnf  ¯   @¾ ¾   ¾¯½  €    ¾¾  f¾ f n°¾f° n¾¾ ¾ n°f f f  .             ½¾n½½ ¾¾°  – f¾°n¾ nf° ½ n  f –  ¾–°f €       f¾  n   ¾€fn ¾ ° f  ¾¾      © n¾ f nf°  € n f ¾–°f nf°  ° ¾   °€n ¯ ° f¯¾    °– ¾ f¯¾  @ ½  °   n   f °–  ¾   © n¾f¾f   ¾°€¯f°nf° ¾½½ ¾¾  °–f¾–°f¯f   € n  €¯  ¾   © n¾    nffn ¾n¾   €€  °   ½½ ¾¾°€ ¾ €f¾ ¾–°f¾¾ f¾ °¯ €°–   n° ¾   .  n¯½   f°– n¾¾ ¾ n°f f f  ¾¾ ¾    ¾f½ ¾ € °° – ¯   nfnf  ¾¾ ¯ .

°nf¾f ¾f½ ¾f½ °–° f  ¯ f °°n¯¯°     n°.

°¾ f°¾  .

¾f°n  ¯ f¾   @ ½ €f¾°n n ¯¾ f  n   ¾f°n   @¾¾ ¾f °n  ° ¾ ¾½ n€nf° ¾ ¾  -  f   – ° f ¾½ n€nf°¾ f €n f°ff° f€f¾€fn @  f¾°€ff°°f°– ¾¾¯½f f ¾¾ ¯ ¾–°  € – fnnfn f°  ¾ ¾f°n ¾  °  ½ € °–€°–  ¾f°n ¾ ¯ff¯ ½ €¾¾ ¯¯f ¾°– € ¾ ¾f°n ¾ f°  nf¾   ¯n n f°  ° n  °¾   ¾   ° f° ¾¾ ¯¾ f f¯fnff  –f°n¯½ °¾f €¾   @ ¯½ f  nf°– ¾  ¾   f°  n° °¾f° °   ¾ °¾ f¯½    ½ f°€  n   €fn €¯f f  ¾f€° f¯ °f  ¯ °°¾½ €¯ f¾°–¾¾ ¯f½f€  f°¾¯  ¾–°f ¾  € n  fn €¯   ¾€fn  €   ½ n   ¯ f¾ @ ¯  ¾°n ¯ f¾°–¾€fn  ° ¯ fnnf f°   f   ¯ f¾ f  @ nf€ ¾€fn nf°  ¾n     f €€f¯°f ¾€fn   €° –f° ¾° ¯f f  n ¾¾  ¾n  f°¾€   °   nf¾  €   ½°¾ nf° °n  ¯ f¾°– €¯   ¯ €    ¾¾    °¾f°– f ¯ nf°nf €¯ € €f¯  ¯f  ¾ fn°  f ¾ °– ¯ ¯f    € nf¾ ¾ ¾f°¾€   n ¾f f ½  ¯  ¯f nn °n ¾ €   n° ° – ° f  ° f€€ n   ¯ f¾ ¯ °   °°¯ °fn° °¾  °n    f¾°n ¾–°f ¯¾ ½f¾¾ –   f     ¾ °¾f  ¾n €fn¾f¾ ¾ ¾ f¯ ½ ¾¾  ¯½ f f° –f¾°  n°¾   n¾n°¾    n¯¯° €¯ € fn¾n °¾  nn¾  ° f n ½¾ f f  €   ° f ¾f–  °  ½½   @  °¾  – ° f  €¯   f°¾€  €   nf° f€€ n f°  –f   °¾–°ff   .

9 ¾¾   ° – ° f  f¾°n ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾¾ ¯¾ f  ° f€€ n   ½ ¾¾  ff°¾  @  ° ¯f°¾ f f  ¯½¾  f       ¯ nf°nf n°¾f°¾ €   ½¯ °  f°  °   nf¾  €  ½ ¾¾    f   f°¾¯¾°  ° –   °  ¯f°  ½ ¾¾   ¾¾ ¾ f  f ¾°n    f  € °n¾    ¯f f½  ¯¾ n°  ½ f  n#¾   @ ¯½ f   .

f°– ¾ °  ¯½ f  f€€ n   ¾½  €   ¾°  f  f°  ¯f    f°¾¯ @  ¯½ f ¾ °¾¯f ¾n n f ©¾¯ °¾   ¾nf° nn ° ¾f°¾       ¾ f f°–  ¯½ f  –f  °     ¾f°n € ¯ f¾ ¯ °   ½ f°€f¾°n ½¯ °nf° ½ .

 ¯f° °–   f°¾ n n°¾n°¾°–   f¾  ¾¯ °° ½ ¾ ¾½ €¯ f¾ ¯ °¾ ½ ° °° ¾½ € ¾° @ ¾½ €¾° °°f ¾nf°– ¾° ¯½ f  f¾  €€  °¯ f .

°¾  °  ¾½ €¾° f ¾€ €€  °–f¾ ¾  f½¾  @  ¯f°  n¯¯ ° f° ¾  n°¾    ¾  € ¾ ½ff   ¯½ f  ¾ °¾¾ °   nf¾  € – ff    ¯½ f ¾  n €¯ ° f¯ ¾   f¾  ½  € ¾°  %¯$¾ n% f .

                    ¯¯°f  .

f °    °    ¯  – °.

f°   .   .

-– °  – °  ½    ½  € ¾°  ° –f¾ ¾        f¾  .°°–  °n    f¾°n n  ¾ ° °   ¯ f¾           ¾ f° ° ¾n  ½f ¾ f   ° ¾–°f  € n  ¾ f €   ¯f f   ¯ f¾  @  ½f € €f°– ½ n  f°   € n°¾ €¯ ¾€fn ¾ €    °– ¾¾ ¾  f @  ¯¾€fn ° ¾ f°– ¾f    € n  ¾–°f ¾  n fn    f°¾¯  € f f  ¯ f¾ ¯ °   €   ¯ €    ¾¾  ¾ f f° f°–  ¾ f   ¾–°f ¾  € n  €¯ f °¯ €f¾  ½€¯  n nf° °½ nf    @  f¾°n f¯ nf°°  °f   f €nf¾°– n°  nf°  ¾   ¾ °¾¾f f f °  f°°– ¾f°n fn °– nf°°¾ °¾  f° ¾°  f ¾  @¾ ¾f°n  n ¾½° ¾     °– €   f°¾¯  ¾–°ff° ½  °¾ f°¾¯ ¾–°f °–  n f¾f °¾–°f    € n f°°–  °f½½nf°¾  ¾½f¾°–nf°nn ¾ € n f°°–½ ¾¯f    .

° °¾f°    f°  ¾ f  f¯  ° n°fn    – fn  f°¾ n  €fn  @¾ ¯f ¾ ¾ € n f°°– ½ ¾  ¾ °    ½  n°– ° ¯f° °f°n     @f°¾ n   f¯ f¯     f°°– ¾f°n   9n ¾¾¯f f     ¯¯   ¾$ ¾ ¾ ¾$½ $¾ f¯  .

f¾ ¯ °½¾nfn°fn  D°f€€ n   °¾ ¯¾ n° °n° n  nnfn€   ¯½ f n¯½ °¾f°f° ¾ € nf f°   ¾f f°f– ¾  9 n¯¾– f–  € n°f° °f ¾ ¾°   .         ¯¯   ¯¯   ¾$n f°¾ ¾   ¾  @f°¾ n   n°¾  J f  ¾¾ ¯¾   f°¾ n €  °n ¾¯¾   ¾f¯   @  f°°– ¾f°n f¾ f ¾ f½½nf°   °¾ff°@ n° ¾  J ° ¯ f¾°– – ¾    f°¾¯  ¾–°f ¾ – f f °f  f°   ¾ °¾°– ½¯ °f¾  °  ¯°°–    @  f ¯f° n¯½° °¾€f°f¾°n¾–°f  ¾–°f½ f° ¾€  °n ¾   °  f f–   €  °n ¾°  ¾  ¾¾ f °f   ¾      f ¾°  ¾¾ n f°–f½ n ¾°¯ f¾°–¾ ½ €½n ¾¾¾¾ f–€  °n¾–°f–fn¾n½     ½¾°°– €   ¾ °¾ ¾   n¯¯° € ¾°– f¾°n ¯ f¾°– ½  ¯¾    f°f– ¾  -°n°fn½ n  f  € f°– € ¾f°  ½ n¾   f  ½ €¯f°n ° €€n¾ n   -¯°–½f¾  .

9 n¯¾f f–  ¾°nf €¯ f¾ ¯ °f° °  ¾n   €f¯  °–   -¾f  €– ½ ¾¾ ¾°ffn¯  ½ nfnf  ¾    ° f°¾ n f°   n°n¾  @  ¯½ f ¾¯  .

  ½½nf°¯f°¾  @  ½ €¯f°n  € f° f¾°n    f°¾¯  ¾ – ½ ° ° °   n   n  ¾  @  n ¯f   f    ¾½ ¾° f°  f ¾½°   ¾½ ¾° ¯f  f ½  ¯ ° f   ¾¾ ¾ f°  nf°   n   ¾°– f €nf°–n°   ° nf¾ €¾° f ¾ °–¯f f¾   n¾–°fnf° – f n  °nnf¾ –  ° –¾¾ ¯¾¯f     °f½½°– f¾°n   ¯ f¾°– ½¯ °€¯  €€nf½½nf°¾  ¾f  ¯f   ° ½f¾ ½  °n       ¾°– €  ½ ¯f° ° °¾ff°¾nf    ¯¯f  @¾½ €   ¯ f¾ ¯ °f¾ n  ° f f°   – fnnfn  @    ¯f° f f°f–  ¾ f  ¾ f °° n°fn  n°–  n ¯¾ n¾°f° n°f¯°f° n° °¾€  ¾¾    @ f– °¯ €€  °nf°¾¯ ¾fff  f¾¾½ €¾ °¾°–  n¾¯ € fnf½½nf°         f f f¾ ¯ f¾ ¯ °   .

f f–f– ¾ €€ €¯f¾°n°f ¾ ¯nf ¾°¾ f €¾°  f ¾    f¾°n n ¾   ¯ f¾  €¯   ½ €    ¾¾    ¯°  ½ n     @ f¯½ ¾ € f f –f– ¾ f      f°   ¾¾ ¯¾  @  –  f°¾¯¾¾°€  °nnf° ¾   n  °° n° n ¯f f¾    °¾   f f €€  °f½ ¾¾   ¾¾ ¯    f°f– ¾  D¾ ° €€n#f  f°  #f½½nf°¾  –fnnfn  -° n°fn  .°n° °¾€  ¾ ¯ ¯ f¯f f    n ¾n°¾°n ¾½ ¾¾ ¾    ¾f f°f– ¾  . f¾   –½f¾nf°¾  .

 °¾   ½°¾ °¾€fn   I  ½ °¾  ½ ° °–°fnnfn  ½½nf°¯f°¾  f f –f– ¾ f    ¾½ n€n °   f½½nf° € ¾  f f    ¯ f¾ ¯ °¾  f °¾ ¾    f¾–°f € n°f nn¾   –f f¾ °¾¾nf°°¯ f¾ f f½½nf°¾f°n ff f° nf°  f f ¾ °¾¾ f  ¾  ° ½ €  °n   f¾°n  f¾   n°– ° f½½nf°¾fn°f°f– f¯°¾€ €°–   ¾ °¾nf°–     °n   €f¯  ¯¯f  f f    ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ ¯f° ¾      ¯½ f  f°  ½ ¾¾  ¾ f ½  ¯    °f° f¾ f f°½ . f¾ ¯ °  f¯¯f f f° ¾n ¾ f  n¾ ° € ¾  °     n°– ½¯ ° nf¾  –f¯¯f f¾ f  – f ½ ° f°– ½  f°  nf°°  € n     ¯ f¾ ¯ °  f f° ¾ °   ½°n½  € ½f¾¾°– –f¯¯f f f° –  ¯f f   ¯ f¾ ¾ f f°½f¾¾ ¾ – ¾¯f f    nf°   ¯°   f¯°€f °f°    @ n  @ ¯f°n¯½° °€ ¾½ € ¯ f¾°– n  ¾  f fn ¾n   @   n¯¯° ½ ¾ € f fn  ¾n ¾ f  .

f ¾¯  %.

¾ % f°  .

 f%.

%   @ fn€ f fn ¾ ¾f°n  n f¾ ¾¯ @ ¯ f °€   fn € ¾n f ¾ ¾f°n   f  ¾  ¯  ¾ f€ €  .

 f  f¾ f f€ €  €    f¾   .

f ¾¯  °     f°  f¾ f f€ €  €   f¾   .

J .

f ¾¯  f°– ¾n f °– f€ €     ¾  ¾¾ °   f½½ f° n n°€  n f¾°–fn   .

 °¯ f¾ ¯ ° ½¯ °°f¾f¯fnf€ € n n°  f° f¾¾n nn €¾n ¾°°– fnnf€fn    ¾  f¾  °  f f–   ¾n  nf¾     n¯f–° n ° – f ¾ ½ n  nf°° ° n    ¯f f¾  n¯  f fn   @¾ ¯ f°¾f–f¯¯f¾n ¾nf° ¾ f° ¾n¯f f¾f¾€ f°  f¾°€ –f ½fnf–°–¯f f¾   n °–  °  €   f f°f– ¾ € ¾ ½  €    ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ f  nf°  ¯° ¾ €  ¾¾ € ¯f f ¯ f¾   °¾n°¾ff°¾  f f°€ ¾n ¯¾½ ° f ¾ ¾f°n ¾  f°f @  ¾f¯° ¯°¯¯f f°€  ° °¾f   n f°    € n°¾ f°€ f °f°€ ¾n –   ¾¾  f¾ f°  ½n ¾¾ ¯f f ¯¾  f ° ° fnn°  @¾ °¾ ¾ f   f f°° °¾  ¾°–    ¾ °¾°–  f   n   @¾ °€¯f° ° ¾ °¯ ¾ ff  ¾ f°  ¾    ¾ fn  f°  n¯ °      ¾°– €   ¾n  ¾ ½ f  ¯  f¾ f°  fnnf   f°  €¯   ¾½½   ° ¾½ n€°– f°  ¾  n°–   ¯ f¾°– ½¯ °   °f–  ¾¾ ¾n  ff– ¾n  n¯  f °f°–   ¯f f    ¾n  ¾  ¯f °    ¾  € ¾n f ¯ f¾ ¯ °  n°   ° ¾n f½½nf°¾  f n  ¯f  ¾  n  n  n ¾   f¯° € f °f° €   ¾n        n  f f € ¯f f f°    €  ¾n ¾ ¾ ½f¯°¯¯    f nf°¾€f f°¾n ¾f°   n¾  . f n nf¾f ¯  n    ¾ f f€ €  n n° €fn  n¯½ °¾f  €   nf ° fn .

 @ ½  n  @   n € n°°¾ ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ f ½  € ¾n°f° n°  f°  ½¯½  @¾½ €¾ °¾°–f¾ f f°f– €–¾ °¾€  ¾n°f° n¾f¾ %n¯½f    –  n° ¾% n½     ¾f€  f°  n°¯€f½°¾n   @    ¾n°f° n°  ¾ f   € ½nf ½  9 ¾½  ° n ¾n°f° n¾f¾ f  °€¯ ¾   °   ½ ¾ °n  € –f¯¯f f f°  ¾n°f°n¾f¾ ¯€f¾ ¾€–nf  °  n   f½¯½ f  f¾ €  f° n°  °  nnf½¾ ¾    n°°¾ ¾  ¾ €  €  °n  €f¾ ¾ f  – ° f   f°  ° f €   ½n°– f °–€ ¾n°f @¾¾ ° ¯°   nnf ½nf °  °   ¾n°f°   f°    ½ ¯½    ¾½ n  €        ¾ ½¾   f f°   ¾   €  °n  €f¾ ¾ ¯¾  ¾ °¾     ½¯½   ° ff¯ ¾ fnf  €   f  °  n    @   €f f° ¾n°   °f9.

.%9¾ .

 f %¾–°f     n°n¾ ¯°  °    n f°  f°¾¯     ¯ f¾ ¯ ° f¯½€     9°  . f¾ ¯ °  @   n ¾ ¯°  f ©fn °    ¾n  f°  ¾   ¯ f¾°– n     ¾n°–  f n¯¯°¾ ½ ¾   @  –  .%   @ f¾°f°nf¯     .  % . .

   f¾ f    ¯ ° f°  °   n °  € f n° nf nf   @ f f  ° f° f° nf ¾€ f°° –f¾f° ¾ f  f–  ¾ f½½  fn¾¾    ¯°f¾ %  I%  J °   –f¯¯f f f° ° ¾   °  –f¾     ¾ f°  nnf  f °  °   f°  f°  nf   @  €  °n €    f °¾ ¾  f     ° °¾ €   –f¯¯f f f° @ €  ¾ °–¾  ¯°  n°°– ½¾ ¾½ n   f– °¯ ° f   @    n¯¯°  n ¾   –f¾ °f° nf¯   @  °f° nf¯ ¾¾¯f  .@   . °f¾€ f°° –f¾f° ¾ f   @  ¯f° €€  °n  ¾ f °¾ f  € f½½°– f  f ° f–  f   f–  %½nf I% ¾ f½½  fn¾¾    ¯°f¾  J °   nf¯  ¾ ½¾   –f¯¯f f f°  °f° nn¾ f°  f n°°¾ n ° ¾ ¯  €¯    n  ¾    ¾¾  €¾  –f¯¯f ° – ¾ n  €¯  fn°–   nnf¾°– ¾¾°f°½ n°–f ½½°fnf°– °  ¾–°f –   ¾¾°fn °½ f  ½ n°– f–½    .

°°¾  . f¾ ¯ °  @  f n¯¯°¾n ¾€n°°¾  ¯ f¾ ¯ °   ½¾n   9°¾n   € ¾ ¯  ¾¾  ¾½  n   @ ¾½¾n ¾¯ fnnf f¾f f ¾f°– °f °€¯ f¯°    n° €    n  ¾      nf°– ¾     n ¾ n   f°  ½ n  €¯   ¾n  f°    n ¾½° °–  ¾½°¾  nf°– ¾   @   ¾½°¾ ¾°€¯f° ° f   ° ¾½f° ½ n°–f° f¾–°ff n ¾½° ¾  nf°– ¾ °     n ½°¾ f  f   f°       °° ° f °  €€ n¾nn   €€ n¾ € °¾ nf°– ¾ nf°   n¯   ¾°–   ¾n  €     °¾¾f–  °¾ ¾ °f€€ n  f °–°   n   .

  .

°°¾    n° ¾ €¾½¾n f°   n°nn  n  ¾  @ ¾½¾n ¾fnnf f° ½ ¾f– ° f ¾½°¾   ¾  ¯  ½ °¾ @ ½°¾n ¾fn f½ f °f   @  ½° ¾n  ¾ ° f ¾¯f f    ¾½ ¾n  ¾¾ ¯  ° f   ¾½  n ¯ f¾ ¾   f f° €¯   ¾n  @  f f° ¾ °¾      n ¾ ¾ f °f            ½° ¾n  ¾¾ ¯ ½ n ¾f°° ° f ¾½°¾   nf°–   @ ¾n  – ° ff¾f° f°– € – ¾ @ f f° f¯  f ¾   f½    n f°  ¯¾  f¯     ¯°°– €   ¾n     @  f°–  €   ¾n    ¾ f€ f €   f f°  f°– f°– ¾n   ¯° f – ¾¯ f¾°–½°   - f   –f¯¯f ° –f¾ ¯ €¯ ¾n   ¾¾f f ½ n¾  ¾f½  –    ¾¾  f   ¾  ° ¯ f¾  °     ¾     n   @  f f°¯ €€fn¾fnf°–  °   ¾ ¾f° €f¾   n° ¾¾€¯f f  – ¯ €f f ¾n   .

¾f°n €¯ ¾n    n  € ¾½fn  @¾¾¾ ¯°° ° fnf°  n€   n°nf°  n    f f°°¾¯ °°¾ff°   Jf¾  ¯½  ° f f°  fnnfn f     °  ¾  ¾  °  ¾½  n f°    ¯  ½° ¾n ¾   ¾ n¾ ¯f  f° ° °– €fn          .

@½°¾n ¾f¾½  n   @  ¾°–  @  ¯   €  ¾°– f°  nf f°– f f°     n¾ ¾   ¾¯½  @ ¾°– €   € ¾ °   n¾°–   ¾n  ¾   f¾ €    ¾¾     €  @  ¾  nf f  €   fnf     f ½f    –  n°  ¾ ¾    °°°–    –  n°  °   f  °    ¾¾  f°     n       ¾   ½°        ¾n °¾ €€   ¾n  f°    n°  f °–¾ n f¾ f½     f°f– ¾  f  €ff €½ n¾  .°  ¾n°  .

f° ¯°   °f  ¾¾     .

¾ff¾ ¯° ° ¾ €  ¾¾   ½ nf¾f€ ¯ f¾ ¾f   € ¾ €–f¯¯ff f°  .ff¾° n °¾°–  ¯ °¾  ½ °¾   ½½nf°¯f°¾  @  ½° ¾n  ¯   € n°°¾    ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ n f½  f°   ¾½ ¾n      € ° ½½  n n    °° ° f nf° nf¾  ½  ¯¾  n° ¾¾ ¯¾ ½ €¯°– n°°¾ n°  @¾ ¾ € ½fnfn°n °€½ f°– f¾–°€nf°f°– °nnf¾ nf°– ¾° fnnfn¯f n¯ f°¾¾   @  ½° ¾n  ¾ – ¾f      f  ff¯  ° nf°   ¾ f    f° f¾½ f°f f f°f– ° ¯¾€f f°¾f€    ½ ¾n ¾ f  ¯   .¾f f°f– ¾  .

       – € .

¾  ¯f°¾ f¾ f½½    ¾½ ¾n  € .

  n ¾    f  n¯ ¾¯  f°  ½ °¾   ¯¯f  @  f f°f–  € ¾ ½  € ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ f  nf°  ½ €¯  €¯ ¾     ¾¾   n ¾f°¾ ¯f  °   ¾  €   nf¾  f f¾  n¾    ¯  f  ¾  ½ n¾  ½½nf°¾    – ½ ¾¾ ¾   ¯½ f ¾ ¾n f¾  fn¾  €°fn ¾ ¯f f¾     °f ¯ f¾ ¯ ° n° ¾   @¾ ½  € ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾   ¾  ¯ ¾       ½ °¾  f°  ¾f€   –f°¾ff   ½ f f fn  ½¯ °        .

f¾ ¯ °   .  nnf.

° n     n°  f¾¾€½ f°  @¾€¯€  ¯ f¾ ¯ °¾½¯f¾ €–f°     n°  @   n n° n½ ¾ ¾ n° n€f€   n  ½ ¾ °n € € f ¾ °¾°–nf° @ ¾–°f ½ ¾  ° €€   J ° € ¾°°n°fn ½    nnf ¾¾f°n   °  ½ f°   ¾¾   –  °°€° J °   €  € ¾ ¾n  ½ f° n¯½   nn  ° ½ f°    ¾¾    ¾¾f°n ° nn  n   9 ¾ ¾  °  ¾¾ ¾ n°¾n  € f °° n° n  ¯f f ¯¾ f  f –  f n°° n°  @  f n°° n°  ¾ ° °    f° f°–   n  f€ ½½ ¯°°– fn f¾ n° ½     .

¾° €    n  nf° f€€ n   ½ €¯f°n  €   ½   n n ° nf° nf¾   f° f¾ f  ¾ €  n¾¾  f– ¾ nf°  ¯°¯  ¾°–.

½    .

° n     n°  .

  n° f¾½½¾     n° ½ ¾nf° ¾   @   f  ¯f° €€  ° ½ ¾ € ½ ¾ fff   °   nf¾  €  ¾ f  f  f  ¾ f nf °   ½  f   ¾¾f°n   ¾° ¾    @¾  ¾°¾nf½f  €  n°–   €€  °n   °  fnf½ n  °   ½  ¾ ¯¯ ¾  f°  f  ¾ f  ¾¾f°n   °   ½  ¾ ½¾   n f½½nf°¾ € ¾ ½  € ¾ °¾ f  ½ n¾ n €  ¾n f¾ ¯  nf °f  °¾   ¯  €   ¾f f°f– ¾  n° n ¾n ¾ f  f   °   n° n  f°  °° f  ¾  € ¾  ¾ ° °°¾nf ¾f€  f½½nf°¾    ¾½f°–¾°½ ¯¾¾   ¾ °¾¾¯¾½ f f ½    .

° n¾n ¾f n¾f° ¾¯½ ° ¾–°   @  f  f –  ° nf° € ½ n° ° ½¯½¾ °   nf¾  €  °°°–  n°     n°f° °–  ° f¾¾ ¾¾°–   f½½nf° € f n° n ½  f ¾¯f .

 f–  €¯ f f°¾€¯ nf° f½½  f ¯ f  ¾¯f    ½ f°    ¾¾  f   fnnfn  ¾ ° ¾   f   ¾f¯  ½¾° f°  ¾f°n  €¯   ff¾  ½ @ ° f  ¯¯€    ¯¯ ¾  ° €   n °nf° ¯ f¾ f°   ¾¾f°n nfnf   °¯¾ I°¾$°f¯½¾  €   nfnf   ¾¾f°n  ¾  ¾¾ f° f    €   °¾¯ °   ° f n° n½ f° f¯½€ nf° ¾ @¾¾°f–fnnf ¯ f°¾ €  ¯°°–   ¾f        ¾ –  f  f¾°f   ° nf°   9  ¯¾¾ ¾ff¾ ½ ° ¾° ¾€fn f f€n°fnf°   nf°€ ½   °¾ff°@ n° ¾ .°°–°f°¾   ¾ nf¾°–  ½  I nf ¯°°– °   f° €¯ f   ¾  n¯¯ °   ° ¾°–  ¾ n  f  f n° n  ½¾ °   °¾f°  f f ¯°°– ° f f° ¾ ¾f   €     f€  n f°–   °¾f° ° f ¾ff n¾f½n° n   .

°°–°½½ ¾    n°–½  °–¾ @ ¾ ¾½¾¾  ½  °–¾  ¾ @¾ ¯°¯ ¾  €€ n¾° €f° f¾¾¯½€ ¾¯°°–   ..°°–€¯f  €¯°°–€¯f  ¾  ° f    fn  ¾n ¾––   ¯f °n f° @ ¾n¯ffnf  ° f €  ¯¯  ¾ €   n °–   ½ ¾   °  ¾¾ n° n  ¯f f¯f   ½  €¯¯ ¾   .°°– ½°   ¯¾  °¾  f      ¾ ° n   n° n½ ¾ ° f°¾€°– @ ½ ¾¾ f¾°n  ¯ ff¾f°   nnfn° n °¾ff°¾   .°°– €¯   ¾  9   °–¾ – f  f° ¯¯ f  – ° f f f €¾ ¯°°– €¾°f f  f°  ½ f¾ ¯°  ° f f°        nf° nf¾   ½   ° °–  ½ ¾ ¯f    °– ½ ¾f f– n°fn ¾¾f°n f  °n   f° € ½ ¾ff °¾f°¾¯ n° n € ½ ¾  ¯° €¯  ¾   °¾  ½° ¾– °f ¾  °f        ½ €€ ¯  f¾  @¾ nf° f¾¾¾ °  n°–   n° n   ½° °¾f°   °¾ff°@ n° ¾ .° ½ ff€¯ € f°–°fnn°   € n ¾n¾f° ½½  f¯     .°°– ½°  ° € f½½nf°¾     nf°  n°¾ f   f °– °   ½   J ° °¾f°–  ½ f  °fnn°  ¯f¯¯ f ff  € ½   .

°f¯°f°¾ f ¾ ½fn ¾°  nf° f  f€ °¾f°  ¾ ¾ ½fnf € € f½½nf°¾  °  ½  ¯ nn¾  ° °– f°  € ¾ ¾¾  ¾°  ½ ¾f° ½ n ¾ ¾°¯ f¾ ¯ °         .

°¾ff° f¯½ ¾      .

 f°f– ¾  I ¾¯½ f° ° ½ °¾   -¯°–½f¾   € f½°n°%  ¾n°–n°%°° °¾¯ °   €–½ ¾¾ f½½nf°¾  ¾f f°f– ¾  .

°f¯°f°€½ f  °–¯f f¾nf°f€€ n ¾¾  ¯ f½½nf°€½ n¾€f°–n° n  °°¾n¾f€  ¾–°¾°  ¾½ n€ €     ¾n n° n f° °° nf°–½n ¾¾ ¾  9¾¾    nnn¾°  ½½nf°¯f°¾  °  €   ¯f° ¯f°¾ ¾ f     ° ¾   n° n   @  ¯f°€fn  ¾½ n€ ¾      n° n      ½nf €–  € €€ n ½ f°    ¯$n¯ ¾¾   9  ¯¾ ¯f f¾   °  n°–   f ¾ °– f–f   ¾   °         n¾ € ¾ ½  € ¯ f¾ ¯ °   ¯f  ¾f    °¾f  ½ ¾   n   ¾f¯       °f   f ¾¯f  nf ¾f°n   ° ½ ¾nf° ¾ ½ f f  f° ° f° @¾ nf°½ nf–f°¾nn°–¾ ¾½f¾°–nn%f¯  f¾  ¾ ¾f¯  ½½¾ %      €€ n    n°  J  f¾   n° n  ½    ¾ °   n° n €   €    €   €€ n½   ¾° € %¯f f%f°–  nnf½½  ¾ €€  ° f%  ¯ ¯%   @ €   €€ n½ ½ n ¾f€    ° ¯ fnnf½f°  ¯ fn –f° @  ¯ fnnf½¾ nf f   ° € ½    –f° f  ¯¯fff ¯°°–°  ¾¾     .

J °f  ¾  °¾  ¯f f  f¾ €     –€  °n n °°n f¾ ¾f° –– ¾ ¾n      €€ n  ¾nf° ¾°¾ff°   f°f– ¾ f°  ¾f f°f– ¾ f  ¾¯f  ¾  €   n° n ½   €°– €€  °n ¾    f°f– ¾  f  €n° n °° n° n f½½nf°¾  ¾f f°f– ¾  ¯ °–½ ¾¾ f°  ¯½ f f½½nf°¾  ½½nf°¯f°¾    f  ½ °¾ °f¯ °¯ €f f°f– ¾ °f€  ¯f°€fn ¾¾ ¾ n°–° ½ n¾    .

 .

f¾ ¯ °  f¾¾€½ f° -° n° n ½n ¾¾¯f f  .f½fn   .

 ¾¯½ fnf½fn ¾° ¯ f°f½f€n° n   n ¾f € ¾½fn°–f°    nn  ° ¯   .f½fn     ¯ f¾ ¯ ° f ¾ f f°f–  €     nn n°¾f° ° f ¯f f¾  ¯° nf°– ¾°   @    nn ° ¯¾€nf½fnf°n ¾   °¾f°– ¯f f  °   ½f ¾ €   nf½fn  @    nn n°¾f°¾f ½ ¾ °f°€f¯f f¾°¾f°–f    .

f½fnf°n ¾°¯ ½f ¾ f° nf° ¯ f¾   °½ ¾f°  ¾€fn n°° n f¾f°  n J °f½ ¾°¾f °f ¾¾  f nf½fn ¾ €¯   °   ½  f°    f €    ¾¾   @  nf½fnf°n ¾  €° €¯f°¯f f¾ f° ¾  ° ½ ¾ ° f  J °   ¯f f n ¾   ½  f nn ¾ €¯  n°¾¾°– € f ¯n f–  nf½fnf°n  f°  f nf°–  °  ¾¾f°n   ¾   nf°– ¾ °     nn n°¾f° f f€€ n¾   nf½fnf°n  f°  ¾ ¯f  f ¾ ¯ f¾   ¯½€  nn f–f¯ ¾°– nf½fnf°n  ¯ f¾ ¯ °  € °¾f ½ ¾   .

° f °f   ¾ ¾   ¯ f¾ ¯ ° € nf½fnf°n   °  ½ ¾ %  n ¾%   f¾¾€½ f° .

° n ½n ¾¾¯f f  ¯½  nf½fn  ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ – ° f ½ €¯  ° °° n° n  ½n ¾¾¯f f °¾°–f°f½½nf°€¾f  ° € n°n °¾¾  n° n€ ¯f f 9  ¯¾f¾  °¾°–fn° n ¯f ff¾ ¾n°° n¾ ½f ¾–  %f°  nnf¾% ¾nf½fnf°n   ¾°  °¾f°%   nn%  ° f ¯ f¾ nf½fnf°n ¾¯½f  ° n° n  f½½nf°¾    ½n ¾¾ ¯f f ¾ –°   ¾ n°fn     ¾¾  f  @  ° °¾f° %   nn% ¾   °¾f° °   nf½fn  ½  ¾ ¾n    ¾°– ½n ¾¾ ¯f f  ¾ ° °n f¾    nf½fnf°n   °¾ °– ¾ €  °   ½f ¾ f¾ °   nf¾  € f °° n° n  ¯f f       °n f¾ ¾ nf½fnf°n   °–°– ¯  €  –° ½f °n°fn ½ °¾f°   @  f  f f°f–  € ¾ ½  € ¯ f¾ ¯ °  ¾ f ° ° ¾   nf½fnf°n  ¯ f¾f    f¾ ¾¯½€  nf¾    ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾ ° ½ ° °€    nnn°¾f°€ ½n ¾¾¯f f     n°f° °–  -° n° n ½n ¾¾¯f f¾ °n  nf °¾ ¾ fn¾   ¾ ¾¾¯f 9n ¾¾€ ¾ff f  f¾ f° fn ¾nf° n°¾   f¾n° n   € n° n n ¾f¾½ n€n ¾  °f°nf°– ¾° f f  ° ½ f°  f°   n ¾ €°¯ nfn ° ¾ f ¯f f¾  f  f    nn n°¾f° €   ¯   f n° n €  ¯n ¯¾  ¯  ¯f  n°¾   n° n  € °n f°  ½n ¾¾¯f f¾  n°¾  f¾ °–n° n      n° n f½½nf°¾  nf½fn ½ °  °¾f @¾¾ ½nf ° @ €°   n °°– °   ½  ½  °¾  ½ € ¯f f  n° °¾f° °   n°€ ½n ¾¾n°° n° 9 ¾ff fn   ½n¯½ °¾f° €¯¾n°–nf°n   €€ n¾€  ¾ ½° ½   .

@   f  f °¯  €  ¾°¾ € ½  ¾–°¾ f fnn° € n° n f°   ½  ¾f¾€¾¯ € f f°f– ¾ °¾  n°–f½fnf ½ ½    9 –°    €n° n  ¾  €–¾n¾ ¾  € ¾ ¾   9 –°    €°° n° n  ¾  €¾ °f–f ¾¾ ¾   9 ¾n °°–   €°–° ¾  €n° °¾f°° €€  ¾¾   €  ½°  ¾¾ f   9 €°¾f ¾n °°–   f½ n° ¾½ nf€n¾ ¯f f¾   9 fn   ½n¯½ °¾f°€¯  n°  €n° n   ½° ½    9 –f¾––f°   €€ –f¾f°¾%€  %  ½  °¾ n° °¾f° €¯°– °   ½  °   ¯   ¯½ f  nf°– ¾   9  ¯½ f ¾½fn   €– ½ f°– ¯½ f ¾   .

°°– €fn f° ¾f°n            .9  ¾°¾   °¾ff°@ n° ¾  ° ½fnn  € nf½fn     ¯ f¾ ¯ °    nf½fn ¾ €¯  €¯   f €    ¾¾   f°  f° °¾f  ½  ¯°  °   f   °   nf¾  € °° n° n f¾% –  °€n n°n  %° °€n ¯ °¾f f  fnf¾° ½f € nf½fn ½f¾nf°¾ f¯ f ½½ f– ½fn  f°  ½   °f¯ f¾½½fn ° ¾ € f°¯f  ¾   ° ¾–°°– f nf½fn  ¯ f¾ ¯ ° ¾¾ ¯      ¯f° f f¾ € n°¾ f°f .

°°–   - ¾f ¾ °¯°°– ½ @ ¾ € °f €f°– ¾f° nf ° ¾   f °  °¾  f ¾ ¯ ° nf°°  ½ ° f°  ¾ f°    €f°–   @ nf°n ¾€¾ ¯ ° °– ½¾ ° ° f – @¾¾ f¾ fn     ½  ¾ ¯¾¾ °¾ f¾¾ n¾ ¾f f  °  ½ f°   ¾¾    .@½nfnf½fnf°n ½ °¾ff°   .

° °¾f° ¾ f¾ f ½  ¯ f°  nf° nn °  ¾ ¯n   ¾f¯  f¾   n°f¯°f°¾f f ¯ °°   .

°f¯°f° €   °  nf°  f   ½© n°–   ½  °    ¾¾   °  €   n¯¯° ¯  ¾ ¾   ½fn    n°° n°    f  f  ¾n   n ¾     n °   f €    ¾¾   @  ¾n  n°° n €   ½  €¾  n ° ¾  f°    ½    ° ½© n  n°  ¾¾  @¾½ €€°–¾f¾ ¾¾ ½ °¾   .

° ¯  €f °–n°f¯°f°€ ° ¾ ¾°–f½ f ¾°fn f°–f½f€ ¾ ¯ °nf¾ ¾  ¾°½¾¾  ¯ € f° ¾°–°  nf¾ €–½ ¾¾  °f½ f°°fn  °– nf°  ¾  ° ¾n f nf¾    fn  ½f €   ½  ¾ ¾ ½ff  €¯   f f¯¾¾¾n ½  n° °¾f°n°f¯°f°  °fn ¾ n°   €fn   @  nf°–  ° nf½fnf°n  nf°    ¾¯f ° f½½nf°¾ f f  f    nn n°¾f°  f ¾ ½  @ °n f¾    nf°–  ° nf½fnf°n  f°  ¯f    ¾ °¾ €   n    nf½fnf°n  nf°  °n f¾   °n f¾°–   ¾€fn  f f €   ½  ¾ f° f¾ f  °n f¾    nf½fnf°n  nf¾ € – f ½ ¯ n° n  ¾ °   f°°n f¾ ¾€fn f f   ¾f°n   @  nf°–  ° nf½fnf°n  nf° f¾  °n f¾   n f¾°–   ¾f°n   ° nf½fn½f ¾ @ ¯¾n¯¯° f¯½ €¾¾ ¾ € f–°  ½ n ¯°f ¾ °° ° f¾f°   °¾f°   @  ¾n  ° ¾¾ ¾ n°  €f°–  € f nf½fnf°n  ½   ff¾  °¾f €¯   ¾¾     ½  ¾ €nf°   € ½ff °¾f °f°f–   ¯ f¾ ¯ ° f€°¾f ½ ¾ff¾¾   ½  ° nf½fn  ¾ nn°–  € f ½ff °¾f  ½  ¾ ¾  € f°f– ¯ f¾ ¯ ° °fn° n ¯f f   °f  f °–€ nn¾  ° n° n ¯f fn¯½  ¾ nn      ¯ ¾n ¾ nf° ¾   € °¾f  f°  ½ff °¾f  ½ ¾  9ff °¾f  ½ ¾ f   ¾¾ ½ °¾  f°  –  f f–  nf°–  ° nf½fnf°n  –f°  € n° n  € ¾  ° € °¾f  ½ ¾ f  ¾  @¾f¾f½½ ¾€¯f f¾fnf°n°f¯°f  ½   .

f½fn   ¯ f¾ ¯ °¾¾f  € ¯  n°f° n°°¾    ¯ f¾ ¯ ° €  ¾  ½f¾ ¾ f°  –  ¾ ¾  .

f½fn  ¾¾ ¯¾   f  f°  fnnf  °  ¯   ¯½ f ¾ %  – f°  %  – ½ ¾¾  f°  fn¯        ¾  ½ € ¯f f  ½¾° ff ¾ f f¾f° –n¾  °°¯ °¾    .

@½nf½½nf°¾  .

f½fn   ¯ f¾°–°¾¯ °¾f ¾ €    n°°¾¾ f°¾ f°  ° ¾  €  ¯  n° f°  n°°¾ ¯ f¾ ¯ °  @ ¾  °¾¯ °¾ f  ½nf ¾  ° f f f¾ € ° ¾ f°  f  nf½f   € ¯ f¾°– ¾f¾ f¾¾ ¯f f¾    f°f– ¾  –¾f  € ¾f°  ¾ ¾  -¯°–½f¾  f  €–n¾ ¯ f  ¾f f°f– ¾  ¯ °¾f½½nf°€½ n¾€nf°–°–  nnf½½  ¾% ¾½ nf ¯¾ n° °%  ½½nf°¯f°¾   ° f  nf½fnf°n     ¾¾ ¯¾    nf f° f€  °¾ff°  f–¾¯  n ½°¾  ¾   @ f ¯ °f½½nf°¾     ¾€€f¯ ½n ¾¾¯f f¾ f   ¾nn   °¾ff°.

f°    ¯ f¾ ¯ ° n ¾ f    f  f f°f–  f   nf°  ¯f°f–f– @¾½ ¾¯½f°€fn¾   .°¾ f°¾  ¯¾½ nI ¾¾ ¾  .¾ °¾¯ °¾ °       n° nf°  f¾  ¯  €¯    ¾¾   @½ ¯°°– €   ¾ °¾°– n  f¾ ¯°f ¾   ½¾¾  € ½n ¾¾ €  ° °–   f°¾ n   ¾ °¾ ¾°– ¾    °   ½ n   f€€   . f¾ ¯ °¾f ¾½¾¾  °   °€ ½¯ °€f   .

f f°f° ½°n n¾nf°½ f½ f°f°€¯f°  .

° n¯¯°°¾ff°n f€½°  n° n ¾¾f ¯¾  ¯° f fnf°   ½ ¾ °°–fnn ¾¾ ½  ¯¾   9 ¾¾ I ¾¾ ¾  @ ¯f° n°¾ f°¾ f½½     ¯ f¾ ¯ ° n ¾ ° ½ ¾¾   ¾¾ ¾   fn ¾€ ¯ff° °¾ff°   ¾¾ ¾½ ¾¾   @ ½ ¾¾ f°–€  ½¯ °€ ¾ n   9 ¾¾  ¾¾ ¾nf°f¾ ¾ ½  °€–  ¯¾¾°¾   f°°  –f¾¾nf¾ – °½ ¾¾ ¾ ½n ¾¾¯f f¾ .

¯½ °¾f°°     n ° ¾f¾ fnn° €f¾  f ½ ¾¾ nf°– ¾   @ fnnfn€ ¯ f¾°– n ¯f  ½ ° °° €°–   –fff°¾   ¯½ f  €€ n¾    nnn°¾f°  ¾ ½ ¾ °n €€f¯ f½fnn¯f ¾n¯° f°¾ n f€€ n¾  ½ €¯f°n   ¯½fn°  f.

°½    ¾ °¾°– ½¯ °¾– ° f€f¾ ¾½° °– f° ° ¯¾€f¯f  n°°¾n°   ¾°f ¯nf– ¾¾ ¯    ¾ –  ½fnn  –   °n  f° – f°   ¾n ¯¾ °   n° ¾¾ ¯  €   °¾¯ °f°  ¾ €f  – ¾  € nf f°   °  ½n ¾¾°€¯f°nf° fn €¯ –f° ¯¾ ½f€¯   f   ¾f€ nn¾ ¾ –  ½fnn °n½f  ¾°€¯f° ° n°¾¾ ¯        .

.

°n¾°  @  n¾ € ¾ °¾°– ½¯ ° ¾ ° f ¯f© n°¾ f° n¯½f     n°¯n¾ € n°°–   ½n ¾¾  @   ¾   €  f –°– ¯f°  € fnnfn°  ¯ f¾°– ½¯ °  -   ¯ ¾ °n½f    ¯ f°¾ € n¯½ °¾f°   ° ° n ¾¾f °   n°– ¾   f¯½  °n½f°– f  ¯½ f  n¯½ °¾f°  n °   ½ ¾¾  ¾ °¾°– f½f–¯ ½ ¾ n¯½ °¾f° f°  fn¾ f° f °f    ¯  ½ ¾¾  ¾ f¾  @¾ °¾ ¾   fnnfn f°  ¾f  €  ¯ f¾ ¯ °    f  ¯f° ¾ ° ½f° €€n °n ¯f    f° ¯½  fnnfn € f n  ° ©¾ €   fnf ¯ f¾ ¯ °   f¾  °n f¾    f°–  € ½ f°  €   ¾f€  ¯¾    ¾  f      °fnnfn ¾    ¾ °¾°– n   ° f° °n f¾  f°–  n   fn    ¾°– ¯  fnnf  ½¯ °   ¯f° ¾ f  f¾ ¯½¾  ° ½n ¾¾ ¾  n°€¯  °°¯ °f  –f°¾  nnf  fnn°°– € ¯f f¾ f¾¾¾¾ ° fn °– ¾  n  n°– ¾ f¾  f ¯f°n   f¾°n ¯°¯    ½ °¾  € ¾ °°¯ °fn¯½f°n     9  ¯¾ nn ° °–  ¾ °¾     ° ¾°–  ¾¾ ¾ f ¯f  °° ¯ fn   €    nf   ¾ °¾¾ f  f° ° –f –°   ¯ ° n ¯°f ¾   °  € f°  °f –°   €  °n   ° ¾°–   ¾ °¾  ¯ f¾    €½n ¾¾¯f f¾°°° ¯ fn ¾¾ ¾ @ ¯f  f°– f° ½nf¾n ¾f f¾°  ½¯ ° .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful