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READING COMPREHENSION

READING COMPREHENSION TEST 1


The serious writer is an interpreter, not an inventor. Like a good actor, he is an intermediary between a segment of experience and an audience. The actor must pay some consideration to his audience: he must be careful, for instance, to face toward it, not away from it. But the great actor is the one who is wrapped up in the thoughts and feelings of the role he is playing, not the one who is continually stealing glances at the audience to determine the effect of his last gesture or bit of business. The actor who begins taking his clues from the audience rather than from the script soon becomes a "ham": he exaggerates and falsifies for the sake of effects. The writer, too, though he must pay some consideration to his reader, must focus his attention primarily on his subject. If he begins to think primarily of the effect of his tale on his reader, he begins to manipulate his material, to heighten reality, to contrive and falsify for the sake of effects. The serious writer selects and arranges his material in order to convey most effectively the feeling or truth of a human situation. The less serious writer selects and arranges his material so as to stimulate a response in the reader. 3. We understand from the passage that one quality the great actor and the great writer have in common is ----. A) their need for encouragement from the public B) the importance each gives to his art, not to the responses to it C) the desire to please at all costs D) the tendency to present everything in a more colourful and exciting manner E) their fondness for exaggeration and stimulation

1.

It is emphasized in the passage that the main concern of a great writer ----. A) is to give a powerful representation of the human condition B) is to persuade his readers to believe as he does C) is not to interpret a human situation but to evoke a memory D) is to give multiple meanings to a single situation E) is not so much content as form and style

4. 2. According to the passage, a second-rate actor ---. A) is very conscious of the truth of what he is playing B) gives priority to the text not to the audience C) is selective about the roles he is willing to play D) likes to interpret his role in different ways E) gives too much importance to pleasing his audiences

The expression "the great actor is the one who is wrapped up in the thoughts and feelings of in the role he is playing" ----. A) denotes that what makes an actor great is his absorption in the role B) signifies that an actor must give more emphasis to his own thoughts and feelings C) means that the greatness of an actor results from his fondness for his role D) suggests that the success of an actor depends upon his manipulation of the audience E) indicates the actor's concern with the reactions of the audience to his performance

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READING COMPREHENSION
The ability to recognize people automatically by analyzing bodily characteristics such as fingerprints, faces and eyeballs, collectively known as biometrics, has long been a goal of technologists and governments alike. Plans for large-scale projects to incorporate biometric scans into passports, identity cards and visas are now under th way in several countries. Since January 5 the US has been scanning foreigners from particular countries as they arrive at its airports. Both the US and Europe plan to start issuing biometric passports as soon as next year. Biometric identity cards are being adopted in Hong Kong and Oman, and Britain plans to follow suit. Biometric technology has been around for quite a while, but has not been widely adopted, for good reason: while it can improve security in some situations, its costs more frequently far outweigh its benefits. Even the most advanced systems falsely reject a small proportion of legitimate users, and falsely accept illegitimate ones. At best, the introduction of biometric identity documents will produce a marginal increase in security, at enormous cost. But at worst, biometrics could, in fact, reduce security in several ways. 7. According to the passage, technologists and governments ----. A) in Europe and the US agree that further trials are needed before biotechnical passports are issued B) are unduly concerned about the expenses entailed by biometrics C) underestimate the number of mistakes made in identification by biometrics D) are equally convinced that biometrics is the only means of attaining full security at airports E) alike have been looking forward to having biometrics solve identification problems

5.

According to the passage, the use of biometric technology ----. A) has not yet been introduced in airports B) seems likely to prove a cost-effective means of increasing security C) for identification purposes is becoming increasingly popular D) for identity cards is widely regarded as an infringement of liberty E) has encountered so many problems that it will probably be abandoned

8. 6. It is stressed in the passage that biometrics ----. A) is of little, if any, use as a means of ensuring full security B) is a comparatively cheap means of attaining reasonable levels of security C) has proved highly satisfactory in both Hong Kong and Oman D) is an infallible method of recognizing people E) is developing only slowly because governments are nervous about the response that it will receive

We learn from the passage that, although biometric technology has been in use for sometime, ----. A) it is still only being used for identification purposes in visas B) there are as yet no plans to use it on a large scale C) its technologists show no interest in trying to improve it D) in many respects, its disadvantages are often greater than its advantages E) it is still only rarely being used for legitimate purposes

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READING COMPREHENSION
People are fascinated by juries. They are the focus of a disproportionate number of novels and movies, and the 1995 murder trial of O.J. Simpson virtually brought the United States to a standstill because people could not miss the exciting televised court proceedings. Juries represent one of the most significant decision-making groups, not only because they are presented as a symbol of all that is democratic, fair and just in a society but also because of the consequences of their decisions for defendants, victims and the community. A case in point is the 1992 Los Angeles riots, which were sparked by an unexpected 'not guilty' verdict delivered by an all-white jury in the case of the police beating of a black suspect. Juries are groups and thus are potentially prey to the deficiencies of group decision-making. In addition to these problems, there are a number of issues to do specifically with the task confronted by juries. One issue is the influence of laws and penalties on the jury. Harsh laws with stiff penalties tend to discourage juries from convicting, which is quite the reverse of the intention of legislators who introduce such laws. Juries have to deal with enormous amounts of information presented in court. It has been suggested that information delivered later in the trial is more heavily weighted in decisionmaking. Further, inadmissible evidence that is the evidence given by witnesses or interjected by counsel but is subsequently ruled to be inadmissible for procedural reasons by the judge, still has an effect on jury deliberation. 11. The writer points out that a jury's process of decision-making ----. A) is only interesting when the trial is a long one B) in real life is very different from the way it is presented in films C) needs the guidance of the judge D) has always aroused a great deal of public interest E) can be adversely affected if the trial is televised

9.

According to the passage, one reason why juries attract so much public attention is that ----. A) the credibility of the whole legal system depends on them B) they frequently make a wrong decision C) they stand for the values of democracy and justice D) people see them as their own representatives but envy their power E) they are made up of ordinary people who are not interested in the case

10. As is pointed out in the passage, there is a tendency among juries to ----. A) avoid convicting the accused if the penalty is a severe one B) concentrate on the evidence that is forthcoming at the start of the trial C) favour harsh penalties so as to deter lawbreaking D) trust their own judgment and ignore the guidelines suggested by the judge E) forget they are a group and supposed to give an unanimous decision

12. By the term "Inadmissible evidence", used in the passage, is meant any piece of evidence that ----. A) B) C) D) E) comes up late in proceedings the jury regards as inappropriate contradicts a former piece of evidence the jury is advised to lake into consideration the judge has discounted

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READING COMPREHENSION
A growing percentage of the American economy and of other advanced industrial economies in Europe and Asia depends on imports and exports. Foreign trade, both exports and imports, accounts for a little over 25 per cent of the goods and services produced in the United States, and even more in countries such as Japan and Germany. This percentage will grow in the future. The success of firms today and in the future depends on their ability to operate globally. Globalization of the world's industrial economies greatly enhances the value of information to the firm and offers new opportunities to businesses. Today, information systems provide the communication and analytic power that firms need for conducting trade and managing businesses on a global scale. Controlling the farflung global corporation, which includes communicating with distributors and suppliers, operating 24 hours a day in different national environments and servicing local as well as international reporting needs, is a major business challenge that requires powerful information system responses. Globalization and information technology also bring new threats to domestic business firms: because of global communication and management systems, customers now can shop in a worldwide marketplace, obtaining price and quality information reliably, 24 hours a day. This phenomenon heightens competition and forces firms to play in open, unprotected worldwide markets. To become effective and profitable participants in international markets, firms need powerful information and communication systems. 15. The point is made in the passage that, if a firm is to do well, ----. A) its services must vary in accordance with the needs of the customers B) it needs sound feedback from its foreign partners C) it should give priority to services rather than goods D) it must keep on introducing new products E) it has to expand its operations throughout the world

13. According to the passage, one of the benefits of global communication systems is that they ----. A) allow firms to have access to unprotected information B) make buying and selling throughout the world more competitive C) keep firms informed about the economic performance of several other countries D) enable firms to learn in advance what customers want to buy E) enable customers to see the goods before buying them

14. It is clear from the passage that the American economy ----. A) is increasingly becoming dependent upon foreign trade B) has dramatically fallen behind that of Germany and Japan C) has benefited greatly from information technologies D) is at the forefront of the globalization process E) has overcome many serious business challenges and now faces a brighter future

16. It is clear from the passage that, for a firm to operate globally, ----. A) it must have learned how to be competitive B) it must have extremely efficient systems of communication C) its products and services must be of the highest quality D) it must give preference to overseas markets E) its annual rate of growth must follow a steady trend

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READING COMPREHENSION
Smoking has become unfashionable in most Western countries over the past decade or more, yet its incidence remains high. Even legislation against smoking in a shared work space and banning it on public transport has had limited success, when measured by a decline in the percentage of people still addicted to smoking. In these countries, the highest rates of smoking tend to be found among people in the 20-29 age group, teenage women and working-class groups. Smokers tend to be well-informed about illnesses related to their habit, such as lung cancer and heart disease. Despite this knowledge, current smokers tend to underestimate the risk of dying from smoking when compared with former smokers and those who have never smoked. Antismoking campaigns have used a wide variety of media and techniques to discourage smoking. For example, one campaign adopted a television commercial and poster, while another used a direct-mail approach, along with radio advertisements. Various celebrities have helped by performing at places of work and by recording verbal messages. There have been different target groups. One campaign aimed to reach women, who outnumber men in the under-18 smokers group, stressing the benefits of not smoking with respect to health, beauty and fitness. Another used baby stickers. Another campaign highlighted the benefits of a smoke-free workplace and was conducted in major clothing chain stores, supplemented by radio and television advertisements. There is a socially supportive context nowadays to quit, and the recognition that passive smoking is dangerous may help some in the future to quit permanently. 17. It is pointed out in the passage that today the social environment ----. A) is the main reason why so many young people smoke B) is not taken into account in combating smoking C) gives a great deal of encouragement to smoker to give up smoking D) plays a bigger role than ever before on the 20- 29 age group E) in most Western countries is virtually the same 19. The author points out that although, in most Western countries, legal measures have been introduced against smoking, ----. A) the results have been disappointing, especially as regards young people and workers B) a growing majority of people simply ignore them C) teenage women in particular violate these regulations D) a really smoke-free workplace is hard to find E) the media have not extended any support for these measures

18. According to the passage, though everyone knows that smoking is harmful to health, ----. A) it is generally recognized that it does not kill people B) governments have rarely taken any action against it C) people of advanced age cannot give up the habit D) smokers usually ignore the dangers E) non-smokers get irritated by anti-smoking campaigns

20. It is clear from the passage that efforts to stop people smoking ----. A) concentrate on the dangers of passive smoking B) have been confined to media advertisements C) have largely focused upon women D) have been extremely varied and directed at different segments of society E) have been declining over the last decade

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READING COMPREHENSION
Gauguin began his career as a painter late in life. Born in Paris in 1848 he was raised by his widowed mother in Peru, where his paternal half Peruvian grandmother lived. "You know. I have Indian blood, Inca blood, in me" he later wrote, "and it's reflected in everything I do". At 17, Gauguin joined the French Navy and sailed around the world, encountering many native cultures during the ship's ports of call. In 1872, he married a Danish woman named Mette Gad and they settled in Paris, where he worked as a stockbroker for a decade. All the while, Gauguin collected contemporary art by the impressionists - in particular Renoir, Monet, Pissarro, who later became a friend, and Cezanne, whose primitive style and sweeping colours affected him deeply. In 1883, at 35 Gauguin abruptly left his wife, his five children and his bourgeois lifestyle to devote himself to art. He travelled to Brittany, where he painted and sculpted, and to Martinique, where he discovered the vibrant beauty of the tropics. Then he moved to Aries, in Provence, where he and his friend Vincent van Gogh painted colourful landscapes and planned their escape to Tahiti, which they imagined as exotic, bountiful and free of stifling European mores. 23. The point is made in the passage that Gauguin, during his service in the French navy, ----. A) came into close contact with primitive societies and their ways of life B) visited Tahiti and made up his mind to return and perhaps even settle there C) managed to trace his grandmother in Peru D) discovered that he was racially related to the Incas E) came to meet a number of impressionist painters

21. It is clear from the passage that, for both Gauguin and van Gogh, Tahiti ----. A) held the promise of new cultural experiences for them to reflect in their paintings B) was the island best able to provide them with the stimulating landscapes they longed for C) was a land that promised excitement and an escape from the rigidities of European life D) was to prove a great disappointment from the point of view of their artistic expectations E) was to be the inspiration of their greatest works of art

22. We understand from the passage that Gauguin ----. A) was only interested in painting, not in any other form of art B) decided to make a life-long career for himself in the French navy C) was very much a family man and deeply attached to his children D) was particularly fond of Martinique and its tropical climate E) felt very proud of his Indian origins

24. According to the passage, even before Gauguin took up painting himself, he ----. A) had travelled extensively through various parts of French B) was greatly interested in the works of contemporary painters and influenced by them C) and Pissarro dreamed of going to Tahiti and settling there D) fell under the influence of van Gogh and tried to paint in his style E) had deserted his family and settled in Aries

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READING COMPREHENSION
The typical African-American seems uninterested in saving for retirement. Statistics show that in recent years Americans in general have become increasingly less disciplined about saving. However, this trend is disturbingly prevalent among black Americans. Only 59% of African- Americans say they or their spouses have saved for retirement, compared with 77% of white workers, according to a recent survey. What are the reasons for this disparity? Historically, there's been a cultural disconnection between the retirement portrayed in the glossy brochures - lavish vacations in highpriced villas - and the African-American reality. Most blacks expect to go on working even after they have officially retired, rather than lying around on a beach. Their experience in retirement has never been like mainstream white America. "Typically", they say, 'we work until we die". Researchers have often attributed the savings gap for AfricanAmericans to lower wages or to a lower comfort level with the stock market. Those factors do play a part, but even educated professional blacks earning six figure incomes tend to ignore their retirement and follow a wasteful way of life. Economists say the behaviour mirrors that of first-generation immigrants who engage in conspicuous consumption. "Black professionals today are often first-generation college graduates who, like other groups, want to symbolize that they have succeeded." 27. As regards first-generation collegeeducated black professionals who earn a lot, the point is made in the passage that they ----. A) save little and spend extravagantly B) are the ones who regularly save up for their retirement C) are more determined than their white colleagues to enjoy themselves in their retirement D) are keen to buy up high-priced villas in readiness for their retirement E) are not satisfied with what they earn and want more

25. The point is made in the passage that, unlike most white Americans, most AfricanAmericans ----. A) continue to work even after they have retired B) spend a great deal on costly leisure activities C) take their retirement seriously and plan for it carefully D) are denied access to any form of higher education E) are keen to demonstrate the fact that they have been well-educated

26. We get the impression from the passage that there is a sense of unease expressed about ----. A) the unreliability and unpredictability of stock market dealings B) the poor living conditions of many retired African-Americans C) the cultural gap between African and white Americans because it is widening D) the African-Americans' lack of interest in putting money aside for retirement E) the growing number of black professionals in the business world

28. As it is pointed out In the passage, AfricanAmericana do not save up for their retirement ----. A) since they wish to keep on working to the end of their lives B) because they are unfamiliar with the savings schemes C) although they look forward to having luxury holidays D) because they rely on the savings of their spouses E) in part because they are not well-paid

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READING COMPREHENSION
The German economy isn't getting any healthier. Growth remains stagnant and businesses remain pessimistic about the future. Real gross domestic product in the third quarter grew by 0.3%, after a 0.2% rise in the previous quarter. Household spending was the main engine of growth in the period. Exports also helped, rising 2.7%. The weakness came largely in business investment, and construction spending also fell again. Government loans slowed. Companies' views of current conditions have stabilized. However, future expectations worsened, with the index dropping to 95.8. That doesn't promise well for a rebound in business spending. And recent rises in taxation and spending cuts by the government could weigh on consumers. 31. In the gloomy picture of the German economy outlined in the passage, ----. A) government loans are not even sufficient to help any one sector B) it is clearly the construction sector that has been hit hardest C) the main blame rests with the German government's financial policy D) many companies seem to be in danger of bankruptcy E) there are one or two positive signs, including the rise in exports

29. It is pointed out in the passage that the higher taxes recently imposed in Germany ----. A) have hit the companies far more than the consumers B) have aroused a great deal of discontent among the consumers C) are generally regarded as having been inevitable D) seem likely to have an adverse effect upon the consumers E) were necessitated by the need for an increase in public spending

30. From the passage, the general picture we get of the German economy ----. A) is that of a slow but sure growth B) is one of decline that could lead to recession C) seems to be reasonably promising D) suggests that all necessary measures to improve it are being taken E) contradicts the expectations of the majority of businesses

32. It is clear from the passage that the German government ----. A) was particularly disturbed by the figures for real gross domestic product B) has taken firm measures to boost exports C) has introduced cuts in public expenditure D) is determined to encourage an increase in household spending E) plans to play a leading role in developing businesses

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READING COMPREHENSION
Non-lethal weapons are typically given names that make them sound acceptable; for example, the term "rubber bullet" was adopted to suggest something soft and harmless. Jelly batons, sponge grenades and bean bags sound like something from a children's party, and you need to be aware that these "bean bags" are canvas bags of lead shot. Similarly, the very term "stink bombs" makes them sound like a practical joke instead of a chemical warfare agent. Sometimes language is deliberately used to mislead, as in the case of "rubber-coated bullets". These are steel balls the size of marbles with a thin rubber coat, able to penetrate the skull. There are also so-called "plastic bullets", which are high velocity bullets made of PVC. 35. We understand from the passage that "socalled plastic bullets" ----. A) refer to the bullets that have been falsely called plastic B) are actually weapons of chemical warfare C) are not capable of travelling at any great speed when fired D) are far less lethal than rubber bullets E) can shatter the skull as effectively as rubber coaled bullets

33. An important point made in the passage is that many non-lethal weapons ----. A) have been inspired by children's toys B) are weapons of chemical warfare C) are carefully described in a misleading terminology D) have recently been banned by the authorities E) are only used to break up demonstrations

34. It is clear from the passage that "stink bombs" are ----. A) the most deadly of all the bombs B) used as a joke by children C) used in all kinds or warfare, including the conventional D) not something to be laughed at E) generally used in conjunction with sponge grenades and jelly batons

36. Throughout the passage, there is a sharp contrast drawn between ----. A) the purpose of non-lethal weapons in war time and in peace time B) rubber-coated bullets and plastic bullets C) non-lethal and lethal weapons D) chemical warfare and conventional warfare E) the innocent label and the damaging effects of non-lethal weapons

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READING COMPREHENSION
The Postal Service has the longest history of monopoly power in the country and has the distinction of being mentioned in the US Constitution. In the past, the post office was impressive in using its monopoly to maintain high wages despite a widespread reputation for poor service. But these past accomplishments have been severely diminished by its inability to control the entry of competitors. First came FedEx Corp. and its associates, then the fax machine, and then, most destructively, the Internet and e-mail. The failure to get Congress to classify all these innovations as first class mail and therefore the exclusive domain of the Postal Service demonstrates a tremendous loss of muscle. Therefore, this contestant fails to measure up and should probably not even be nominated in the future. 39. According to the passage, the US Postal Service ----. A) enjoyed, at one time, a privileged status but offered poor services B) is the oldest public institution in the country's history C) is still in fierce competition with its rival FedEx Corp D) is still in the forefront as regards the payment of high wages E) will always be remembered with respect even if it ceases to exist in the future

37. According to the passage, the introduction of the Internet and the use of e-mail in America----. A) has contributed immensely to the efficiency of the US Postal Service B) is regarded by the US Congress as a major technological accomplishment C) has had a negative effect upon the postal services of the country D) has enlarged the US Postal Service's monopoly power E) has led to an on-going constitutional controversy

38. According to the passage, the US Postal Service feels ----. A) relieved that there are new communication services to share its load B) that Congress should have put the new communication techniques under its monopoly C) proud that the US Congress has always recognized its superiority D) frustrated because it cannot adapt to the new technologies E) that the new communication technologies will soon be replaced

40. Clearly, this passage ----. A) describes the current great achievements of the US Postal Service B) accounts for the decline of the US Postal Service C) deals with the benefits of the Internet D) expresses a considerable degree of sympathy for the US Postal Service E) is critical of the US Congress and its attitude towards monopolies

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READING COMPREHENSION
Modern psychology considers childhood an extremely important period of human development. Western culture views children as vulnerable and requiring a great deal of attention, care and shelter from harm. Many laws are designed to protect children from dangerous toys, dangerous substances and even dangerous parents. Our belief that all children ought to have a free public education and that they should remain in school until adolescence similarly reflects the view that childhood is a special and important time. But these attitudes toward children reflect a relatively recent conception of early development. The Greek and Roman civilizations, for instance, which extended from about 600 B.C. to about 400 A.D., are usually regarded as periods of great enlightenment. Yet the status of children during those times was hardly enviable. Although such great Greek thinkers as Plato and Aristotle wrote of the importance of education, they also defended practices that today would seem unthinkable. Infanticide, the killing of newborns, was routine and viewed as an appropriate way to deal with babies who were illegitimate, unhealthy or simply unwanted. 43. It is emphasized in the passage that presents day western culture ----. A) does not seek to prolong free education after adolescence B) regards free schooling as the right of every child C) does not regard Greek and Roman times as periods of enlightenment D) is over-protective of its children E) regards children in much the same way as did the ancient Greeks

41. According to the passage, in modern society children ----. A) are the responsibility more of the state than of their parents B) are given more freedom than is good for them C) enjoy no special privileges D) receive less consideration and protection than in ancient times E) are protected by law from a variety of harmful practices

42. We understand from the passage that the civilizations of Greece and Rome ----. A) Accepted certain practices to do with children, that today we find horrifying B) Do not deserve the respect that they are constantly being given C) are largely remembered because of the writings of Plato and Aristotle D) treated children with great kindness even though they did practice infanticide E) recognized the fact that infanticide was inhuman

44. It is clear from the passage that Plato and Aristotle ----. A) helped to improve the conditions of children in their age B) disapproved of the way children were treated in their times C) would have disliked the modern approach to education D) both recognized the importance of education E) tried hard to put an and to the practice of infanticide

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READING COMPREHENSION
For more than ten years, Russia's relations with the advanced countries of the western world had been a torrid and unsatisfying mixture of unrequited love, misunderstanding and dashed hopes. Actually, recently there have been big shifts on both sides. The West is no longer trying to recast Russia in its own image. The days are gone when politicians in the US used the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as a foreign policy fund to promote particular policies and politicians in Russia. These days, Russia runs itself more or less as it likes. Its economic growth may be slow but it is encouraging: Russia registered its third consecutive year of real growth in 2001, with the average income up by 5% and at a time when the world's big economies were sluggish. Although good official connections in business still matter hugely, the days of central planning are gone for good, as is the wild era of looting and barter that followed the collapse of communism. Russia delivers its oil and gas on time and is steadily paying off its foreign debts. Compared with what might have happened, the outside world finds that cheering. 47. As it is pointed out in the passage, in the recent past, Russia ----. A) experienced many difficulties in its relations with the West B) achieved a rapid rate of economic growth that surprised the western world C) introduced a policy of central planning which has aided its economic growth D) finally paid off all of its debts to the West E) exported all its surplus oil and gas to the West

45. As we understand from the passage, what is interesting about Russia's recent economic performance is that it ----. A) has caused considerable unease in the US B) has largely been achieved by the export of oil and gas C) has been largely aided by IMF funding D) has improved to a certain extent while the economies of many big countries have deteriorated E) has led to an intensification of the strain in relations between Russia and the western world

46. According to the passage, the signs that things are improving in Russia ----. A) have been confirmed by IMF's economic reports B) are not really credible in the eyes of western countries C) seem likely to prove very temporary D) are gratifying but its relations with the West continue to be tense E) include a steady reduction in foreign debts and reliability in the meeting of commitments

48. It is clear from the passage that, formerly, the US ----. A) depended upon the IMF for the funding of all its foreign policy projects B) greatly encouraged economic cooperation between Russia and the West C) was in the habit of using certain international bodies to influence politics in Russia D) was exceedingly worried about Russia's economic instability E) had done all in its power to bring about the collapse of communism

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READING COMPREHENSION
Behavioural scientists have identified many powerful factors that drive us to war - factors so numerous and so compelling that it is hard to imagine how we will ever overcome them. Evolution seems to have equipped us with strong tendencies to organize and kill. As General John J. Pershing stated, "Men go to war because they enjoy it." Like many mammals, we also possess the natural tendency to protect our territory. Society is capable of suppressing genetically-based tendencies, but when it comes to war, most cultures actually fuel the flames. We deliberately instil nationalistic pride in our children, and we teach them to assume roles and follow orders which are all characteristics of the good soldier. In addition we reduce the individuality of people by giving them uniforms; we diffuse responsibility by having them use weapons in teams; we dehumanize enemies by labelling them heathens, animals and so on. Throwing financial incentives, some propaganda and a charismatic leader or two, and we become more prone to war than ever. 51. An important point made in this passage is that the tendency in man to go to war ----. A) is aroused by all types of uniform B) is strong and unlikely over to be subdued C) has nothing to do with a sense or national pride D) bears no relation to the way a child is brought up E) has decreased as war has become more terrible

49. According to the passage, people ----. A) are no longer easily motivated by financial incentives B) are conditioned for war from childhood onwards C) want their sons to become professional soldiers D) can be persuaded to do anything by a charismatic leader E) can seldom manage to control their tendency to kill

50. It is pointed out in the passage that human beings resemble many other mammals ----. A) in their urge to defend their own domain B) in their readiness to fight for the pleasure or fighting C) because they share the same tendencies D) though mammals lack a sense or pride E) since they possess the same genes

52. In the passage, the underlined phrase "'dehumanize enemies" means to ----. A) B) C) D) E) refer to the enemy's less-known qualities present the enemy in favourable terms depict the enemy as something inhuman put the emphasis on the enemy's power represent the enemy through its unpopular attributes

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READING COMPREHENSION
From birth to age 10, our developmental focus is on learning how to be human beings - learning to move, to communicate, to master basic skills. These often require the mastery of learned social and cultural conventions, traditions, and rituals, such as movements associated with various games, differences in spoken or written languages, and our culture's definition of good manners. The initial development is slow and awkward, but children generally function at a rapid automatic level by age 10. Adults usually allow young children to make mistakes. We smile indulgently and offer support rather than criticism as toddlers trip and as 2-yearolds make language errors. We are there principally to protect their safety and to applaud their successes because we realize that toddling leads to walking and running, and babbling leads to speaking, reading and writing, 55. We understand from the passage that our early childhood, up to age 10, is ----. A) a period of unnecessary adult interference B) a process of acquiring the basic skills of being a human being C) a period of physical activity, not mental D) not affected by the social codes of behaviour E) the dullest and most unproductive period of our lives

53. We understand from the passage that the early stages of any kind of learning for children ----. A) B) C) D) should centre around games and play are identical in every culture should not be allowed to develop naturally tend to be uncoordinated and require a lot of time E) need no adult supervision

54. It is clear from the passage that the mistakes of little children ----. A) B) C) D) deserve to be criticized need to be corrected right away by adults are regarded tolerantly by grownups can be disregarded by grown-ups until the age of 10 E) usually relate in some way to their social and cultural environment

56. One point made in the passage is that adults ----. A) are always over-protective of a child's safety B) do not need to encourage children to master traditions and rituals C) rarely take the trouble to teach their children good manners D) should devote more time to helping their children read and write E) usually overlook children's errors and concentrate on giving the encouragement

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READING COMPREHENSION
The reasons for language death range from natural disasters to different forms of cultural assimilation. Small communities in isolated areas can easily be wiped out by earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis and other natural disasters. On 17th July 1998, a 7.1 magnitude earthquake off the coast of Papua New Guinea killed more than 2.2Q0 people and displaced a further 10,000 people. Many villages were destroyed; and some 30% of the villagers were killed. The people in these villages had been identified as being sufficiently different from each other in their speech to justify the recognition of four separate languages, but the numbers were very small. Moreover, as the survivors moved away to care centres and other locations, these communities and thus their languages could not survive the trauma of displacement. 59. It is pointed out in the passage that the villagers living in a certain area of Papua New Guinea ----. A) chose to leave the area after an earthquake B) formed a close community in spite of language differences C) shared a common, very primitive language D) did not speak a common language E) were the least affected by the 1998 earthquake

57. According to the passage, the disappearance of a language ----. A) can be brought about by the effects of natural disasters B) rarely results from cultural assimilation C) results in the disappearance of local communities D) is a cultural process that cannot be prevented E) seems to be unavoidable but regrettable

58. We learn from the passage that four of the local languages used in Papua New Guinea were lost ----. A) because the death toll was unimaginably high B) and these were the ones most widely spoken C) owing to the displacement of the people who spoke these languages D) owing to various forms of cultural assimilation E) in spite of efforts to preserve them

60. It is clear from the passage that the 1998 earthquake in Papua New Guinea ----. A) took the native population by surprise, and caused untold destruction B) was one of the worst natural disasters ever to have occurred in the region C) killed half of the country's village population D) was followed by a major tsunami which wiped out many villages E) did not only kill the people themselves, but also their languages

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READING COMPREHENSION TEST 2
In London's theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, that's mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity; for plays, attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesn't contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And In a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, London's subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around 14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% of capacity for the past 20 months. That's partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming. 3. It is clear from the passage that the musicals in London theatres ----. A) depend largely on private sponsorship for production costs B) can only run for a limited period of time C) are not appreciated by serious theatre audiences D) cost less than straight plays do E) are popular on account of the singing and dancing in them

1.

According to the passage, public interest in London's theatres ----. A) B) C) D) reflects the quality of each production has steadily increased over recent years has shifted away from straight plays is a good indication of the decline in aesthetic taste E) largely focuses on the activities of the National Theatre

2.

We understand from the passage that the subsidized theatres In London ----. A) are often criticized for wasting public money B) manage to make a profit though their audiences are small C) have been specializing in musicals for quite some time D) have been drawing large audiences for nearly two years E) are more concerned about attendance than about the quality of performance

4.

One point made in the passage is that aggressive programming ----. A) is what has made musicals so popular B) should be practiced by all commercial theatres in order to make them profitable C) was originally devised and introduced by the National Theatre D) is contributing greatly to the sale of tickets in the subsidized London theatres E) has been extremely cost-effective for commercial theatres

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In his three-and-a-half years in the job, the President of Harvard University seems to have upset a large number of people. First, he said students were getting too many "A" grades because of grade inflation, {which was correct). Then he attacked a professor on account of his extracurricular activities. Now he has suggested that one of the reasons women achieve less in science and maths is that they have less innate ability. The President's -comments were off the record; but he has since confirmed that he did draw attention to the possibility that innate differences, rather than social factors, such as education and treatment in the workplace, might have a rote to play. This has resulted in a great deal of violent criticism from many quarters. But, scientifically speaking is he correct? 7. As it is pointed out in the passage, the Harvard President is of the opinion that men ----. A) are more gifted than women in the fields of maths and science B) rather than women have come out in support of the President C) are given more opportunities in the workplace than women are D) at Harvard engage in more extracurricular activities than women do E) at Harvard are reluctant to come into competition with women

5.

It is clear from the passage that the Harvard President's remarks on gender difference ----. A) have made the position of women in the workplace worse B) have gone unnoticed outside the university C) have had a positive impact on education policy D) have given rise to much controversy E) are generally considered to be scientifically correct

6.

According to the Harvard President, as mentioned in the text, ----. A) the gender difference as regards mental capacity has a sound scientific basis B) education plays a crucial role in the development of men and women alike C) external factors might contribute little to the differences between men and women D) grade inflation has led to a decline in student performance E) public reaction to his remarks has been unnecessarily violent

8.

We understand from the passage that the President of Harvard University ----. A) is obviously very proud of the way the students are performing B) has spoken bluntly on various matters, much to the annoyance of many people C) encourages the academic staff to be more involved in extracurricular activities D) has always been prejudiced against women E) has earned the respect of both the students and the staff of the university

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Immigrants have long complained about US employers who cheat or abuse them and threaten to have them deported if they protest. Generally, the problem has been confined to the lowest rungs of the workforce, such as Mexican farm hands who enter the country illegally. But nowadays, the weak US economy has sparked an outbreak of abusive treatment among the legions of professional immigrant employees who flocked to the US on perfectly valid visas during the late- 1990s boom. Usually, theirs are the cases of employers who do not pay full salary or benefits. 11. We learn from the passage that immigrant abuse by US employers ----. A) has been going on for quite some time B) is very much related to nationality C) has cantered around working conditions rather than pay D) has received far too much publicity E) has had an adverse effect on the US economy

9.

According to the passage, the abuse of immigrant workers in the US ----. A) has largely been a matter of deportation B) has only applied to those who did not hold valid visas C) is restricted to people of Mexican origin D) has, until recently, mostly affected the unskilled E) had mostly stopped by the 1990s

10. According to the passage, towards the end of the 1990s ----. A) there was an influx of Mexican farm workers into the US B) there was a noticeable improvement in the US economy C) the US government introduced strict visa measures to stop immigration D) US employers began to discriminate against the Mexicans E) more and more immigrants began to protest against their working conditions

12. It is pointed out in the passage that due to the current decline of the US economy, ----. A) many immigrants who entered the US illegally have been deported B) employers have Introduced pay cuts for everyone C) immigrant abuse has been on the increase, especially with regard to professionals D) immigration laws have been tightened E) immigrants in the lowest rungs of the workforce have been particularly badly hit

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Spain's third-largest bank, Banco Popular, raised some eyebrows recently when it agreed to buy Portugal's Banco Nacional for $638 million. Shareholders voted overwhelmingly in approval of the acquisition. Normally, however, Popular's approach is far more conservative: a singleminded devotion to organic retail growth in its home market as opposed to takeovers. Over the past decade, the bank has worked hard to build its base, cultivating the market for mortgages, consumer loans, and, recently, loans to small and midsize businesses. As rivals looked to the New World and bought up smaller banks at home. Popular expanded its retail network to 2,200 branches throughout Spain, it also added Internet and telephone banking operations that are based in the branches. The effort has paid off. In each of the past three years, the bank has gained 300,000 customers. 15. We learn from the passage that, unlike other major Spanish banks, Popular ----. A) shows no interest whatsoever in expanding B) usually prefers to operate through its own numerous branches C) has been investing heavily in New World businesses D) has had a long-term relationship with Portuguese banks E) has always followed an aggressive banking policy

13. It is pointed out in the passage that the takeover of the Portuguese bank by Banco Popular ----. A) was originally proposed by an overwhelming majority of shareholders B) came as a great surprise to the bank's shareholders C) was not regarded by the shareholders as a profitable investment D) received the full support of the shareholders E) made no impression on the banking community in Spain

14. According to the passage, the banking policy of Banco Popular ----. A) has remained unchanged over the past decade and caused no surprises B) has been severely criticized by its shareholders C) is in need of some radical changes if it is to remain in the forefront D) has in need of some radical changes if it is to remain in the forefront E) is usually traditional and unassertive

16. It is clear from the passage that Popular has worked hard to ----. A) increase its operations and has succeeded B) beat its rivals in taking over foreign banks C) earn the approval of its shareholders but without much success D) limit its operations to two or three major ones E) limit the number of new customers

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To some people, branding is about the art of lying successfully and creating value out of nothing. A good brand inspires trust, but the relationship between the brand and the reality of the product offered is frequently elastic. Branding is therefore an art and the people who do it best are in great demand. In many business segments entry is easy as barriers are low and there is scarcely any means of differentiating your product from that of the competitor. Branding is all there is left to make a difference. Mobile phone companies are a classic lease, in which one company can copy the competitor's contracts. Each company offers virtually the same handsets. Apart from network coverage, brand is everything. Another classic example is airlines. Anyone can charter the same Boeing 737and run an airline as long as it can secure slots. The difference is finally down to service and marketing. 19. We understand from the passage that what counts most in business ----. A) is very often the brand name, products generally being indistinguishable B) is the spirit of the people responsible for marketing the brands C) is a company's competitive spirit to outdo its rivals D) is short-term profitability E) is not customer-confidence but business expansion

17. The main point made in the passage is that ----. A) mobile phone companies are more enterprising than others B) charter airlines are not to be trusted branding is often more important than the product itself C) service and marketing are given far too much importance in business D) businesses need not be honest about the quality of their products

18. It is pointed out in the passage that some people regard ----. A) mobile phone companies as possessing identical network coverage B) charter airlines as failing miserably in the provision of services C) branding as just another production D) expense branding as an ingenious way of hiding the truth about a product E) the relationship between the brand and the product as rigid

20. It is emphasized in the passage that those involved in the successful design and promotion of brands ----.

A) frequently confine their activities to very few businesses B) are not aware of the fact that they are misleading the public C) usually undergo a long period of rigorous professional training D) are very highly valued in the business world E) are clearly indifferent to the requirements of service and marketing

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In an agreement made outside the courts in Basle, Switzerland, Nigerian state representatives, Swiss federal officers and executives from a dozen European banks have agreed on the return of around 1.1 billion euros of the late dictator Sani Abacha's investments, to Nigeria. The conclusion of what has been one of the world's largest investigations into money laundering comes as a huge relief to regulators and bankers in Switzerland, the UK, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and Jersey, the destinations that provided safe havens for Abacha's stolen millions. In exposing just how easily Abacha was able to make deposits of tens or hundreds of millions of dollars in European banks that pride themselves on watchfulness and integrity, the Nigerian investigators highlighted major failings in both the legislative and executive competencies of the European banking community. Reform has already taken place. Undoubtedly more will follow, but the sorry tale of how Europe's banks aided the dictator's outrageous years of theft cannot be forgotten. 23. We understand from the passage that the banks involved in the Abacha money scandal - ---. A) rejected offhand the demands of the Nigerian government B) resisted the reforms the court suggested C) did not take the matter at all seriously D) will be remembered for illegal dealings for many years to come E) were unwilling to change their banking practices

21. It is clear from the passage that the decision taken at Basle ----. A) concerned the recovery, by Nigeria, of the huge amount of money appropriated by Abacha B) involved a complete restructuring , of banking throughout Europe C) was not welcomed by the Nigerians themselves D) finally brought the practice of money laundering to an end E) sent shock waves through the banking community in Europe and caused the closedown of several banks

22. According to the passage, banks in Switzerland and Britain, among other countries, ----. A) had clearly always been very strongly opposed to money-laundering B) allowed Abacha to deposit extremely large amounts of money without, apparently, asking any questions C) had invested widely in Abacha's Nigeria D) were particularly, anxious to settle the Abacha case as quickly as possible E) introduced a series of radical reforms all of a similar nature, at the request of their governments

24. It is understood from the passage that the Abacha case ----. A) has revealed several significant shortcomings in the European banking system B) was first investigated and legally settled in Nigeria C) has given rise to much friction among the European countries involved D) was the most scandalous court-case, of the year in Basle E) was opened at the suggestion of a dozen European banks

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With their magnificent architecture and sophisticated knowledge of astronomy, and mathematics, the Maya boasted one of the great cultures of the ancient world. Although they had not discovered the wheel and were without metal tools, the Maya constructed massive pyramids, temples and monuments of stone both in large cities and in smaller ceremonial centres throughout the lowlands of the Yucatan Peninsula, which covers parts of what are now southern Mexico and Guatemala and essentially all of Belize. From celestial observatories, they tracked the progress, for example, of Venus and developed, a calendar based on a solar year of 365 days. They created their own system of mathematics, using a base number of 20 with a concept of zero. And they developed a hieroglyphic scheme for writing, one that used hundreds of elaborate signs. 27. It is obvious from the passage that the Maya people ----. A) were in close contact with other civilizations B) were unable to produce a satisfactory system of dating C) confined their activities to a very small part of their domains D) were comparatively knowledgeable in astronomical matters E) had to travel to large cities to worship their gods in the temples there

25. With all their achievements, as described in the passage, it is rather surprising that the Maya ----. A) were indifferent to all kinds of artistic activities B) were not interested in the lands that neighboured on theirs C) failed to develop their system of mathematics further D) had no knowledge of any planet other than Venus E) had no concept of the uses of a wheel

26. It is pointed out in the passage that Maya writing ----. A) was used extensively to decorate the temples B) was chiefly to be found on stone monuments C) consisted of a very large number of intricate hieroglyphs D) was not as complicated as the writings of other civilizations E) requires a great deal of expertise if it is to be deciphered

28. We can conclude from the passage that the construction of impressive works of architecture ----. A) was a distinctive feature of the Maya civilization B) was limited to urban Maya settlements C) was rarely achieved by the Maya D) was confined to Maya religious buildings E) in the Maya lands is being questioned in many quarters

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Almost 50 years ago, the scientist and novelist Charles Percy Snow delivered a lecture at the University of Cambridge in which he described a problematic situation that he termed "the two cultures". According to C. P. Snow, as he came to be most commonly known, it was the circumstances of his involvement in both the physics and the writing communities, mostly in Britain, that gave him an unusually diverse perspective on intellectual life at mid-century. Although he noted that members of the two groups that he moved among had similar social origins, possessed comparable intelligence and earned about the same amount of money, they barely communicated with each other. Snow observed that their intellectual, moral and psychological climates had so little in common that they may as well have come from different parts of the world. He feared that the intellectual life of the whole of western society was increasingly being split into two polar groups characterized by physical scientists and "literary intellectuals". 31. According to the passage, C.P. Snow ----. A) was better known as a scientist than as a novelist B) regarded the gap between the scientific and literary worlds as a serious problem C) was particularly interested in the backgrounds of the people he wrote about D) reflected the moral and psychological problems of his age in his novels E) was a popular personality and was often asked to deliver lectures

29. According to the passage, C.P. Snow, in a lecture at Cambridge, ----. A) presented a comprehensive survey of scientific and literary studies B) dwelt upon the social origins of physical scientists and literary intellectuals C) emphasized that scientists and literature people had, as regards their interests, almost nothing in common D) stressed the different psychological climates that produced scientists and literature people E) impressed his audience with the diversity of his interests

30. It is clear from the passage that C.P. Snow's position was such that it ----. A) allowed him to bridge the gap between Western society and the rest of the world B) gave him the chance to meet people from all walks of life C) provided him with a deep understanding of western society D) made him very much aware of a wide range of 20 century problems E) enabled him to be involved with both scientists and literature people

32. It is clear from the passage that the two polar groups described ----. A) emerged for the first time in the mid-20,h century B) despised and hated each other C) consisted of people from different parts of the world D) were indicative of the situation at Cambridge University E) were in many ways alike, but they still couldn't communicate

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As for the lifestyle in the Netherlands, the Dutch have a deserved reputation for being easygoing. But as with any country, there are some surprises for newcomers to get used to. For instance, the amount of bureaucracy strikes them as remarkable when they first move to the Netherlands. Want to light a small fire in your garden? You'll need permission from the local government. Fancy painting your house? Better check with the government first. A major problem is the tightening up of immigration laws on a large scale. The problem is that the Netherlands is a small country that is facing a lot of immigration, so they are making it tougher and tougher. But, actually, racism is foreign to the Dutch culture. They are very accepting; they take you as you are. 35. We understand from the passage that newcomers to the Netherlands ----. A) feel obliged to conform to the Dutch way of life B) are never absorbed into the community C) usually feel themselves at home from the beginning D) soon adapt themselves to the Dutch culture E) may be surprised at the many and various regulations

33. We understand from the passage that the Dutch people ----. A) frequently discriminate against foreigners B) wish to keep foreigners out of the country C) constantly complain about the inefficiency of local governments D) represent a number of contrasting features E) resent having to live in such a small county

34. It is clear from the passage that, in the Netherlands, ----. A) certain ordinary activities are subject to regulation B) a large proportion of the people are racists C) immigrants invariably have a very tough time to start with D) local governments have very little authority E) bureaucracy plays a very small role in daily life

36. It is obvious from the passage that immigration ----. A) has increased the amount of racism in the Netherlands B) into the Netherlands upsets no one C) is a very serious concern for the Dutch D) laws in the Netherlands have been relaxed in recent years E) into the Netherlands has taken a downward turn

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Patent laws do little or nothing to help poor countries dig their way out of poverty, and could even make matters worse. That's the controversial conclusion of an independent commission on intellectual property rights appointed by the British government. Its report, launched recently in Geneva, contains 50 radical recommendations to help make these rights work to the advantage of poor countries. Britain's Department for International Development has already promised to look hard at the suggestions, but it's unclear whether the rest of the international community will listen. The World Trade Organization has persuaded most countries to sign an intellectual property rights (IPR) agreement that obliges them to impose Western style laws on everything from patents to copyrights by 2006. But the new report argues that these laws only benefit rich countries with strong traditions of invention, and do little to aid the transfer of technology to poor countries. The report argues that poor countries should be given a lot more flexibility so as to customize those laws, and up to a decade longer to do so. At present, many poor countries don't have intellectual property laws at all. That means local inventors can't get protection for their ideas, but it also means people can buy cheap versions of medicine or software that have been patented elsewhere. Since poor countries often have little to patent in the first place, the benefits of having no laws can outweigh the disadvantages. 39. According to the passage, it is not yet certain that the recommendations made by the British government appointed commission ----. A) actually aim to benefit poor countries B) will be ratified by the World Trade Organization C) will be finally rejected by the international community D) will gain the approval of a majority of countries E) will aid the transfer of technology to poor counties

37. According to the passage, the findings of a special commission set up to examine the proposed new patent laws ----. A) have been widely accepted by the international community B) suggest that poor countries will not benefit from them C) have been submitted to the World Trade Organization for approval D) recommend that they be introduced over a very long period of time E) has aroused much controversy with the British government

38. We understand from the passage that the absence of patent laws in a number of poor countries ----. A) has angered the rest of the international community B) is bound to end by the year 2006 C) is of no importance and should be ignored D) has caused the drain of their scientific potential E) is to the disadvantage of native inventors

40. One point made in the passage is that it is to the advantage of poor countries ----. A) not to have patent laws B) to sign the intellectual property rights agreement C) to accept western style laws regarding patents D) to encourage the work of local inventors E) to combat their poverty by accepting cheap goods from abroad

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The US Supreme Court is not a radical institution, nor is it likely to become one as a result of any particular presidential election. The risks for the judiciary in presidential elections are a lot lower than many people imagine. This is not because there are no significant ideological or methodological differences among judges. Differences do exist, and they display party affiliation to some extent. And they matter not just on public issues such as abortion rights and racial discrimination but also in those procedures that actually guide the way lower courts handle a large variety of legal cases. That said, the courts have pretty strong institutional defences against radicalism of any kind. For one thing, the judiciarys power is spread among more than 800 federal judges, no one of whose views matter all that much in the broad scheme of things. Even on the Supreme Court the idiosyncrasies or ideological extremism of any one judge can have only a limited effect. Without four likeminded judges, his or her views are just noise. 43. According to the passage, all rulings of the Supreme Court ----. A) are reconsidered after an election B) can be influenced by the federal judges C) must have had the support of at least five judges D) aim at preventing ideological extremism E) are, to a very large extent, influenced by party affiliation

41. It is pointed out in the passage that though there are differences of opinion within the judiciary, ----. A) they play only a very small role in their deliberations B) they are far fewer than they used to be C) these in no way concern party politics D) it is almost impossible to avoid radicalism E) this only becomes apparent at election times

42. According to the passage, the Supreme Court of the US ----. A) B) C) D) is feared by the lower courts is a breeding ground for radicalism is cut off from the lower courts of justice avoids, as far as possible, public issues like abortion E) can only be slightly affected by a presidential election

44. It is clear from the passage that the US judiciary system ----. A) reflects the opinions of the president B) is well-protected against any kind of extremism C) consists of the Supreme Court and the various lower courts and all act independently of each other D) takes its character, not from the Supreme Court, but from the federal courts E) faces pressure from many quarters

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American schools need more time if they are to teach efficiently. The school year is fixed at or below 180 days in all but a handful of states down from more than 190 in the late nineteenth century, when Saturday-morning sessions were common. The instructional day is only about six hours, of which much is taken up with non-academic matters. In 1994, a national commission calculated that in four years of high school a typical American student puts in less than half as much time on academic subjects as do students in Japan, France and Germany. Extending the school day or the school year can get expensive and complicated, and reducing nonacademic electives and physical education brings complaints from parents and students alike. But there is one quite cheap and uncomplicated way to increase study time: add more homework. You may not be surprised to learn that homework raises student achievement, at least in the higher grades. For young children homework appears not to be particularly helpful. Even among older students it is hard to be sure of the extent to which more homework may lead to higher achievement. 47. According to the passage, any extension of the instructional day in American schools ----. A) is not to be recommended on account of the expenses involved B) would arouse much discontent among parents and students C) needs to be reviewed by a national commission D) should aim to bring them up to the level of Japanese schools E) would have to have the approval of all the states

45. We understand from the passage that school programmes in America ----. A) are of little concern to the parents, and so they tend to ignore them B) are at present being reviewed by a national commission C) do not put much emphasis on academic learning D) are run on similar lines to those in the rest of the world E) have been extensively revised since 1994

46. It is pointed out in the passage that in some countries, like Japan, France and Germany, ----. A) the school curricula allow roughly equal time for academic and non-academic subjects B) the school year is far too long and this makes it unproductive C) students are given less homework than their American counterparts D) achievement correlates well with the length of the school day E) the amount of time students spend on academic learning far exceeds that spent by American students

48. It is clear from the passage that the writer ----. A) is urging schools to assign more homework to students of all grades B) is doubtful about the benefits of homework for lower-grade students C) believes that the school day should be extended D) is opposed to reducing the school year from 190 to 180 days E) is convinced of the need for more electives, including physical education

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During the Renaissance, especially in the sixteenth century, it was customary to debate the preeminence of the arts, particularly as between painting and sculpture. The more commonly accepted opinion is represented by Benvenuto Cellini, who thought that sculpture is eight times as great as any other art based on drawing; because a statue has eight views and they must all be equally good. A painting, he said, is nothing better than the image of a tree, man, or other object. In fact, the difference between painting and sculpture is as great as between a shadow and the object casting it. Leonardo, on the other hand, thought that painting is superior to sculpture because it is more intellectual. By this he meant that as a technique it is infinitely more subtle in the effects that it can produce, and infinitely wider in the scope it offers to invention or imagination. Michelangelo, when the question was referred to him, in his wise and direct way said that things which have the same end are themselves the same, and that therefore there could be no difference between painting and sculpture except differences due to better judgment and harder work. 51. It is clear from the passage that, during the th 16 century, ----. A) the art of Leonardo was more highly regarded than that of Cellini B) there was much discussion as to the hierarchy of the arts C) sculptors and painters liked to cooperate on major projects D) most artists were both sculptors and painters E) Leonardo and Michelangelo were keen rivals but each admired the work of the other

49. We understand from the passage that Michelangelos view concerning the relative merits of painting and sculpture ----. A) does not reflect his own position as an artist B) can be regarded as a humourous attempt to bring about a peace between Cellini and Leonardo C) is a light-hearted attempt to avoid the issue D) is unbiased and favours neither E) has no relevance outside the Renaissance period

50. As pointed out in the passage, according to Cellini ----. A) the generally held belief on the preeminence of the arts was totally unfounded B) Leonardos skills as a painter did not exceed those of Michelangelo C) the Renaissance debate on the preeminence of the arts should not be taken seriously D) the art of the sculptor is less demanding than that of the painter E) a painting is inferior to a work of sculpture because it has no solidity

52. The point is made in the passage that, for Leonardo, ----. A) painting provided a greater capacity for artistic creativity B) Cellinis understanding of the arts was a grossly distorted one C) painting came easily, but sculpture offered many challenges D) the practice of any art requires a great deal of invention and imagination E) the effects of a statue are far more subtle than those of a painting

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Governments have learned to value innovation these days for good reason. Far from being simply some missing factor in the growth equation, innovation is now recognized as the single most important ingredient in any modern economy. It actually accounts for more than half of economic growth in America and Britain. In short, it is innovation, more than the application of capital or labour that keeps the world economy going. As a result, economists have decided that the innovators of the world are due some special recognition. It is not possible to recognize all the countless innovations that have helped to spread wealth, health and human happiness around the world. But a handful of people who have made the biggest contribution to the wealth-creation process in their own fields over the past few years, have been nominated for awards. 55. It is pointed out in the passage that the American and British economies ----. A) have been in the forefront in the creation of wealth B) have tended to ignore innovations C) have grown largely on account of innovation D) have had an adverse effect upon the worlds growth equation E) have always been primarily concerned with the prosperity of their citizens

53. One point made in the passage is that, due to innumerable innovations, ----. A) the world economy has acquired a certain level of uniformity B) the American economy has underperformed C) capital has now returned to the fore in economic policies D) the quality of human life on earth has greatly improved E) countries like Britain have fewer labour problems than formerly

54. It is pointed out in the passage that government economic policies ----. A) rely more and more on the management of the labour force B) now take into account the importance of innovation C) regard the wealth-creation process as the main target D) in Britain have undergone very little change over many decades E) throughout the world are undergoing many changes

56. It is clear from the passage that, although a very large number of innovations have been made, ----. A) only a few innovators have received awards for their work B) the majority of them have turned out to be economically unfeasible C) they have had no significant impact on the world economy D) none of them have received any special recognition E) there has been no noticeable improvement in the human condition anywhere

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A non-professional-class working mother, who has been forced unwillingly into the labour market, is oppressed by various unique forces. She is oppressed by the fact that her work is oftentimes physically exhausting, ill-paid, and devoid of benefits such as health insurance and paid sick leave. She is oppressed by the fact that it is impossible to put a small child in reliable day-care if you make only a minimum wage, and she is oppressed by the terrible child-care options that are available at an inexpensive rate. She is oppressed by the fact that she has nothing to fall back on. If she is out of work, and her child needs a visit to the doctor and antibiotics, she may not be able to afford those things and will have to treat her sick child with unprescribed medications, which themselves are far from cheap. 59. We understand from the passage that very many non-professional working mothers ----. A) enjoy health insurance which also covers their children B) are, on the whole, satisfied with their jobs C) feel their children are being suitably cared for D) are paid far more than the recognized minimum wage E) only work because they have to work

57. We understand from the passage that a working mother, without a career, ----. A) works so that her child can enjoy good day-care B) is usually granted several fringe benefits C) rarely stays in her job for a long period D) faces a very hard life E) has a great deal of choice in the kind of work she does

58. It is clear from the passage that, when a non-professional working mother loses her job ----. A) she may neglect the child but not herself B) there are always opportunities available on the labour market C) and her child gets ill, she probably cannot get proper medical help D) she has to be prepared to accept a lowerpaid one E) she invariably has a great deal of trouble finding a new one

60. According to the passage, a nonprofessional mothers working conditions ----. A) are far from satisfactory, and she enjoys no benefits B) are being reviewed with the aim of improving them C) are no worse than those of other workers D) have only recently become difficult E) have received a great of public attention

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READING COMPREHENSION TEST 3
Because a play presents its action through actors, its impact is direct, immediate, and heightened by the actors skills. Instead of responding to words on a printed page, the spectator sees what is done and hears what is said. The experience of the play is registered directly upon his senses. It may therefore be fuller and more compact. Where the work of prose fiction may tell us what a character looks like in one paragraph, how he moves or speaks in a second, what he says in a third, and how his auditors respond in a fourth, the acted play presents this material all at once. Simultaneous impressions are not separated. Moreover, this experience is interpreted by actors who may be highly skilled in rendering nuances of meaning and strong emotion. Through facial expression, gesture, speech rhythm, and intonation, they may be able to make a speakers words more expressive than can the readers unaided imagination. Thus, the performance of a play by skilled actors, expertly directed, gives the playwright a tremendous source of power. 3. It is pointed out in the passage that the performance of a play on the stage ----. A) enables the audience to be more closely involved B) has the same impact on the audience as that of the printed text C) depends much more on the director than on the actors for its success D) can best be accomplished through close attention to the playwrights instructions E) should not guide the way the audience feels

1.

It is clear from the passage that unlike a staged play, a work of prose fiction ----. A) mainly focuses on character and action B) is very effective in arousing the readers emotions C) allows no possibility of multiple interpretation D) makes much use of various literary devices E) makes its impact slowly

2.

It is emphasized in the passage that the effectiveness of a plays action ----. A) disappears as soon as the performance is over B) is maintained only temporarily depending on the audience C) is largely created through facial expression and the playwrights skill D) is increased both through skilled performance and through professional direction E) can be further strengthened through character analysis

4.

Clearly, the passage is mainly concerned with ----. A) the techniques a director makes most use of in the staging of a play B) the sense of immediacy and the intensity that a well-staged play offers C) the role of imagination in prose fiction and drama D) the question of how a play can best be performed E) the relationship between the actors and the writer of a play

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The young childs reliance on visual impressions is made clear by an experiment on the conservation of number. If two rows of checkers are matched one for one against each other, young children will say, correctly, that the rows have the same number of checkers. If the checkers in one row are brought closer together to form a cluster, 5-year-olds say there are now more checkers in the straight row even though no checkers have been removed. The visual impression of a long row of checkers overrides the numerical equality that was obvious when the checkers appeared in matching rows. In contrast, 7- year-olds assume that if the number of objects was equal before, it must remain equal. At this age, numerical equality has become more significant than visual impression. 7. By the words conservation of number in the passage is meant ----. A) numbers should be used sparingly so as not to run out of them B) even when the members of a group move their places, the number of the members remains constant C) every child should learn how to play checkers D) when the members of a group move their places, the number of members may change E) the visual impression of a long row of checkers taking precedence over numerical equality, at least for very young children

5.

The passage is mainly concerned with ----. A) differences in counting ability between 5and 7- year-old children B) the game of checkers C) the fact that older children are better at playing checkers than younger children D) an incorrect assumption made by most 7yearolds E) differences in perception between older and younger children

8. 6. It can be inferred from the passage that, while very small children depend more on what they see to form a concept of their environment, older children ----. A) depend more on their intellect B) never make a mistake when counting objects C) know that the experimenters are trying to trick them D) are more interested in their friends E) have a better understanding of games

According to the passage, the reason that 5year olds say that there are more checkers in a straight row than in a cluster with the same number is that they ----. A) are trying to confuse the experimenter B) become confused when the experimenter moves the checkers C) have a counting ability on the same level with that of older children D) depend on the outward appearance of things to understand them E) are frustrated with the experiment and unwilling to carry on

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In 1964, Kitty Genovese was murdered outside her home in New York City late at night. She fought back, and the murder took over half an hour. At least 38 neighbours heard her screams for help, but nobody came to her aid. No one even called the police. The American public was horrified by this incident, and social psychologists began to investigate the causes of what at first was termed bystander apathy. Their work showed that apathy was not a very accurate term, however. It is not simple indifference that prevents bystanders from intervening in emergencies. First, there are realistic deterrents such as physical danger. Second, getting involved may mean lengthy court appearances or other entanglements. Third, emergencies are unpredictable and require quick, unplanned action; few of us are prepared for such situations. Finally, one risks making a fool of oneself by misinterpreting a situation as an emergency when it is not. Researchers concluded that the bystander to an emergency situation is in an unenviable position. It is perhaps surprising that anyone should intervene at all. 11. According to the passage, one thing that prevents witnesses from getting involved in emergencies is ----. A) B) C) D) E) the fact that they are too busy their distrust of the legal system their surprise and horror at the incident their fear of the police the possibility of physical harm

9.

According to the passage, Kitty Genoveses murder is an example of what was at first called ----. A) B) C) D) E) a realistic deterrent quick, unplanned action court entanglements misinterpretation of a situation bystander apathy

10. It is clear from the passage that ----. A) whenever a person tries to offer help in an emergency, other bystanders will think he is foolish B) all people intervening in emergencies must testify in court C) the American public likes to get involved in emergencies D) there are so many obstacles to intervening in an emergency that most people are unwilling to do so E) simple indifference prevents most bystanders from intervening in emergencies 12. It can be understood from the passage that although Kitty Genovese cried out for help when she was attacked, ----. A) the police arrived too late to help B) the American public disregarded the incident C) none of her neighbours helped her D) her neighbours put themselves in danger trying to help her E) her neighbours had to appear in court because they did nothing to help her

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During the hunger winter of 1944 in Amsterdam, over 20,000 people died of starvation. Many of the citys trees were cut down, and the interiors of abandoned buildings broken up for fuel. When peace came this once most beautiful and urbane of cities was in urgent need of large-scale reconstruction. In the years following the end of World War II in Europe, modern architecture had an unprecedented opportunity to demonstrate a socially minded, urban style. The consensus today is that in most places it failed. The young Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck was one of the earliest critics of the mechanistic approach taken by his modernist colleagues to urban reconstruction. The failure of architecture and planning to recreate forms of urban community and solidarity has become a problem in post-war Europe, as so many acclaimed housing estates, new towns, or newly designed urban quarters, around Europe, have been troubled by vandalism, disrepair and abandonment. Van Eyck saw this coming. In 1947 at the age of 28, he went to work for the Office for Public Works in Amsterdam and, as his first project, built a small playground. This was in line with his belief that by promoting and shaping the daily encounter or inbetween-ness of social space, architecture could humanize cities and create public trust. 15. It is clear from the passage that the new towns and residential areas built after World War II in Europe ----. A) were the work of a very talented group of young architects B) immediately became popular and have remained so to this day C) became the most beautiful areas in and around the cities D) failed to provide a sense of community for the residents E) had playgrounds designed by van Eyck

13. We understand from the passage that, in the late 1940s, Europe was in need of massive reconstruction due to ----. A) the destruction caused by World War II B) the mechanistic approach taken by postwar architects to urban reconstruction C) vandalism, disrepair and abandonment of property D) the unprecedented opportunity to demonstrate a socially minded, urban style E) the failure of modern architecture

14. It is stated in the passage that although ----, it was mostly unable to do so. A) a small playground was the first project designed by van Eyck while at the Office for Public Works in Amsterdam B) modern European architecture had a chance after World War II to create an attractive new style in cities C) post-war architecture in Europe was greatly influenced by the ideas of Aldo van Eyck D) Amsterdam suffered major destruction during World War II E) post-World War II architecture in Europe took a mechanistic approach

16. According to the passage, Aldo van Eyck ----. A) approved of the mechanistic design approach of his modernist colleagues B) thought that many post-war residential areas deserved acclaim C) viewed the post-war period as an opportunity to display his design ability D) thought the post-war period was a good opportunity to destroy older buildings and design modern cities E) believed that urban architecture had the power to create a sense of solidarity and trust in a citys residents

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Not long ago, football was not a good example of globalization. The labour market in international club football was highly protected. National leagues like Italys Serie A and Spains La Liga imposed quotas on their teams, allowing them to import only a limited number of players. Some teams could have only two foreign players on the field. This arrangement, however, began to crumble in 1995, when the European court ruled that the difference of treatment of nationals from other EU countries was anti-constitutional. This permitted players to move freely within the EU, and made the club teams much more multi-national. Now it is not unusual for a majority of the players on a successful league team to be foreign nationals. 19. According to the passage, the European court ruling of 1995 ----. A) created a new constitution B) resulted in a complete reorganisation of the European football leagues C) restricted the number of foreign players a team could import D) made mandatory the inclusion of at least two foreign players from outside the EU on every national team E) made it illegal for EU teams to refuse to employ foreign players simply because they were foreign

17. It can be understood from the passage that the quotas imposed in the past by national leagues ----. A) pushed their teams toward a more global approach B) allowed many foreign nationals to enter the labour market C) created a closed labour market in international club football D) were approved by the European court E) made the club teams quite multi-national

18. An example of footballs globalization given in the passage is ----. A) the large number of foreign players on many teams today B) the ruling by the European court in 1995 C) the quotas that many national leagues still impose on their teams D) that the Italian teams exchange their players more frequently than the other teams do E) that the number of football teams in the EU countries has increased since 1995

20. As is understood from the passage, in the past, football was not a good example of globalization because ----. A) there werent many national football clubs playing internationally B) most players didnt want to leave their native country C) most teams werent allowed to have many foreign players D) the number of clubs throughout Europe was limited E) foreign players could not cross the borders to play in other countries

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Despite various scientific advances, in the early 1900s the public still did not understand mental illness and viewed mental hospitals and their inmates with fear and horror. Clifford Beers undertook the task of educating the public about mental health. As a young man, Beers developed a bipolar disorder and was confined for 3 years in several private and state hospitals. Although chains and other methods of torture had been abandoned long before, the straitjacket was still widely used to restrain excited patients. Lack of funds made the average state mental hospital with its overcrowded wards, poor food, and unsympathetic attendants a far from pleasant place to live. After his recovery, Beers wrote about his experiences in the now-famous book A Mind That Found Itself (1908), which aroused considerable public interest. Beers worked ceaselessly to educate the public about mental illness and helped to organize the National Committee for Mental Hygiene. In 1950, this organization joined with two related groups to form the National Association for Mental Health. The mental hygiene movement played an invaluable role in stimulating the organization of child-guidance clinics and community mental health centres to aid in the prevention and treatment of mental disorders. 23. It is pointed out in the passage that the part played by the mental hygiene movement in founding centres for child guidance and mental health was ----. A) B) C) D) E) unwanted minimal not at all helpful extremely important short-lived

21. According to the passage, Clifford Beers book, A Mind That Found Itself, ----. A) became popular when it was published, but is not popular anymore B) concentrates on the better aspects of life in a mental hospital C) did not gain much popularity among the public D) did little to inform the public about what went on inside mental hospitals E) made people more interested in mental health than they had previously been

22. It can be understood from the passage that, in the early 1900s, people feared mental hospitals and mental patients due to ----. A) their lack of education about mental health B) the torture and chains that were still in constant use to cure mental illness C) the book Clifford Beers had written about his experiences in mental hospitals D) the work of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene E) the inmates who had escaped from the hospitals

24. It can be inferred from the passage that Beers desire to educate people about mental health resulted from ----. A) the improvements he saw taking place in mental hospitals B) his three-year confinement in mental hospitals C) his having been chained for long periods of time D) his reading of the book A Mind That Found Itself E) various scientific advances

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Each year in the touristic town of Agrigento, Sicily, hundreds of illegally-built houses are bulldozed by the local government. New construction in Agrigento, home to many ancient temples which tourists come to see, has been banned since 1968. In spite of this, hundreds of new and half-built houses can be seen in the hills surrounding the archaeological park. Not only do these buildings spoil the landscape, but many are also unsafe and unsanitary. Some of the people living in these buildings pour sewage into the sea and pile garbage on roadsides since their houses are illegal and they arent allowed to use the city sewage system and garbage service. Several of these houses are also built on dangerous cliffs, sites that would never be allowed by Italys strict building codes. 27. It can be inferred from the passage that the local government in Agrigento, Sicily, does not want new houses to be built near the archaeological park because ----. A) the local government wants to use the land to build houses for its officials B) the local government cannot collect taxes from the owners of these houses as they are built on public land C) there is no water, sewage or garbage service available near the temples D) new houses spoil the landscape around the ancient temples E) the local government is planning to build several new hotels for tourists on the land

25. It is made clear in the passage that pouring sewage into the sea and piling garbage on roadsides are examples of ----. A) the reason these houses are built in the hills B) compliance with Italys strict building codes C) why the illegally-built houses in Agrigento are unsanitary D) the beautification of Agrigentos archaeological park E) a protest against the Italian government

26. According to the passage, the building prohibition in Agrigento, Sicily, ----. A) has meant that no new houses have been built there since 1968 B) has not put a stop to the building of new houses C) has meant that there are no houses on the surrounding hills D) has caused the destruction of many ancient temples E) has led to the strict control of new construction

28. This passage is mainly concerned with ----. A) the illegal construction of a new archaeological park in Agrigento, Sicily B) the beautiful ancient temples found in Agrigento, Sicily C) the pollution of the archaeological park in Agrigento, Sicily, which began in 1968 D) the reasons why illegal construction is still continuing in Agrigento, Sicily E) the problem of illegally-built houses in Agrigento, Sicily

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The Roman city of Pompeii in A.D. 79 was a thriving provincial centre, a few miles from the Bay of Naples, with a population of between 10,000 and 20,000 people. Its narrow streets, made narrower by street vendors and shops with cloth awnings for shade, were full of shoppers, tavern-goers, slaves, and vacationers from the North. A huge new aqueduct supplied running water from the Lower Apennine Mountains, which flowed from fountains throughout the city, even in private homes. But the key to Pompeiis prosperity, and that of smaller settlements nearby like Oplontis and Terzigna, was the regions rich black earth provided by Mount Vesuvius volcanic eruptions. One of the ironies of volcanoes is that they tend to produce very fertile soils, and that tends to tempt people to live around them, says geologist Philip Janey. Had Roman knowledge in the summer of A.D. 79 been less mythological and more geological, the Pompeiians might have recognized the danger signs from Mount Vesuvius and escaped the volcanic eruption that was to follow. 31. One understands from the passage that Pompeii ----. A) was the only Roman city famous for its taverns and shopping centres B) was one of the Roman centres for the slave trade C) had a very efficient water system D) was the second largest city in the Roman Empire E) had been destroyed by volcanic eruptions several times before A.D. 79

29. According to the passage, in A.D. 79, there had been some geological indications that ----. A) Mount Vesuvius was about to erupt, but the people of Pompeii failed to understand them B) the Bay of Naples posed a serious danger to the city of Pompeii, but it was ignored by the Pompeiians C) the area in which the city of Pompeii was situated was becoming less and less fertile D) the water resources in the Lower Apennine mountains were no longer adequate to supply water to the city of Pompeii E) Oplontis and Terzigna, the settlements near Pompeii, were not safe to live in and, therefore, had to be evacuated

30. It is emphasized in the passage that the economic well-being of Pompeii ----. A) reached its climax in A.D. 79, the year in which there was a sharp increase in its population B) primarily depended on the commercial activities of its people as well as holidaymakers from the North C) attracted all kinds of people with money, who crowded its streets and led a carefree life D) was essentially related to the fertility of its land, which was due to the volcanic eruptions of Mount Vesuvius E) was the outcome of its exploitation of the settlements around it such as Oplontis and Terzigna

32. According to the passage, what geologist Philip Janey is actually saying in the part quoted is that ----. A) the city of Pompeii should have been founded on the other side of the Bay of Naples B) volcanic terrain is most suitable for people to settle and live on C) people always prefer to settle in volcanic areas since they believe the land there is more fertile D) the Pompeians knew that the area around Mount Vesuvius was not a safe place to settle in, but they settled there anyway E) people attracted by the fertile lands around volcanoes prefer to live there, ignoring the dangers of a volcanic eruption

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READING COMPREHENSION
Artist Paul Czanne wanted to make paint bleed. The old masters, he said, painted warm-blooded flesh and made the trees look warm and alive, and he would too. He wanted to capture the green odour of his Provence fields and the perfume of marble from Saint-Victoire, the mountain that was the subject of so many of his paintings. He was bold, spreading and slapping paint onto his still-lifes with a palette knife. I will astonish Paris with an apple, he boasted. In the years when his friends Manet, Monet, Pissarro and Renoir were finally gaining acceptance, Czanne worked furiously and mostly in isolation, ridiculed by critics and mocked by the public, sometimes tearing up his own canvases. He wanted more than the quick impressions of the Impressionists, and devoted himself to studying the natural world. He called himself a slave to nature, but he knew that he could never completely capture the natural landscape on canvas. 35. It is pointed out in the passage that the world of nature ----. A) appealed to Czanne so powerfully that it became the main focus of his art B) depicted by Manet and the other Impressionists failed to appeal to the public C) was most successfully represented by Czanne in all of his works D) meant for Czanne only different shades of colours and nothing else E) was understood by Czanne as a reference to environmental issues

33. It is stated in the passage that, as a painter, Czanne ----. A) wasnt able to depict nature in his works as fully or as vividly as he would have liked to B) achieved far more popularity in art circles than his contemporaries C) dismissed the old masters as only artists whose style was old-fashioned D) was interested more in the representation of still life than in the depiction of landscape and natural scenes E) was noted for his quiet personality and refined manners

34. According to the passage, Czannes style of painting ----. A) was widely acclaimed by art critics and the public B) mainly derived from the views held by his friends Manet, Monet, Pissarro and Renoir C) was achieved by copying the works of the old masters whom he studied D) differed significantly from that of his fellow artists E) had a great influence on his contemporaries and their work

36. It is clear from the passage that, in his paintings, Czanne ----. A) developed a completely new style which was imitated by his contemporaries B) was influenced, to a great extent, by the French Impressionists C) used daring techniques to produce his likenesses of the fields of Provence D) attached more importance to the depiction of the human body than the natural landscape E) almost always depicted Paris and its surroundings

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READING COMPREHENSION
Angolas emergence as a serious player in the global oil sector has been underlined by the publication of its latest production figures. After several years of slow output growth, the fruits of the multi-billion dollar deepwater investment programme are finally feeding through. Thus, production reached 1.3 million barrels a day during the final quarter of 2005. With the new deepwater fields now coming into production, the governments target of producing 2 million barrels a day by 2008 now seems eminently within reach. In the meantime, official Angolan government figures indicate that oil production averaged 1.25 million barrels a day during the course of 2005, a steep jump on the year before. In addition, the governments estimate of proven oil reserves has finally been increased from 5.4 billion barrels to 12.4 billion barrels. This shows that, as sub-Saharan Africas second biggest oil producer after Nigeria, Angola is in an excellent position to overtake countries such as Libya and Algeria in the table of oil powers on the continent as a whole. 39. It is pointed out in the passage that the Angolan government ----. A) is working on multi-billion dollar deepwater investment programmes to be implemented in 2008 B) feels that its 2008 oil production target may not be realized due to the high costs of deepwater investments C) is resolved to challenge only Libya for oil leadership in Africa D) has invested huge sums for the production of oil from its deepwater fields E) announced that it has published its oil figures in order to prove to the world that it is a serious player in the global oil sector

37. It is suggested in the passage that, with its rich oil reserves and rapidly increasing oil production, Angola ----. A) has become one of the major oil powers in Africa B) has already completely left behind such major oil producers as Nigeria, Libya and Algeria C) has emerged as a threat in sub-Saharan Africa as well as the global oil sector D) can be regarded as a long-time constructive player in the African oil league E) has always been in fierce competition with Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries

38. One understands from the passage that Angolas previously poor oil output ----. A) can only be improved through the exploitation of its deepwater reserves B) has improved dramatically and reached a record level in 2005 C) is related to Nigerias dominant position in the sub-Saharan oil sector D) prevents it from competing efficiently with other oil producing countries E) does not make it a current major player in the global oil sector

40. It is pointed out in the passage that, according to the Angolan government, ----. A) the countrys verified oil reserves are more than twice the original estimate B) the country owns the largest and most productive deepwater oil fields in subSaharan Africa C) Angola has already become the largest oil producer in all of Africa D) after 2008, Nigeria and other oil producing countries in Africa will no longer be major players in the global oil sector E) the countrys deepwater oil reserves have finally been verified but are too costly to be exploited

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Supporters of todays international criminal tribunals say that their work builds on the post-World War II tribunals in Nuremberg and, to a lesser degree, Tokyo. As a matter of legal doctrine, that is true. The category of crimes against humanity, for example, was developed at Nuremberg and is now a central element in many prosecutions. But there is a critical difference between now and then. The courts in Nuremberg and Tokyo were part of a broader political project that aimed to rehabilitate Germany and Japan, respectively, both socially and economically, not simply to try guilt or innocence or hand out harsh punishments. These were military courts that operated with military efficiency, and the Allies could then focus fully on the reconstruction of these countries. Yet, the international courts for the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and the new International Criminal Court (ICC) in the Hague, on the other hand, operate under civilian law and provide generous protection to defendants. The result is a ballooning of the court timelines and costs. For instance, it took the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 10 years to complete the same number of trials that Nuremberg conducted in less than a year. Indeed, it is clear that, because of their protracted proceedings and excessive costs, todays war crimes trials cannot serve the decisive political and social function that Nuremberg did. 43. It is stated in the passage that, a case in an international criminal court today ----. A) may not always be conducted within the context of civilian law B) has far-reaching positive political and social consequences C) is not necessarily concerned with crimes against humanity D) can continue for many years before being finalized E) can be conducted at a lower cost

41. It is argued in the passage that todays international criminal courts ----. A) were originally established in Nuremberg and Tokyo for the trial of war crimes committed during World War II B) have no correlation whatsoever with the principles of the Nuremberg trials C) follow a punitive policy and recognize no right of appeal for defendants D) are costly, time-consuming and lacking in efficiency E) have been set up only for the trial of specific crimes and are to be abolished in due course

42. It is stressed in the passage that the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials ----. A) were not interested in what is today termed crimes against humanity B) were conducted in accordance with the provisions of both military and civilian law C) involved both prolonged and extremely complicated proceedings D) were mainly confined to war crimes with the single aim of handing out harsh punishments E) made up the first stage of a broader policy which aimed for the reconstruction of Germany and Japan

44. One understands from the passage that people put on trial at an international criminal court today ----. A) usually complain about protracted proceedings and excessive expenses B) always deny that they have committed crimes against humanity C) are given extensive rights to defend themselves D) are invariably found guilty and, therefore, given harsh punishments E) only remain on trial for, at most, one year

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The ability to deal with numbers and mathematical concepts reveals an interesting pattern of differences between girls and boys. Girls usually begin counting before boys. Throughout the primary-school years and middle school, girls are better at computational problems, whereas boys do better with math-reasoning problems. During this period, girls also tend to get higher grades. By high school, however, boys begin to perform better, especially at the higher levels of ability. Some psychologists believe this advantage is genetic, but others think that it may derive, in part, from males use of more effective strategies and their lower level of anxiety when approaching mathematics problems. It has also been suggested that the sex differences come about to some degree because girls view math as a male activity (and, therefore, have less interest in it) and because some parents and teachers offer greater encouragement to males in this area. Some studies support this analysis, but others do not. In this area, too, biological and socialization factors probably combine to produce the observed differences. 47. One learns from the passage that, according to one view, the sex difference between boys and girls ----. A) has been categorically ruled out by all psychologists as an important factor in learning mathematics B) ought to be taken into consideration by parents and teachers C) is negligible at the high school level D) cannot be a significant factor in their performance at high school E) does have some effect on their mathematical performance

45. The author thinks that differences between girls and boys ----. A) can be observed only through their approach to mathematics B) have concerned psychologists far more than their performance at school C) is a subject that has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years from psychologists D) remain constant throughout their school years E) may be attributed to the joint effect of their biological nature and social environment

46. It is suggested in the passage that boys ----. A) are never influenced by their social environment in their attitude towards mathematics B) are always discouraged when they are faced with a mathematical problem C) are genetically far more motivated towards mathematics than girls D) are more successful than girls at primary level in dealing with mathematical problems which require reasoning E) usually rely on their parents and teachers in solving all kinds of mathematical problems

48. It is pointed out in the passage that girls ----. A) never fail in their determination to excel over boys in mathematics B) begin to use numbers before boys do C) are relatively more conscious than boys as regards their sex differences D) always use mathematical concepts as efficiently as boys in solving problems E) in the long run perform much better than boys in all aspects of mathematics

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READING COMPREHENSION
The printing press was first introduced into England by William Caxton in the last quarter of the fifteenth century. During his earlier travels in Europe, he had seen the newly invented system of printing from moveable type in Germany. He set up his own press in London in 1476. This initiated a major change in English literature. Now books did not have to be laboriously copied by hand. Soon, they would become relatively cheap. With books easily obtainable, more people could learn to read, and more books would be produced. The experience of literature would soon shift from the breathless group of listeners gathered in a hall or around a fire, hearing an old tale told once more, to the solitary individual, alone with the thoughts and feelings of another person speaking from the printed page. 51. It is clear from the passage that Caxtons interest in the printing press ----. A) was originally aroused when he was visiting Germany B) had always been strong ever since his early years C) was essentially related to his desire to make a lot of profit from book production D) was the main motive for his journey to Germany E) became stronger as more and more people were learning to read

49. It is asserted in the passage that the introduction of the printing press into England ----. A) made book production easy but caused a major increase in their prices B) caused the complete disappearance of oral literature C) was too late to have any constructive effect on social and literary life D) aroused a great deal of objection from copyists and booksellers E) had a very significant impact on peoples relationship with literature

50. One understands from the passages that with the printing press, ----. A) Caxton soon caught the attention of the general public and was much respected B) Caxton was able to produce a lot of books and make a huge profit from their sale C) London came to be a major centre of book production in the fifteenth century D) the number of books produced increased greatly and to the benefit of the reading public E) booksellers in London began to compete with each other fiercely

52. It is pointed out in the passage that, after the introduction of the printing press, a readers easy access to books ----. A) contributed enormously to the development of different types of literature in fifteenthcentury England B) was hindered by the fact that books were hardly affordable C) was what the London book publishers primarily cared about D) made storytelling obsolete and, hence, angered the storytellers of the time E) enabled the individual to share the thoughts and experiences of another person through the printed page

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We commonly speak of both law and laws, and these terms, though not used with precision, point to two different aspects under which legal science may be approached. The laws of a country are thought of as separate, distinct, individual rules; the law of a country, however much we may analyse it into separate rules, is something more than the mere sum of such rules. It is, rather, a whole, a system which orders our conduct and in which the separate rules have their place and their relation to each other and to the whole. Moreover, it is never completely exhausted by any analysis, however far the analysis may be pushed, and however much the analysis may be necessary to our understanding of the whole. Thus, each rule which we call a law is part of the whole we call the law. Lawyers generally speak of law; laymen more often of laws. 55. As is emphasized in the passage, there can be no limit to ----. A) the political laws that constitute the totality of a countrys legal system B) the number of the laws in a country that are distinct from each other C) an analysis of a countrys law, however extensive the analysis may be D) what meanings and interpretations laymen can make of the laws of a country E) the variety of laws that can be included within the law of a country

53. It is pointed out in the passage that, in legal science, the term law ----. A) is very ambiguous and cannot be clearly defined due to the variety of meanings it has B) signifies a whole which, as a system, embodies all the separate rules referred to as laws C) refers to the different aspects of a countrys legal system and, hence, is difficult to explain D) as always been controversial and, therefore, cannot be interpreted accurately E) has a limited meaning that does not deserve any analysis or understanding

54. As regards the use of the terms law and laws, the writer claims that ----. A) there needs to be a common approach among the lawyers of a country B) lawyers and the people outside the legal profession share the same view C) each country has a different approach because of its distinct legal system D) it is not lawyers but laymen who need to be more precise E) there is not much clarity since both terms are often confused

56. As can be understood from the passage, the laws of a country, ----. A) though varied and numerous, embody a common goal for the countrys peace and prosperity B) which lawyers are expected to interpret precisely, indicate the efficiency of the legal system C) whether understood properly or misinterpreted, are necessary for the wellbeing of society D) which can also be understood accurately by laymen, are seldom related to each other E) though separate and distinct from each other, are essentially interrelated

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Four years ago in 2003, when Paul Barrett first began planning an ambitious book on Muslims in America, who would have thought that the topic would still be of such urgent interest by the time it was published early this year? But, if anything, intervening events have made Barretts exploration of American Muslims more timely and important than ever. With the United States even more deeply embroiled in warfare in Iraq and Afghanistan, with sectarian conflict exploding within the Muslim world, with tensions high among Muslim populations in Europe, and with relations strained between some leaders of the Christian and Islamic religions, readers need as much information as they can get about Islam and its adherents. In his book, Barrett notes that, despite being targets of suspicion in the wake of the attacks of September 11, Muslims in America, as a group, offer a perfect illustration of old-fashioned American assimilation. Overall, they are prosperous, well-educated, politically active, and successful in business and the professions. 59. It is suggested in the passage that although Barretts book was published four years after its initial planning in 2003, ----. A) it has captured the attention of the reading public due to the events that took place during this period B) the facts that it relayed about Muslims in America had already been revealed to the reading public C) the war in Iraq was deliberately excluded from it because of the uncertainty about the outcome D) its predictions about the consequences of the American involvement in the Middle East were proven by the developments during this period E) it dwelt solely on a comparison of Christianity and Islam, leaving out a number of other important current issues

57. It is clear from the passage that Paul Barretts book ----. A) presents a socially, politically and economically very positive picture of Muslims in America B) focuses completely on the political achievements of Muslims in America C) seems to present a somewhat cynical view of the way of life of American Muslims D) is mainly concerned with how the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have affected American Muslims E) has failed to arouse any significant interest among American Muslim readers

58. As one understands from the passage, in the aftermath of September 11, Muslims in America ----. A) experienced a wide range of economic handicaps and political setbacks B) formed a group that ambitiously pursued their professional objectives C) began to resist full assimilation into American society and culture D) began, according to Barrett, to be regarded as potentially dangerous E) were involved in sectarian conflicts that divided them politically

60. According to the passage, there are several reasons ----. A) why the relations between the Christian and Muslim leaders in Europe have been broken B) that can be put forward for the American involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan C) for the sectarian conflicts that are taking place in Iraq and elsewhere in the Muslim world D) why readers should be attracted by any study, such as Barretts, related to Islam and Muslims E) for the war in Iraq, which has already increased tensions between the United States and Europe

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READING COMPREHENSION TEST 4
Kierkegaard was one of the most original thinkers of the nineteenth century in Europe. He wrote widely on religious, philosophical, and literary themes. However, his peculiar manner of presenting some of his leading ideas initially obscured their fundamental significance. He developed his views in strong opposition to prevailing opinions, such as certain metaphysical claims about the relation of thought to existence. He reacted against the ethical and religious theories of Kant and Hegel. Moreover, he opposed the doctrines and ideas which were being advanced by some of his contemporaries like Feuerbach and Marx. His discussion of the human condition, which emphasizes the significance of individual choice, has arguably been his most striking philosophical legacy, particularly for the growth of existentialism. 2. It is pointed out in the passage that much of Kierkegaards most striking writings ----.

A) restate the views and theories which prevailed and were commonly shared in his time B) were based on the ethical and religious theories that had been formulated during earlier centuries C) were widely read and discussed by his contemporaries in Europe in the nineteenth century D) are limited to topics related to religion and philosophy E) deal with the idea of individual choice

3.

It is suggested in the passage that because Kierkegaard expressed his major ideas in an unusual personal way, ----. A) their essential importance was not recognized at first B) he was widely appreciated and fully understood by his contemporaries C) he immediately became famous as a philosopher in nineteenth-century Europe D) they were very influential on other philosophers, including Feuerbach and Marx E) most thinkers in Europe sensed that he was formulating a new philosophy

1.

It is clear from the passage that, in view of his focus on the question of individual choice, Kierkegaard can be regarded as ----. A) the only thinker in the nineteenth century who was concerned with metaphysical matters B) a follower of Kant and Hegel, whose ethical and religious ideas inspired him greatly C) the philosopher who led the way for the development of existentialist philosophy D) the philosopher who explained the religious and philosophical aspects of human existence E) a major thinker who influenced his contemporaries, including Feuerbach and Marx

4.

The point is made in the passage that Kierkegaard ----. A) approved of certain metaphysical arguments concerning the relation of thought to existence B) relied heavily on Kant and Hegel for the development of his own philosophy C) was a thinker, some of whose ideas were unusual for his time D) clearly defined what existentialism meant for a full understanding of human existence E) benefited a great deal from the philosophical legacy of his predecessors

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We have all heard people from other countries described in very general terms. For instance, it has been said that Germans work hard and Americans are friendly. Such generalizations or stereotypes are very crude, and common sense tells us that not all Germans work hard and not all Americans are friendly. At the same time, there appears to be some truth in these generalizations since people from different countries share different characteristics. What these crude statements acknowledge, however, is that people from different countries have distinctive cultures and social customs. A societys culture includes its customs, values, beliefs, ideas and the artefacts it produces. Attitudes towards such things as work, leisure, wealth, the role of women, and the value of education in one societys culture might be significantly different from the attitudes and values found in another societys culture. This is also the case regarding attitudes found in different countries towards politics and the political system. 6. In the passage, the writer points out that while on the one hand, describing other countries or peoples in general terms may be misleading, on the other, ----. A) generalizations of this kind may be true to some extent B) one must make an effort to appreciate and understand their culture C) it is important for us to have a friendly attitude towards them D) we must do our best to ignore the differences among them E) such generalizations are useful especially in understanding the value of education

7.

The writer suggests that political attitudes ----. A) in a country are fundamentally influenced by education B) vary greatly from country to country C) in a society have nothing to do with its cultural values D) towards women in society must be constructive E) in a country cannot be differentiated from the attitudes towards work and leisure

5.

It is stressed in the passage that each country ----. A) attaches much importance to its own social customs and educational system B) has developed a political system which may differ from its social and cultural values C) can be identified through its peoples attitudes towards other countries and peoples D) has its own special characteristics and, hence, is culturally and politically unlike the others E) shares with other countries a wide variety of values and attitudes

8.

The writer states that the customs, values, and beliefs of a society ----. A) may have some impact on its educational system B) are a poor guide to the nature of that society C) should be excluded from its political system D) must always uphold the role of women in that society E) are among the elements that make up its culture

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The way in which British people view Britains role in the world is still influenced by its past. Today Britain is an important regional power, but in the recent past it was a world power. Until World War II, Britain ruled the largest empire that the world has ever known. Incredible as it may seem today, during the 1920s, almost one-fifth of the worlds population lived under British rule. But the empire disappeared rapidly during the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s as the colonies that had made up the empire gained their independence. In the aftermath of the empire, British leaders were not very successful in adapting to play a much smaller part in world affairs. However, Britains allies made it clear that they no longer saw Britain as a major force in world politics. The special relationship which was said to exist between Britain and the United States weakened as other European countries, particularly Germany, recovered after World War II. So, whereas London had been recognized by American leaders as the capital of Europe during the 1940s and the 1950s, Bonn was seen as the new capital of Europe during the 1960s. 10. The writer claims that British people ----. A) do not share the policies adopted by other European countries towards the United States B) attach great importance to relations with the United States C) think of Britains place in world politics today in terms of their imperial past D) still regard the former colonies, along with the United States, as their lasting and strongest allies E) no longer think that the political legacy of their empire has any significance whatsoever

11. The writer asserts in the passage that the demographic and territorial size of the British Empire ----. A) remained unchanged right into the 1960s, when some colonies began to gain their independence B) was the cause of much hostility from Germany and other European countries C) led American leaders into thinking that Germany was not a major force in world politics D) was an indication of the fact that Britain had a large number of colonies seeking independence E) was so vast that no other empire in world history was ever a match for it

9.

The point is made in the passage that, during the period following World War II, ----. A) London and Bonn were equally regarded by the world as the major political centres of Europe B) the American attitude towards Britain was still one of admiration and strong cooperation C) the Americans followed a policy of neutrality towards Britain and Germany D) Britain lost the empire and so ceased to be a leading power in the world E) Britain and the United States formulated a set of new policies to strengthen their relationship

12. In the passage, the writer ----. A) depicts a very distorted picture of Britains colonies in their struggle for independence B) points to the fact that Britain is still an important European power C) explains how American political leaders deliberately undermined Britains relations with Germany D) approves the political strategies formulated by British leaders in the aftermath of World War II E) discusses the economic reasons for the decline of the British empire

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Developing markets, historically the domain of hyperinflation and political manipulation, now enjoy high surpluses, thanks to record commodity prices and severe fiscal discipline. Since 2001 these economies have achieved three times the average annual per-capita economic growth of their developed counterparts and now represent a quarter of global output. Stocks in emerging markets are causing much excitement among investors. However, too much excitement invites peril. Emerging markets have undeniably changed in the past decade, but lately they are looking overgrown, and even a minor crisis could send them tumbling. And while the potential triggers for a fall have changed, they are still there. As economies in the developing world get stronger, governments are getting more assertive and meddling with both companies and neighbouring countries, increasing political risk. 14. As one learns from the passage, despite their current economic success, ----. A) emerging markets are not trusted by companies since there is always the possibility of political manipulation B) developing economies are still far from overcoming hyperinflation C) governments in the developing world have maintained their fight against hyperinflation D) developed economies remain unconcerned about the potential of a severe crisis E) the countries in the developing world have traditionally suffered from hyperinflation

15. It is emphasized in the passage that although investors are excited by the stock market situation in emerging markets, they ----. A) are always prepared for a risk of hyperinflation which could send stock prices tumbling B) know that these markets now represent a quarter of global output C) must be aware of the fact that these markets can be risky since they are potentially very fragile D) feel that severe fiscal discipline introduced by governments puts their investments at high risk E) are very critical of governments meddling with companies and neighbouring countries

13. It is clear from the passage that, over the last few years, ----. A) the economies of the developed countries have had so much growth that its effects on emerging markets have been harmful B) stock prices in emerging markets have been relatively stable due to very harsh fiscal measures introduced by governments C) inflation rates in the developing world have shown an upward trend because of political manipulation and poor economic performance D) emerging economies have performed so well that their growth has been much higher than the growth achieved by the developed world E) governments of developing economies have taken every measure in order to avoid the kind of political crisis that may trigger an economic collapse

16. According to the passage, as the economic strength of the developing world increases, one of the drawbacks this leads to is that ----. A) prices of commodities and stocks reach higher levels, opening the way to hyperinflation and political manipulation B) governments begin to interfere in the affairs of their neighbours and, hence, may cause political risk C) governments get into fierce competition with each other in order to double their share in global output D) investors begin to be seriously concerned about the future of stock and commodity prices E) the annual per-capita growth slows down owing to high surpluses and record commodity prices

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The most important idea of the nineteenth century in Britain was that everyone had the right to personal freedom, and this became the basis of capitalism. This idea, which had originated with Adam Smith in the eighteenth century, spread widely due to the popularity of his book The Wealth of Nations. After Adam Smith, several capitalist economists argued that the government should not interfere in trade and industry at all. Fewer laws, they claimed, meant more freedom, and freedom for individuals would lead to happiness for the greatest number of people e. These ideas were eagerly accepted by the growing middle class. However, it soon became very clear that the freedom of factory owners to do as they pleased had led to slavery and misery for the poor, not to happiness or freedom. By 1820, more and more people had begun to accept the idea that the government must interfere to protect the poor and the weak. The result was a number of laws to improve working conditions. For instance, one of the laws, which went into effect in 1833, limited the number of hours that women and children were allowed to work. 18. It is stated in the passage that the idea of individual freedom, ----. A) widely popular among factory owners, led to a serious decline in trade and industry in nineteenth-century Britain B) first put forward by Adam Smith in the eighteenth century, led to the rise of a capitalist economy in Britain C) supported by capitalist economists, in fact had nothing to do with the development of the capitalist economy in Britain D) which formed the essence of Britains government policies, had been originally attacked by Adam Smith E) which was confined to economic activities, had much influence on the governments economic policies in Britain in the eighteenth century

19. Though it was still widely believed in nineteenth century Britain that laws limit freedom, ----. A) the government in Britain did not hold with this belief B) factory owners felt that they needed the protection of laws C) laws to improve working conditions in the factories were eventually introduced D) Adam Smith did not share this view E) the book, The Wealth of Nations, discredited this Theory

17. As pointed out in the passage, in the early decades of the nineteenth century in Britain ----. A) a growing number of people shared the view that the poor had to be protected against capitalist abuse B) the English middle class strongly supported the governments proposals for the improvement of life for the poor C) most factory owners introduced a wide range of measures to improve the working conditions of women and children D) the government adopted a new policy which ultimately led to the abolition of slavery in the country E) the government strongly held the view that new legislative steps had to be taken to increase the effectiveness of capitalism in the country

20. According to the passage, following in the footsteps of Adam Smith, a number of capitalist economists in Britain ----. A) were much upset about the practices of factory owners and, therefore, made proposals to the government to stop child labour B) believed that more laws were needed to encourage commercial and industrial activities throughout the country C) were so concerned with the happiness of the majority in society that they provided employment even for women and children D) did their best to improve the economy of the country and fully supported the governments economic policies E) maintained that commercial and industrial activities were to be completely free from any government interference

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The seventeenth century is probably the first in English history in which more people emigrated than immigrated. In the course of the century, something over one-third of a million people, mainly young adult males, emigrated across the Atlantic. The largest single group made for the West Indies; a second substantial group made for America, in particular Virginia and Catholic Maryland, and even Puritan New England. The pattern of emigration was a fluctuating one, but it probably reached its peak in the 1650s and 1660s. For most of those who emigrated, the search for employment and a better life was almost certainly the principal cause of their departure. For a clear minority, however, freedom from religious persecution took precedence. Moreover, an increasing number were forcibly transported as a punishment for criminal acts. In addition to these transatlantic emigrants, an unknown number emigrated to Europe and settled there. The largest group was probably the sons of Catholic families making for religious houses in France and elsewhere. There were also some adventurers who were willing to fight in any cause if the pay were good. 22. According to the passage, seventeenthcentury emigration from England ----. A) B) C) D) E) was mostly in the direction of Europe included as many women as men surpassed immigration to England did not include men wishing to fight in foreign wars to the West Indies exceeded emigration there from many other European countries

23. It is stated in the passage that the emigrants from England to America in the seventeenth century ----. A) had to choose between Virginia and New England B) were almost all in search of religious freedom C) found what they were looking for there D) included criminals who, as a punishment, were being deported from the country E) followed a very stable pattern since most of the emigrants shared the same aims

21. As clearly pointed out in the passage, for a very large majority of people who left England in the seventeenth century for America and the West Indies, ----. A) the main motive was to find work and improve their way of life B) New England seemed to offer far better economic opportunities than any other place C) religious freedom was of vital importance and became the main reason for emigration D) the real attraction was a life filled with excitement E) Virginia and Maryland provided better conditions for employment than the West Indies

24. It is clear from the passage that those emigrating from England in the seventeenth century, ----. A) were largely criminals hoping to make a fresh start in life B) were mostly Catholics headed for Europe and Maryland C) were usually reluctant to do so D) were not usually serious about finding employment E) included a small number who were simply looking for good pay and adventure

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Ancient Greece consisted of a number of city-states, of which Athens was one of the greatest. In the fifth century B.C., all citizens native to Athens could both vote and speak in a government assembly; but this, of course did not apply to women and slaves. This system of direct democracy was feasible because Athens was a small community. Each individual could be involved, gathering collectively in the public square where decisions on government matters, such as laws and foreign affairs, were made. City administrators were expected to account for their decisions. What counted in ancient Athens was the authority of the community as a whole. This took precedent over the liberty of the individual. The freedom of the individual to make private decisions, such as choosing a religion, was restricted on the grounds that the interests of society were paramount. However, this simple form of democracy had its drawbacks. While subsequent political thinkers praised the concept of direct political involvement, it was recognized that this would be impractical in larger communities. Indeed, societies with populations of thousands or millions would never be able to manage the logistical problem of direct participation. It was, therefore, natural that in modern times there emerged the idea of representative democracy. 26. As pointed out in the passage, the system of direct democracy ----. A) fully safeguarded individual liberties while it restricted the authority of the community as a whole B) was so efficient that, with the exception of Athens, every Greek city-state adopted it C) would obviously be unworkable in large communities D) was short-lived as it resulted in so many disagreements E) enabled a number of Greek city-states to resist the interference of Athens in their foreign affairs

27. According to the passage, every recognized Athenian male citizen ----. A) had the right of direct involvement in collective decision-making B) attending a public assembly was expected to speak on laws and foreign affairs C) was dissatisfied with the system of direct democracy as practised by a number of city-states in Greece D) had the right to hold whatever religious beliefs he chose to E) believed that representative democracy was more feasible than direct democracy

25. It is clearly stated in the passage that, in ancient Athens, ----. A) women enjoyed the same democratic rights as men and took part in the process of collective decision-making B) what was to the benefit of the community counted more than the personal interests of the individual C) representative democracy was fully practised although it had certain drawbacks with regard to the process of decision-making D) everybody living in the city was required to take part in public assemblies and vote for the election of city administrators E) the authority of city administrators was so great that their decisions on government matters were final

28. In the passage, attention is drawn to the fact that administrators in ancient Athens ----. A) were so powerful that no citizen dared to speak against them in the assembly B) were elected by the members of the public assembly C) were normally held responsible for their decisions of government D) did their best to reconcile the liberties of the individual and the interests of the community E) were biased against direct democracy and advocated representative democracy

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During the economic depression that affected the whole Western world in the 1930s, with its mass unemployment, poverty and other social ills, governments, for the most part, did nothing. The accepted wisdom was that, given time, the free market would solve its own problems and that government interference would only make things worse. John Maynard Keynes, the British economist who challenged this belief, argued that it was the proper responsibility of governments to prevent both booms and recessions in order to maintain gradual economic growth and permanent full employment. He maintained that this could be done by manipulating taxation, credit and public expenditure. If the economy was growing too fast, then money and, therefore, demand could be taken out of the economy by higher taxes, lower government spending and by making it harder to borrow money. If there was recession and growing unemployment, then the government could put money into the economy through lower taxes, higher public expenditure and easier credit. Thus, demand could be encouraged. If, as a result, there was money in peoples pockets, then more would be spent on goods and more people would be needed to make the goods to fulfil the extra demand, and this would reduce unemployment. 30. As is clear from the passage, Keynes ----. A) differed little from his contemporaries in his economic theories B) had much trust in the free market, which he believed had a positive impact on the economy of the 1930s C) did not think that the economic depression of the 1930s was serious enough to justify government interference D) firmly believed that government intervention in the management of the economy could be necessary E) argued that economic prosperity should not be the prime aim of any government

31. It is pointed out in the passage that, due to the economic depression in the West in the 1930s, ----. A) most governments curbed public expenditure and changed their system of taxation B) there was unemployment on a very large scale C) the increasing demand for goods had to be prevented through harsh economic policies D) many governments introduced a series of measures to solve social problems E) it was almost impossible for people to borrow money

29. According to the Keynesian argument summarized in the passage, in order to bring down unemployment, ----. A) new economic policies would be formulated by the government, so that demand could be curbed B) governments would follow a policy of nonintervention in the economy and allow the problem to be solved through the free market C) the government had to make new loans available for businesses at very high interest rates D) the government would prefer to increase taxation, so that people would spend less E) one of several measures to be introduced by the government would be to encourage an increase in public spending

32. As it is stated in the passage, in the 1930s, ----. A) all governments in the West carefully followed the economic policies proposed by Keynes B) permanent full employment was achieved through an efficient implementation of free market policies C) governments generally felt that the free market was the only way of solving the problems of the depression D) despite high unemployment, people had so much money that the demand for goods could not be controlled E) the British government gave Keynes full responsibility to improve the economy

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Since the dawn of civilization, the Middle East, a region at the crossroads of Africa, Asia and Europe, has been important to large and small powers alike, from the empires of the East to the imperial powers of the West. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, which transformed maritime travel between Europe and Asia, added to European interest. The regions other riches also encouraged European intervention and rivalries. This resulted in a series of confrontations between the Ottoman Empire and its European adversaries, and finally in the collapse of the former and the direct or indirect European colonization of large parts of the region in the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. But what added to the Middle Easts importance in the twentieth century was oil, which was found in abundance in the Persian Gulf and in parts of North Africa. Moreover, in the strategic context of the Cold War, the regions geopolitical importance provided an additional reason for the superpowers to increase their role and presence. 34. It is stressed in the passage that, from very early times, every Eastern as well as every Western power ----. A) has ignored the geopolitical position of the Middle East B) has tried to colonize the Middle East and exploit its natural resources C) has maintained its presence in the Middle East on account of its oil D) has regarded the Middle East as having crucial importance E) has followed a policy of peace and cooperation with the Middle East

35. It is asserted in the passage that, when the Suez Canal was opened in 1869, ----. A) European powers had already begun to colonize the Middle East on a large scale B) an increasing number of Europeans began to make long journeys through Asia C) the flow of Middle Eastern oil to the West increased steadily D) European powers made a joint effort to get control of the region E) travel by sea between East and West underwent great changes

33. According to the passage, during the Cold War, ----. A) the Middle East was geopolitically so important that the superpowers came to believe that involvement in the area was desirable B) the geopolitical importance of the Middle East was recognized for the first time C) the European powers competed with each other in the Middle East in order to have full control of the oil reserves in the Persian Gulf D) the superpowers not only increased their activities in the Middle East but also formed alliances with the countries of the region E) the superpowers were attracted by the oil of the Middle East more than by its geopolitical position

36. It is pointed out in the passage that, from the nineteenth century onwards, European involvement in the Middle East ----. A) was solely concerned with the security of the Suez Canal B) was strongly resisted by the Ottoman Empire, which thus prevented the colonization of the whole region C) has largely been motivated by the regions geopolitical importance D) led to various conflicts with the Ottoman Empire and finally ended its presence in the region E) centred only on the Suez Canal and the opening of the sea-route to Asia

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Until the early 1960s, the picturesque ruins of Aphrodisias were scattered in and around the very pretty village of Geyre, where the houses had been built largely from remnants of the ancient city. But the present excavations, which began in 1961, have now reached such a scale that the village and its inhabitants have been moved to another site nearby. Some of the superb sculptures unearthed are now exhibited in a new museum, which is located in what was once Geyres village square, while others can be seen around the archaeological zone, one of the most interesting and beautiful sites in all of Turkey. Surprisingly, the excavations at Aphrodisias have unearthed remains of a settlement dating back to about 5,800 B.C. The site seems to have been a very ancient shrine of Ishtar, the fertility goddess of Nineveh and Babylon, who was one of the predecessors of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love. In fact, the earliest Greek sanctuary of Aphrodite on this site dates from the sixth century B.C., and it was from this sanctuary during the next four centuries that the cult of Aphrodite spread throughout the Graeco-Roman world. 38. It is pointed out in the passage that the people of modern Geyre ----. A) have always played an active part in the excavations, since they are very keen to learn about the past of their village B) were forced to re-settle at a new site quite far from that of Aphrodisias itself C) used the remains of ancient Aphrodisias as building material for their homes D) had been moved to a new site for resettlement before the excavations began in the early 1960s E) have insisted that the sculptures unearthed during the excavations be exhibited in the village square

39. The writer claims in the passage that Aphrodisias, with its wonderful ruins, ----. A) has been a place of attraction for archaeologists for many centuries B) is among the most attractive and loveliest of the archaeological sites in Turkey C) has now been completely excavated and declared an archaeological zone D) still lies hidden under the modern village of Geyre and, hence, needs to be unearthed E) is a Graeco-Roman archaeological site, settled for the first time in the sixth century B.C

37. As one learns from the passage, the excavations at Aphrodisias ----. A) originally had a single aim: to find out whether there was any connection between this city and the Mesopotamian cities of Nineveh and Babylon B) confirm that Ishtar was reborn as Aphrodite C) have unearthed only a small part of the ancient settlements, which are very extensive and need to be carefully identified D) have focused on unearthing Aphrodites sanctuary as well as other Graeco-Roman remnants E) have been going on for over four decades and reveal that the city dates back to very early times

40. It is stated in the passage that the temple of Aphrodite in Aphrodisias ----. A) was the very first site to be excavated in the early 1960s and is today one of the most captivating sights at Geyre B) was designed and built in full imitation of the temple of the Babylonian fertility goddess Ishtar on the same site C) lost its importance completely once the cult of the goddess had spread in the GraecoRoman world D) is still regarded by most archaeologists as an architectural wonder, which, with its superb sculptures, surprises everybody E) gave rise to the popularity among the Greeks and the Romans of the worship of the goddess

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READING COMPREHENSION
When it was formed many million years ago the earth was a liquid. It is still cooling and many miles below the hard crust is still hot. However, in some places the heat is closer to the surface. These places are associated with volcanic activity or hot sulphur springs. By drilling deep into the earths crust we can reach rocks that are much warmer than those at the surface. Pumping water down into contact with these rocks and extracting the steam so produced is a source of energy that can be used to produce electricity. It is called geothermal energy. The Japanese have a special way of making decisions. They call it the consensus system. This is how it works. When a firm is thinking of taking a certain action, it encourages workers at all levels to discuss the proposal and give their opinions. The purpose is to reach consensus (general agreement). As soon as everyone agrees on the right course of action, the decision is taken. Because of this method, a group of workers, rather than a person, is responsible for company policies. One advantage of this is that decisions come from a mixture of experience from the top, the middle and the bottom of an enterprise. Another advantage is that junior staff frequently suggest ideas for change. A disadvantage, perhaps, is that decision-making can be slow.

41. It is explained in the passage that under the hard surface of the earth there ----. A) exists a hot core which can be used as a source of energy B) seems to be a great deal of volcanic activity which threatens life C) is a hot liquid layer which has never been drilled D) could be a number of hot sulphur springs, the main cause of volcanic activity E) has never been sufficient heat to melt rocks

44. In view of the explanation given in the passage, the consensus system ----. A) can be defined as a collective decision making process B) has a number of drawbacks that can not be overcome C) is rapidly falling out of favour as a result of the economic recession D) gives undue importance to the views of the junior staff E) has already led to the laying off numerous workers

42. According to the passage, geothermal energy ----. A) has been used by man for millions of years B) can be produced both plentifully and cheaply C) is a by-product of extensive volcanic activity D) is the result of the contact of water with the hot rocks below the earths surface E) is recognized as the only form of energy that would never be exhausted

45. It is pointed out in the passage that, with the Japanese style of decision-making in industry ----. A) policies can go into effect more speedily B) the working conditions can be improved much more efficiently C) the workers find themselves at the mercy of their employers D) the interaction between the management and the workers has reached a low ebb E) tends to take a long time before any action is agreed upon

46. According to the passage, the most striking feature of the Japanese consensus system is that ----. 43. We can infer from the passage that the earths crust ----. A) has completely stopped the process of cooling underneath B) is a constant source of geothermal energy C) is not suitable for any kind of drilling D) is constantly warming and cooling due to volcanic activity E) varies in thickness from place to place A) the introduction of changes into a firms policy-making is more or less impossible B) decisions are taken fast and accurately C) it is the point of view of management that prevails D) everyone, from the top to the bottom, in a firm has a fair share in decision-making E) workers are denied the right to discuss proposals in detail

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READING COMPREHENSION
Rabies is a very frightening disease because once symptoms develop it is always fatal. The disease is caused by a virus and it affects many species of animals, particularly dogs, jackals, foxes and bats. In Britain no indigenous case of human rabies has been reported since 1902 but it is widespread among animals in most parts of the world. Unfortunately, in the last 30 years the disease has been spreading across Europe from the East, especially in foxes, and has now reached Northern France. For this reason strict animal quarantine laws are in force in Britain and it is rightly regarded as a serious offence to attempt to evade them. When we turn to the problem of fishing, we see that through a UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the worlds nations have indicated that they recognize the risks of over-fishing. Nations can now declare 200-mile exclusive economic zones and exclusive fishing zones and control the catch at a level that is sustainable. Developing nations seem to be beginning to benefit from the new fisheries regime which offers the promise of allowing them to manage fishing resources for optimum that is longterm, benefits.

47. As it is pointed out in the passage, what makes rabies so dangerous a disease is that ----. A) quarantine regulations concerning the disease are disregarded by most people B) very few people can recognize the symptoms C) as soon as it manifests itself in the patient it is already too late for any treatment D) it is now threatening the whole of Europe E) during the last thirty years it seems to have become indigenous even in England

50. We can understand from the passage that the statutory measures taken by the UN, regarding fishing ----. A) are unlikely to be abided by, at least not in the near future B) have had no beneficial impact on the situation C) have been welcomed by all the member countries D) came into effect too late to be of any use whatsoever E) have unfortunately served the interests of only the developed countries

48. The passage suggests that the British government has already taken strict measures to ----. A) ban the import of animals from France and other countries B) discourage the keeping of pets in Britain C) deal with the recent outbreaks of rabies, especially in foxes in Britain D) ensure that no rabies enters the country E) make sure that rabies patients will receive affective treatment

51. One major benefit arising out of the 200-mile exclusive fishing zone is, as we understand from the passage, to ----. A) ensure that an ever increasing quantity of fish shall be caught B) keep under control the amount of fish caught C) exploit the marine resources through international cooperation D) help developing countries to improve their inefficient economies E) prevent new fisheries from coming into being

49. It is clearly stated in the passage that, for nearly a century ----. A) thanks to new diagnostic techniques rabies has been confined to dogs, jackals, foxes and bats B) strict quarantine laws have been in effect in Britain C) rabies has been one of the most frightening diseases in Europe D) there have been remarkable advances made in the treatment of rabies E) no one in Britain has contracted rabies

52. It is stated in the passage that in the management of fisheries, ----. A) no consideration should be given to the size of the catch B) one cannot plan ahead to the future C) the introduction of restrictive measures should be avoided D) one should give importance to future rather than to present gains E) the 200-mile zone policy can be ignored

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READING COMPREHENSION
The exact number of people who died in the cyclone that struck Bangladesh last year will probably never be known. Winds reaching 145 miles per hour hammered the countrys low-lying south-eastern coast for nine hours, at one point driving a wall of water roughly 20 feet high across the area one of the most densely populated places in the world. It was the strongest storm ever recorded in the region. The official news agency reported that 125.000 victims had been confirmed dead, but it was believed that the toll was actually much higher. Written communication is the basis of much communication in business. This includes letters, reports, memoranda, notices, telex, and fax messages. Although written communication is a slower form of communication than verbal or oral, it provides a record of what is being discussed so that disagreements are avoided and accuracy can be checked; it will also be more detailed than other forms of communication, with the possibility of technical points being explained and interpreted.

53. One can infer from the passage that one reason why so many lives were lost in the cyclone was because ----. A) most of the population had no decent housing B) the Bangladesh government had failed to foresee such a disaster C) the country had still not recovered from the previous similar cyclone D) it struck only a very narrow stretch of land E) the area struck was one of the most overcrowded in the world

56. From the passage it is clear that one of the advantages of written communication is that ----. A) no elaborate equipment is involved B) it is one of the fastest forms of communication C) one has a reliable document to which one can always refer D) it can be used only in business E) it requires almost no effort and very little time

54. We can understand from the passage that the official figures given regarding the death toll ----. A) didnt reflect the actual extent of the tragedy B) overestimated the number of victims C) were much higher than the authorities expected D) included only those drowned E) exceeded the number of those who survived the disaster

57. The main concern of the passage is to ----. A) establish the advantages of written communication over oral in business B) explain the technical points involved in written communication C) emphasize the drawbacks of written communication D) differentiate between the uses and abuses of various types of communication E) draw attention to the fact that the business world no longer uses written communication

55. The passage aims to impress on the reader ----. A) the extent of suffering experienced by the people in Bangladesh B) the magnitude of the cyclones destructive force C) the inadequacy of the relief work sent in D) the extent of poverty and misery in Bangladesh E) the frequency with which such disasters hit the world

58. It is pointed out in the passage that written communication ----. A) is always open to dispute B) takes various forms, ranging from letters to telex and fax messages C) is mostly seen in the form of reports D) does not require any interpretation whatsoever E) often leads to serious controversies

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READING COMPREHENSION
Nigeria is heavily dependent on the export of crude oil to finance industrial development. 90% of Nigeria's exports by value are crude oil. At current production rates, known reserves are only sufficient until the end of the century. Industrialization was boosted after I973 following the fourfold increase in oil prices. In the early 1980s prices fell, and Nigeria lost important income. Oil production peaked in 1974 when output reached 112 million tones. Real depression cannot be as easily overcome as some people often suppose. It usually passes with time - but the time can seem endless. Activities giving companionship and a new interest can help. But for the sufferer to talk, again and again, about the causes of the depression helps most. People with depression need to be listened to and encouraged to find their own solutions, not made to feel yet more inadequate by good advice. They may need professional counseling as well as the support of family and friends.

59. It is pointed out in the passage that the sharp rise in oil prices in 1973 ----. A) had less effect on Nigerias economy than might have been expected B) contributed greatly to industrial development in Nigeria C) coincided with a considerable fall in oil production D) provided Nigeria with a high revenue well into the late 1980s E) put a great deal of pressure on Nigerias oil reserves

62. In overcoming depression the support of friends and family ----. A) can best be directed into giving good advice B) is the only solution C) may cause more harm than good D) never contributes to any improvement in the patient E) is not always sufficient

60. It is understood from the passage that only a fraction of Nigeria exports ----. A) are goods other than crude oil B) would be needed to support industrial development C) were affected by the fall in oil prices in the 1980s D) were oil-related E) have benefited from price increases

63. The writer suggests that people with depression ----. A) should not be allowed much social activity B) should rely solely on professional counseling C) need, more than anything else, someone to listen to them D) ought to remain alienated from society for a long time E) receive an unnecessary amount of sympathy

61. According to the passage, so long as the current rate of oil production is maintained ----. A) world oil prices are not expected to rise significantly B) Nigerias industrial development plans will soon be fully realized C) Nigeria is likely to have no oil reserves left by the year 2.000 D) Nigeria will continue to enjoy large revenues E) the variety of goods exported from Nigeria will increase

64. According to the passage some people ----. A) seem to underestimate how difficult it is to get over depression B) suffer from depression over long periods of time C) refuse to get professional counseling D) suffering from depression have been cured through the good advice of friends E) with depression dont want to talk about their problems

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Many art museums and galleries and many individuals in the world faced financial problems in 1975 as the effects of world recession deepened. On the surface, things seemed to continue as before, with important exhibitions in major museums attracting large crowds. But smaller galleries and the artists whose work was shown by their resourceful proprietors fared less well, and over the long term it is the work of young artists that determines the course of art for the future. Computers should never have acquired the exalted status they now have. Fascinating and invaluable as they are, even the most advanced have less brain power than a three-year-old. They do, however, score on single-mindedness. The three-year-old uses his brain not only to think but also to do tasks like seeing, hearing and running about, which need incredibly rapid and sophisticated electromechanical interactions - we too run on electricity. But the computer just sits there and sends spacecraft to the moon or re-organizes the world banking system, which is very much easier. That's why mans dream of robot servants is still a long way off.

65. The point made in the passage is that the recession in the 1970s ----. A) forced many young artists to give up their profession B) led to the immediate closure of several major museums in the West C) was one of the most serious in economic history D) didn't at first appear to hit hard at the art world E) meant exhibitions were regarded as unnecessary luxuries 68. The main point made by the passage is that the human brain ----. A) is much inferior to any known computer B) is infinitely more complex and powerful than any computer C) reaches its maximum efficiency at the age of three D) is not as complicated and mysterious as has usually been thought E) has been entirely reproduced in computer form

66. One can infer from the passage that if a generation of young artists is lost ----. A) this would not have a damaging effect on art museums and galleries even in the long run B) the future development of art will be greatly hampered C) recession in the art market would not last very long D) smaller galleries would benefit from it E) the organization of exhibitions would be even more costly

69. It is explained in the passage that the efficiency of the computer ----. A) will soon make it possible for man to be served by robots B) depends on the speed with which the data are fed C) can best be appreciated in the decision making positions D) is the result of its being concentrated on one task at a time E) depends upon sophisticated electromechanical interactions

70. The author feels that computers ----. 67. According to the passage, the people in the art world who were most strongly affected by the recession ----. A) were young artists and the owner of art galleries B) tried to balance their losses by buying up the work of young artists C) were the well established art dealers D) decided to stop holding exhibitions altogether E) resorted to all sorts of methods of attracting large crowds to their galleries A) are becoming unaffordable as they get more advanced B) have contributed immensely to the improvement of living standards C) have been unnecessarily overrated D) will be a major force behind all future progress E) are capable of doing all the tasks the human brain performs even more efficiently

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READING COMPREHENSION TEST 5
The dramatic growth of the worlds population in the twentieth century has been on a scale without parallel in human history. Most of this growth has occurred since 1950 and is known as the population explosion'. Between 1950 and 1980 the world population increased from 2,5 to over 4 billion, and by the end of the century this figure will have risen to at least 6 billion. Growth of this size cannot continue indefinitely. Recent forecasts suggest that the total population will level-out at between 10 and 15 billion in the mid twenty-first century. Already there are encouraging signs that the rate of increase in many less developed countries is beginning to slow down. Many substances, whether man-made or natural, can cause harm to man or the environment. Some of these reach the environment in waste streams; however, emission limits and environmental quality standards can, in some instances, reduce the amounts released. But some other substances cannot be controlled in this way because they are released, not in industrial waste streams, but through the use or disposal of products which contain them. In many cases these substances pose little or no threat if the product containing them is used and disposed of properly. The right way to deal with them is usually through controls over their supply, use and disposal.

4.

According to the passage, the threat of certain substances to the environment ----. A) is far less than that to man B) could be reduced by enforcing emission limits and environmental controls C) has been unnecessarily overemphasised D) has to date been completely ignored E) can be eliminated by the use of industrial waste streams

1.

According to the passage, at no period in human history has there been ----. A) so much consensus among nations concerning the population of the world B) a sharp decline in population like the one since 1980 C) a universal fear about the future of man D) as comprehensive a study of population problems as the one envisaged now E) a population explosion of the magnitude of the one in this century 5.

The author points out that the danger posed to man by many substances ----. A) is unrelated to environmental pollution B) is even greater than generally admitted C) continues to grow despite constant control of disposal systems D) is solely due to the use of industrial waste streams E) arises from their misuse and wrong disposal

2.

It is pointed out in the passage that the increase in the world population ----. A) is a highly encouraging sign for the general economy B) is expected to continue even faster until 2050 C) will not continue into the next century D) has been going on noticeably since 1950 E) has been much faster in the industrialised countries 6.

The passage is concerned with the question of ----. A) how the harmful effects of certain substances can be brought under control B) why industrial waste streams have caused so much pollution C) whether man made substances or natural ones cause more pollution D) what measures are to be taken against the supply of dangerous substances E) who is responsible for taking the required measures

3.

It has been forecast that, by the middle of the next century ----. A) various measures will have been taken to encourage population growth B) the population growth rate in less developed countries will be much higher than that in previous years C) the world population will be stabilised at around 10 to 15 billion D) the rate of increase will still be rising E) the rate of population increase will have doubled the 1950 rate

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READING COMPREHENSION
The practical advantages of prefabrication are twofold: It is quicker and it does away with uncertainty. Speed in building is important in these days because of the high cost of land: the time during which such an expensive commodity is out of use must be reduced to a minimum. And, partly or wholly prefabricated methods of construction save time on the job because parts are prepared in the factory beforehand. Prefabrication does away with uncertainty because it means that the whole building is made of standard parts the behaviour of which is known and has been tested. Computers can store vast amounts of information in a very small space and are used by the banks to keep accounts, print out statements and control transactions. They are also used by the police to keep personal records, fingerprints and other details. In the rapidly developing field of robotics computers are now being used to control manual operations done by mechanics. These, too, are tking over work, previously done by people in the manufacture of cars, in weaving and in other industries. Computers play an important role in controlling artificial satellites, decoding information and communications generally. They are used to predict the weather with increasing accuracy.

7.

Since land is extremely valuable it is important that ----. A) costs do not continue to rise B) the building materials should also be expensive C) people should not disagree as to the advantages of prefabrication D) building costs be reduced to a minimum E) it does not remain out of use for long

10. One can conclude from the passage that ----. A) computers have become an indispensable part of our life B) despite great advantages in computer techniques, they are not proving as useful as once was hoped C) weather forecasts carried out by computers are not reliable at all D) robotics has long been a field of keen scientific interest for man E) computerised banking has led to an increase in unemployment

8.

One advantage of using prefabricated parts is that ----. A) fewer skilled workmen are required B) this method is much cheaper than standard methods C) less land is required D) buildings can be put up much faster E) there is more scope for experiment

11. The author points out that ----. A) industry is turning back to traditional methods of production B) the police use computers to make sure that their records are not tested C) the principal use of computers is in space industry D) computers are too complex for everyday use E) the use of robots, directed by computers, is becoming widespread in industry

12. The passage is not concerned with ----. 9. When a building is constructed from standard parts that have been well tested ----. A) there is no scope for originality B) the costs will naturally be excessively high C) new methods of construction are overlooked D) one knows in advance that the result will be satisfactory E) one is still not sure how they will behave in a particular situation A) the application of computers in industry B) how computers are manufactured C) the conservation of information by computers D) the role played by computers in crime detection E) the use of computers in communications and the transfer of information

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READING COMPREHENSION
Looking ahead from the present position where food production has kept ahead of population growth globally, but has fallen per capita in 55 (mainly African) countries, it would seem that these trends will continue. About 30 countries - most of them African - can expect serious problems unless they reduce population growth and give higher priority to agriculture and conservation. Though a warmer, wetter earth with high CO2 levels is likely to be capable of producing more food, the amounts will still be inadequate for many poorer countries. In many cases, the population projections are greater than the entire local land resources can support. Psychology is literally the study of mind (or soul) but its areas has broadened somewhat in the last century as we have learned that one cannot consider the mind as totally isolated from the body, and it now includes the study of human personality and behaviour. It is important to realise that psychologists are first and foremost trained as scientist rather than as medical experts and do not necessarily take much interest in abnormalities of the brain and mental processes.

13. Of all the countries in the world it is those in Africa ----. A) which have taken the most drastic measures to prevent population growth B) that are most threatened by food shortages C) which are environmentally most at disadvantage D) that are most conscious of the need to preserve this environment E) in which poverty has been greatly reduced through agricultural development

16. As can be inferred from the passage, psychology ----. A) has in time developed as a branch of medicine B) has always been confined to the study of the mind C) primarily concentrates on the study of animal behaviour D) mostly deals with mental abnormalities E) is not concerned with the mind alone, but also with human personality and behaviour

14. It is argued that in the passage that ----. A) changes in the world climate are increasing the problems of food production B) agricultural development will presently put an end to global food shortages C) with the exception of African countries, the global production of food is adequate and likely to continue so D) the conservation of land resources is of minor importance E) any effort must be made to prevent the co2 level from rising

17. In the passage attention is drawn to the fact that ----. A) psychologists give great importance to the study of mental processes for medical purposes B) psychologists are basically scientists C) the body and the mind are separate entities in the eyes of psychologists D) the human mind can best be understood through the study of animal behaviour E) there have been no noticeable developments in psychology since the last century

15. According to the passage it is anticipated that ----. A) the per capita income in African countries will continue to increase B) food production will double in the years ahead C) the present situation concerning population growth and population will soon improve D) all the African countries will soon solve all their population problems E) unless serious measures are taken, the poor countries of the world will be faced with famine

18. It is pointed out in the passage that ----. A) a close cooperation between psychologists and medical experts is essential B) the study of human behaviour alone is what interests present day psychologists C) as a branch of science, psychology is no longer to be understood in its literally sense D) the mind and the body function independently E) in recent years psychologists have concentrated mostly on the study of the mind

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Aid to underdeveloped countries takes many forms and it is given for many reasons. Underdeveloped countries need aid to provide finance for development projects; to provide foreign exchange with which imports for development purpose can be bought; and to provide the trained manpower and technical knowledge they lack. The motives of the donor are not always humanitarian. Aid can take a military form; it can be used to support an incompetent or unjust government. Nor is aid always beneficial to the recipient country. It may be wasted on ill-conceived or prestige projects, or cause the government simply to relax on its own efforts. Both as a profession and a science, economics lost considerable prestige during the recession of 197475. The crisis that seized the western industrialized countries including Japan was of a character not to be found in economics textbooks. Rate of inflation exceeding 10% a year coupled with declining production and high levels of unemployment. Hitherto, peacetime inflation had been associated with high employment and an overactive economy, while high rate of unemployment went with the recession or depression. The next combination was called stagflation.

19. In the passage, it is argued that the reasons behind the aid given to the underdeveloped countries ----. A) B) C) D) E) are always of a military nature are varied in purpose and in effect can be disregarded altogether invariably involve humanitarian principles relate only to the technical needs of the recipient country

22. The term stagflation can be defined as ----. A) the combination of high inflation and economic recession B) inflation in an overactive economy C) high unemployment in spite of high levels of production D) a decrease in the rates of inflation E) high levels of peacetime inflation

20. One infers from the passage that what is generally referred to as aid ----. A) usually leads to the overthrow of the government of the recipient country B) is, in fact, monetary support for development projects only C) is actually one countrys intervention in another countrys internal affairs D) does not necessarily benefit the recipient country E) can really be regarded as a waste of resources

23. The economic crisis of the mid-1970s ----. A) followed the same pattern as earlier economic crisis B) caused economy to overactive C) caused people to lose faith in economics D) had little effect on the industry of developed countries E) was characterized only by high inflation and low production

24. The main subject of the passage is ----. 21. According to the passage, unless they receive aid, underdeveloped countries ----. A) B) C) D) will lose their world-wide prestige often face military coups will be at the mercy of donor countries will have to rely on foreign technical advice for many years to come E) cannot provide money and human resources for development A) the growing unpopularity of economics as a science B) the relationship between unemployment and recession C) the industrial decline of Japan and some Western countries D) the unusual nature and extensive effects of the economic crises of the 1970s E) how to combat high inflation and unemployment

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There are twelve and a half acres of land for each man, woman, and child in the world today. However, only three and a half acres of this land can be cultivated. If the population of the world reaches six billion by the year 2000, there will be only one and a half acres for each person. Man just increases his production of food. One scientist has said that the world could support ten billion people if better agricultural methods were used everywhere. The supply of food can also be increased by the control of plant diseases, and by the irrigation of desert lands. By using these ways and others, man can feed himself and his fellow men. Though there has always been a certain amount of concern about pollution since the start of the Industrial Revolution, this was largely an interest of relatively limited numbers of concerned people. But during the 1960s there was a great upsurge of anxiety which was reflected internationally by the calling of the Stockholm UN Conference. In response to the rising public pressures, action has been taken mainly in the industrial countries, even though sometimes reluctantly and with many warnings from industry and governments about the costs. However, in many areas there has been a gratifying improvement.

25. The passage emphases that the growth of the world population ----. A) makes food production a vital question B) must not be allowed to continue at the present rate C) is no longer a cause for international concern D) has now made it necessary to cultivate all the desert lands in the world E) has jeopardized the farmlands in the world

28. The author points out that, to some extent, public awareness of pollution ----. A) dates back to the first years of the Industrial Revolution B) emerged late in the process of industrialization C) first appeared in the 1960s D) was first voiced at the Stockholm UN conference E) played a part in the rapid development of industry

26. The writer suggests that, by the end of the century, the amount of the arable land available ----. A) will be doubled in size through the irrigation of desert lands B) per person will drop to three and a half acres from twelve and a half C) will be fully adequate for the support of a ten billion world population D) per person will fall from three and a half acres to one and a half E) will continue to diminish and, hence, famine will be inevitable

29. It is implied in the passage that both industry and governments have ----. A) found ways of thwarting public pressures as regards pollution B) not always been willing, mainly for economic reasons, to take action to prevent pollution C) come out in support of the policies recommended at the Stockholm UN conference D) constantly been in the forefront of pollution control policies since the 1960s E) done more than was required of them in eliminating pollution

27. According to the passage, the world food problem can be solved ----. A) by a fair and even distribution of available arable land throughout the world B) only if new ways of overcoming plant diseases can be discovered C) simply by cultivating desert lands in an efficient way D) so long as the population does not exceed ten billion at the most E) if various effective measures are taken, such as the improvement of farming techniques

30. According to the passage, in spite of the lack of cooperation from industry and governments ----. A) the UN has introduced drastic measures to ensure the prevention of any further pollution B) the problem of pollution has now been fully solved worldwide C) the costs of pollution control work have been less than was expected D) the prices of goods remained the same E) some considerable progress has been made towards controlling pollution

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For nearly a decade now, the manufacturing of automobiles has been undergoing radical changes. The principle cause is the introduction of new production and management techniques, originally engineered by Toyota and subsequently applied by other Japanese car manufacturers. This is called lean production. It implies no less a revolution in the process of car manufacturing than the mass production Henry Ford introduced at the beginning of the century. In fact, lean production combines the advantages of craft and mass production. A vital feature of this production technique is that it achieves its highest efficiency, quality and flexibility when all activities - form design to assembly - occur in the same area. Much in medicine which is now taken for granted was undreamed of even as recently as 50 years ago. Progress in diagnosis, in preventive medicine and in treatment, both medical and surgical, has been so rapid as to be almost breathtaking. Today a doctor retiring from active practice will among other things have seen smallpox completely eradicated, tuberculosis become curable, coronary artery disease relievable surgically. One aspect of medicine still resistant to progress in understanding is the effect of mind on body. Many of us still like to think that our bodies are just something we have got into, like cars that ill health is simply something that has gone wrong in one system or another and that therefore provided we find the appropriate expert to correct the fault, we will recover.

31. It is pointed out in the passage that; in the car industry, the traditional mass production techniques ----. A) introduced by Ford were soon outdated B) are popular only in Japan C) have contributed significantly to Japanese success in this area D) are beginning to fall out of favour E) in fact require a higher degree of management efficiency.

34. According to the passage, the rate at which medical advances have taken place during the recent decades ----. A) B) C) D) E) was previously envisaged has been underestimated is quite startling cannot be accounted for has been subject to a great deal of controversy

32. The writer explains that, in lean production ----. A) Japanese, companies have followed Henry Ford's example B) there is less need for skilled workers C) costs are kept to a minimum D) the techniques of mass production are no longer applicable E) the best of mass and craft production come together

35. It is pointed out in the passage that there is a close relationship between the workings of mind and the body ----. A) which is of little importance in the treatment of illness B) but this has yet to be properly understood C) which most doctors tend to overlook D) and medical research has made great progress in this field E) but research into this area is not likely to prove useful

33. According to the passage, lean production techniques work best ----. A) in industries where specialized craftsmanship is not required B) not only in car manufacturing but also in other branches of machine production C) in a country like Japan where the skilled work force is limited D) when the whole production process takes place in one place E) if management procedures do not disrupt the manufacturing process

36. The writer uses the car comparison to emphasize that most people ----. A) tend to have a mechanical view of the human body B) have great confidence in the medical profession C) have the right attitude towards medical progress D) regard surgery as an indispensable part of medicine E) think some body parts cannot be replaced at all

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READING COMPREHENSION
National income is a measure of the total income accruing to the residents in a country in return for services rendered. It therefore consists of the sum of wages, salaries, profits and rents. But not all these income accrues to persons; for instance, companies do not distribute all their profits to shareholders and some nationalised industries earn profits. This is part of national income but not of personal income. On the other hand, some personal incomes are not payments for services rendered. Such incomes are called transfer incomes to emphasise that their payment does not add to the national income, but only transfers income from one agent to another. Included in this category are retirement pensions, family allowances, and student grants. According to the United Nations sources, world population in mid-1985 was, 5,290 million, an increase of 90 million in one year. More than half of the total live in Asia (56,9 per cent). Different countries are at different stages in a demographic transition from the stability provided by a combination of high birth rate and high death rate to that provided by a combination of low birth rate and low death rate. Their recent population history and current trend of growth, the age-structure of their population, and consequently their population potential for the near future are all widely different. Most rapid growth is in Africa with rates of over 3 per cent in some countries. In most European countries the rate is less than 1 per cent.

37. The passage is concerned with ----. A) the need to maintain a balance between the various types of incomes B) methods of increasing various types of incomes C) how incomes can be transferred from one person to another D) the importance given to wage problems E) the definition of various income categories

40. It is pointed out in the passage that, of the continents of the world, it is ----. A) Asia where population stability has been achieved most recently B) Europe that hopes to see an increase in its population C) Asia that accommodates the largest proportion of the world's population D) Africa where the population growth has stabilized over recent decades E) Africa which is the most densely populated

38. By "transfer income", the writer means ----. A) an income like a student grant, which is not paid in return for services rendered B) the sum total of payments, including retirement pensions, distributed by companies to their employees C) the revenues contributing to the growth of the national income D) the circulation of money through trade and other means E) the incomes realized by shareholders out of company profits

41. According to the passage, the demographic trend, observed in various countries ----. A) is towards a stability with low birth and low death rates B) involves high birth and low death rates C) is pointing to a continued state of population instability D) will have to be checked E) will be reversed in the near future

39. It is understood from the passage that the national income ----. A) does not benefit from the majority of financial transactions B) mainly consists of the profits made by industry C) relies almost exclusively on personal gains D) does not include all income categories E) can be increased through the nationalization of industry

42. The author points out that there is little uniformity ----. A) in the way birth rates are being controlled among rural and urban populations B) of population growth among African countries C) as regards population figures in Europe D) as far as birth and death rates are concerned E) in the current pattern of the demographic transition of the various countries of the world

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Ever since Nobel prize-winner Linus Pauling first advocated vitamin C as a common-cold war weapon more than 20 years ago, researchers have been busy trying to verify that claim. But so far, they've found little evidence that vitamin C prevents colds in fact, there are more studies that say it doesn't. But there is evidence that it can keep coughing and sneezing to a minimum, and that low levels of vitamin C in the body may be related to bronchitis. Since early times it has been assumed that the actions of animals are unconscious. Behaviour, in this view, stems almost exclusively from instinct. If animals behave in ways that seem pretty clever, they do so without thinking about it. Animals may know things, the argument goes, but they don't know that they know. Or do they know? Recent research reports suggest a startling depth of intelligence among animals. Although no one can yet 'prove' the existence of animal consciousness, the data offered make a compelling case for at least considering it.

43. The passage makes the point that Dr Pauling's view as regards vitamin C ----. A) has greatly improved the treatment of bronchitis B) has caused a revolution in medical studies C) aroused very little interest among medical experts D) was based on the results of years of research E) has not been verified scientifically

46. It is pointed out in the passage that traditionally, animals are believed to ----. A) behave not instinctively but logical B) have an intelligence comparable with mans C) imitate man in many ways D) act on instinct E) know exactly what they are doing

44. According to the passage, coughing and sneezing ----. A) should be taken seriously and treated accordingly B) are the early symptoms of bronchitis C) are now being effectively treated without vitamin C D) can be reduced with the help of vitamin C E) do not respond to any treatment whatsoever 47. It is pointed out in the passage that modern research forces one to consider ----. A) why animals behave differently under different circumstances B) the possibility of intelligence in animals C) the means by which animal behaviour can be improved D) how animals can be made to acquire new skills E) animals to be the equal of man in intelligence

45. During the last two decades there has been a great deal of scientific effort made to ----. A) convince the public of the dangers of vitamin C B) prove that the common cold can be prevented by vitamin C C) establish a connection between coughing and bronchitis D) study the adverse effects of vitamin C E) demonstrate how the body reacts to low levels of vitamin C 48. The passage makes it quite clear that, in the light of modern research, our traditional assumptions about animal behaviour ----. A) B) C) D) E) have been totally disproved have been confirmed have to be reconsidered were indeed based on scientific fact should never have been questioned

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READING COMPREHENSION
The first universities developed in Europe in the 12th century. By 1600 Western Europe boasted 108 institutions of higher learning, many of which had obtained special privileges from existing regimes because of their close association with the Church. In most European countries, universities were designed primarily for the sons of nobility and gentry. Scholarly standards were low, and scholarship was irrelevant for most professions. Education for earning a livelihood in, say, medicine or law could be acquired after college by serving as an apprentice. The effects of sleep loss are subject to a number of popular misconceptions. The belief that everyone must sleep 8 hours a night is a myth. According to the results of a recent survey on the subject, adults average about 7 to 7 1/2 hours of sleep per night, and many individuals function effectively with 5 to 6 hours of sleep. In fact, 20 percent of the population (slightly more in men) sleep less than 6 hours per night. Another significant fact is that sleep time decreases with age.

49. According to the passage, in the early years of the universities, ----. A) most students wanted to train for a profession B) the Church disapproved of much of their teaching C) Western European governments were not at all interested in education D) medicine was the most popular subject for study E) the majority of students came from upper class families

52. According to the passage, the popular assumption that eight hours of sleep per night is essential ----. A) B) C) D) E) is only true for the elderly has been supported by scientific evidence is actually a fallacy is only true for 20 percent of the population is very rarely disputed

50. It is pointed out in the passage that, since most of the early universities enjoyed the support of the Church ----. A) state authorities granted them various rights B) the number of students they admitted increased rapidly C) the academic level of the education they offered was extremely high D) law naturally became one of the major subjects offered E) the education offered was free of charge

53. The survey referred to in the passage indicates that as people get older and older ----. A) they sleep less and less B) they require more sleep than formerly C) their sleep time varies between 7 and 8 hours D) they rarely sleep less than 7 hours E) sleep loss ceases to be a problem

51. As explained in the passage, real professional skills ----. A) were taught during the university years B) were normally acquired through a period of apprenticeship C) gained importance in the universities only after 1600 D) were acquired by nearly all university students E) were taught only to the children of nobility

54. It is pointed out in the passage that a sleep time under 8 hours ----. A) is not recommended in the survey B) invariably leads to noticeable inefficiency C) does not necessarily reduce a person's efficiency D) causes a number of complications in old people E) is common among women but not among men

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READING COMPREHENSION
Until recently, many archaeologists took the view that civilized communities first arose in Egypt, though only a very short time before a similar development In Mesopotamia: a more recent opinion is now that the earliest advances may have taken place in Mesopotamia. Whichever view is followed, it is necessary to bear in mind that geographical conditions in both regions were not identical, and it can in fact be stated that in Mesopotamia environmental factors were not as wholly favourable as in the valley of the Nile. Dates and periods are necessary to the study and discussion of history, for all historical phenomena are conditioned by time and are produced by the sequence of events. Periods especially, are retrospective conceptions that we form about past events; they are useful to focus discussion, but very often they lead historical thought astray. Thus, while it is certainly useful to speak of the Middle Ages and of the Victorian Age, those two abstract ideas have deluded many scholars and millions of newspaper readers into supposing that during certain decades called the Middle Ages, and again during certain decades called Age of Victoria, everyone thought or acted more or less in the same way- till at last Victoria died or the Middle Ages came to an end. But in fact there was no such sameness.

55. According to a more recent view, the beginnings of the development of civilisation ----. A) have only recently been a major preoccupation among archaeologists B) were wrongly assumed to be in Mesopotamia C) were apparently not affected by geographical conditions D) in Egypt were greatly hampered by unfavourable environmental factors E) seem to have occurred in Mesopotamia rather than, as once thought, in Egypt

58. The author argues that, contrary to common assumption, the behaviour of people ----. A) was more uniform in the Middle Ages than in the Victorian Age B) was not uniform, at all, in any given period C) is a subject that should also be studied by historians D) in any given period is always the same E) is unrelated to the age they live in

56. It is pointed out in the passage that the Nile valley and Mesopotamia ----. A) have never attracted the attention of historians B) were equally suitable for the rise of civilisation C) could not have been the home of our earliest civilisations D) do not share the same geographical conditions E) are no longer as fertile as they used to be in early times 59. The division of history into periods ----. A) B) C) D) E) is both useful and deceptive is avoided by modern historians was rejected in the Victorian Age has been in use since the Middle Ages serves no useful purpose at all

57. From the passage we can understand that ----. A) our opinions of early history may sometimes need to be revised B) archaeologists have never regarded either Egypt or Mesopotamia as the cradles of civilisation C) geographical conditions play an important role in the decline of civilisations D) the early civilisations in Egypt and Mesopotamia were not similar at all E) archaeology has not, until recently, been concerned with this part of the world

60. According to the passage, the study of history ----. A) began in the Middle Ages and reached its height in the Victorian Age B) has changed greatly in our time C) requires a knowledge of dates and periods D) includes a great variety of interrelated subjects E) should concentrate on the reconstruction of past events

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READING COMPREHENSION READING COMPREHENSION -ANSWER KEY1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 A E A A C B E D C A D E B A E B C D A C C E A B A D A E D B E C C D A E C B A B 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 E A B D D B A C D A B C D C B E A C D E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 C D E D D C A B D B A C D E B A C D A D A B D A E C D A C E B E D A E C B E A A 2 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 A E C B C E A B D E B A D B C A D C E A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 E D A B E A B D E D E C A B D E C A E C E A D B C B D E A B C A B C D E D B D C 3 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 D A C B D C A E B C D E B E C E A D A D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 C E A C D A B E D C E B D E C B B B E C A C D E B C A C E D B C A D E D E C B E 4 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 A D E A E D C D E C B D A E B C A B B A C E C A D B A B D C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 E D C B E A E D D A E B B B E E B C B D E A C D A D E A B E D E D C B A E A D C 5 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 A E E D B D B C E A B C A C E D A B A C

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