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Task 6 My choice of musical genre to feature in my magazine

I have chosen R&B and Hip-Hop to be the musical genres of my magazine. As a fan of R&B and Hip-Hop music and having read music magazines I understand the style of R&B/Hip-Hop magazines and what typical images and content can be found in them. Popular R&B/Hip Hop artists are: 1990s Tupac, Notorious B.I.G, Michael Jackson, Luther Vandross, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey, Stevie Wonder, Boyz II Men 2000s - Lil Wayne, Beyonc, Rihanna, Drake, Nicki Minaj, Kanye West, Alicia Keys, J Cole Chris Brown, Jay Z

R&B History

R&B (modern) also referred to as Contemporary R&B combines elements of R&B, hip-hop, soul and funk. Although the abbreviation R&B originates from traditional rhythm and blues music, today the term R&B is most often used to describe a style of African American music originating after the demise of disco in the 1980s. Contemporary R&B has a polished record production style, drum machine-backed rhythms, an occasional saxophone-laced beat to give a jazz feel (mostly common in contemporary R&B songs prior to the year 1993), and a smooth, lush style of vocal arrangement. Electronic influences are becoming an increasing trend, and the use of hip hop or dance inspired beats is typical, although the roughness and grit inherent in hip hop may be reduced and smoothed out. Contemporary R&B vocalists are often known for their use of melisma, popularized by vocalists such as Michael Jackson, Stevie Wonder, Whitney Houston and Mariah Carey. 1980s As the disco era came to a close a new generation of producers began synthesizers and drum machine beats to African American music. Michael Jackson was among the first post disco black musician to cross over to mainstream audiences. In its early years R&B was very pop oriented, this was prime time for artists like Tina Turner, Whitney Houston, and Janet Jackson who broke into the pop charts with a series of hits including this new found wave of R&B. During the late 1980s as to which Janet Jackson and her producers crafted a new sound that fused the rhythmic elements of funk and disco, along with heavy synthesizers, percussion, sound effects and a rap music sensibility. Inspired by this fusion of sound producer Teddy Riley began producing R&B recordings that included Hip-Hop influences, this combination of R&B style and hip-hop rhythm

greatly applied to the songs of artists Bobby Brown, Keith Sweat, Jodeci and Guy as to which was termed New Jack Swing

1990s Similar artists to Boyz II Men, Babyface and Jodeci began adding even more hip hop sounds to their work, although by the end of the 1990s this became less popular. During the mid 1990s, Michael Jackson, R Kelly, Janet Jackson, Mariah Carey, Aaliyah, TLC, SWV and Boyz II Men brought contemporary R&B to the mainstream. .In the late 1990s, neo soul, which added 1970s soul influences to the hip hop soul blend, arose, led by artists such as D'Angelo, Erykah Badu, Lauryn Hill, and Maxwell. Mariah Carey was well known to incorporate her pop, R&B tunes with hip-hop. Hill and Missy Elliott further blurred the line between R&B and hip hop by recording both styles. Beginning in 1995, the Grammy Awards enacted the Grammy Award for Best R&B Album. At the end of 1999, Billboard magazine ranked Mariah Carey and Janet Jackson as the first and second most successful artists of the 1990s. 2000s-present By the 2000s, the cross-pollination between R&B and hip hop had increased. Mainstream modern R&B has a sound more based on rhythm than hip hop soul had, and lacks the hardcore and soulful urban "grinding" feel on which hip-hop soul relied. That rhythmic element descends from new jack swing. R&B began to focus more on solo artists rather than groups as the 2000s progressed. According to Billboard magazine, the most commercially successful R&B acts of the decade were Usher, Beyonc, Alicia Keys, Mariah Carey, and Rihanna. Other recording artists today have combined traditional R&B with elements with contemporary pop, pop rock, dance-pop, and electro-pop to create a lighter and more youthful sound.

Hip-Hop History
Hip hop music, also rap music consists of a stylized rhythmic music; the genre may also incorporate other elements of hip-hop culture, including DJing and scratching, beatboxing, and instrumental tracks. The early stages of Hip-Hop consisted of recordings of parties and mix tapes by DJs. The first hip hop record is widely regarded to be The Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight", from 1979. Despite the genre's growing popularity, Philadelphia was, for many years, the

only city whose contributions could be compared to New York City's. Hip hop music became popular in Philadelphia in the late 1970s. DJs like Afrika Bambaataa and DJ Kool Herc are highly regarded among those that helped progress the movement of Hip-hop from underground to mainstream and in doing so this created an interest as to which many young people at the time began experimenting with rap. Hip hop's "golden age" (or "golden era") is a name given to a period in mainstream hip hopusually cited as between the mid 1980s and the early 1990ssaid to be characterized by its diversity, quality, innovation and influence. There were strong themes of Afrocentricity and political militancy, while the music was experimental and the sampling, eclectic. There was often a strong jazz influence. The artists most often associated with the phrase are Public Enemy, A Tribe Called Quest and Big Daddy Kane. In 1990, MC Hammer became one of the most successful rappers of the early nineties and one of the first household names in the genre. The album raised rap music to a new level of popularity. It was the first hip-hop album certified diamond by the RIAA for sales of over ten million. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging on the national scene. Southern rap became popular in the early 1990s. Artists from Atlanta, Georgia were key in further expanding rap music and bringing southern hip hop into the mainstream. In the 2000s, crunk music, a derivative of Southern hip hop, gained considerable popularity via the likes of Lil Jon and the Ying Yang Twins. Jay-Z represented the cultural triumph of hip hop. It was in the later 2000s that alternative hip hop finally secured a place within the mainstream, due in part to the declining commercial viability of gangsta rap' as well as the crossover success of artists such as OutKast, Kanye West, and Gnarls Barkley. Several artists such as Kid Cudi and Drake have managed to attain chart-topping hit songs, respectively, by releasing their music on free online mix tapes without the help of a major record label. New artists such as Wale, J. Cole, Lupe Fiasco and B.o.B, openly acknowledge being directly influenced by their nineties alt-rap predecessors and a lot of their work is based on life experiences, and emotions rarely seen in mainstream hip hop.

R&B and Hip-Hop Artists

Nicki Minaj a female rapper from Trinidad and Tobago who rose to fame having been signed after releasing three mix tapes between 2007 and 2009 and being signed to Young Money Entertainment in August 2009.Minaj released, in November 2010, her debut album, Pink Friday, which quickly became a commercial success, peaking at number one on the U.S. Billboard 200 and being certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) a month after its release.

Lil Wayne is an American rapper from New Orleans. He began his career in a group called Hot Boys, but they soon parted as to which he recorded solo albumns and it was his 6th album Tha Cater III (2008) which had the greatest success and earnt him a Grammy for Best Rap Album.

Michael Jackson was an American recording artist, entertainer, and businessman. Referred to as the King of Pop or by his initials MJ, Jackson is recognized as the most successful entertainer of all time by Guinness World Records. His contribution to music, dance, and fashion, along with a much-publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades. His genres range from R&B, pop, rock, soul, dance, funk, disco and New jack swing

Rihanna is a R&B/pop/reggae/hip hop artist from Barbados. Barbadian recording At the age of 16, Rihanna moved to the United States to pursue a recording career under the guidance of record producer Evan Rogers. She subsequently signed a contract with Def Jam Recordings after auditioning for then-label head Jay-Z. Rihanna has sold more than 20 million albums and 60 million singles which makes her one of the best selling artists of all time. She is the youngest artist in Billboard charts history to achieve eleven numberone singles on the Hot 100.

Whitney Houston is an American singer, actress, producer and a former model. Houston is the most awarded female act of all time, according to Guinness World Records, and her list of awards include 1 Emmy Awards, 6 Grammy Awards, 30 Billboard Music Awards, 22 American Music Awards, among a total of 415 career awards as of 2010. Houston is also one of the world's best-selling music artists, having sold over 170 million albums and singles worldwide.

Christopher Wallace best known as The Notorious B.I.G., was an American rapper raised in Brooklyn, New York. Having released his debut album Ready to Die in 1994, Wallace became a central figure in the East Coast hip-hop scene and increased New York's visibility at a time when West Coast artists were more common in the mainstream. While recording his second album, Wallace was heavily involved in the East Coast/West Coast hip-hop feud, dominating the scene at the time.

Perception of R&B/Hip-Hop

R&B was commonly associated with African-American artists love songs with a smooth feel however in recent years it has become very influenced by the funk/hip-hop/dance scene and so it consist of songs played in clubs and it has become much more mainstream with an audience worldwide. R&B continues to develop as a musical genre and other countries have produced artists such as Jay Sean,

Nathan, Loick Essien (UK, London) creating work influenced by Americas artists. Hip-Hop started of as expression for young American typically from lower class areas being on the street and rhyming poetically to earn street cred and so when it became main-stream it gave the streets a voice. As voices were heard during the 1990s there was a lot of rival between different areas, most famously East Coast/West Coast HipHop feud which saw two of its biggest stars Notorious B.I.G and Tupac killed. Hip-Hop like R&B has continued to influence a number of artists such as Drake (rapper from Toronto, Canada) and MIA (singer/rapper from Sri Lanka). Hip-Hop is often criticized for its exploiting of a gangsta aggressive lifestyle, videos predominately filled with half naked women, women referred to as bitches and the amount of jewellery/money an artist being reason for their importance. This is often fought back by Hip-Hop artists stating this isnt what they are all about and this generalisation for the whole of the Hip-Hop scene is unfair that the media simply seek to find fault in their work. Recently Hip-Hop is displaying a softer side through interviews and photos as artists protests there is more to their work.

R&B/Hip-Hop Magazines

R&B/Hip-Hop magazines front covers usually have one large medium shot of the artist(s) with little detail to the

background/mise-en-scene allowing the artist(s) to be the focal point. The use of a striking image allows audiences attention to be grabbed immediately. Text is usually places around the image like that on Vibe magazine allowing the image to stand out. Male artists on the front cover are usually posed aggressively/seriously well tailored (if wearing clothes) to show power and often jewellery is worn to represents their status and promotes them as a brand. Whereas female artists however pose seductively/friendly, embracing their feminity and appealing to the opposite sex as well as inspiring the female audience. Fashion is a vital feature for both female and male artists who appear on the cover, as not only does it represent them but the magazine too, its sets the tone for what style/mood/audience is to be attained