Internship Report








Syed Nouman Shah

known as Power plants or Electric power generating stations. Similarly other forms of energy can be converted into electrical energy by employing suitable machinery and equipment. chemical energy of a fuel (e. The arrangement essentially employs (see fig. Generation of Electrical Energy: The conversion of energy available in different forms in nature into electrical energy is known as generation of electrical energy. Firstly. The turbine converts heat energy of steam into mechanical energy which is further converted into electrical energy by the alternator.1) an alternator coupled to prime mover . The modern society is so much dependent upon the use of electrical energy that it has become a part and parcel of our life.g. Energy is available in various forms from different natural sources such as pressure head of water. Syed Nouman Shah . The steam is fed to a prime mover which may be a steam engine or a steam turbine. All these forms of energy can be converted into electrical energy by the use of suitable arrangements. reliable and continuous service. the operation of the plant should be such so as to provide cheap. the selection and placing of necessary power-generating equipment should be such so that a maximum of return will result from a minimum of expenditure over the working life of the plant. The ever increasing use of electric power for domestic. coal) can be used to produce steam at high temperature and pressure. commercial and industrial purposes necessities to provide bulk electric power economically.Internship Report 2 Introduction: Energy exists in different forms in nature but the most important form is the electrical energy.For example .1. force of wind etc . Secondly. nuclear energy of radioactive substances etc. This is achieved with the help of suitable power producing units . chemical energy of fuels. The design of a power plant should be incorporate two important aspects.The prime mover is driven by the energy obtained from various sources such as burning fuel. pressure of water.

The electrical energy produced by the generating station is transmitted and distributed with the help of conductors to various consumers.Internship Report 3 Generating stations: Bulk( large) electric power is produced by special plants known as generating stations or power plants. Conditions for synchronization: There are five conditions that must be met before the synchronization process takes place. Synchronization of Generators: Before the power is transmitted and distributed the generators are synchronized on the bus-bar so as to share the load and operate generators accordingly. Generator: An electrical generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy (or power) into electrical energy (or power). It may be emphasized that apart from the prime mover –alternator combination. The alternator must have equal  Line voltages  Frequency  Phase sequence  Phase angle  And wave form to that of the system to which it is being synchronized. a modern generating station employs several auxiliary equipment and instruments to ensure cheap. Syed Nouman Shah . reliable and continuous service.

are relatively few in number and higher in individual cost than most other equipments. over voltage vi. unbalanced loading vii. In this scheme of protection. Relative motion is by rotation of two mechanical parts. over current iv. Syed Nouman Shah . The magnetic field 2. the field part which produces magnetism (rotor) and the armature part where emf is induced (stator). stator winding faults Differential Protection of Generators: The most common system used for the protection of stator winding faults employs Circulating-current principle. failure of field iii. especially the larger ones. Under normal operating conditions.) Capacitor or reactor (when separately protected) Protection of generators: The generating units.Internship Report 4 Principle: The energy conversion is based on the principle of the production of dynamically (or motinally) induced emf . it is desirable and necessary to provide protection to cover the wide range of faults which may occur in the modern generating plant. 4. Emf is due to relative motion between two parts. 3. failure of prime mover ii.Hence two basic essential parts of an electric generator 1. Therefore. the coil and the magnetic field. currents at the two ends of the protected sections are compared. these currents are equal but may become unequal on the occurrence of a fault in the protected section. etc. Protection Zones: 1. a conductor or conductors which can so move as to cut flux. Generators Transformers Buses Lines (transmission and distribution) Utilization equipment (motors. 5. 6. over speed v. The difference of the currents under fault conditions is arranged to pass through the operating coil of the relay. The relay operates the circuit breaker which opens its contacts to isolate protected section from the system Protective Relays: A protective relay is a device that detects the fault and initiates the operation of the circuit breaker to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system. 2. Some of the important faults which may occur on a generator are: i. static loads.

.this results in heavy current flows through the relay coil causing the relay to operate by closing its contacts .which inurn closes the trip circuit of the breaker and isolating the faulty section from the rest of the system. Types of circuit breakers: energize equipment and interrupt fault current to isolate faulted equipment  Insulators . iv. Oil circuit breaker Air blast circuit breaker SF6 circuit breaker Vacuum circuit breaker Primary Equipment & Components:  Transformers .  Second part consists of secondary winding of c. the trip coil of the circuit breaker gets energized and contacts are separated. Syed Nouman Shah .to insulate equipment from ground and other phases  Bus . Construction of Relay:  The first part is the primary winding of the c. allow multiple connections (feeders) to the same source of power (transformer). which is connected in series with the line to be protected. Circuit Breaker: A circuit breaker is equipment that breaks a circuit either manually or automatically under all conditions at no load. Operating Principal: Two contacts called electrodes remains closed under normal operating conditions.C or D.  3rd part is the tripping circuit which may be either A. ii.Internship Report 5 Function of relay:     Sense a fault or abnormal condition Determine if the fault or abnormal condition pertains to its zone Decide if disconnection of the section is required If necessary closes the contacts of the trip circuit. Working Of Relay: When a short circuit occur a current is flowing to an enormous value in the line .t and relay operating coil. full load or short step up or step down voltage level  Breakers . When fault occurs on any part of the system.C.

etc  Regulators . transducers. SCADA. 2000:5. current. CT ratios are expressed as primary to secondary. SCADA. 7200:120. phase limit fault current (series) or compensate for charge current (shunt)  PT and CT . meter and control power flow  Reactors . meters. Syed Nouman Shah .voltage. 600:5. 1200:5. etc. VAR.Internship Report 6  Grounding .to measure primary current and voltage and supply scaled down to values usable by relays. Current Transformers: Current transformers are used to step primary system currents to values usable by relays. etc. meters. 14400:120. operate and maintain equipment safely  Switchgear – integrated components to switch. and 300:5. Voltage Transformers: Voltage (potential) transformers are used to isolate and step down and accurately reproduce the scaled voltage for the protective device or relay. PT ratios are typically expressed as primary to secondary. transducers.

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