You are on page 1of 36


8AC1lCAL 18AlnlnC 8LC81

vnicv in viv {v{incn {o nc v.vv o{ v.nco O{
Ic.nnoo, vccc
O{ nc )v]v.nvn Ic.nni.v +ni.c.i,, )ov

Approved By AICTE & AIIiliated to Rajasthan Technical University,Kota
SLSSlCn 20112012
Subm|tted to Subm|tted by
Mr Ashok Clll (AssL rofessor) vlkram slngh
Mlss !yoLl Sharma (AssL rofessor) LCL4
Rajasthan Technical University
August, 2011

1hls ls Lo cerLlfy LhaL Mr V|kram S|ngh 8oll no 08LSMLC114 81ech llnal year sLudenL of SL
MargareL Lnglneerlng College neemrana 8a[asLhan has compleLed lndusLrlal Lralnlng ln Lhe
company on G|oba| System Ior Mob||e Commun|cat|on " under Lhe Culdance of Mr
CManoharan 1echnlcal Lralner Gabr|e| Ind|a LIm|ted Loward Lhe award of 81ech uurlng
Lhe perlod 1
!une Lo 13

5ubmitted to
Mr Ashok Clll Mlss !yoLl Sharma
AsslsLanL rofessor AsslsLanL rofessor
ueparLmenL of LCL ueparLmenL of LCL
SMLC neemrana SMLC neemrana

neod of ueportment
Mr vlnlL Chauhan
Pead of LCL ueparLmenL
SMLC neemrana
St Margaret Lng|neer|ng Co||ege
neemrana (8a[) uelhl!alpur Plghway
1el (01494)246331246601 lax 246332
Approved by AlC1L uelhl AfflllaLed Lo 8a[asLhan Lechnlcal unlverclLy koLa

. Training Ub|ective
. Company Profile
. Portfolio %
. Awards and Recognition
1 G|oba| System for Mob||e Commun|cat|on 13
.. Introduction to CSM 14
.. CSM System Specifications. {9 MHz Band]
.. CSM System Specifications. {8 MHz Band]
. CSM Arcbitecture 17
. Basic Building Blocks 18
. Cellular structure
. CSM Band Allocations {MHz]
. SIM-Subscriber Identity Module
. Subscriber Identification
. Description Stored in SIM Card

. CSM Interfaces and Protocols %
.. Interfaces %
.. Protocols
. Handover
.. Types of Handover
. Sbort Message Service Center {SMSC]
1 Conc|us|on 37
1 8|b||ography 39



O To get exposed to the training environment
O to have a basic understanding oI the culture, work ethics and trade
related work practices at the organization,i.e, Nokia Siemens
O To have an opportunity to observe the processes, procedures and
standards that the industry uses to ensure quality, productivity and
economy oI the products or services that it undertakes and get a
Iirsthand experience to work within the industry.
O To relate my current level oI knowledge with the industrial experience
in the Iorm oI generating reports on the basis oI observation and
generates a model oI its operations or processes or work Ilow.

1.z Compuny ProIIIe.

Nokia Siemens Networks is one of the largest telecommunications equipment suppliers in the world.
Nokia Siemens Networks was created as the result of a joint venture between Siemens's COM division
(minus its Enterprise business unit) and Nokia's Network Business Group.
The new company was announced on 19 June 2006. Nokia Siemens Networks was officially launched at
the 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007.Nokia Siemens Networks then began full
operations on 1 April 2007
and has its headquarters in Espoo, Greater Helsinki, Finland, while the West-
South Europe headquarters and three of its five divisions are based in Munich, Germany. The Services
division is based in ndia. Nokia Siemens Networks has operations in some 150 countries.
On 19th of July 2010, the company acquired the wireless-network equipment division of Motorola, to be
completed by the end of the year.

Nokia Siemens Networks operates in approximately 200 countries worldwide, and has about 60,000
employees. Most of those employees work in one of the five central hubs around the world, including:
Budapest Hungary, Espoo Finland, Munich Germany, Atlanta Georgia USA, and Mexico City Mexico. ts
major manufacturing sites are in China, Finland, Germany, Poland and ndia. About 1 billion people are
connected through its networks. The customer base of Nokia Siemens Networks includes 1,400
customers in 150 countries (including more than 600 operator customers). t is foreseen that, at a
combined 2005 revenue of more than 15 billion, the new company would be one of the
largest telecommunication equipment makers in the world.
Rajeev Suri, a graduate from ndia, is the current Chief Executive Officer of Nokia Siemens Networks. n
this position he succeeds Simon Beresford-Wylie, who stepped down (October 1, 2009) after leading the
company's integration.
Nokia Siemens Networks' Chief Financial Officer (CFO) is Luca Maestri.
The Chairman of the board of directors is Nokia's CEO Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo, vice chairman is Rudi
Lamprecht (Executive Advisor to the CEO of Siemens AG).

1.3 PortfoIio

Communication for Service Providers
Customer care support
Device management
Fixed-mobile convergence
ntegrated provisioning
nventory management
Mobile backhaul
Mobile TV
Unified charging and billing
WCDMA frequency refarming solution
SoIutions for pubIic and corporate
Air and maritime solutions
Government solutions
Railway solutions
More about public and corporate solutions

1.4 Awards and Recognition

nnovator wins award for exceptional contribution to LTE
June 2010
Mr. Antti Toskala of Nokia Siemens Networks has been recognized as an outstanding driving force to make LTE a
commercial reality. At the 2010 LTE Awards ceremony in Amsterdam, Toskala was honored with the 'Award for
individual contribution to LTE development'.

Nokia Siemens Networks recognized as African Vendor of the Year at CommsMEA Awards 2009

December 2009
Nokia Siemens Networks has been recognized for its service and commitment to the African continent at this year's
CommsMEA Awards with the 'African Vendor of the Year' award.

Flexi Multiradio Base Station reaffirms position as most environmentally-friendly network technology

December 2009
The Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Multiradio Base Station won the Future Mobile Green Awards 2010 from Juniper
Research on December 1st. These annual awards recognize the contributions to reducing the mobile industry's
greenhouse gas emissions, and promoting environmentally sustainable business practices.

Nokia Siemens Networks named Vision Award Winner at TelcoTV
November 2009
Light Reading in conjunction with TelcoTV 2009 announced Nokia Siemens Networks as a Vision Award winner for
nnovation in Middleware with the company's nteractivity Markup Language (ML) Framework.

The Connectivity Scorecard wins nternational Development category at the SUPERCOMM 2009 EOS Awards

October 2009
The Connectivity Scorecard has won the nternational Development category at the SUPERCOMM 2009 EOS
Awards. The study is the first to evaluate how 'useful connectivity' impacts countries' social and economic
development. Useful connectivity is a combination of the availability of CT infrastructure and the extent to which
governments, businesses and consumers put it to good use.

Nokia Siemens Networks wins two 2009 nfoVision Awards

September 2009
ndustry recognition for innovative approach to solving operators' challenges in LTE and broadband networks - Nokia
Siemens Networks garnered two 2009 nfoVision Awards at the Broadband World Forum in Paris today, organized by
the nternational Engineering Consortium (EC).

Nokia Siemens Networks wins OSS vendor of the year award

June 2009
Nokia Siemens Networks has won the Frost & Sullivan Telecom OSS Vendor of the Year award in recognition of its
strong growth and performance across Asia Pacific during 2008.

COLT and Nokia Siemens Networks win Global Telecoms Business award for Fixed Network nfrastructure

June 2009
COLT, a leading European provider of business communications and Nokia Siemens Networks jointly won the Global
Telecoms Business (GTB) award for Fixed Network nfrastructure nnovation.

iMetrik and Nokia Siemens Networks win Global Telecoms award for Business Service nnovation

June 2009
iMetrik, a Canadian wireless solutions provider won the Global Telecoms Business (GTB) award for Business Service
nnovation in London. The company was recognized for a pioneering range of automated remote asset tracking
services offered over mobile networks. Powered by Nokia Siemens Networks' industry leading Subscriber Data
Management (SDM) platform, the services were launched in October 2008.

Flexi Multiradio Base Station Honored as Greenest Network nnovation at CTA E-Tech Awards

April 2009
At CTA Wireless 2009, the Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Multiradio Base Station was selected by a panel of judges
as the first place winner of the 4th Annual CTA Emerging Technology Award in the Green Network Hardware and
nfrastructure category.

"Sexy Flexi" takes top prize: world's most energy efficient base station wins Best Network Technology Advance at
GSMA Global Mobile Awards 2009

February 2009
Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Base Station has been recognized as the world's most progressive mobile network
technology at the annual GSMA Global Mobile Awards 2009. The Best Network Technology Advance award was
presented at a gala dinner on February 17 at Mobile World Congress 2009, Barcelona.

Nokia Siemens Networks nominated for Green Mobile Award in GSMA's Global Mobile Awards 2009

January 2009
Nokia Siemens Networks' Environmentally Sustainable Business initiative has been nominated for an award in the
Green Mobile Award category of the annual GSMA Global Mobile Awards 2009.

Nokia Siemens Networks takes home "Leading Lights" award in the Big Apple
October 2008
The company's first two acquisitions earn it a coveted "Leading Lights 2008" award at this year's award ceremony in
New York.

Nokia Siemens Networks Village Connection wins 'Excellence in nnovation' Award at the 2nd TEMA National
Telecom Awards

May 2008
Nokia Siemens Networks today announced that its Village Connection solution to provide voice and data access in
rural areas, has won the Excellence in nnovation award at the 2nd annual National Telecom Awards ceremony held
by the Telecom Equipment Manufacturers Association (TEMA) on May 16, 2008.


z.1 GIobuI SysLem Ior MobIIe CommunIcuLIon


1he Clobal SysLem for Moblle communlcaLlons ls a dlglLal cellular communlcaLlons sysLem lL
was developed ln order Lo creaLe a common Luropean moblle Lelephone sLandard buL lL has
been rapldly accepLed worldwlde CSM was deslgned Lo be compaLlble wlLh lSun servlces
ln Lhe beglnnlngs of cellular sysLems each counLry developed lLs own sysLem whlch was an
undeslrable slLuaLlon for Lhe followlng reasons
O 1he equlpmenL was llmlLed Lo operaLe only wlLhln Lhe boundarles of each counLry
O 1he markeL for each moblle equlpmenL was llmlLed
ln order Lo overcome Lhese problems Lhe Conference of Luropean osLs and
1elecommunlcaLlons (CL1) formed ln 1982 Lhe Croup Speclal Moblle (CSM) ln order Lo
develop a panLuropean moblle cellular radlo sysLem

O SpecLrum efflclency
O lnLernaLlonal roamlng
O Low moblle and base sLaLlons cosLs
O Cood sub[ecLlve volce quallLy
O CompaLlblllLy wlLh oLher sysLems such as lSun (lnLegraLed Servlces ulglLal neLwork)
O AblllLy Lo supporL new servlces

13 GSM System Spec|f|cat|ons ( Mnz 8and)
1he sysLem speclflcaLlon for Lhe CSM 900 MPz neLworks are as menLloned below
Irequency 8and upllnk 890 MPz Lo 913 MPz
uownllnk 933 MPz Lo 960 MPz
Dup|ex D|stance 43 MPz
Carr|er Separat|on 200 kPz
Modu|at|on CMSk
1ransm|ss|on rate 270kbps
Access Method 1uMA
Speech Coder 8L LC 13kblL/s
D|vers|ty Channel Codlng
lrequency hopplng
AdapLlve equallsaLlon

14 GSM System Spec|f|cat|ons (1 Mnz 8and)
1he sysLem speclflcaLlon for Lhe CSM 1800 MPz neLworks are as menLloned below
Irequency 8and upllnk 1710 MPz Lo 1783 MPz
uownllnk 1803 MPz Lo 1880 MPz
Dup|ex D|stance 93 MPz
Carr|er Separat|on 200 kPz
Modu|at|on CMSk
1ransm|ss|on rate 270 kbps
Access Method 1uMA
Speech Coder 8L LC 13kblL/s
D|vers|ty Channel Codlng
lrequency hopplng
AdapLlve equallsaLlon


31 GSM Arch|tecture

3 8as|c 8u||d|ng 8|ocks
A Cellular Moblle sysLem conslsLs of several bulldlng blocks
Moblle SLaLlon (MS)
8ase SLaLlons (8S)
Moblle Servlces SwlLchlng CenLers (MSC)
CperaLlon and MalnLenance CenLer (CMC)
8road Descr|pt|on of GSM Sw|tch|ng System (SS)
MSC Moblle Servlces SwlLchlng CenLre
VLk vlslLor LocaLlon 8eglsLer
nLk Pome LocaLlon 8eglsLer
AUC AuLhenLlcaLlon CenLre
LIk LqulpmenL ldenLlLy 8eglsLer
8road Descr|pt|on of 8ase Stat|on Sw|tch|ng System (8SS)
8SC 8ase SLaLlon ConLroller
81S 8ase 1ranscelver SLaLlon
Ce||s 1he Cells are an lndlvldual seL of 1ransmlLLlng and 8ecelvlng LqulpmenL
whlch lf formed a group and lLs nelghbor cell lL glves a compleLe coverage area of
Lhe neLwork Servlce Area
8ase 1ransce|ver Stat|on Lach cell has a 81S operaLlng on a seL of radlo
channels1o avold lnLerference we lnLend Lo keep dlfferenL frequencles of
ad[olnlng cells
8ase Stat|on Contro||er A group of 81Ss are conLrolled by a 8ase SLaLlon
ConLroller(8SC) lL has Lhe capablllLy Lo conLrol Lhe behavlor of cells and also lL
conLrols MS Lo make handover and ower ConLrol
Mob||e Serv|ces Sw|tch|ng Centre (MSC)
A number of 8SC's are conLrolled by one MSC lL conLrols Lo and from Lhe MS ln
Lhe neLwork as well as calls from varlous naLlonal and lnLernaLlonal CperaLors lL
uses 1elephony and uaLa Calls as well as varlous value Added Servlces lL has
connecLlvlLy wlLh varlous S1n lSun llnes and calls can be handover or
Lransferred on Lhose neLworks

nome Locat|on keg|ster (nLk)
1he PL8 ls a cenLrallzed neLwork daLabase LhaL sLores and manages all moblle
subscrlpLlons belonglng Lo a speclflc operaLor lL acLs as a permanenL sLore for a
person's subscrlpLlon lnformaLlon unLll LhaL subscrlpLlon ls cancelled
AuLhenLlcaLlon CenLre ls connecLed Lo PL8 1he purpose of AuC ls Lo provlde
AuLhenLlcaLlon daLa Lo PL8 le AuLhenLlcaLlon arameLers Clpherlng keys eLc
whlch are used for securlLy purpose

1he vlslLor LocaLlon 8eglsLer ls a daLa base conLalnlng lnformaLlon abouL all Lhe
MS currenLly reglsLered ln parLlcular MSC servlce area As soon as Lhe subscrlber
ls ln same MSC area Lhere ls no need Lo conLacL PL8 regardlng MS currenL
daLabase lLs faclllLles eLc As soon as Lhe MS moves Lo a new MSC area Lhe vL8 of
LhaL MSC requesLs PL8 Lo provlde compleLe lnformaLlon of daLabase of LhaL
vlslLlng Subscrlber
AL Lhe same Llme Lhe PL8 wlll also be lnformed LhaL Lhe subscrlber ls reglsLered ln
parLlcular MSC 1hls process ls called LCCA1ICN UDA1L Cnce Lhere ls compleLe
lnformaLlon of subscrlber servlces Lo Lhe parLlcular MSC/vL8 where subscrlber ls
reglsLerd aL LhaL Llme Lhere ls no furLher need Lo lnLerrogaLe PL8 for call seLup
So Lhe vL8 can be seen as dlsLrlbuLed PL8 1he vL8 wlll also have more exacL
lnformaLlon abouL locaLlon of MS reglsLered aL LhaL Llme
1he CaLeway MSC ls used Lo connecL a subscrlber of dlfferenL neLwork or
operaLor wlLh our own neLwork lf somebody from S1n neLwork wanLs Lo
conLacL Lhe MS Lhe call wlll flrsL reach Lo CMSC Slnce Lhe Calllng Subscrlber do
noL knows Lhe locaLlon of MS when Lhe call reaches from S1n neLwork Lo our
CMSC Lhe CMSC wlll lnLerrogaLes Lhe PL8 for locaLlon of Lhe called subscrlber 8y
means of locaLlon updaLe Lhe PL8 knows LhaL Lhe parLlcular subscrlber ls ln whlch
MSC/vL8 area 1he PL8 wlll provlde Lhls lnformaLlon Lo CMSC 1he CMSC ln Lurn
wlll now rouLe Lhe call Lo correcL MSC 1hls MSC wlll have now furLher more
lnformaLlon abouL exacL locaLlon lnformaLlon of called subscrlber and Lhus call ls
CperaLlon and MalnLenance CenLre (CMC) ls connecLed Lo all equlpmenL ln Lhe
swlLchlng sysLem and Lo Lhe 8SC and 81S
1he Network Area and the Gateway MSC
1he llnks beLween a CSM/LMn neLwork and Lhe oLher S1n lSun or LMn
neLworks wlll be on levels of lnLernaLlonal or naLlonal LranslL Lxchange All Lhe
lncomlng calls Lo a CSM/LMn neLwork wlll be rouLed Lo CMSC 8y way of
lnLerrogaLlon and call rouLlng Lhe call ls rouLed Lo correcL MSC/8SC coverage area
and furLher lL ls rouLed Lo correcL 81S lL ls Lhe place/node whlch have Lhe
funcLlon Lo rouLe LermlnaLed calls Lo correcL MSC and 8SC servlce area by way of
PL8 lnLerrogaLlon ln CSM/LMn all moblle LermlnaLed calls wlll be rouLed Lo
CMSC and Lhen Lo correcL MSC/8SC and furLher Lo MS
Lqu|pment Ident|ty keg|ster (LIk)
1he Ll8 ls a daLabase LhaL conLalns lnformaLlon abouL Lhe ldenLlLy of moblle
equlpmenL LhaL prevenLs calls from sLolen unauLhorlzed or defecLlve moblle
sLaLlons 1he AuC and Ll8 are lmplemenLed as sLandalone nodes or as a
comblned AuC/Ll8 node


41 Ce||u|ar structure
1h|s |s an |mportant concept |n |nsta||at|on of 81S towers for estab||shments of
GSM networks
eIIuIar Structure
Networking technology
that breaks geographic
area into cells shaped
like honey comb
is the radio coverage
area of one base
transceiver station

. CSM Band Allocations {MHz]
arrier frequency = ARFN = AbsoIute Radio Frequency anneI Number
Frequencies are in MHz
GSM Systems Up||nk Down||nk 8and
5M 450
5M 480
kGSM ()




43 SIMSubscr|ber Ident|ty Modu|e
A subscr|ber |dent|ty modu|e (SIM) on a removable SIM card securely sLores
Lhe servlcesubscrlber key (lMSl) used Lo ldenLlfy a subscrlber on
moblle Lelephony devlces (such as moblle phones and compuLers) 1he SlM card
allows users Lo change phones by slmply removlng Lhe SlM card from one moblle
phone and lnserLlng lL lnLo anoLher moblle phone or broadband Lelephony devlce
A SlM card conLalns lLs unlque serlal number lnLernaLlonally unlque number of
Lhe moblle user (lMSl) securlLy auLhenLlcaLlon and clpherlng lnformaLlon
Lemporary lnformaLlon relaLed Lo Lhe local neLwork a llsL of Lhe servlces Lhe user
has access Lo and Lwo passwords (ln for usual use and uk for unlocklng)
SlM cards are avallable ln Lhree sLandard slzes 1he flrsL ls Lhe slze of a credlL
card (8360 mm 3398 mm x 076 mm) 1he newer mosL popular mlnlaLure
verslon has Lhe same Lhlckness buL a lengLh of 23 mm and a wldLh of 13 mm and
has one of lLs corners LruncaLed (chamfered) Lo prevenL mlslnserLlon 1he newesL
lncarnaLlon known as Lhe 3ll or mlcroSlM has dlmenslons of 13 mm 12 mm
MosL cards of Lhe Lwo smaller slzes are supplled as a fullslzed card wlLh Lhe
smaller card held ln place by a few plasLlc llnks lL can easlly be broken off Lo be
used ln a devlce LhaL uses Lhe smaller SlM A devlce manufacLured by nooS?
Apple has now been released allowlng Lhe converslon of mlnlSlM cards Lo mlcro
SlM cards vla a mechanlsm noL unllke LhaL of a holepuncher

W orLable SmarL Card wlLh memory (8CM6k8 Lo 16k8A3/A8 algorlLhm
8AM 128k8 1C 236k8 LL8CM 3k8 Lo 8k8 )
W SLaLlc lnformaLlon
lnLernaLlonal Moblle Subscrlber ldenLlLy(lMSl)
ersonal ldenLlflcaLlon number (ln)
AuLhenLlcaLlon key (kl)
W uynamlc lnformaLlon
1emporary Moblle Subscrlber ldenLlLy(1MSl)
LocaLlon Area ldenLlLy (LAl)
hone memorles bllllng lnformaLlon
AblllLy Lo sLore ShorL Messages recelved

44 Subscr|ber Ident|f|cat|on

4Descr|pt|on Stored |n SIM Card


. uSN Inteifaces anu Piotocols

.. Interfaces:
The air interIace is used Ior exchanges between a MS and a BSS. LAPDm, a
modiIied version oI the ISDN LAPD, is used Ior signalling.
This is a BSS internal interIace linking the BSC and a BTS, and it has not been
standardised. The Abis interIace allows control oI the radio equipment and radio
Irequency allocation in the BTS.

The A interIace is between the BSS and the MSC. The A interIace manages the
allocation oI suitable radio resources to the MSs and mobility management.
The B interIace between the MSC and the VLR uses the MAP/B protocol. Most
MSCs are associated with a VLR, making the B interIace "internal". Whenever the
MSC needs access to data regarding a MS located in its area, it interrogates the
VLR using the MAP/B protocol over the B interIace.
The C interIace is between the HLR and a GMSC or a SMS-G. Each call
originating outside oI GSM (i.e., a MS terminating call Irom the PSTN) has to go
through a Gateway to obtain the routing inIormation required to complete the call,
and the MAP/C protocol over the C interIace is used Ior this purpose. Also, the
MSC may optionally Iorward billing inIormation to the HLR aIter call clearing.
The D interIace is between the VLR and HLR, and uses the MAP/D protocol to
exchange the data related to the location oI the MS and to the management oI the
The E interIace interconnects two MSCs. The E interIace exchanges data related to
handover between the anchor and relay MSCs using the MAP/E protocol.
The F interIace connects the MSC to the EIR, and uses the MAP/F protocol to
veriIy the status oI the IMEI that the MSC has retrieved Irom the MS.
The G interIace interconnects two VLRs oI diIIerent MSCs and uses the MAP/G
protocol to transIer subscriber inIormation, during e.g. a location update procedure.
The H interIace is between the MSC and the SMS-G, and uses the MAP/H protocol
to support the transIer oI short messages.
The I interIace (not shown in Figure 1) is the interIace between the MSC and the
MS. Messages exchanged over the I interIace are relayed transparently through the

.. Protocols:
CM 1he CommunlcaLlon ManagemenL (CM) layer conslsLs of seLLlng up calls aL
Lhe users requesL lLs funcLlons are dlvlded ln Lhree Call conLrol whlch
manages Lhe clrculL orlenLed servlces SupplemenLary servlces
managemenL whlch allows modlflcaLlons and checklng of Lhe
supplemenLary servlces conflguraLlon ShorL Message Servlces whlch
provldes polnLLopolnL shorL message servlces
MM 1he MoblllLy ManagemenL (MM) layer ls ln charge of malnLalnlng Lhe
locaLlon daLa ln addlLlon Lo Lhe auLhenLlcaLlon and clpherlng procedures
kk 1he 8adlo 8esource (88) ManagemenL layer ls ln charge of esLabllshlng
and malnLalnlng a sLable unlnLerrupLed communlcaLlons paLh beLween
Lhe MSC and MS over whlch slgnallng and user daLa can be conveyed
Pandovers are parL of Lhe 88 layers responslblllLy MosL of Lhe funcLlons
are conLrolled by Lhe 8SC 81S and MS Lhough some are performed by
Lhe MSC (ln parLlcular for lnLerMSC handovers)
kk 1he 88 layer ls Lhe parL of Lhe 88 funcLlonallLy whlch ls managed by Lhe
LADm 1he layer Lwo proLocol ls provlded for by LAum over Lhe alrlnLerface
1hls proLocol ls a modlfled verslon of Lhe LAu (Llnk Access roLocol for
Lhe lSun uchannel) proLocol 1he maln modlflcaLlons are due Lo Lhe LlghL
synchronlzaLlon requlred ln 1uMA and blL error proLecLlon mechanlsm
requlred over Lhe alrlnLerface (and ln CSM handled by layer 1) maklng
Lhe correspondlng funcLlonallLy of Lhe LAu proLocol redundanL (and Lhus
wasLeful over Lhe alrlnLerface) 1he LAu frame flags are replaced by a
lengLh lndlcaLor and Lhe lLC fleld ls removed
81SM 1he 8ase 1ranscelver SLaLlon ManagemenL (81SM) ls responslble for
Lransferrlng Lhe 88 lnformaLlon (noL provlded for ln Lhe 81S by Lhe 88
proLocol) Lo Lhe 8SC
LAD 1hls ls Lhe lSun LAu proLocol (Llnk Access roLocol for Lhe lSun u
channel) provldlng errorfree Lransmlsslon beLween Lhe 8SC and MSC
8SSA 1he 8ase SLaLlon SysLem AppllcaLlon arL (8SSA) ls spllL lnLo Lwo parLs
Lhe 8SSMA and Lhe u1A (noL shown ln Lhe above flgure) 1he message
exchanges are handled by SS7 Messages whlch are noL LransparenL Lo Lhe
8SC are carrled by Lhe 8ase SLaLlon SysLem ManagemenL AppllcaLlon arL
(8SSMA) whlch supporLs all of Lhe procedures beLween Lhe MSC and Lhe
8SS LhaL requlre lnLerpreLaLlon and processlng of lnformaLlon relaLed Lo
slngle calls and resource managemenL 1he messages beLween Lhe MSC
and MS whlch are LransparenL Lo Lhe 8SC (MM and CM messages) are
caLered for by Lhe ulrecL 1ransfer AppllcaLlon arL (u1A)
SCC 1he Slgnallng ConnecLlon ConLrol arL (SCC) from SS7
M1 1he Message 1ransporL arL (M1) of SS7



hys|ca| channe| Lach LlmesloL on a carrler ls referred Lo as a physlcal channel
er carrler Lhere are 8 physlcal channels
Log|ca| channe| varleLy of lnformaLlon ls LransmlLLed beLween Lhe MS and 81S
1here are dlfferenL loglcal channels dependlng on Lhe lnformaLlon senL 1he
loglcal channels are of Lwo Lypes
W 1rafflc channel
W ConLrol channel

1here are 12 loglcal channels ln Lhe sysLem 1wo are used for Lrafflc nlne for
conLrol slgnallng and one for message dlsLrlbuLlon
1raff|c Channe|s (1Cn)
1here are Lwo Lypes of 1CPs
O lull raLe channel 8m used for full raLe speech aL 13kbps or daLa up Lo
O PalfraLe channel Lm used for half raLe speech aL 63kbpsor daLa up Lo


1here are Lhree dlfferenL groups of conLrol channels wlLh each group conLalnlng
Lhree dlfferenL loglcal channels
8roadcast Channe|s (8Cn)
Irequency Correct|on Channe| (ICCn) used for frequency correcLlon of MS
O Synchron|zat|on Channe| (SCn) carrles lnformaLlon on Lhe 1uMA frame
number and Lhe 8ase Stat|on Ident|ty
Code (8SIC) of Lhe 81S
O 8roadcast Contro| Channe| (8CCn) 8roadcasLs cell speclflc lnformaLlon Lo Lhe

Common Contro| Channe|s (CCCn)
O ag|ng Channe| (Cn) used on Lhe downllnk Lo page Lhe MS
O kandom Access Channe| (kACn) used on Lhe upllnk by Lhe MS Lo requesL
allocaLlon of an SuCCP elLher as a page response or an access aL MS call
O Access Grant Channe| (AGCn) used on Lhe downllnk Lo allocaLe an SuCCP or
a 1CP Lo an MS An allocaLlon Lo a 1CP can be done ln Lhe case of an
lmmedlaLe AsslgnmenL on Lhe 1CP


. Handover
- When a call ls ln process Lhe changes ln locaLlon requlre more processlng
- WlLhln a 8SS Lhe 8SC whlch knows Lhe currenL radlo llnk conflguraLlon
prepares an avallable channel ln Lhe new 81S
- 1he MS ls Lold Lo swlLch over Lo Lhe new 81S
- 1hls ls called a hard handover
ln a sofL handover Lhe MS ls connecLed Lo Lwo 81Ss slmulLaneously

7.1.1 Types of Handover

O lnLra cell handover Pandover Lakes place ln Lhe same cell from one
LlmesloL Lo anoLher LlmesloL of Lhe same carrler or dlfferenL carrlers( buL
Lhe same cell)
O lnLra 8SC handover Pandover Lakes place beLween dlfferenL cell whlch are
conLrolled by Lhe same 8SC
W ln1L8 8SC PAnuCvL8 Pandover Lakes place beLween dlfferenL cell whlch
are conLrolled by Lhe dlfferenL 8SC
W ln1L8MSC PAnuCvL8 Pandover Lakes place beLween dlfferenL cell whlch
are conLrolled by Lhe dlfferenL 8SC and each 8SC ls conLrolled by dlfferenL
. Sbort Message Service Center {SMSC]

1he MSC serves as a SMS gaLeway Lo forward SMS messages from ShorL
Message Servlce CenLers (SMSC) Lo Lhe subscrlbers and from Lhe subscrlbers
Lo Lhe SMSCs lL Lhus acLs as a message mallbox and dellvery sysLem

1he SMSC ls a sLoreandforward devlce used Lo provlde peerLopeer LexL
messaglng servlces ln moblle neLworks Any LexL message lssued from a
moblle handseL ls forwarded Lo Lhe SMSC where Lhe locaLlon of Lhe called
subscrlber ls deLermlned by consulLlng Lhe approprlaLe PL8 lf Lhe
subscrlber ls currenLly connecLed Lo a reachable neLwork Lhe locaLlon ls
deLermlned and Lhe LexL message ls LransmlLLed lf noL Lhe message ls
sLored for laLer Lransmlsslon once Lhe subscrlber becomes avallable 1he
SMSC also lncludes backend lnLerfaces for Lhe connecLlon of enhanced
servlce plaLforms LhaL can be used Lo lmplemenL a varleLy of SMS servlces
such as LelevoLlng and premlum raLe daLa servlces (eg weaLher Lrafflc
sporLs and news)

1he Ceneral ackeL 8adlo Servlce (C8S) ls a new nonvolce value added
servlce LhaL allows lnformaLlon Lo be senL and recelved across a moblle
Lelephone neLwork lL supplemenLs Lodays ClrculL SwlLched uaLa and ShorL
Message Servlce C8S ls nC1 relaLed Lo CS (Lhe Clobal oslLlonlng
SysLem) a slmllar acronym LhaL ls ofLen used ln moblle conLexLs
Ceneral ackeL 8adlo Servlce (C8S) enabled neLworks offer alwayson
hlgher capaclLy lnLerneLbased conLenL and packeLbased daLa servlces 1hls
enables servlces such as color lnLerneL browslng emall on Lhe move
powerful vlsual communlcaLlons mulLlmedla messages and locaLlonbased
C8S ls used Lo lmplemenL hlghspeed daLa Lransmlsslon beLween Lhe MS
and some oLher parLy C8S uLlllzes mulLlple 81Ss ln Lhe same 8SS 1he MS
sends dlfferenL packeLs Lo dlfferenL 81Ss whlch are reconsLrucLed aL Lhe
SCSn 1hls enables Lhe MS Lo use a hlgher Lransmlsslon speed Lhan one
Lransmlsslon channel can handle
C8S faclllLaLes several new appllcaLlons LhaL have noL prevlously been
avallable over CSM neLworks due Lo Lhe llmlLaLlons ln speed of ClrculL
SwlLched uaLa (96 kbps) and message lengLh of Lhe ShorL Message Servlce
(160 characLers) C8S wlll fully enable Lhe lnLerneL appllcaLlons you are
used Lo on your deskLop from web browslng Lo chaL over Lhe moblle
neLwork CLher new appllcaLlons for C8S proflled laLer lnclude flle
Lransfer and home auLomaLlon Lhe ablllLy Lo remoLely access and conLrol
lnhouse appllances and machlnes


1 Conc|us|on

During the period oI training i came across the practical aspects oI implementation
and maintenance oI GSM network that aggrandized my knowledge in telecom.
TELECOM is one oI the disciplines Iilled with challenges and prospect. Indeed,
having entered this splendid world, we are greedier Ior the new.


1. Nokia Siemens Networks training slides
. Network aspects oI GSM system
. Training class notes
. Haykins. Communication Systems