THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF LICENTIATE OF ENGINEERING

Modeling of Wind Turbines for Power System Studies

TOMAS PETRU

Department of Electric Power Engineering CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY G¨teborg, Sweden 2001 o

Modeling of Wind Turbines for Power System Studies TOMAS PETRU c TOMAS PETRU, 2001.

Technical report no 391L Department of Electric Power Engineering Chalmers University of Technology SE-412 96 G¨teborg o Sweden Telephone + 46 (0)31-772 1660 Fax + 46 (0)31-772 1633 E-mail: valborg.ekman@elteknik.chalmers.se

Chalmers Bibliotek, Reproservice G¨teborg, Sweden 2001 o

Modeling of Wind Turbines for Power System Studies TOMAS PETRU Department of Electric Power Engineering Chalmers University of Technology

Abstract
When wind turbines are installed into the electric grid, the power quality is affected. Today, strict installation recommendations often prevail due to a lack of knowledge on this subject. Consequently, it is important to predict the impact of wind turbines on the electric grid before the turbines are installed. The thesis describes relevant power quality issues, discusses different configurations of wind turbines with respect to power quality and draw requirements regarding wind turbine modeling. A model of a stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbine system is introduced and its power quality impact on the electric grid is evaluated. The model is verified with field measurements.

Key words: wind turbine, power quality, flicker, modeling, prediction, measurements, verification

Acknowledgements
This thesis is the result of the project ”Modeling of Wind Turbines for Power System Studies” supported by Sydkraft AB. The financial support is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks also to the National Board of Energy Administration (Energimyndigheten) for financing measurement campaigns and equipment. I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Torbj¨n Thiringer for his supervio sion, valuable discussions and never-ending encouragement, patience and support. The job behind this thesis could hardly have be done without the help I have obtained from him and I am not thinking just about the work. Many thanks. Thanks to Ingemar Carlen from the Department of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics at Chalmers University of Technology for his valuable help. An electrical engineer is usually not familiar with aerodynamics. A few discussions saved a lot of time and provided me with confidence. Lars Barth at GEAB and G¨ran Olsson at Vattenfall AB on the island of Gotland o have helped a lot with serving and maintaining the measurement systems. I appreciate their willingness, the measured data are a very important and valuable part of my thesis. Thanks are also due to Professor Essam Hamdi and Dr. Ola Carlson for proofreading the draft manuscript. Finally, many thanks to all my colleagues and the staff at the Department of Electric Power Engineering - the working atmosphere is very important for me and I have been provided with a good one.

Contents
1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Utilization of wind turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modeling wind turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 7 8 9 9 11

Literature review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aim of the thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relation to previous research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thesis layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Power Quality 2.1 2.2 Wind power and power quality

Power Quality problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 Steady state voltage impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic voltage variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Harmonic distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage transients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Wind Turbine Systems 3.1 3.2 3.3

Basic overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Blade aerodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Aerodynamic power control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 Stall control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Active Stall control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Pitch control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

3.4 3.5

Fixed-speed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Variable-speed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 i

3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.6 3.7

An induction machine and rotor resistance control . . . . . . . 18 An induction machine with rotor converter . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Induction machine with squirrel cage rotor . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Systems with a synchronous machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Comparison of power quality impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Wind turbine model in grid simulation program . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 23

4 Measurements 4.1 4.2 4.3 5

Measurement set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Bockstigen-Valar data acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Alsvik data acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 27

Wind turbine modeling 5.1 5.2

Structure of the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Wind simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.2.1 5.2.2 Single point wind simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Wind field simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Aerodynamic conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Drive-train model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Generator model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Simulation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 Comparison in frequency range, I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Comparison in frequency range, II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Comparison of Pst impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

5.7

A simplified model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3 5.7.4 Spatial filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Rotational sampling filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Induction lag filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Parameter determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5.8

Simplified model - results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 ii

6 Conclusions and future work 6.1 6.2

47

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Results evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6.2.1 6.2.2 Advanced model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Simplified model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

6.3

Future work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 49

A Technical Data

A.1 Wind turbine data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 A.2 Drive train data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 A.3 Generator data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 B List of publications 51

iii

Abbreviations
ASR FSS HSF HRSF PCC PEC PR RSF SF SR VSS active stall-regulated system fixed-speed system spatial filter transfer function rotational sampling filter transfer function point if common conection power electronic converter pitch-regulated system rotational sampling filter spatial filter stall-regulated system variable-speed system

Terms
α ϕ ϑ ωG ωT Ω ϑG ϑT σ γ a B d D f FE FF fTla fTls I Ip Iq is ir JG JT k L [deg] [rad] [deg] [rad s−1 ] [rad s−1 ] [rad s−1 ] [rad] [rad] [−] [−] [−] [kg m2 s−1 ] [m] [N ] [Hz] [N ] [N ] [N m] [N m] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [kg m2 ] [kg m2 ] [kg m2 s−2 ] [N ] angle of attack angle between voltage and current vecors angle between free wind speed and tangential speed of a blade segment angular speed of a generator angular speed of a turbine (high speed shaft) angular speed of a turbine (low speed shaft) angle of a generator shaft angle of a turbine shaft (high speed shaft) damping decay factor over the disc constant absorption of a shaft turbine diameter drag force frequency edge force flap force amplitude of the advanced shaft torque frequency component amplitude of the simplified shaft torque frequency component current current, active power corresponding component current, reactive power corresponding component stator current vector rotor current vector referred to the stator side generator moment of inertia turbine moment of inertia stiffness of a shaft lift force iv

Lm Lsλ Lrλ P Pst Plt pp Q R Rg Rs Rr TG TT THD UN UPCC us ∆URg ∆UXg V1 Vk W WS Xg Z0

[H] [H] [H] [W ] [−] [−] [−] [VAr] [m] [Ω] [Ω] [Ω] [N m] [N m] [−] [V ] [V ] [V ] [V ] [V ] [−] [−] [m/s] [m/s] [Ω] [−]

magnetizing inductance stator leakage inductance rotor leakage inductance referred to the stator side active power short time flicker severity index long time flicker severity index number of pole pairs reactive power turbine radius grid resistance stator winding resistance rotor winding resistance referred to the stator side torque on a generator shaft torque on a turbine shaft total harmonic distortion nominal grid voltage voltage at the point of common conection stator voltage vector voltage drop over the grid resistance voltage drop over the grid reactance RMS value of a fundamental vawe RMS value of a kth harmonics vawe wind speed acting on a blade free wind speed grid reactance roughness of the surface

v

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Utilization of wind turbines

Mankind has used the wind as a source of energy for several thousands of years. It was one of the most utilized sources of energy together with hydro power during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries [1]. By the end of the 19th century the first experiments were carried out on the use of windmills for generating electricity. The international oil crisis of 1972 initiated the utilization of renewable resources on a large scale, wind power among others. Today, wind power is a fully established branch on the electricity market and it is treated accordingly. The energy gain is not the only criteria to be considered when installing new wind turbines; cost efficiency, the impact on the environment and the impact on the electric grid are some of the important issues of significant interest when making decisions about new wind turbine installations. Electricity is traded like any other commodity on the market and there are, therefore, standards which describe its quality. In the case of electric power they are commonly known as the Power Quality standards. Any device connected to the electric grid must fulfill these standards and this is a particularly interesting and important issue to be considered in the case of wind power installations, since the stochastic nature of wind and standardized parameters of electricity are joined together there. A mathematical model of a wind turbine capable of predicting its interaction with the grid is, thus, an important topic.

1.2

Modeling wind turbines

Various models of wind turbines have been developed. They have different purposes and, therefore, treat different features of the wind turbine system and they span, in fact, all the aspects relevant to such a device. The purpose of aerodynamic simulations is to verify and optimize blade design, according to prescribed criteria. Examples of such criteria might be maximization 1

of useful forces, minimization of unwanted loads, adjustment of blade characteristic for a chosen nominal wind speed, etc . . . . Mechanical engineers are mostly concerned with the safe and economical dimensioning of the whole wind turbine system, and a proper mechanical model of the wind turbine will make their task simpler. General purpose models concerned with the electrical properties of wind turbines are widely used. There are also economical models, which evaluate the cost effectiveness of manufacturing and installing wind turbines. Models predicting weather conditions, and consequently, the corresponding power production from large wind farms, are important when planning the control of a power system with high penetration by wind power. The prediction of power output is also important on a liberalized electricity market since it is this factor which influences the price of electricity. Finally, there are models developed with the aim of evaluating the impact of wind turbines on the environment (a determination of noise generated by the operation of the wind turbine is one example). The model developed and evaluated in this thesis is concerned with predicting the power quality impact on the electrical network. Such a model makes it possible for an electric grid owner to make a decision about a new wind turbine installation in advance and in such a way as to prevent possible power quality problems. Moreover, a simulation of the interaction between an electric grid and a wind turbine can assess the suitability of some wind turbine types when solving a power quality problem already present in the grid. An important part of the thesis is the verification of the developed model against field measurements of a full-scale wind turbine.

1.3

Literature review

The problem of the interaction between wind turbines and the electric grid has been treated by many authors. The reasons for predicting the power output from a wind turbine are various: the impact on the grid, the design of the wind turbine controller and stating the power quality standards are some typical examples. Papers by Estanquiero [2], Bossanyi [3] and Jenkins [4] deal with predicting the power quality impact on the connected grid. Wind turbine models of different complexity were incorporated into a grid simulation program and conclusions regarding the requirements on the model complexity were drawn. These models incorporated the aerodynamic part of different complexities. The driving torque on the generator shaft was either calculated using a professional software package or, on the contrary, significantly simplified to a very rough approximation of reality. Leithead has presented in [5], [6] and [7] a detailed description of the wind turbine mechanical parts. The structural dynamics of the whole drive train was thoroughly described and analyzed. The aerodynamic interaction between free wind and the turbine itself was incorporated into an overall model in the form of various filters applied to the free wind data. Rodriguez [8] has also adopted the filter approach, mentioned above, and developed a model to be used, partly, in wind turbine control design and, partly, in power quality impact prediction. 2

The work presented by Thiringer [9] has described a detailed analysis of induction machine dynamics. The induction machine models of different orders were presented and compared with laboratory measurements. The same author has presented in [10] and [11] measurements and analysis of the power quality impact by stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbines. Sørensen [13] and Larsson [14] have presented measurements of wind turbines’ electrical performance. An analysis of the measured quantities was presented and conclusions regarding the power quality requirements for wind turbine installations were drawn.

1.4

Aim of the thesis

The aim of the presented thesis is to measure and evaluate the power quality impact of wind turbines on the grid. Furthermore, the dynamic voltage quality impact is to be predicted when this issue is of interest. For this purpose, a wind turbine model of a fixed-speed, stall-regulated system has been developed. An important aspect of the thesis is to verify the model with measurements.

1.5

Relation to previous research

Measurements on wind turbines and the related power quality impact evaluation have been reported, as well as various models which describe electric aspects of wind turbines. Comparisons of measured and predicted impact of wind turbines on the power quality of the electric grid are, however, rarely shown. The challenge here is to integrate knowledge from available models reported in the literature. Aerodynamic, mechanical and electric parts have been joined in one integral model. It should be noted, however, that the purpose of the model developed here is to predict power quality impact on the grid. The model has, consequently, been simplified when acceptable to the model purpose. The method of representing the driving torque calculation presented in [3] has not been adopted here. The use of a professional software package specifically designed for aerodynamic studies of higher complexity is not a suitable option for use in grid simulation programs with a large number of wind turbine models to be integrated into an electric grid model. The reason for such a decision is usually the high computational demand of such a professional software package. The very simplified torque on the generator shaft as presented in [4], on the other hand, might be a good option when analyzing basic properties of the modeled system but is of secondary importance when predicting the power quality impact of a wind turbine. The implementation of the extensive mechanical parts presented in [5] and [6] has not been implemented here. The careful study and deep understanding of the presented subject would require far too much time and it has been replaced, therefore, by a 3

simpler variant of the drive train description. This fact has, however, been kept in mind by the author and can be considered in future model development. An important objective of the thesis is the verification of the presented model with site measurements. Such a comparison has not been reported in the literature and is, therefore, of significant importance.

1.6

Thesis layout

Chapter 2 summarizes the power quality aspects that are of particular interest when analyzing wind turbine impact on the electric grid. Chapter 3 gives a basic overview of wind turbine systems that are commonly used today. An overview of aerodynamic control strategies and electric configurations is attached together with a summary of their impact on power quality. Suggestions regarding the needs when predicting power quality impact of different wind turbine systems are also presented. Chapter 4 presents the data acquisition set-up. Two measurement sites are introduced and some results are presented. Chapter 5 describes the model developed in the thesis and simulated results. Comparisons with measurements are presented and some partial conclusions are drawn. Chapter 6 summarizes results of the thesis and presents suggestions for future work.

4

Chapter 2 Power Quality
2.1 Wind power and power quality

The Power Quality area is very broad and it has many branches that deal with different problems and issues. Any device to be connected to the electric grid has to fulfill standardized power quality requirements. This is to ensure that the electric grid is protected from unacceptable disturbances. The connected device, therefore, is connected to the grid with electric quantities within guaranteed limits. Some examples of the problems dealt within power quality standards are static voltage level, voltage fluctuations, voltage transients, voltage harmonic distortion, voltage unbalance and power supply interruptions. Some of the power quality terms are of particular interest when confronting wind power applications. The wind power stations are likely to violate some of the power quality limits when they are improperly chosen for specific grid conditions. These limits have been widely discussed in literature, some examples are given in [13] and [14]. A summary of these power quality problems is included in the following sections. An overview of common wind turbine systems used today is also given, together with a discussion of their characteristic power quality impact.

2.2

Power Quality problems

A wind turbine is designed to supply active power to the grid. A reactive power exchange between the wind turbine and the grid depends on the type of the wind turbine; it can be consumed, produced or no reactive power can be exchanged with the grid. As a consequence of this fact, the voltage at the point of common connection, UPCC , is influenced. This is demonstrated in Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2 and is described in Equation 2.1. UP CC = Rg q p + Xg + Un Un Un 5 (2.1)

Figure 2.1: Connection of a wind turbine to the grid

Figure 2.2: Vector diagram

6

Where: UN UPCC P, p Q, q Rg Xg ∆URg ∆UXg I Ip Iq ϕ nominal voltage of the grid voltage at the point of common connection (PCC) active power produced reactive power consumed grid resistance grid reactance voltage drop over the grid resistance voltage drop over the grid reactance generator current generator current, active power corresponding component generator current, reactive power corresponding component angle between voltage and current vectors

Higher active power production, i.e. a higher Ip , is followed by an increase in the voltage drop over the grid resistance, ∆URg , and a consequent increase in the voltage UPCC . More consumed reactive power, i.e. higher Iq , causes, on the contrary, an increase in the voltage drop over the grid reactance and a corresponding decrease in the voltage UPCC . A power quality evaluation of a wind turbine is addressed for two different operational modes. First, it is investigated under normal operation during which aspects, such as the steady state voltage impact, dynamic voltage variations and the harmonic distortion on the grid are of interest. Second, the impact on the grid when a turbine is being connected, i.e. during the start up of the turbine, is analyzed. Voltage dips and their consequences are of interest here. Voltage transients originating in the switching of a capacitor bank are another power quality problem of interest when analyzing the start up of a turbine.

2.2.1

Steady state voltage impact

The steady state voltage level at the PCC is a power quality problem which is common to most of the wind turbine systems. It is, by its nature, the problem potentially related to any source or load of electric power. Since the distribution (transmission) lines will always have an impedance, there must be a voltage drop (increase) in it in order to make it possible for power to be transmitted. Since the voltage in the system must be kept within stated limits, the voltage drop in the grid impedance must not exceed the stated value. In the case of a conventional power station, the natural way of avoiding such a problem is to design the transmission lines according to specific requirements. This is, however, rarely the case with a small wind turbine installation. Building new transmission lines or reinforcing present ones in such a case is almost never done, it would be far too expensive compared with the total gain from the installation. An installation of large wind parks, today typically located offshore, with a number of turbines is, of course, a completely different situation. In such a case, adjusting transmission capacity is not a major cost in the overall scope of such a project. 7

Keeping the voltage at PCC below given limits without any need for grid reinforcement is, as discussed above, a typical problem in the installation of one or few wind turbines. In Sweden, this limit is stated to be up to +2.5% of the nominal grid voltage [15]. As is seen in Equation 2.1, this can be done with a suitable control of the reactive power. The controllability of reactive power, with respect to the type of the wind turbine system, is discussed in the following sections.

2.2.2

Dynamic voltage variations

Dynamic voltage variations at the PCC and in its neighborhood are another power quality issue of interest. Dynamic voltage variations are, as previously stated, a consequence of the power flow via the grid impedance. This consequence is now, however, studied for a shorter time interval. While the steady state voltage variations are evaluated on a time base of minutes to hours, dynamic voltage fluctuations are evaluated in the order of seconds to a fraction of a second. A consequence of such dynamic voltage fluctuations is, for example, flickering of an incandescent light bulb. Humans are especially sensitive to variations with a frequency of around 9 Hz. In such a case, voltage variations with an amplitude of about 0.25 % of the nominal voltage can be annoying. Dynamic voltage fluctuations are commonly called flicker. Flicker definition and evaluation is described in [16]. The standardized quantities defined to represent flicker are the short time flicker severity index - Pst and the long time flicker severity index - Plt . Flicker is evaluated as demonstrated in Figure 2.3.

Figure 2.3: Flicker evaluation The first part, the lamp-eye-brain chain model, is a mathematical way to emulate the behavior of the mentioned incandescent light bulb and, consequently, its perception by human eye and brain. The result of this model is called the instantaneous flicker level, IFL, and this is the quantity to be statistically evaluated. The statistic evaluation results are the Pst and Plt indexes. Pst =1 means that the majority of humans will be annoyed by the flickering light. The relation between the frequency of the voltage variations and their amplitude for Pst =1 is presented in Figure 2.4. The curve shown is obtained for sinusoidal disturbances. There is also a curve corresponding to rectangular disturbances. Dynamic voltage variations caused by wind turbines can be reduced either by using a variable speed system instead of a fixed speed system or by a suitable control of the reactive power. More on this is in the following sections. 8

10

1

dU [%]

10

0

10

−1

10

−1

10

0

10 f [Hz]

1

10

2

Figure 2.4: Flicker curve

2.2.3

Harmonic distortion

Voltages and currents in the electric grid are ideally pure sinusoidal functions. However, when non-linear loads or power electronic devices, for example, are used, they draw currents that are periodic but not purely sinusoidal and, as a consequence, the voltages also lose their purely sinusoidal shape. A periodic waveform can be decomposed into a sum of harmonic functions with the frequency of the fundamental periodic waveform and its integer multiples. A quantity describing the level of distortion in voltage and current waveforms is defined as the voltage total harmonic distortion, THDU , and the current total harmonic distortion, THDI , respectively. The definition of the THD according to [17] is:
n k=2

T HD = Where: V1 Vk n

Vk2

V1

(2.2)

RMS value of the fundamental component RMS value of kth harmonics number of evaluated harmonics

When considering wind turbines with respect to harmonic distortion, only systems with integrated PECs are of interest since a system without PECs is very unlikely to cause any major problem of this sort.

2.2.4

Voltage transients

Connecting an induction machine and/or a capacitor bank is followed by a high current. In the past, this has been a significant problem when turbines were directly connected to a low voltage grid. Today, turbines are typically connected via a transformer to a grid with a higher voltage and the impact on the grid during the 9

start up of the turbine is less problematic. The voltage transients are still, of course, subjected to the standardized limits.

10

Chapter 3 Wind Turbine Systems
3.1 Basic overview

There are several wind turbine systems used today. Different configurations of the systems mean, among the other aspects, that these systems also have different impacts on the electric grid, i.e. on its power quality. A discussion of different systems is attached in Publication 1. Further discussion regarding various topologies of connecting wind turbines to the electric grid and related control possibilities is presented in Publication 3.

3.2

Blade aerodynamics

There are different aerodynamic power control strategies used today. To understand the principal differences between these strategies it is suitable to study an overview of blade aerodynamics as this gives an insight into aerodynamic control principles. With reference to Figure 3.1, two main forces act on a blade. The lift force, L, is orthogonal to the wind speed acting on the blade, W, and it is the force characteristic of an airfoil. The drag force, D, on the other hand, has the same direction as the wind speed acting on the blade and it is the force characteristic of any body placed in an air flow. All of these forces are quadratic functions of wind speed and their size is strongly influenced by the airfoil shape and by the angle of attack, α, the angle under which the blade experiences the wind, W. Where: WS free wind speed W wind speed acting on the blade L lift force D drag force α angle of attack 11

Figure 3.1: A wind turbine blade Once the shape of the airfoil is given, wind speed and the angle of attack decide the size of the two mentioned forces. Figure 3.2 shows the lift and drag coefficients C L and CD , respectively, as functions of the angle of attack for a chosen blade profile.
1.5 lift and drag coeficients 1 0.5 0
CL CD

0

10

20 30 40 angle of attack [deg]

50

Figure 3.2: Lift and drag coefficients as functions of the angle of attack. The air flow around the blade is, for the presented blade profile, fairly laminar up to the angle of attack at about 10 deg. The drag force coefficient is very low in this region. When the angle of attack reaches the value of about 15 deg the air flow on the trailing edge of the blade becomes more turbulent and the value of the lift coefficient decreases as a consequence of this effect, which is called stalling. The drag force coefficient now starts to increase. The lift and the drag forces transformed into another coordinate system introduce the edge force, FE , and the flap force, FF . The edge force creates the shaft torque while the flap force introduces the thrust on the turbine. The edge and the flap forces are presented in Figure 3.3 for low and high angles of attack. Their relations 12

to the lift and the drag forces are described in Equations 3.1 and 3.2, respectively.

Figure 3.3: Forces on a blade

FE = L cos(ϑ) − D sin(ϑ) FF = L sin(ϑ) + D cos(ϑ) Where: FE FF ϑ edge force flap force angle between free wind speed and tangential speed of a blade segment

(3.1) (3.2)

3.3

Aerodynamic power control

The force developed on a blade is a function of: free wind speed, turbine rotational speed and the blade pitch angle. These three quantities determine the angle of attack. Based on this fact, different control strategies can be introduced. It is, however, worth presenting first Figure 3.4 and Figure 3.5 which show the output power from and thrust force on the turbine, respectively, as functions of free wind speed for different blade pitch angles. The turbine rotational speed has been kept constant in this case. The results in Figure 3.4 and Figure 3.5 have been obtained using an NACA-63200 wind profile.

3.3.1

Stall control

When the pitch angle of the blade is constant, i.e. the blade is firmly attached to the hub, only the stall effect, introduced in the previous section, controls the power. Such a configuration reaches rated power only around nominal wind speed, as shown in Figure 3.4. The thrust force increases, however, with wind speed, as is illustrated in Figure 3.5. 13

300 200 100
10 15 20 25 4

P [W]

nominal power 0 30 1

3 2

35

0

5

10

15 WS [m/s]

20

25

Figure 3.4: Power as a function of wind speed for different pitch angles

40 30 Thrust [kN] 20
0−4 10 15 20 25

10 0 −10 5 10 15 WS [m/s]
30 35

20

25

Figure 3.5: Thrust as a function of wind speed for different pitch angles

14

The main advantage, here, is the fixed connection of the blades to the hub. This connection is a robust and less expensive option compared with the options introduced in the following sections. A predestined power output for the whole operational wind speed range is, however, one drawback. The turbine does not produce rated power even when enough power is available in the wind. Such a situation can occur for several reasons. The most apparent one is operation at a wind speed higher than the nominal one. Another example is a case in which the aerodynamic performance of the blades decreases due to dirt on their surfaces. Finally, changes in air density, caused by variations in air pressure or in temperature, influence the power available in the wind, too, but the turbine cannot respond to these changes.

3.3.2

Active Stall control

In order to always produce rated power whenever it is available in the wind, active stall control can be employed. Another often used name for this aerodynamic control principle is combi-stall control. Turbine blades are, in such a case, slightly pitched during high wind speed periods in order to obtain the desired nominal power. In Figure 3.4 a pitch angle between 0 - 4 deg represents the corresponding control range. The thrust is almost independent of these small changes in the pitch angle, as shown in Figure 3.5. Active stall control enables better exploitation of the wind turbine system during high wind speed periods. Moreover, the slope of the power curve for these high wind speed periods is such that a variation in wind speed will introduce a rather modest variation in output power. Another advantage of the pitching method is that it makes emergency stopping and starting of the wind turbine easier. One drawback, however, is the need for a flexible connection of blades to the hub.

3.3.3

Pitch control

This control strategy is, in principle, the same as active stall-control; turbine blades are pitched in order to obtain the desired power output. The objective in this case is to keep a fairly laminar air flow around the blades for the whole wind speed operational range and, in this way, minimize unwanted thrust loads on the system. The pitch angle now varies within a wider range, in Figure 3.4 this range is roughly between 0 - 35 deg. The advantage is, again, better exploitation of the wind turbine system during high wind speed periods. Another advantage is also a decrease in thrust on the turbine, for the presented data this is about one third of the thrust force acting on a stall-regulated turbine close to maximum wind speed. Pitch control also facilitates starting and emergency stopping of the turbine in the same way as active stallcontrol. 15

One drawback, of course, is the need for a pitching mechanism. Another drawback is the slope of the power curve at high wind speeds. As can be observed in Figure 3.4, even a small variation in wind speed introduces a large variation in output power. The pitching mechanism is not fast enough to avoid these power fluctuations [14].

3.4

Fixed-speed system

A fixed-speed wind turbine system is a simpler way of connecting wind power onto the electric grid. Today, such a system uses an induction machine almost exclusively for converting the mechanic power extracted from wind into electric power. The induction machine’s operational characteristics, together with its rather low price and robustness, are the main reasons for this. The stall and the pitch aerodynamic control strategies presented in the preceding sections have been used in combination with a fixed-speed system. A summary of advantages and drawbacks of these systems is presented below. A layout showing a general configuration of a fixed-speed system is shown in Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.6: Fixed-speed wind turbine - principal layout With reference to Figure 3.6, apart from the turbine and the induction machine, a fixed-speed system incorporates a gearbox. This is because the rotational speed of the turbine is always lower than the generator speed. An economically feasible multipole induction machine design applicable to wind power applications has not been found so far, [30]. Another common part is the capacitor bank typically designed to compensate for the induction generator no-load reactive power consumption. Finally, a soft starter is a standard part of the system. It is used only during the start up of the turbine and it lowers the current when the turbine is being connected to the grid. A wind turbine without a soft starter would draw a very high current during start up and the corresponding voltage drop in the grid would exceed the stated limits. Moreover, the gearbox would suffer from transient torques. All fixed-speed systems have some common power quality problems. These are the influence on static voltage level and on dynamic voltage variations and voltage transients related to the connection of the turbine, such as magnetization of the generator and the connection of the capacitor bank [12]. The static voltage level problem is caused by the fact that the basic configuration of a fixed-speed system does not offer the potential to control reactive power con16

sumption. The impact on the static voltage level is, therefore, predestined and it is simply a function of the produced power, [19]. The impact on dynamic voltage variations depends on the aerodynamic control used as does the voltage transient when the system is being connected to the grid. Finally, harmonic pollution to the grid is negligible since no power electronic converters are employed. A stall-regulated turbine in combination with a fixed-speed system has been very popular due to its relatively low price, simplicity and robustness. The main advantages are: the mediocre impact on dynamic voltage fluctuations which has not been a major problem in most of the present installations. The voltage transient due to the start up of the turbine is minimized by using a soft starter, however, the voltage transient is not removed completely. The use of active stall-control has recently become rather popular. It is likely to take over the position established by the purely stall-regulated turbine, mainly for units with a high rated output power roughly over 1 MW. This configuration, basically, maintains all the power quality characteristics of the stall-regulated system. The improvement lies in better utilization of the overall system, due to the use of active stall-control. The flexible coupling of the blades to the hub also facilitates emergency stopping and start up and, therefore, extends the advantages. One drawback, however, is a higher price for the pitching mechanism and related controller. Pitch-control in combination with a fixed-speed system has also been used. The major drawback with such a configuration is the higher impact on dynamic voltage variations. This is because of the power curve slope discussed in subsection 3.3.3. The system, however, offers many advantages and it is used mainly in combination with the variable-speed systems that are discussed below. The main advantages of pitch-control are that it facilitates start up and emergency stopping and lowers the mechanical loads on the whole wind turbine system. Power controllability has been already mentioned.

3.5

Variable-speed system

Since wind speed varies, the mechanical power on the generator shaft cannot be kept constant when the rotor speed is fixed. Furthermore, effects like tower shadow, an uneven distribution of wind speed over the rotor disc and mechanical oscillations in the drive train contribute to variations in mechanical power. If, in principle, the generator runs at a fairly constant speed, as is the case for an induction machine, the major part of the mechanical power fluctuations will be transmitted into fluctuations in the electric output power. A variable-speed system, on the contrary, keeps the generator torque fairly constant and, consequently, it is the turbine speed that changes. Variations in incoming power are absorbed by rotor speed changes. The result is fairly constant electric power, i.e. without any significant variations. The variable-speed system must, on the other hand, incorporate a generator control system that can operate with variable speed. To fulfill such a requirement, 17

power electronic equipment must be used. The types of generators used today are induction and synchronous machines. An aerodynamic power control principle almost exclusively used used in combination with the variable-speed systems today is pitch control. The main advantage of such a system is the decrease in load on the turbine drive-train. Since loads are decreased, the whole drive-train can be designed accordingly and the cost for the drive train and mechanical suspension devices are, thus, also decreased.

3.5.1

An induction machine and rotor resistance control

A generator configuration used for limited variable-speed operation of a wind turbine is an induction machine with variable rotor resistance. The stator winding is directly connected to the grid and the rotor circuit of the generator is equipped with power electronic switches and resistors, all placed on the rotor. This configuration allows for control of rotor resistance and, consequently, provides variable-speed operation. One advantage of this scheme is the removal of the conventional slip rings and brushes arrangement; the semiconductor switches being controlled via signals transmitted from the stationary controller.

3.5.2

An induction machine with rotor converter

Another system used today employs an induction machine with a wound rotor. The rotor winding is connected to a PEC via slip rings and brushes. The stator winding of the generator is connected directly to the grid and the speed of the generator is controlled by the PEC connected to the rotor. The PEC does not need to be designed for the generator rated power and its rating depends, principally, on the desired speed range. Today, 30 % of the rated power is typically used in sizing up the PEC. Additionally, this configuration allows for control of reactive power. Figure 3.7 presents a sketch of this configuration.

Figure 3.7: Variable-speed system, induction machine with wound rotor 18

3.5.3

Induction machine with squirrel cage rotor

An induction machine with a squirrel cage rotor connected to the grid via a PEC is also an alternative for variable speed operation of an induction machine. In this case, the PEC must be designed for the full rated power of the system. The range of the variable-speed operation is, in principle, from zero to anything that the wind turbine can handle. Reactive power controllability is a natural property of this system. Figure 3.8 presents a sketch of such a configuration.

Figure 3.8: Variable-speed system, induction machine with squirrel cage rotor

3.5.4

Systems with a synchronous machine

A synchronous machine connected to the grid via a PEC is the last possible configuration discussed here for a variable-speed system. The PEC converts the variablefrequency generator voltage into the grid frequency. A synchronous generator directly connected to the grid cannot be used due to the fact that sufficient damping cannot be obtained. However, using a PEC controlled synchronous machine serves to damp mechanical oscillations. Reactive power controllability is a natural property of this system. A principal configuration of a variable-speed system with a synchronous machine is presented in Figure 3.9.

Figure 3.9: Variable-speed system with synchronous machine The use of a synchronous machine offers the potential to make a good multi-pole design [28], and thus avoid the use of a gear box. This is an important objective since the gear box is a component that has tendency to break. Use of a permanent magnet synchronous machine is becoming more common and this machine brings further simplifications to the system, [28]. 19

3.6

Comparison of power quality impact

Having reviewed the basic principles of the most common wind turbine systems used today, their power quality impact on the electric grid will now be considered. An overview of the power quality impact of different systems is summarized in Table 3.1. Table 3.1: Comparison of power quality impact U Pst THD Start up SR-FSS uncontrolled mediocre high ASR-FSS uncontrolled mediocre mediocre PR-FSS uncontrolled high mediocre VSS-I uncontrolled mediocre mediocre VSS-II controlled low mediocre / high low To make Table 3.1 more readable the following abbreviations were used: U steady state voltage impact Pst dynamic voltage variations impact (flicker) THD harmonic distortion to the grid Start up voltage disturbances during the start up SR stall-regulated turbine ASR active stall-regulated turbine PR pitch-regulated turbine FSS fixed-speed system VSS-I variable-speed system with the induction machine and the rotor resistance control VSS-II other variable-speed systems Analyzing the content of table 3.1 enables identification of modeling requirements for a given wind turbine system.

3.7

Wind turbine model in grid simulation program

When the steady state voltage level is of interest, the wind turbine outputs, active and reactive power, can be described as functions of mean wind speed. In the grid simulation program, they can simply be represented as sources of active and reactive power. Active power is given by the static power curve of the wind turbine, the relation between mean wind speed and the produced active power, while the amount of reactive power exchanged with the grid is decided according to the control objectives of the specific turbine. For fixed-speed systems, as well as for a variable-speed system with an induction machine and rotor resistance control, the reactive power is a function of the active 20

power according to the P-Q relation of the generator used. No-load reactive power consumption is typically compensated for with a capacitor bank. For the other variable-speed turbines, reactive power is independent of active power and can be put to an arbitrary value, often zero. Dynamic voltage variations of such a magnitude that the Pst level on the grid could be substantially affected mainly originate in fixed-speed systems. A reasonably correct prediction of dynamic behavior up to a frequency of about 10 - 20 Hz is of interest. A model of a stall-regulated, fixed-speed system is described in Chapter 5. A model of an active stall-regulated turbine can be obtained by slightly modifying a stallregulated model, since the characteristics of these two systems, with respect to dynamic voltage variations, are fairly similar. A model of a pitch-regulated, fixedspeed wind turbine is more complicated. Since a pitch-regulated, fixed-speed system gives rise to major problems with dynamic voltage variations, apart from large mechanical stresses, it is no longer installed to the electric grid and other systems are used instead. A model of such a system is, thus, of little practical value. Since variable-speed systems have, in most cases, a low impact on dynamic voltage variations, generally far below the stated limits, dynamic voltage variations prediction models of these systems seem to be of little practical interest. Moreover, the behavior of these systems is mainly dependent on the control algorithms used. These vary depending on the turbine manufacturer and are usually kept confidential. High harmonic distortion is a problem that can occur when variable-speed systems are used. However, with a properly designed harmonic filter, this problem can be avoided. Other parts of the wind turbine are of little practical interest here.

21

22

Chapter 4 Measurements
Extensive measurements were conducted on two different configurations of wind turbine systems. The purpose was to analyze the power quality impact of the wind turbines and to acquire data to be used for verifying the derived wind turbine model. In the following sections, the measurement set-up and the analyzed measurement sites are presented.

4.1

Measurement set-up

The basic layout of the data acquisition system used for measurements is presented in Figure 4.1

Figure 4.1: DAQ set-up layout The measuring box transforms the measured electric quantities, currents and voltages, into a range applicable to the data acquisition card. Another important function is to protect both the system undergoing the test as well as the measuring equipment, so that they cannot endanger each other. The data acquisition card is the interface between the measuring box and the computer. Its function is to filter unwanted frequency content from the inputs, simultaneously sample all the inputs, 23

the sample and hold function, and finally to transform the signals from the analog to digital domain. The computer controls the adjustment of the data acquisition card, its filtering and sampling frequency, and stores the acquired data. A modem is not necessary but it is a very valuable part of the system. The possibility for remote checking and controlling the system is an important function in data acquisition at remote sites.

4.2

Bockstigen-Valar data acquisition

A project concerned with evaluating the power quality of a wind farm connected to a weak grid was conducted at the first Swedish off-shore wind farm situated close to the south-west coast of the island of Gotland in the Baltic sea. There, five semivariable, stall-regulated wind turbines, each rated at 500 kW, are connected to the grid with a short circuit ratio, the ratio between the short circuit capacity of the grid and the rated power of the wind power installation, of about 7.5. Figure 4.2 presents the wind farm configuration.

Figure 4.2: Bockstigen-Valar wind farm The wind turbines operate at variable-speed during low wind speed periods when the output power per turbine is up to about 100 kW. When there is a higher wind speed the turbines run at a fixed-speed. The PECs are used, in such a case, to minimize the power quality impact on the grid. A description of control objectives, performed data acquisition and main results together with conclusions can be found in Publication 2, Publication 3 and Publication 4. A general conclusion is that the Bockstigen wind park utilizes the existing line capacity to the maximum without violating the stated power quality limits. 24

4.3

Alsvik data acquisition

A wind farm consisting of four 180 kW stall-regulated, fixed-speed turbines located on the island of Gotland was chosen for the collection of data to verify the stallregulated, fixed-speed system model. Figure 4.3 presents the Alsvik wind farm layout, where the term d designates rotor diameter.

Figure 4.3: Alsvik wind farm The location on the coast offers the potential for comparing the impact of different wind conditions, less disturbed sea winds and more disturbed land winds, on the outputs from the turbines. Moreover, the geometry of the wind farm, the placement of the turbines and the distances between them, further extends the range of possible case studies since different wake operations can be evaluated. Each turbine is equipped with an induction generator and a capacitor bank. All turbines share one common 400 V/10 kV transformer. Figure 4.4 presents the electrical connection layout. The data acquisition system has collected grid voltages and currents from turbines WT2, WT3 and WT4; turbine WT1 broke down before the start of the test program. Wind direction and three wind speed signals, at the hub level and at the upper and lower margin of the rotor swept area, were collected too. The sampling rate used during the data acquisition was an important option and had to be chosen with respect to the purpose of the measurements. 25

Figure 4.4: Alsvik - grid connection The main objective here was to evaluate the impact of wind turbines on dynamic voltage variations. Frequency components up to 20 Hz are of interest when evaluating Pst values. According to [26] frequency components up to 400 Hz are of interest when the dynamic voltage variations are to be evaluated. This would require a sampling frequency of about 1200 Hz. Since the storing capacity of the DAQ system is not unlimited, an acceptable lower frequency had to be chosen. Based on the results obtained during the Bockstigen-Valar data acquisition, Publication 2, and on a comparison with a calibrated measurement system Siemens oscillostore P 513, a sampling rate of 256Hz was chosen. Figure 4.5 presents the comparison of data acquired with the oscillostore and the data collected with the data acquisition system and, consequently, evaluated according to the standards [16]. As can be seen, the results obtained from the data acquisition system follow the values given by the oscillostore very well.
0.4 0.3 Pst [−] 0.2 0.1 0 0 50 100 time [min] 150

Figure 4.5: Pst comparison : solid line - data acquisition system, dashed line with dots - oscillostore

26

Chapter 5 Wind turbine modeling
Based on the discussion in the preceding sections the decision was made to develop a model of a stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbine system. The following sections describe individual building blocks of the modeled system and simultaneously present the results obtained for a specific wind turbine. Where appropriate, comparisons of measurements and simulations are shown.

5.1

Structure of the system

The model of the overall wind turbine system integrates several building blocks. Figure 5.1 shows a diagram representing the basic structure of the model.

Figure 5.1: A wind turbine model structure As is seen, there is no controller or visible feedback loops in the presented system structure. The stall-regulated, fixed-speed system is self-controlled, i.e. its operational characteristics keep the system running within operational limits without the need for an external controller. The logic that controls starting up and shutting down of the turbine, as well as the protection devices, have no influence on the continuous operation of the system and they are, thus, not incorporated into the model. In the following sections, the individual model components are described.

5.2

Wind simulation

Continuous changes in wind speed are the main reason for power fluctuations in turbine output. The power in the wind is a cubic function of the wind speed and it 27

is important, therefore, to create a correct wind model if realistic results are to be obtained. Wind is usually described by its frequency spectra. For instance, the Kaimal spectral model [20] used in this thesis is an example. Mean wind speed and turbulence intensity are the quantities of interest when analyzing wind from the viewpoint of the power quality impact of a wind turbine on an electric grid. The turbulence intensity is defined as a standard deviation of the wind, WS, over its mean value as follows: TI = std(WS) mean(WS) (5.1)

The wind becomes turbulent when it passes obstacles in its way. Different terrain profiles contain different kinds of obstacles and the quantity representing this property is a roughness of the surface, Z0 . Some surface examples are the sea, low grass or forest. There is an empirical relationship between the roughness of the surface and turbulence intensity. This relationship can be found, for example, in the book by Freris [18]. The roughness of the surface is an important parameter when wind with given turbulence intensity is to be simulated. Figure 5.2 presents an example of frequency spectra of two measured wind profiles.
10 10 10 10
2

WS [m/s]

0

−2

−4

10

−2

10 f [Hz]

0

Figure 5.2: Wind spectra, black trace - TI = 5 % , gray trace - TI = 20 % Both wind profiles were obtained at the Alsvik measuring site with a mean wind speed, in both cases, of 10 m/s. The black trace represents wind with a turbulence intensity of about 5 % (sea wind), while the gray trace represents wind with a turbulence intensity of about 20 % (land wind).

5.2.1

Single point wind simulation

A method for simulating wind speed at a single point has been presented by Persson [21]. A time series of wind with a given mean speed value and a turbulence intensity can be created. The turbulence intensity is controlled by a choice of the surface 28

roughness and the height of the single point above the surface. An arbitrary sampling frequency of the time series can also be chosen. This approach [21] to simulate wind can be used for developing simple models. In this thesis, this model is designated as the simplified model. An example of a comparison of a frequency spectra of measured (black) and simulated (gray) wind series is shown in Figure 5.3.
10 10 10 10
2

WS [m/s]

0

−2

−4

10

−2

10 f [Hz]

0

Figure 5.3: Wind spectra comparison - single point wind simulation, black - measured, gray - simulated The mean wind speed is 10 m/s and the turbulence intensity here is about 5%. As is seen, the agreement between measurement and simulation is very good.

5.2.2

Wind field simulation

When a more detailed model of a wind turbine is to be developed, a simulation of the wind at one point is not sufficient. This is because the wind speed over the whole rotor swept area is not constant; different blades and even different blade segments are exposed to slightly different wind speeds. Winkelaar [22] have proposed a method that creates a time series of wind over a specified area, in the case of a wind turbine this is the discretized rotor swept area. In this thesis, a model based on the simulation of a wind field is designated as the advanced model. Longitudinal, lateral and vertical wind speed time series are created. Figure 5.4 shows an example of the rotor swept area discretization.

Figure 5.4: Wind field discretization 29

When simulating wind over the whole rotor swept area, a time series of wind for each node of the discretization is produced. Knowing the number of blades and the rotational speed of the turbine, a true time series of the wind acting on each individual blade segment can be determined. Details of this approach are described in Publication 5. An example of a comparison of a frequency spectra of wind at a fixed point and a frequency spectra of wind acting on a blade segment is presented in Figure 5.5.
10
0

WS [m/s]

10

−2

10

−4

10

−2

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

Figure 5.5: Wind spectra comparison - wind field simulation, gray - wind speed at a fixed point, black - wind speed acting on a blade segment Inspecting the frequency spectra of wind speed acting on an outer blade segment of any chosen blade reveals an important feature. In the frequency band corresponding to the rotational speed of the rotor and its integer multiples, wind speed frequency components are amplified. The data in Figure 5.5 correspond to a turbine rotational speed of 42 rpm which gives a frequency of 0.7 Hz. The frequency band amplification around this frequency is apparent. Multiples of this frequency band result in amplification across the whole upper frequency range. The origin of the amplifications mentioned above is the uneven nature of wind speed distribution across the rotor swept area. Wind speed at a single point in the rotor swept area is regularly experienced by the blade. Since wind speed at such a point slightly changes during one rotor revolution, it gives rise to the amplification of the discussed frequency band instead of amplifying only one distinct frequency component. This phenomenon applies to all points in the rotor swept area. Finally, the resulting wind speed acting on a blade is not a sinusoidal function and therefore even multiples of the basic frequency band can be observed.

5.3

Aerodynamic conversion

Knowing the longitudinal component of the wind speed acting on a blade segment, the speed of the blade segment, itself, and the blade pitch angle, the angle of attack 1 can be calculated. Edge and flap forces are than calculated according to the
1

see page 11

30

momentum theory published in the work of Eggleston and Stoddard [23] and in the work of Freris [18]. Blade profile aerodynamic data are, of course, a necessary requirement. When the edge forces on all blade segments are known, the torque on each blade and the total shaft torque can be determined. Lateral and Vertical wind speed components are also incorporated into determining the forces acting on the blades. It was observed, however, that there is no significant impact on the power quality prediction capability of the overall wind turbine model and, thus, a decision was taken to omit these two wind speed components in the presented model. The mentioned aerodynamic conversion approach does not, however, describe dynamic features of aerodynamic conversion, such as dynamic hysteresis [27]. A dynamic representation of aerodynamic conversion is not within the scope of this thesis. Provided that the blade pitch angle and the rotor speed are fixed, the torque on a blade segment will be a function of wind speed. Instead of using the momentum theory, an interpolation can be used to calculate torque from wind speed. Both approaches have been used and no detectable difference between obtained results has been found for wind speeds within the operational range of the wind turbine, i.e. 4 to 25 m/s. The momentum theory is not valid for wind speeds outside this operational range but these wind speeds are not of interest for the wind turbine model presented here. Figures 5.6 and 5.7 show spectra of calculated torque on one blade and total shaft torque, respectively.

10 10 10

3

2

T [Nm]

1

10 −2 10

0

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.6: Spectra of a blade torque

The same phenomenon as the one discussed in section 5.2.2 is apparent here. The frequency spectra of blade torque exhibits the aforementioned frequency band amplifications. When a three-bladed turbine is used, the observed band amplifications shift to new frequencies, which are three times the values of the original frequencies (Figure 5.7). 31

10 10 10

3

2

T [Nm]

1

10 −2 10

0

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.7: Spectra of a shaft torque

5.4

Drive-train model

A drive-train model represents the mechanical behavior of the turbine. In a very simplified form, the model consists of turbine and generator inertia and the shaft connecting them, as shown in Figure 5.8. The model is fully described in Equation 5.2 and Equation 5.3.

Figure 5.8: Drive-train model

k∆ϑ + B∆ω = JG

dωG + TG dt dωT TT = J T + k∆ϑ + B∆ω dt ∆ω = ωT − ωG ∆ϑ = ϑT − ϑG

(5.2) (5.3)

Where: TT , T G ωT , ω G ϑT , ϑ G JT , J G k B torque on the turbine and on the generator shaft, respectively angular speed of the turbine and of the generator shaft, respectively angle of the turbine and of the generator shaft, respectively moment of inertia of the turbine and of the generator, respectively stiffness of the shaft damping of the shaft

Gearbox inertia is integrated into turbine inertia while gearbox softness is added to shaft stiffness. All parameters and quantities are referred to the high speed end of 32

the gearbox. This model represents the dominant drive-train frequency of the drivetrain only. Models with a higher level of complexity can be found in the literature, the papers presented by Leithead [5],[6],[7] are some examples.

5.5

Generator model

A model of a generator is the last part of the overall wind turbine model. Induction machine models of varying complexity have been used here. A standard fifth order model expressed in the d-q coordinate system presented by Kovacs [24] has been used here as a reference.

us = R s i s + 0 = TG = Ls = Lr = Where: us is ir TG Rs Rr Lm Lsλ Lrλ pp

d [Ls is + Lm ir ] dt d Rr ir + [Lm is + Lr ir ] dt ∗ ∗ pp · Im[(Ls is + Lm ir )is ] Lm + Lsλ Lm + Lrλ

(5.4) (5.5) (5.6)

stator voltage stator current rotor current developed generator torque stator winding resistance rotor winding resistance referred to the stator side generator magnetizing inductance stator leakage inductance rotor leakage inductance referred to the stator side number of pole pairs

Neglecting stator transients reduces the model to a third order as presented by Rodriguez [25]. It has been shown in [29], however, that the third order model does not provide results accurate enough for dynamic voltage variation evaluation.

5.6

Simulation results

The model described in the thesis has been used to simulate the Alsvik wind turbine. A technical description of the turbine is given in Appendix A. The details of the implementation can be found in Publication 5. Some key results and the main conclusions are presented below. 33

5.6.1

Comparison in frequency range, I

Figures 5.9 and 5.10 show a comparison of measured and simulated active and reactive power spectra, respectively. In these results, mean wind speed is about 10 m/s and turbulence intensity is about 10 %.
10
4

P [W]

10

2

10 −2 10

0

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.9: Comparison of measured and simulated active power spectra, gray measured, black - simulated
4

10

Q [VAr]

10

2

10 −2 10

0

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.10: Comparison of measured and simulated reactive power spectra, gray measured, black - simulated It can be seen that the simulated results approximately follow the measured results. There are, however, some discrepancies observed in both active and reactive power spectra comparisons. Starting with the lower frequencies, a discrepancy can be observed in the frequency range of about 0.7 Hz. The simulated results have higher amplitudes compared with the measured ones. It has been found here that a small error in estimating drive-train parameters (e.g. the turbine moment of inertia or the stiffness of the shaft) results in a significant error in the computation. More accurate parameters of the drive-train and a more advanced drive-train model are of particular importance here if this disagreement is to be avoided or reduced. Another difference can be found in the frequency band at about 1.1 Hz. Here, the measured results have a higher amplitude. These frequency components originate 34

in the wind turbine tower oscillations as described by Thiringer [11]. To simulate this phenomena, a tower model has to be developed. Periodic power pulsations observed by Thiringer in [11] are completely missing in the simulated results of Figures 5.9 and 5.10. These have not been simulated in the presented model. Aspects like tower shadow, mass unbalance of blades, small differences in the aerodynamic performance of the blades or gearbox characteristics affect these periodic power pulsations. Finally, the discrepancy in the frequency band at about 1.5 Hz and generally across all the upper frequency components in the presented spectra are lower in the simulated results. A reason for this discrepancy is discussed below.

5.6.2

Comparison in frequency range, II

The latter discrepancy in the preceding section was subjected to further investigations. Based on the work by Thiringer [9] the behavior of the induction machine was studied. It has been found that the distorted torque on the generator shaft is not the only source of the disturbances. The applied voltage on the generator also influences its output and this influence cannot be omitted. The power quality of the Alsvik wind turbine site (the quality of voltage, in particular) has been treated in Publication 6. Figure 5.11 presents an example of voltage spectra of the Alsvik site.
10
0

U [V]

10

−2

10

−4

10

−2

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.11: Voltage spectra at the Alsvik site It is apparent that the voltage contains disturbances. A generator exposed to such disturbances produces active and reactive powers with a corresponding frequency content. Figure 5.12 and Figure 5.13 show a comparison of measured and simulated active and reactive power spectra, respectively, when the measured voltage is applied to the generator model. It is seen that the agreement between the measured and simulated results has been significantly improved. The improvement is especially apparent in the comparison of reactive power spectra. 35

10

4

P [W]

10

2

10 −2 10

0

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.12: Comparison of measured and simulated active power, gray - measured, black - simulated

10

4

Q [VAr]

10

2

10 −2 10

0

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.13: Comparison of measured and simulated reactive power, gray - measured, black - simulated

36

5.6.3

Comparison of Pst impact

The model presented in this thesis has been developed to predict the Pst impact of a stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbine on a grid. The main results are presented here for both simulation with applied constant voltage and simulation with applied measured voltage from the Alsvik site. Figure 5.14 presents a comparison of measurements and simulations as a function of mean wind speed. The grid at Alsvik has a short circuit power of about 40 times rated wind turbine power and the grid angle is 70 deg.
0.06 0.04 0.02 0

Pst [−]

8

10

12 14 16 Wind speed [m/s]

18

Figure 5.14: Pst on 70 deg grid, * - measured, o - simulation with applied measured voltage, square - simulation with applied constant voltage Figure 5.14 illustrates the impact of the measured voltage on the results. The simulations with applied measured voltage agree very well with the measurements, while the simulations with applied constant voltage provide much lower values. There is an important objective, however, that must be mentioned. The grid angle of 70 deg used above fits well the Alsvik generator parameters used in the simulations. A voltage disturbance originating in the active power flow through the grid resistance is counteracted, to a large extend, by a voltage disturbance originating in the reactive power flow through the grid reactance. This agreement between grid and machine parameters helps to obtain the presented good results. Figure 5.15 presents the Pst impact on a grid with a 30 deg grid angle. It can be seen that the agreement between the measured and simulated results is not as good as the one presented in Figure 5.14. Another important observation is that on such a resistive grid the Pst values are much higher. The use of measured voltage is of secondary importance in such a case. It is observed, however, that a significant part of the presented disagreement originates in the omission of periodic power pulsations. When these are removed from the measurements, the discrepancy between measurements and simulations becomes smaller, as is seen in Figure 5.16. 37

0.25 0.2 Pst [−] 0.15 0.1

0.05 0 8 10 12 14 16 Wind speed [m/s] 18

Figure 5.15: Pst on 30 deg grid - I, * - measured, o - simulation with applied measured voltage, square - simulation with applied constant voltage

0.25 0.2 Pst [−] 0.15 0.1

0.05 0 8 10 12 14 16 Wind speed [m/s] 18

Figure 5.16: Pst on 30 deg grid - II, * - measured, o - simulation with applied measured voltage, square - simulation with applied constant voltage, x - measured with removed periodic power pulsations

38

5.6.4

Conclusions

The presented results demonstrate the model’s capability of predicting the power quality impact of a stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbine on a grid. The active and reactive power spectra comparisons, however, present some disagreements between measurements and simulations. For the presented wind turbine, the frequency components up to a frequency of about 0.5 Hz originate mainly in the wind and the predicted results agree very well with measured results. The middle frequency components, within a range of 0.5 Hz to 3 Hz, mainly originate in drive-train dynamics and in the aerodynamic conversion on the turbine blades. Finally, the upper part of the frequency spectra, above approximately 4 Hz, is mainly influenced by generator dynamics and its response to grid voltage disturbances. When the Pst impact on the grid is used as an instrument for model assessment, the impact should be evaluated on grids with different grid angles. A grid with a slightly dominant reactance is likely to yield a good comparison of measurements and simulations, in the presented case the discrepancy is below 5 %. A grid with a dominating resistance gives, on the other hand, a higher discrepancy up to about 25 %. It should be noted, however, that it is more difficult to compare the results of Pst on the resistive grid .

5.7

A simplified model

The wind generation part of the presented model plays a significant role. This is, however, the most time consuming part of the overall model of the wind turbine. Since the model is to be integrated into a grid simulation program, the computing requirements have to be reduced to an absolute minimum. One option is to store a pre-calculated torque time series corresponding to different wind conditions and different wind turbine systems for later use. Another possibility is to use an approach presented by Leithead [7], in which the wind is simulated at one point only. For instance, the approach presented in Section 5.2.1 can be used, and consequently, modified with various aerodynamic filters. A resulting filtered wind can then be used in the same way as in the advanced model. An overview of aerodynamic filters is presented below.

5.7.1

Spatial filter

The first filter is referred to as a spatial filter, SF, and it serves to damp the higher frequency components present in wind. This gives an adequate representation of the rotor blades’ filtering properties. The transfer function of the spatial filter described by Leithead [7] is: 39

HSF (s) =

2 + bs √ ( 2 + bs a)(1 + √ R WS

b √ s) a

(5.7)

b = γ Where: HSF γ R WS a

spatial filter transfer function the decay factor over the disc (γ = 1.3) turbine radius average wind speed at the hub height a=0.55

Some possible ways of simplifying this filter were investigated. The theoretical work has shown that it is sufficient to use a first order transfer function without significantly affecting the characteristics of the spatial filter. The simplified transfer function of the spatial filter is: 1 = sb + 1 1
s 2πfcut

HSF (s) =

+1

(5.8)

The cut-off frequency of the spatial filter, fcut , is a critical parameter with a crucial influence on the model results. A way of obtaining the cut-off frequency is presented in Section 5.7.4.

5.7.2

Rotational sampling filter

The second filter represents the rotational sampling of the wind caused by the rotor blades as they sweep the rotor disc, and is, therefore, called a rotational sampling filter, RSF. This phenomenon was discussed in Section 5.2.2. Thus, this filter is only effective within a limited frequency range. In other frequency regions, this filter has a gain of near unity. The concept of the rotational sampling filter presented by Rodriguez [8] has been adopted and simplified to: + Ω)2 1 [s + (σΩ + jΩ)][s + (σΩ − jΩ)] (Ω2 +(σΩ)2 )
1 (s Ω2

HRSF (s) = Where: HRSF Ω σ

(5.9)

rotational sampling filter transfer function angular turbine speed damping factor

The damping factor of the rotational sampling filter, σ, is, again, a critical parameter with a crucial influence on the model results. A procedure which determines the value of the damping factor is presented in Section 5.7.4. 40

5.7.3

Induction lag filter

There is one more aerodynamic filter mentioned in the literature [7], [8]. This is the induction lag filter that represents the dynamic effect of an adjustment of the wake in response to a change in wind speed. This filter has a unity gain in the low frequency region, but amplifies the whole higher frequency region of the wind speed signal. This filter has, however, not been used in the presented simplified model. The reason is that the high frequency components of the power output of the wind turbine are caused, to a very large extent, by grid voltage variations, as presented in Section 5.6.2. Thus, the effect of the induction lag filter has a minor effect on performance.

5.7.4

Parameter determination

The cut-off frequency of the spatial filter and the damping factor of the rotational sampling filter, discussed above, are the key parameters to be determined here. Figure 5.17 presents the two mentioned filters together with their summation.
10 10 10 10
1

RSF
0

gain [−]

SF+RSF SF

−1

−2

10

−2

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.17: Aerodynamic filters In order to determine the two filter parameters, a comparison has been made of results obtained from the advanced and the simplified approaches. The cut-off frequency of the spatial filter and the damping factor of the rotational sampling filter were varied in order to find a minimum value of the error function 5.10.

2.5

error =
f =0.5

[(log

f T la(f ) 2 1 ) ] f T ls(f ) weight(f )

(5.10)

Where: f frequency fTla(f) amplitude of the advanced shaft torque frequency component fTls(f) amplitude of the simplified shaft torque frequency component weight(f) weighting coefficient for the frequency f 41

The frequency spectra of the shaft torque obtained from the advanced simulation, discussed in Section 5.2.2, and the frequency spectra of the shaft torque, obtained from the simplified approach with aerodynamic filters, have been compared. The differences in the results obtained by the two models were weighted by a corresponding value from the flicker curve (Section 2.2.2) and consequently summed up over the frequency range 0.5 to 2.5 Hz. In this frequency region, the two filters modify the wind speed most in the case of the wind turbine used here. As was shown earlier in this thesis, (Section 5.6.2), the higher frequency components, above 2.5 Hz, are mainly influenced by the electric grid and, therefore, the disturbances from shaft torque are of secondary importance. The rotor blades have little influence on results in the low frequency region (below 0.5 Hz) and the filters, consequently, should not affect these frequencies. An example of this optimization process is shown in Figure 5.18.
1500 1000 500 0 0.2

error [−]

0.3

0.4 fcut−off [Hz]

0.5

0.6

Figure 5.18: Filter parameters adjustment Each point in Figure 5.18 represents a simulation with a specific cut-off frequency and a specific damping. As is apparent, several results give an error with a value very close to the minimum error. The optimization process (see the error function Equation 5.10), however, does not provide distinct values of the cut-off frequency and the damping. Using the optimization process described above, the values of the spatial filter cutoff frequency and of the rotational sampling filter damping were determined for different wind speeds and turbulence intensities. They are presented in Figures 5.19 and 5.20, respectively. The solid line represents 5 % turbulence intensity , the dashed line represents a turbulence intensity of 10 % and the dash-dotted line represents a turbulence intensity of 15 %.

5.8

Simplified model - results

A comparison of the results obtained from the advanced and simplified simulations are presented below. The wind turbine model was simulated at a constant voltage and with the measured voltage applied to the generator. The comparison is made in the frequency domain and, consequently, the Pst values are also compared. 42

0.5 0.45 0.4

fcut−off [Hz]

0.35 0.3 10 15 wind speed [m/s] 20

Figure 5.19: Cut-off frequency as a function of wind speed, solid line - TI=5 % , dashed line - TI=10 % , dash-dotted line - TI=15 %

0.2 0.18 damping [−] 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 10 15 wind speed [m/s] 20

Figure 5.20: Damping as a function of wind speed, solid line - TI=5 % , dashed line - TI=10 % , dash-dotted line - TI=15 %

43

Figures 5.21 and 5.22 present a comparison of the active and the reactive powers in the frequency domain when constant voltage is applied to the generator model.
10
5

P [W] 10
0 −2

10

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.21: Active power spectra comparison - I, gray - the advanced model, black - the simplified model
10
5

Q [VAr] 10
0 −2

10

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.22: Reactive power spectra comparison - I, gray - the advanced model, black - the simplified model It has been observed that the simplified model results agree very well with the advanced model results, up to a frequency of about 2.5 Hz. This is the frequency range where the spatial filter and the rotational sampling filter are tuned. Figures 5.23 and 5.24 present a comparison of the active and the reactive powers in the frequency domain when the measured voltage is applied to the generator instead. The influence of the measured voltage has now been clearly demonstrated. While the reactive power comparison presents very good agreement, the active power comparison shows a discrepancy in the frequency region between 2.5 to 5 Hz. Here, the simplified model does not produce the same results as the advanced one. The Pst impact as a function of wind speed is compared for the two grids used in Section 5.6.3. Figure 5.25 presents a comparison on the grid with a grid angle of 70 deg while Figure 5.26 presents a comparison on the grid with a 30 deg grid angle. These results confirm the conclusion of Section 5.6.4. The grid with a grid angle of 70 deg is less sensitive to model accuracy. The grid with a grid angle of 30 deg 44

10

5

P [W] 10
0 −2

10

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.23: Active power spectra comparison - II, gray - the advanced model, black - the simplified model

10

5

Q [VAr] 10
0 −2

10

10

−1

10 f [Hz]

0

10

1

Figure 5.24: Reactive power spectra comparison - II, gray - the advanced model, black - the simplified model

0.06

0.04 Pst [−] 0.02 0

8

10

12 14 16 Wind speed [m/s]

18

Figure 5.25: Pst on a 70 deg grid, * - the advanced model, o - the simplified model

45

0.2 0.15 Pst [−] 0.1

0.05 0 8 10 12 14 16 Wind speed [m/s] 18

Figure 5.26: Pst on a 30 deg grid, * - the advanced model, o - the simplified model shows the consequence of the discrepancy in Figure 5.23, i.e. the Pst values obtained using the simplified model are somewhat higher.

46

Chapter 6 Conclusions and future work
6.1 Summary

A model of a stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbine system capable of predicting dynamic voltage variations in the connected electric grid has been presented and evaluated in this thesis. Reasons for modeling such a wind turbine system have been discussed. Individual model building blocks have been introduced. Two different approaches for simulating wind have been described. These approaches differ in computational requirements, a more advanced approach is not suitable for time effective modeling of the system, but it is used as a tool to adjust the other, less time-consuming approach. The other building blocks of the wind turbine model, the parts representing aerodynamic conversion, drive-train mechanics and the generator , are common to both approaches.

6.2

Results evaluation

A comparison of the simulated results with field measurements has been shown. The comparison has been done in two steps. First, the frequency spectra of the acquired and simulated results; namely the active and reactive powers, have been presented. Second, the results have been used to calculate dynamic voltage variations and, subsequently, the resulting Pst values were compared.

6.2.1

Advanced model

The differences between measured and simulated Pst values vary depending on the character of the grid used for evaluation. While a grid with a grid angle of 70 deg shows very good agreement with an error up to about 5 %, a more resistive grid with a grid angle of 30 deg reveals the model’s imperfections (error up to 25 %). 47

It has been found that generator shaft torque disturbances are not the only source of the uneven power production of the turbine. Also, the quality of the grid voltage has a significant impact on the model outcome. This is directly related to the grid angle. It has been shown, here, that use of constant voltage on a resistive grid (grid angle of 30 deg) does not have a significant effect on accuracy. On the other hand, it is essential to use the actual measured voltage on the grid with a 70 deg grid angle.

6.2.2

Simplified model

The simplified model results have been compared with the advanced model results. Similar conclusions to the ones made above have been drawn. The results of the simplified model are very similar to those of the advanced model for a grid with the grid angle of 70 deg. The grid with the grid angle of 30 deg reveals, however, that the two presented models produce slightly different results.

6.3

Future work

Based on the knowledge gained during the model development and during the measuring and data evaluation, the author suggests the following for future work: Extending the model to accommodate the effect of grid disturbances and/or faults would increase its applicability and practical value. A further development of the electric part of the model and, especially, its interaction with the connected electric grid is, therefore, recommended. A model implementation in a grid simulation program is another suggestion for future work. Models of other wind turbine systems based on the discussion in Section 3.7 are also recommended for future study. An improvement of model accuracy might be an option for future work. The inclusion of aspect, such as the tower shadow effect, three dimensional wind simulation, dynamic description of aerodynamic conversion or an improvement of the drive train model are issues of interest. Finally, the sensitivity of the prediction performance of the model to the accuracy of system parameters is seen as a valuable study for the future. Wind turbine parameters with an acceptable accuracy are not always available and, thus, a relation between the accuracy of system parameters and the accuracy of results is an important issue to be studied.

48

Appendix A Technical Data

A.1
location

Wind turbine data
Alsvik wind farm Island of Gotland, Sweden 180 kW 30 m 23.2 m 3 42 r/min NACA-63200 23.75

rated power hub height rotor diameter number of blades rotor speed blade profile gearbox ratio

A.2

Drive train data

(all data referred to the high speed shaft)

turbine inertia JT generator inertia JG stiffness of the shaft k absorption of the shaft B

102.8 kg m2 4.5 kg m2 2700N m/rad − 49

A.3

Generator data
400 V 3 0.0092 Ω 0.0061 Ω 186 µH 427 µH 6.7 mH

nominal voltage Un number of pole-pairs p stator resistance Rs rotor resistance Rr (referred to the stator) stator leakage inductance Lsλ rotor leakage inductance Lrλ (referred to the stator) magnetizing inductance Lm

50

Appendix B List of publications
Publication 1 Wind power stations - the impact on the electric grid, basic configurations and an example of utilisation, Tomas Petru, The conference on Electric Power Engineering ELEN2000, Prague, Czech Republic, 25.-26.9.2000 Publication 2 Power quality impact of a sea-located hybrid wind park, T. Thiringer, T. Petru, C. Liljegren, accepted to the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2001 Publication 3 Integration of wind parks - example from Bockstigen, T. Petru, T. Thiringer, Nordic Wind Power Conference NWPC’2000, Trondheim, Norway, 13.-14.3. 2000 Publication 4 Active flicker reduction from a sea-based 2.5 MW wind park connected to a weak grid, T. Petru, T. Thiringer, 2000 IEEE Nordic Workshop on Power and Industrial Electronics NORpie/2000, Aalborg, Denmark, 13.-16.6.2000 Publication 5 Measurement and modeling of power quality impact of a stall-regulated wind turbine, T. Petru, T. Thiringer, the Electromotion journal, accepted for publication in June 2001 Publication 6 Flicker contribution from wind turbine installations, T. Thiringer, T. Petru, S. Lundberg, submitted to IEEE transactions on Energy conversion

51

52

Bibliography
[1] David A. Spera: Wind Turbine Technology, ASME PRESS (1994) [2] A.I.Estanquiero, J.M. Ferreira de Jesus, J. Gil Saraiva, A wind park grid interaction model for power quality assessment, European Union Wind Energy Conference, G¨teborg, Sweden (1996) o [3] E.A. Bossanyi, P. Gardner, L. Craig, Z. Saad-Saoud, N. Jenkins, J. Miller, Design Tool for prediction of flicker, European Wind Energy Conference, Dublin Castle, Ireland (1997) [4] N. Jenkins, Z. Saad-Saoud, A simplified model for large wind turbines, European Union Wind Energy Conference, G¨teborg, Sweden (1996) o [5] W.E. Leithead, M.C.M. Rogers, Drive-train Characteristics of Constant Speed HAWT’s: Part I - Representation by Simple Dynamics Models, Wind Engineering Vol. 20 No. 3 (1996) [6] W.E. Leithead, M.C.M. Rogers, Drive-train Characteristics of Constant Speed HAWT’s: Part II - Simple Characterisation of Dynamics, Wind Engineering Vol. 20 No. 3 (1996) [7] J. Wilkie, W.E. Leithead, C. Anderson, Modelling of Wind turbines by Simple Models, Wind Engineering Vol. 13 No. 4 (1990) [8] Rodriguez-Amenedo J.L., Rodriguez Garcia F., Burgos J.C., Experimental Rig to emulate Wind Turbines, International Conference on Electric Machines, Istanbul-Turkey, September - 1998 [9] T. Thiringer, Measurements and Modelling of Low-Frequency Disturbances in Induction Machines, Ph.D. thesis, Chalmers University of Technology 1996, ISBN 91-7197-384-2 [10] T. Thiringer, Power Quality Measurements Performed on a Low-Voltage Grid Equipped with Two Wind Turbines, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, September 1996 [11] T. Thiringer, J.-˚. Dahlberg, Periodic Power Pulsations from a Three-bladed A Wind Turbine, IEEE Power Engineering Summer Meeting, 12-16 July, 1998 53

[12] ˚. Larsson, T. Thiringer, Measurements on and Modelling of CapacitorA Connecting Transients on a Low-voltage Grid equipped with Two Wind Turbines, International Conference on Power System Transients (IPST’95), Lisbon, Portugal, September 3-7, 1995, proceedings p. 184-188 [13] ˚. Larsson, P. Sørensen, F. Santjer, Grid Impact of Variable-Speed Wind TurA bines, European Wind Energy Conference (EWEC ’99), Nice, France, 1-5 Mars, Proceedngs, p.786-789 [14] ˚. Larsson, The Power Quality of Wind Turbines, Ph.D. thesis, Chalmers UniA versity of Technology 2000, ISBN 91-7197-970-0 [15] Anslutning av Mindre Produktionsanl¨ggningar till eln¨tet (AMP), Sveriges a a elleverant˝rer (1999), (in Swedish) o [16] International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC 61000-4-15, Flickermeter Functional and design specifications (11/1997) [17] International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC standard, Publication 610004-7, Electromagnetic Compatibility, General Guide on Harmonics and Interharmonics Measurements and Instrumentation (1991) [18] L.L. Freris, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd, 1990 [19] S. Lundberg, Electrical limiting factors for wind energy installations, Diploma thesis, Chalmers University of Technology 2000, ISSN 1401-6184 [20] Stochastic turbulence models, IEC(E) 61400-1/FDIS [21] Erik Persson, One-dimensional wind simulation, Studies in statistical quality, control and reliability 1996:2, ISBN 992-273382-x [22] Winkelaar D., Fast three dimensional wind simulation and the prediction of stochastic blade loads, 10th ASME Wind Energy Symposium, ASME 1991 [23] Eggleston D. M., Stoddard F.S., Wind Turbine Engineering Design, ISBN 0442-22195-9 [24] Kovacs P.K., Transient phenomena in electrical machines, Elsevier, Budapest, 1984 [25] Francis Dennis Rodriguez, A refined method of neglecting stator transients in induction loads, Ph.D. thesis, Purdue University 1986 [26] International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC 61400-21, Wind Turbine Generator Systems [27] Stig-Øye A.F.M., Unsteady wake effects caused by pitch angle changes, Report Tech. Univ. of Denmark, 1986 [28] Anders Grauers, Design of Direct-driven Permanent-magnet Generators for Wind Turbines, Ph.D. thesis, Chalmers University of Technology 1996, ISBN 91-7197-373-7 54

[29] Vladislav Akhmatov, Hans Knudsen, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Jørgen Kaas Pedersen, Niels Kjølstad Poulsen, Modelling and transient stability of large wind farms, 2nd International Workshop on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, 2001, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden [30] Petri Lampola, Directly driven alternating current generators for wind power applications, ISBN 951-222826-2

55

Publication 1

Wind power stations - the impact on the electric grid, basic configurations and an example of utilisation

Tomas Petru, The conference on Electric Power Engineering ELEN2000, Prague, Czech Republic, 25.-26.9.2000

Publication 2

Power quality impact of a sea-located hybrid wind park

T. Thiringer, T. Petru, C. Liljegren, accepted to the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2001

Publication 3

Integration of wind parks - example from Bockstigen

T. Petru, T. Thiringer, Nordic Wind Power Conference NWPC’2000, Trondheim, Norway, 13.-14.3. 2000

Publication 4

Active flicker reduction from a sea-based 2.5 MW wind park connected to a weak grid

T. Petru, T. Thiringer, 2000 IEEE Nordic Workshop on Power and Industrial Electronics NORpie/2000, Aalborg, Denmark, 13.-16.6.2000

Publication 5

Measurement and modeling of power quality impact of a stall-regulated wind turbine

T. Petru, T. Thiringer, the Electromotion journal, accepted for publication in June 2001

Publication 6

Flicker contribution from wind turbine installations

T. Thiringer, T. Petru, S. Lundberg, submitted to IEEE transactions on Energy conversion

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