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I . whereas with power electronics. Power electronic converters can be found wherever there is a need to modify a form of electrical energy (i. In modern systems the conversion is performed with semiconductor switching devices such as diodes. in a HVDC transmission system). In contrast to electronic systems concerned with transmission and processing of signals and data. e. CLASSIFICATIONS The power conversion systems can be classified according to the type of the input and output power    AC to DC (rectifier) DC to AC (inverter) DC to DC (DC to DC converter) 2 .e. in power electronics substantial amounts of electrical energy are processed. television sets.Year(M. An AC/DC converter (rectifier) is the most typical power electronics device found in many consumer electronic devices. In industry the most common application is the variable speed drive (VSD) that is used to control an induction motor. current or frequency).E – Power Electronics & Drives) VMKV Engineering College INTRODUCTION Power electronics is the application of solid-state electronics for the control and conversion of electric power. personal computers. With "classical" electronics. The power range is typically from tens of watts to several hundred watts. Thus. change its voltage.g. The power range of VSDs starts from a few hundred watts and end at tens of megawatts. The power range of these converters is from some milliwatts (as in a mobile phone) to hundreds of megawatts (e. thyristors and transistors. etc. they carry power.g. battery chargers. electrical currents and voltage are used to carry information. The first very high power electronic devices were “Mercury arc valves”. the main metric of power electronics becomes the efficiency.

the energy is transferred from the input of the converter to its output by bursts.  AC/AC converters are used to change either the voltage level or the frequency (international power adapters. one can see that the losses of a power device are at a minimum when the voltage across it is zero (the device is in the On-State) or when no current flows through it (OffState). Therefore. With such a structure. These converters are also used for electronic isolation and power factor correction. a power electronic converter is built around one (or more) device operating in switching mode (either On or Off).  DC/AC converters (inverters) are used primarily in UPS or renewable energy systems or emergency lighting systems. television etc.) to maintain the voltage at a fixed value whatever the voltage level of the battery is.  3 . the losses that a power electronic device generates should be as low as possible. AC to AC (AC to AC converter) SWITCHING As efficiency is at a premium in a power electronic converter. light dimmer). These may simply change AC to DC or can also change the voltage level as part of their operation. it will charge the DC battery. If the mains fails. When mains power is available. Power electronic systems are found in virtually every electronic device. PDA etc. For example: DC/DC converters are used in most mobile devices (mobile phones. In power distribution networks AC/AC converters may be used to exchange power between utility frequency 50 Hz and 60 Hz power grids. From this.  AC/DC converters (rectifiers) are used every time an electronic device is connected to the mains (computer. an inverter will be used to produce AC electricity at mains voltage from the DC battery.). The instantaneous dissipated power of a device is equal to the product of the voltage across the device and the current through it ( ).

Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS). Heating. photovoltaic).  UTILITY SYSTEMS High voltage DC transmission (HVDC).  TRANSPORTATION Traction control of electric vehicles. electric locomotives. automobile electronics including engine controls. induced draft fans and boiler feed water pumps. welding equipments. arc furnaces. lighting control circuits.  TELECOMMUNICATIONS Battery chargers. Lighting. satellite power systems. Machine tools. energy storage systems. power supplies (DC and UPS). fuel cells. battery chargers for electric vehicles. compressors. mobile cell phone battery chargers. induction heating. industrial lasers. Alternative energy sources (wind. UPS. Elevators.  INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Pumps. blowers and fans. street cars. Lighting. trolley buses. Refrigerators & Freezers. static VAR compensation (SVC).POWER ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS  COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS Heating Systems Ventilating.  AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Space shuttle power supply systems. 4 . aircraft power systems. Personal Computers. Air Conditioners.  DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS Cooking Equipments. Entertainment Equipments. and Emergency Lamps. Air Conditioners. Computers and Office equipments. induction furnaces. Central Refrigeration.

Advanced power electronic systems. grid connected wind capacity has more than doubled and the cost 5 . robust dc-ac and ac-ac modules with complex control and safety requirements. solar. and smart energy management principles are deemed to be an integral part of renewable. micro generators. affordable high performance devices. Over the past 20 years. The focus will be on high power density. a photovoltaic systems augmenting the main power lines will constitute a distributed power generation (DG) system. In a DG system end users need not be passive consumers. The need for distributed generation (DG) employing renewable energy sources such as wind. solar and fuel cells has gained significant momentum. and increased penetration of electricity have led to unprecedented dependency on fossil fuels. A power system employing wind powered turbines. The quest for cleaner and more reliable energy sources has considerable implications to the existing power transmission and distribution system as well. coal and natural gas) have been the primary energy source for the present day world. fuel cell based sources. and power to link the energy source to the grid. frequency. Official estimates indicate a 44 percent increase in global energy consumption during the period 2006 – 2010. green and efficient energy systems. WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS Wind energy has the biggest share in the renewable energy sector. Sustained urbanization. A qualitative description of the role of power electronics in wind. Traditionally bulk of the power is generated and distributed to the large load centers via transmission lines. the power electronic interface has to regulate the voltage.ROLE OF POWER ELECTRONICS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS The rapid increase in global energy consumption and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions has accelerated the transition towards greener energy sources. and photovoltaic systems are as follows. INTRODUCTION The global energy consumption has been continually increasing over the last century. important parameters of power delivered (frequency and voltage) are monitored and controlled by the large power generator units (usually consisting of synchronous generators). It can be said that fossil fuels (liquid. they can be active suppliers to the grid. industrialization. In case of DG systems. Conventionally.

of power generated from wind energy based systems has reduced to one-sixth of the corresponding value in the early 1980s. Wind energy – Wind speeds. It is accepted that the maximum attainable efficiency for wind energy conversion is 0. 1. However the speed of the rotor is fixed by the grid 6 . The important features associated with a wind energy conversion system are: • • • Available wind energy Type of wind turbine employed Type of electric generator and power electronic circuitry employed for interfacing with the grid Fig. wind turbines are classified into drag based and lift based turbines.. However. earth surface temperature etc. This is enabled by variable speed operation and the power electronic module interfacing the turbine and the grid. With respect to the rotation of the rotor. Variable speed wind energy conversion system. air pressure. and employed to predict the sustainability of wind energy conversion systems. Power electronic circuits play a crucial enabling role in variable speed based wind energy conversion systems. It can be concluded with reasonable confidence that wind energy is a dependable source of clean energy. atmospheric temperature. Based on the aerodynamic principle utilized. reliable and robust. are highly inter-linked parameters. wind turbines are classified into fixed speed and variable speed turbines. Fixed speed wind turbines are simple to operate.59. Based on the mechanical structure. they are classified into horizontal axis and vertical axis wind turbines. distribution based models have been proposed. The present day variable speed wind turbines follow the point to extract the maximum power.

The rotor side converter controls the speed and torque of the rotor and the stator side convertor maintains a constant voltage across the dc link capacitor. irrespective of the magnitude of the rotor power.frequency. non-toxic energy at relatively good energy densities (higher than lead-acid battery) and high reliability. 7 .In variable speed wind turbines. Fuel cells cannot store energy as opposed to a battery. they can continually produce electricity. This section briefly describes the electrical characteristics of fuel cells and their implications on the power electronic interface circuitry. As result. However. enabling the variable speed operation. FUEL CELL SYSTEMS Fuel cells offer clean. however it does not reflect the possible optimal efficiency. Presently the fuel cells being popularly used are: • • • • • Solid oxide Molten carbonate Proton exchange membrane Phosphoric acid Aqueous alkaline The efficiency of fuel cell systems are ~ 50 %. power electronic circuitry partially or completely decouples the rotor mechanical frequency from the grid electrical frequency. This method is more efficient than the fixed speed system. they cannot follow the optimal aerodynamic efficiency point. Along with heat recovery systems the efficiency can be as high as ~ 80 %. fixed speed wind turbines cannot trace the optimal power extraction point CPmax . In case of varying wind speeds.

Fig 2 : V-I characteristics of fuel cell Fig. 8 . 3.difficult to cold start Output voltage is low varies with the load requires a boost stage with regulation Low slew rate . Fuel cell based energy conversion systems The main drawbacks of fuel cells are: • • • Inability to store energy . needs backup energy storage.hampers dynamic performance.

To meet the dynamic load changes. Traditionally for dc-ac conversion three phase. The options for isolated dc-dc converters and their features are discussed below: • • • Forward converter – suffers from restrained duty cycle and requires an excitation resetting tertiary winding. For improved efficiency H-bridge based soft switching series resonant converter is more suited. The output voltage is low dc and in many cases line frequency ac is required (grid integration). This topology appears to be very useful for fuel cell and other renewable energy applications. this requires voltage step up and dc-ac inversion. Z-source inverter presented in incorporates the boost feature into the VSI without altering the inherent features of the VSI. auxiliary energy storage along with PE based power conditioning is essential to realize a practical fuel cell based system. isolated versions have been preferred (turns ratio can be utilized to enhance the overall boost). Full bridge converter – suitable for fuel cell applications. • The other advantages of this topology include inherent short circuit protection and no saturation problem of the transformer. Compared to half bridge dc-dc converter it has more components however the device current stresses are lesser. Push pull – requires center-tap transformer. dc-ac inversion methods have been evaluated for this purpose by researchers in the past. Various dc-dc converter topologies. Half bridge dc-dc converter – is well suited for fuel cell applications. This also provides electrical isolation improving the overall reliability. This technique is well established and the control strategies are well developed too. Due to limited boosting capability of non-isolated boost converters. six switch VSI have been used extensively. energy back up (battery or ultra capacitor) is required. 9 .Due to the above mentioned reasons. not ideally suited for high power applications. The main drawback of VSI is that its operation is inherently a step down operation.

emission-less. or a battery to augment the primary energy source like during dynamic loads. without involving any active mechanical system. noise-free energy conversion. PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS Photovoltaic energy systems consist of arrays of solar cells which create electricity from irradiated light. since the grid voltage level and frequency are fixed the control variable is limited to being the current. Since it is all electric it has a high life time (> 20 years). The real and the apparent power being injected into or drawn from the grid have to monitored and controlled using complex control strategies. Some of the existing PVs and their efficiencies are : • • • • Crystalline and multi-crystalline solar cells with efficiencies of ~11 %. Thin-film Copper Indium Diselenide with an efficiency of ~12% . In dc-ac grid connected inverter based systems.Most of the real time power-electronic enabled energy systems have energy backup in the form of a capacitor bank. A lot of work is being done to enhance the efficiency of the solar cell which is the building block of PV. Thin film amorphous Silicon with an efficiency of ~10%. PV offers clean. Thin film cadmium telluride with an efficiency of ~9%. ultra-capacitor. 10 . In this regard the focus is mainly on electro-physics and materials domain. The yield of the photovoltaic systems (PV) is primarily dependent on the intensity and duration of illumination.

and with regulation improve the overall efficiency. To interconnect the individual solar panels – two solar panels cannot be identical hence a dc-dc converter interfacing the two will help maintain the required current and voltage. the current flowing is decided by the weakest solar cell. Several non-isolated dc-dc converters have been employed for this purpose. 11 . The entire PV system can be seen as a network of small dc energy sources with PE power conditioning interfaces employed to improve the efficiency and reliability of the system.4. boost and buck topologies with suitable modifications can be employed for this purpose. The role of PE is mainly two-fold: I.Fig. Block diagram of PV System PV panels are formed by connecting a certain number of solar cells in series. Parallel connection of the cells would solve the low current issue but the ensuing voltage is very low (< 5 V). Buck. These panels are further connected in series to enhance the power handling ability. Since the cells are connected in series to build up the terminal voltage. buck-boost.

It can be concluded that with the advancements being made in the area of renewable energy and distributed power generation power electronics has a demanding and critical role in the future of efficient power generation and distribution. and distributed power generation has been reiterated. The topologies considered for fuel-cell system grid interconnection correlates to the grid interconnection of PV based system as well including the usage of the Zsource inverter.This includes the previously discussed topics of dc-dc-ac and dc-ac-ac conversion. CONCLUSION The importance of renewable energy. The different methods of integrating these systems to the grid have been briefly described. To interface the dc output of the PV system to the grid or the load .II. renewable energy based energy conversion systems. A brief overview of the wind energy basics and the existing PE interface requirements and techniques have been addressed qualitatively. 12 . The advantage of employing a Z-source inverter over a conventional dc-ac VSI has been emphasized. The basic electrical characteristics of fuel cell and photovoltaic based systems have been presented.

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