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José Cidrás

Camilo Carrillo Andrés Feijóo Dpto. Enxeñería Eléctrica – ETSEIM - Universidade de Vigo Campus Universitario de Lagoas s/nº - 26280 Vigo - SPAIN tel: +34 986 813912 fax: +34 986 812173 e-mail: carrillo@uvigo.es

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to show the working limits of a Variable Speed Wind Turbine. The system is based on a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator and a Fixed-Pitch Wind Turbine. The machine rotor is connected to the network through an AC/AC Converter in order to allow energy recovery. Thermal, mechanical and electric limits are investigated. The study of the machine is based on a steady state model, which provides an easy way to understand the physical behaviour related to the normal operation of the system. Keywords: Variable-Speed Operation – 1, Models (Mathematical) – 2, Power Electronics – 3

1. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, the Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS’s) manufacturers are developing systems that can work at different speeds, Variable Speed Wind Turbines. So, the energy capture can be optimised and the mechanical stress can be reduced. There are several configurations [1][2] to achieve this behaviour, and the Doubly Feed Induction Generator (DFIG) have clear advantages over other configurations, e.g. the reduced size of the required electronic equipment (see Figure 1). In this paper, a study of the capabilities of the DFIG scheme against a Fixed Speed Turbine is presented in order to see the possibilities of this configuration. The idea is well known (Kramer, Scherbius...) but the introduction of new technologies [3], e.g. GTO, help to develop these systems. In this paper, the DFIG steady state behaviour is shown, in order to explore its limits.

o AC/AC Converter: the energy transference between the rotor (low and variable frequency) and the network (fixed frequency) is possible by means of this device. o Step-Down Transformer: it is used to increase the operation margin of the AC/AC Converter. The model of these elements is depicted in the following sections.

The wind turbine is a fixed pitch one, and the expression for the power extracted from the wind is: where: o ρ is the air density o $ is the swept area o 8 is the wind speed o F is the power coefficient The power coefficient Fp is function of the tip speed ratio (λ):

2.1 Wind Turbine Model

λ=
where:

The elements of these systems are: o Wind Turbine: in order to make the comparisons easier, a fixed pitch one has been chosen. o DFIG: it is an induction machine with wound rotor and slip rings.
Turbine Gearbox Slip Ring

8

Ωt: is the turbine rotor speed. 5 is the rotor radius In the literature [4] several expressions for the function Fp(λ) can be found. However, in this paper, a polynomial

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AC 50Hz

Step-Down Transformer

Wind

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Variable Speed Fixed-Pitch Wind Turbine

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Ω AC Low and Variable Frequency

PWM Inverter I
(Machine-Side)

PWM Inverter II
(Network-Side)
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Filter

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2. MODEL

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Network

. and tip speed ratio between its minimum and maximum values. This is achieved by means of 2.30 Cp Polynomial Cp Made AE-30 0. 0.20 0. o Nt is the transformer ratio o 3i is the active power delivered to the network o 4i is the reactive power delivered to the network When the losses in the converter are neglected. . N 3 ( 2 9 2 P Q P Q H I 2N 9   . formed by two PWM Converters (machine-side and network-side). o s is the slip The slip s is given by:   . it is necessary to allow energy flow between rotor and network. so: P GG GG where: o o o 3 =3 +3 = 3 +3 S T S T WW tan (δ )= .45 0. and then its modulation values are given by: § ¦ 29 & D 78 " C # % 12 " ! δ = ∠9 . Machine-side converter connects the rotor and the DCside. ( . p i An amount of power is delivered (or injected) through the slip rings.3 AC-AC Converter D D 3 = −UHDO { } 9 . where 3m is the mechanical power from the turbine and is the air-gap power: 3 9 . is determined by the machine-side Converter.1.35 0. 4net = 0) Rotor side frequency. is the filtering reactance and transformer reactance. < 1 SX ) g h ' ) 0( m where 3s is the stator electric power. However. so: V where: o ωs is the synchronous speed o Ω is the DFIG rotor speed o 3 is the number of pole pairs s 1 2 1− )LJXUH  DFIG equivalent circuit.00 5 10 15 20 25 ( )LJXUH  : Approximation of &p(λ) where: o E is the DC voltage. and the high commutation frequency used by PWM converters. the high-frequency components of voltage and current are neglected due to the presence of rotor and the filter reactances.g. 4   1 + 2 2   N 9    H I H I 2. .25 F G G   ©    @ & $ § A # ¨ F D =1 § = ∑ λ an AC-AC Autonomous Converter [8]. PII) cannot be greater than 1. another criterion for its value can be followed (e. the electric rotor power (3r): B B B B 1 =  UHDO  V  { }− . by the relation: 3 Ω = ω +ω Y ` Y a ec fdb r X 3 3 5 64 % 9 8 & $ = ω − 3Ω ω is the modulation index δ is the modulation angle.4 Limits < 1 SX . so: where Dk are the polynomial coefficients.40 0. 9 .approximation [5] is used (see Figure 2). The modulation parameters of network-side converter are used to control the delivered active (3i) and reactive (4i) power.15 0.g. 3e * 5 In this system.2 DFIG Model RR P = . 2. * TURBINE: The power of the turbine (3m) must be under its limit. The 4i value can be fixed at zero to minimize the necessary converter size. the value of 3i is equal to 3r. . and so slip.2 are the parameters of the machine o 9 . The model is obtained from a d-q decomposition [6][7] and the equivalent scheme can be seen in Figure 3. In this paper.10 0. Network-side converter currents must have the network or synchronous frequency (e. it is fixed at constant value o P is the modulation index o δ is the modulation angle. 2   In order to obtain the working limits some constraints must be taken into account: DFIG: the current values must be under their nominal value. . 4   1+  2   N2 9    −1 E F P = E 0.05 0. AC/AC CONVERTER: Modulation index (PI. and . 3 The electromechanical equation used in steady state is: 1− V −3 =0 where ωI is the frequency of rotor and machine-side converter currents. where o 5s. are the voltages and currents in stator and rotor. 50Hz). 5r. N 3 2 9 2 U V U V In this section a model for the DFIG is presented.

E+00 0 U is proportional to the Circle Area f d ™— –” e˜ • gh Once the models and constraints have been established.55 0.80 0.60 0.02 0. with the maximum power strategy.75 0.10 0.5 0. 1.E-02 -80 -100 -120 25. in the constant power strategy. slip (V) and rotor electrical power (3r) at different mechanical powers (3m) and wind speeds (8). These figures can help us to choose appropriate values for DCside voltage and step-down transformer ratio.55 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.60 0.75 0.7 m 0.80 0.06 -0.02 -0.990 -200 )LJXUH  Slip (V) evolution.50 0.20 -150 12. Next figures show the rotor voltage evolution during both constant power and maximum power strategies.70 0. the simulation of steady state conditions is made.85 0. As can be seen in Figure 4.04 0.85 0.9 0. 1. RESULTS m 0. In other way.85 0. two control strategies have been simulated: o &RQVWDQW 3RZHU: power extracted from wind is maintained constant against wind variations. So.04 -0. constant values of 3net can be achieved for a wide range of wind speeds (U). the size requirements for the converters in this kind of systems are low.08 -0.89 Max AE-30 Vr Evolution -100 0.20 0.60 0. Values of Pr shown in Figure 6 are related to the size of AC/AC converter (until 10% of DFIG nominal power).8 0. the reactive power of network-side converter is zero.E-03 1.8 0.00 -0.10 10 15 20 25 -50 i 3. 1.5 0. 0.08 0.55 0.06 0. and the voltage in the DC-side is maintained at a constant value.430 24.6 0.E+00 20 5.50 0.E-02 0.E-03 1.00 )LJXUH  Rotor Electrical Power (Pr).70 0.9 0.10 -0.0.E-01 1.6 0. high values of power are injected into the network over the entire simulated wind speed range. -0.7 0.70 0.05 -0.8 pu. The next figures show the evolution of the power injected into the network (3net).89 Max AE-30 0.89 Max “ „ w vt sq yx u r ‚ € ’ ƒ .05 m 0.15 0.50 0. The slip evolution in Figure 5 shows that variations until the 20%.80 0.000 0 -20 -40 -60 zy ~ { €‚|} x wv ft fr q no flj u u s p mk Power injected in the network (3net).000 -140 -160 -180 -200 )LJXUH  9r and 8 evolution with maximum 3m ‘ • ’ –—˜™“” is proportional to the Circle Area  lŽ fŒ fŠ d ‡ˆ fd„   ‹ ‰ †… ƒ ‘ ‰ ˆv‡ †s… 10 15 20 25 )LJXUH  9r and 8 evolution with 3m = 0.E-01 1.75 0. o 0D[LPXP 3RZHU: the system operates to obtain the maximum energy from the wind.15 -0. In both cases.4 10 15 20 25 )LJXUH  1. For this purpose.

Peña. “Double Output Induction Generator Operating at Subsynchronous and Supersynchronous Speeds: Steady-State Performance Optimisation and Wind-Energy Recovery”. 317-324. pp. Escola Técnica Superior de Enxeñeiros Idustriais. Sep.S. Al Zahawi. 139. Spain.A. Smith. pp. vol.M.E. IEE Proc. the main advantage of this system is the reduced size of the AC/AC converter and behaviour improvement with respect to fixed systems. no. “Vector Control of a Variable Speed Doubly Fed Induction Machine”.60-67 . 1981. Dec. “Wind-energy Recovery by a static Scherbius Induction Generator”.A. 3. 386-396. Feijóo. 1992. [2] L. Universidade de Vigo.. no. Çadirci and M. [4] Le tang & Robert Zavadil.G. J. which a solution used by some WECS manufacturers. thesis (in Spanish). EPE Journal. IEEE Trans. and A.. pp. Ermis. Eng and K. September 1999. 6. Energy Conversion. vol. [3] Binal K. 333-339.4. 128. Refoufi..). B.B. “Power Electronics and Variable Frequency Drivers”. 513-519 [5] A. Ph. Nov. “Shunt Capacitor Failures due to Wind Farm Induction Generator Self-Excitation Phenomenon”. 1998.A. vol. REFERENCES [1] G. IEEE Tran. José Cidrás and Camilo Carrillo. No. pp. 5. Nigim. “A Third Order Model for the Doubly-Fed Induction Machine”. “Influencia de los Parques Eólicos en la Seguridad Estacionaria y Calidad de Onda de Redes Eléctricas de Gran Dimensión”. transformer. IEE Proc. pp. pp. Clare and G. 14. Bose. 1997. The model used here can be used as a tool for dimensioning the elements involved in the conversion (converters. The presented system is very simple and can be improved by means of a variable pitch wind turbine. [6] Andrés Feijóo. CONCLUSIONS A set of steady state simulations is presented in this paper in order to evaluate the behaviour of a variable-speed wind energy converter. no. September 1993. on Energy Conversion. 3-4. no. C. New York: IEEE Press. vol. “Analysis and Modelling of the Steady State Behaviour of the Static Kramer Induction Generator”. 429-442 [8] R. Asher. As can be seen. Jack. 3.C. 1996.T. 8. accepted for publication in EPSR (code: EPSR 1588) [7] I.

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