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Taksu Cheon (Kochi Tech)

Talk presented at Hyogo Univ. Jul. 21, 2007 Copyright, T.Cheon & Associates, 2007

**Plan of the Talk
**

“ Why should we care about Game Theory? ” Introduction to game theory Game strategy in joint probability formalism Quantum strategy Bell inequality and quantum gain in certain games

2

**A Game against Nature
**

Strategy choice

1-Q Q

1-P

0 1

1 0

0 3

Probabilistic Play Payoff

P

Π(P ) = (1 − P )(1 − Q) + 3P Q

= (1 − Q) − (1 − 4Q)P

Two Best Responses depending on Q

P = 0, P = 1,

P = ∗,

Π = 3/4 (Q = 1/4)

Π = 1 − Q (Q ≤ 1/4)

Π = 3Q (Q ≥ 1/4)

3

**A Game against Human
**

Human can think independently Alice thinks that Bob also wants higher payoff

Ai\Bl

d 0

0

1

1 0

1-Q

0 3

Q

1-P

1

P

**Best Response to Best Response: Nash Equilibrium (P , Q ) = (0, 0), Pareto Efﬁcient N.E.
**

(P , Q ) = (1, 1),

Π =1 Π =3

4

Battle of Sexes

**Men Women are obstinate Ai\Bl Rule of the game can be cruel Two conﬂicting Nash E.
**

(P , Q ) = (0, 0), (P , Q ) = (1, 1),

0 1

0

1

1\3 0

1-Q

0 3\1

Q

1-P

P

(ΠAi , ΠBl ) = (1, 3) (ΠAi , ΠBl ) = (3, 1)

**Two N.E. coexist in ensemble of pairs
**

5

**Rock-Scissors-Paper Game
**

**No dominant strategy Ai\Bl No apparent Nash E. Random play is best for both
**

P0 = P1 = P2 = 1/3

0

1

2

0 1 2

-\+ +\+\- 0 -\+ -\+ +\- 0

0

Π =0

: Mixed Nash Equilibrium

**Both just break even (Stop telling trivialities...)
**

6

Calculating Payoffs

MAB

0 1 2

0

M00 M10 M20

1

M01 M11 M21

2

M02 M12 M22

PAB

0 1 2

0

P0Q0 P1Q0 P2Q0

1

P0Q1 P1Q1 P2Q1

2

P0Q2 P1Q2 P2Q2

Payoff Matrix

MAB

**Joint Probability Matrix
**

PAB = PA QB

Payoff is calculated as

ΠAi =

A,B

(Strategy)

PAB MAB

7

Lizards’ R-S-P Game

Animals Play Games Uta Stansburiana: male behavioral types Guardian Usurper Sneaker Population ratio 1:1:1 irrespective to underlying genetics

8

**Elements of Game Theory
**

**Payoff matrix (game table) Joint probability (strategy) Payoff ΠAi =
**

A,B

MAB

LAB

PAB = PA QB

**PAB MAB PAB LAB
**

A,B

ΠBl =

**Nash Equilibria (solutions)
**

∂P ΠAi |(P ∂Q ΠBl |(P

,Q ) ,Q )

=0 =0

9

plus “edge solutions”

**Dominant Strategy & Prisoner’s Dilemma
**

**One good choice for all occasion: Dominant strategy ‘Bad’ Dominant Nash
**

(P , Q ) = (0, 0),

Ai\Bl

0 bd 1 gd go

0

1

1\1 0\5

5\0

3\3

(ΠAi , ΠBl ) = (1, 1)

**Less than Pareto efﬁcient (3,3) Conﬂict between Personal Gain & Public Good
**

10

**PD with Punishers
**

MAB

b=0

90%

b=1 0

-20 0 0 0

10%

A\B

a=0

90%

0

1

1

-25 3 -5 0

0 1 0 1

1 0

-1 0

5 3

0 0

a=1

10%

Undercover Punisher [Type 1]

**Multisector Game of Incomplete Information -> Bayesian Nash Equilibrium (Pareto optimal)
**

11

**Multi-Sector Game
**

**Hrsanyi-Selten : Type a, b with mixtures S[a], T[b] Payoff Matrices for Alice and Bob
**

[ab] MAB , [ab] LAB

**Joint strategy with Type Locality assumption Sector Payoffs
**

[ab] ΠAi

[ab] PAB

=

[a] [b] PA QB

[ab] ΠBl

=

A,B

[ab] [ab] PAB MAB

=

A,B

[ab] [ab] PAB LAB

Total Payoffs

Π[ab] =

a,b

12

S [a] T [b] Π[ab]

**Game Theory is Here to ...
**

Understand System of Autonomous Agents Solve System Design Inefﬁciency ... Economics Sociology Political Sciences Magnagement Robotics Understand the Law of Unintended Consequences

13

**Defects of Current Theories
**

Aesthetic Ugly math with underlying probability vector and arbitrary matrix Technical Hard to include “player correlation” by its construction Nanotechnological Need eventually to handle quantum devices

14

**Hilbert Space Game Theory
**

Many-body dynamics described indirectly with Matrix and Probability distribution : reminiscent of quantum mechanics à la von Neumann Why assume a priori that Probability Distributions to be real P0+P1+..+PN-1=1, Q0+Q1+..+QN-1=1? Try Probability Distribution aus Unitary Vector! Sidestep Decision-Locality (no correlation) possible?

15

PAB = | AB|Ψ |

2

**Minimal Quantum Theory
**

**Measurement along z-axis of a Spin Desired probability with proper
**

|¯ = Uα |1 = −e−iξ sin α |0 + cos α |1 α

P0 = | 0|α |2 = cos2 α, P1 = | 1|α |2 = sin2 α

|α = Uα |0 = cos α |0 + eiξ sin α |1

**Independent measurements of two Spins yield paradoxical results showing nonlocality
**

P00 = | 00|Ψ |2 = 1/2 , P10 = | 10|Ψ |2 = 0 P11 = | 11|Ψ |2 = 1/2 , P01 = | 01|Ψ |2 = 0

16

√ |Ψ = (|00 − |11 )/ 2

**Player Action & Probability
**

**Classical Strategy : Individual Probabilities
**

[a] PA Alice

:

,

[b] QB

:Bob

[ab] PAB

=

[a] [b] PA QB

**Quantum Strategy : Individual Unitary Actions
**

[a] Uα

:Alice,

[b] Vβ

:Bob

[ab] PAB

=|

[b]

[a] [b] AB| Uα Vβ

|Φ |2

**When |Φ = |00 , back to Classical w. identiﬁcations : Play Strategy PA (QB) = Adjust ‘angle’ ()
**

[a] PA = | A| Uα |0 |2 and QB = | B| Vβ |0 |2 [a] [b]

17

**Multisector Quantum Game
**

**Type [a], [b] with mixtures S[a], T[b] Payoff Matrices for Alice and Bob
**

[ab] MAB , [ab] LAB

**Joint strategy with quantum actions U and V on [ab] [a] [b] 2 Sector Payoffs
**

[ab] ΠAi

PAB = | AB| Uα Vβ |Φγφ ) |

=

A,B [ab] [ab] PAB MAB [ab] ΠBl

=

A,B

[ab] [ab] PAB LAB

Total Payoffs

Π[ab] =

a,b

18

S [a] T [b] Π[ab]

**ITC Quantum Strategy
**

Aida

γ γ iφ |Φ = cos |00 + e sin |11 2 2

**Nonlocality: Results of an action of Alice appears affected by action of Bob (et vice versa)
**

19

α [a]

Implementation 1) Pre-game calibration with =0 2) Game play with full state

[ab] ITC Scheme P AB

A

β

B

[ b]

Bluebeard

|Φ(γ, φ)

Rigoletto

Cereceda Game

**A two-sector Incomplete Information extension of Battle of Sexes Game
**

M\L

b=0

50%

b=1 0

-1 \ -3 0 -3 \ -1 0

50%

A\B

a=0

50%

0

1

1

0 -3 \ -1 0 -1 \ -3

0 1 0 1

1\3 0 0 3\1

-1 \ -3 0 0 -3 \ -1

a=1

50%

20

**Classical and Quantum PAB
**

Distribute

Q0

[ab] PAB

**to get high score
**

Q1

0.1 0.4 0 0.5

V0

V1

P0 P1

0.2 0.8 0 1

0 0 0 0

0.1 0.4 0 0.5

U0 U1

0.43 0.07 0.07 0.43 0.07 0.43 0.43 0.07 0.07 0.43 0.07 0.43 0.43 0.07 0.43 0.07

PAB = P Q

Classical strategy

21

Quantum strategy

PAB = | U V Φ |2

**Classical Nash Equilibria
**

**Random play results in Negative Payoff Eight Nash E. : examples -->
**

ΠAi = ΠBl = 0

1

0 0

0 0 0 0

1

0 0

0 0 0 0

1

0 0 0 0

1

0 0 0 0

PAB

[ab]

**Inequitable Split in BoS sector
**

[00] ΠAi [00] ΠAi [00] ΠAi

1

0

1

0

= 0, = 3, = 1,

[00] ΠBl [00] ΠBl [00] ΠBl

=0 =1 =3

1

0

1

0

22

**Quantum Nash Equilibrium
**

**Maximally entangled state
**

π γ= 2 β0 − α0 = π/8 β1 − α0 = −5π/8 β0 − α1 = 3π/8

1 2 π τ = cos 2 8

1 2 π σ = sin 2 8

PAB

[ab]

**Beat classical logic
**

ΠAi = ΠBl

σ = 4√ 2 = 4τ

**Equitable Split in BoS sector
**

[00] ΠAi

=

[00] ΠBl

=0.427 =0.073

23

Bell Inequality

Gedanken experiment on dichotomic 2 x 2 system Alice spin measured in settings a = 0, 1, projection A = 0, 1 (sA=(-1)A) Bob spin measured in settings b = 0, 1, projection B = 0, 1 (sB=(-1)B) With Local Realism,

[00] P00 [00] P11

[ab] PAB

satisfy

[11] P11 [11] P00

− −

[10] P00 [10] P11

− −

[01] P00 [01] P11

− −

24

≤0 ≤0

Cereceda

**Bell & Quantum Nash
**

**Payoff of Cereceda Game
**

ΠAi

ΠBl

**Positive payoffs are result of nonlocal strategy Never achieved with classical strategies
**

25

1 [00] [10] [01] [11] = (P00 − P00 − P00 − P11 ) 4 3 [00] [10] [01] [11] + (P11 − P11 − P11 − P00 ) 4 3 [00] [10] [01] [11] = (P00 − P00 − P00 − P11 ) 4 1 [00] [10] [01] [11] + (P11 − P11 − P11 − P00 ) 4

1 -1

-1

-1

1 -1 -1

-1

**Anatomy of Quantum Move
**

Identify

[ab] P00 [ab] P10 [ab]

[a] P1

= sin α ,

2 [a]

[b] Q1

= sin2 β [b]

= cos = cos

2

2

**P01 = cos2 P11 = cos2
**

[ab]

γ [a] [b] P0 Q0 + sin2 2 γ [a] [b] P1 Q0 + sin2 2 γ [a] [b] P0 Q1 + sin2 2 γ [a] [b] P1 Q1 + sin2 2

γ [a] [b] P1 Q1 + cos φ sin γ 2 γ [a] [b] P0 Q1 − cos φ sin γ 2 γ [a] [b] P1 Q0 − cos φ sin γ 2 γ [a] [b] P0 Q0 + cos φ sin γ 2

P0 P1 Q0 Q1

[a]

[a]

[b]

[b]

[a] [a] [b] [b] P0 P1 Q0 Q1

P0 P1 Q0 Q1 P0 P1 Q0 Q1

[a] [a] [b]

[a]

[a]

[b]

[b]

[b]

**1st+2nd terms: Game-Symmetrizer / Altruism 3rd term: Quantum Interference / Nonlocality
**

|Φ = cos

26

γ γ |00 + eiφ sin |11 2 2

**Altruism and Nonlocality
**

**Altruism most visible in = /2, = /2 case
**

[ab] PAB

1 [a] [b] 1 [a] [b] = PA QB + PB QA 2 2

(since

[ab] MAB

=

[ab] LBA )

[ab] ΠAi

=

[ab] ΠBl

1 = 2

[ab] (MAB A,B

+

[ab] [a] [b] LAB )PA QB

**A local, thus classical correlation (“cheap talk”)
**

**Nonlocal and altruistic in = /2, = 0 case
**

[ab] ΠAi

=

A

[ab] MAA

cos (α −β ) +

2 [a] [b]

[ab] MAB A=B

sin2(α[a]−β [b] )

27

Some Observations

In joint probability formalism, Quantum Strategy is a natural extension of Classical Strategy Separation of control variable and probability -> Correlated and Nonlocal Strategies inclusive Concept of Control (strategy) and Gain (payoff) to Quantum Information and Quantum Metaphysics Mathematics mostly understood, now set for “practical” application!

28

**Future Directions (gen)
**

Do quantum game experiment! Dynamical (evolutionary) quantum game theory N player quantum games Application in auction, ﬁnance? Application in quantum information processing!

(proper 2-particle control to enhance desired phenomena)

29

**Future Directions (pro)
**

More general 2 player games (more C-ineq. exist) Other Schemes to generate quantum strategies Inclusion of mixed state (or already included?) General Hermitian game (or already in formalism?)

Aida

[ab] CT Scheme PAB

Rigoletto

J(γ1 , γ2 )

Bluebeard

α[a]

β [b]

30

References

T.Cheon Homepage http://www.mech.kochi-tech.ac.jp/cheon/ for complete references

A.Iqbal and T.Cheon, arXiv.org 0707.2868 [q-ph]. T.Cheon, Europhys. Lett. 69 (2005) 149-155. T.Cheon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 258105.

31

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