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1 ENERGY Man has needed and used energy at an increasing rate for its sustenance and wellbeing ever since he came on the earth a few million years ago. Primitive man required energy primarily in the form of food. Subsequently he discovered fire and his energy needs increased as he started to make use of wood and other bio mass to supply the energy needs for cooking as well as agriculture. He added a new dimension to the use of energy by domesticating and training animals to work for him. With further demand for energy, man began to use the wind for sailing ships and for driving windmills, and the force of failing water to turn water wheels. Till this time, it would not be wrong to say that the sun was supplying all the energy needs of man either directly or indirectly and that man was using only renewable sources of energy. 1.2 AVAILABLE RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY  Solar energy  Wind energy  Geo thermal energy  Bio energy

CHAPTER 2 SOLAR ENERGY 2.0 INTRODUCTION Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources for such most as wind and wave of the available

power, hydroelectricity and biomass,


renewable on earth. Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used. Solar powered electrical generation relies on heat engines and photovoltaic. Solar energy's uses are limited only by human ingenuity. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy.


2. Water Power Method Wind Power Method Bio Mass Method Wave Energy Method Ocean Power Method 3 .Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun. e. and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. Photo Voltaic Method Thermal Method 2. INDIRECT METHOD a. DIRECT METHOD a. b. d.1 METHODS OF UTILISATION OF SOLAR ENERGY 1. c. selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties. b.

which are used to convert sunlight to electricity by use of the photovoltaic effect. The reason for this rising interest lie in PV’s direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. are called solar cells. Energy conversion devices. The photo-voltaic effect is defined as the generation of an electromotive force as a result of the absorption of ionizing radiation. the nonpolluting nature of the PV widespread are of PV generation has been hampered by economic factors. PV generation can be justified only for special situations mostly for remote sites where utility lines on other conventional means of furnishing energy may be prohibitively expensive and is one of the most attractive non-conventional energy 4 . Here to force.1.2.1 DIRECT METHOD OF UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY: The most useful way of harnessing solar energy is by directly converting it into electricity by means of solar photo-voltaic cells. In the stage of conversion into thermodynamic from is absent. In recent years photo-voltaic power generation has been receiving considerable attention as one of the more promising energy alternatives. in this system of energy Conversion that is direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity. Sunshine is incident on Solar cells. At the present time. the low cost of conventional energy sunlight has obviated the development of a broad-based PV technology.

sources of proven reliability from the micro to the Mega-watt level. A junction of materials. Relatively high capital cost. 5 . which have different electrical properties. (1) (2) Absence of energy storage.1(b) PHOTO VOLTAIC METHOD: PHOTOVOLTAIC PRINCIPLES: The photo-voltaic effect can be observed in nature in a variety of materials that have shown that the best performance in sunlight is the semiconductors as stated above. Like other energy system this system also has some disadvantages Distributed nature of solar energy. provides the electric field in most solar cells. When photons from the sun are absorbed in a semiconductor. that create free electrons with higher energies than the created there must be an electric field to induce these higher energy electrons to flow out of the semi-conductor to do useful work. 2.

1 Photo voltaic cell and electricity generation 6 .Fig.

M.  To increase the power production in the solar panel by adding auto tracking mechanism. 3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM: LDR CONTROL CIRCUIT RELAY CIRCUIT P.CHAPTER 3 SOLAR PANEL AUTO TRACKING MECHANISM 3. D.0 NEED FOR AUTO TRACKING:  To increase the efficiency of the system.C MOTOR TRACKING MECHANISM SOLAR PANEL 7 .

The relay is activated. So the panel was tilting some angle depends upon the motor activating time. 8 . The comparator is giving the output voltages depends upon the two input voltage values. The OP-AMP 324 IC is used as a comparator.D.D. The Relay output is connected to the Permanent Magnet D.C) motor starts running. The P.e. The control circuit is used to activate/deactivate the relay circuit depends upon the input signal (i. Whenever the sun position changed.C. So this mechanism is called “AUTO TRACKING MECHANISM”.C motor coupled with chain drive to the solar panel. the Permanent Magnet D.M. output of LDR) of control circuit.3. In our circuit LDR is used as a sensor unit. The solar panel is tilted according to the sun movement. The LDRs output depends up on  Intensity of Sun Rays and  Direction of Sun Rays The LDR output is given to the control circuit. the control circuit is activated to the relay circuit. The resistance of the LDR is changes depend upon the light or fire intensity. The battery gives the input power supply of the sensor unit.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE: Light Depending Resister (LDR) is used as a light sensor. Motor (PMDC).M.C (P.

3. The LDR output is given to the OP-AMP pin number 3 (+ ive pin). The LDR light dependent resistor is varying resistance with light intensity. During the darkness the resistance of LDR shoots up to Meg ohm ranges. This will be mostly linear to the light intensity.ive pin) of 324 IC from the variable resistor (10 K Ohm). When LDR is illuminated by means of the sunlight.In our project one input voltage (Reference Voltages) is given to the PIN number 2 (.2(a) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: 9 . the resistance of LDR suddenly decreases (below 10 kilo ohm).

2(c) AT ABNORMAL CONDITION: In Abnormal condition the Resistance of the LDR is low due to intensity of the light or fire. the OP-AMP output is –Vsat. 10 . In that time.C.ive). In that time. The transistor and relay are in “ON” condition. +12 Volt). the D.3.C. In that time. motor is in ON condition. -12 Volt).2(b) AT NORMAL CONDITION: In normal condition the Resistance of the LDR is high. the D. the OP-AMP output is +Vsat. (I. In that condition. (I. The transistor and relay are in “OFF” condition. 3.e. The voltages applied to the non-inverting terminal (+ ive) is high when compared to the inverting terminal voltages (. The voltages applied to the non-inverting terminal (+ ive) is low when compared to the inverting terminal voltages (ive). Motor is in OFF position.e.

Fig.2 Construction diagram of solar panel auto tracking system 11 .


04 cm 3. Smaller reduction ratios are chosen to slow down the angular speed of panel’s rotation.FACTOR OF SAFETY = Theoretical value Actual value = 1/0. 6202 Outer Diameter of Bearing (D) Thickness of Bearing (B) Inner Diameter of the Bearing (d) = = = 13 35 mm 12 mm 15 mm .4 DESIGN OF BALL BEARING Bearing No.978 cm Gear ratio = TB TA = 80 = 4 20 =1/4 = 0.25 G Reduction ratio GRR That is for every four rotations of smaller gear larger gear rotates once.3 DESIGN OF SPUR GEAR Number of teeth on larger gear TB Number of teeth on smaller gear TA Diameter of larger gear Diameter of smaller gear DB dA GR = = = = 80 20 13.804 4.55432 = 1. 4.

r₁ r₁ Maximum Speed Mean Diameter (dm) = = = = = Corner radii on shaft and housing 1 (From design data book) 14.85 Ks = Wahl stress factor gives relationship between direct shear stress and radius of curvature of the ball bearings.3) -1 + 0.3 1.4(a) WAHL STRESS FACTOR 4C – 1 + 4C – 4 Ks = 0.65 (4 X 2.65 C = (4 X 2. 14 .3)-4 2.000 rpm (From design data book) (D + d) / 2 (35 + 15) / 2 25 mm dm = 4.

4.5 CATIA DESIGNS OF THE COMPONENTS Fig. 4 Catia model for panel mounting 15 . 3 Catia model of the stand Fig.

Fig. 5 Catia model of base plate Fig.7 Uni-graphics design of small gear 16 . 6 Catia model of larger gear Fig.

Lead-acid Battery C.D.1 List of materials used in construction of solar panel auto tracking 17 . ix. iii. ii. No.1 LIST OF MATERIALS: Sl. iv.CHAPTER 5 LIST OF MATERIALS 5. v.C Motor LDR Sensor Bolts & Nuts Control Unit Connecting Wire Table.I 12-V P.M. vi. i.C Electronic Electronics - Solar Panel Panel Stand Battery (12V D. PARTS Qty. vii. 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 - SPECIFICATION 12 X 6 Array M. viii.S.C) Gear Wheel D.

viii. Amount (Rs. 2 Cost estimation 18 . iii. ix. Solar Panel Panel Stand Battery (12V D. ii. iv.C Motor LDR Sensor Control Unit Connecting Wire Miscellaneous TOTAL 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 - 1500 600 900 650 1200 450 500 50 150 5850 Table.) i.6 COST ESTIMATION 6. PARTS Qty.C) Gear Wheel & bearing assembly D.1 MATERIAL COSTS: Sl. v.CHAPTER . vii. vi.No.

Soldering iron. high voltage fly killer. science laboratory apparatus..CHAPTER 7 ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ELECTRICITY 7. Electric drill. slide projector and etc.1 APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ELECTRICITY Solar modules are a good source of electricity because they are reliable simples to operate and do not require fuel. Jack pumps that lift water from a depth of 330m. Here is a list of energy: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Solar power calculator. Street lamp. The main application for solar electricity is in remote sunny areas that have no main electricity and the supply of fuel for generator is unreliable or expensive. sewing machine. 19 . Many appliances in homes and small institutions can be run on solar electricity.

since the solar Panel auto tracking get its energy requirements from the Non-renewable source of energy. There is no need of power from the mains and there is no pollution in this source of energy and addition to it there is no need of maintenance and man control it is very useful to the places like Rajasthan and some other remote areas.CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION In concluding the words of our project. timer and other controls. It is able to extend this project by using microprocessor. 20 .

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