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Public Disclosure Authorized

Public Disclosure Authorized

Public Disclosure Authorized

Public Disclosure Authorized

June 2004

NIGERIA FINAL DRAFT REV 1

West African Gas Pipeline

Environmental Impact Assessment

E981 v. 7

NIGERIA FINAL DRAFT REV 1

Environmental Impact Assessment


West African Gas Pipeline

Prepared for West African Pipeline Company June 2004

Disclosure Locations
Venues at which the Environmental Impact Assessments, Appendices, and Resettlement Action Plans and Other Documents Supporting the West African Gas Pipeline Project have been Disclosed to the Public are as Follows:
Country UNITED STATES NIGERIA Venue World Bank Offices MIGA WAGP EA Rep Office Lagos State Ministry of Environment Ogun State Ministry of Environment Liaison Office Federal Ministry of Environment Liaison Office Federal Ministry of Environment Badagry Local Government Office Ado Odo Ota Local Government Office Ifo Local Government Office Ogun State Ministry of Lands and Housing Lagos State Lands Bureau Federal Ministry of Environment WAGP EA Rep Office Ministre de lEnvironnement et des Ressources Forestires Gbetsogbe Palace Domocile du chef traditionnel Baguida Ministre de lnergie et des Ressources Hydrauliques Ministry of Land Affairs WAGP EA Rep Office Documentation Center of the Ministry of Environment, of Habitat and Urbanism (MEHU) Beninese Agency for Environment (ABE) Documentation Center of Ministry of Mines, Energy and Hydraulic (MMEH) Mayoralty of Abomey-Calavi Mayoralty of Ouidah Institute of Endogenous Development and Exchanges (IDEE) Documentation Center of the University of Abomey-Calavi WAGP EA Rep Office EPA Library Greater Accra Regional Coordinating Council EPA Greater Accra Regional Office Accra Metropolitan Assembly Shama Ahanta East Metropolitan Assembly EPA Central Regional Office Central Regional Coordinating Council Western Regional Coordinating Council EPA Zonal Office Tema Municipal Assembly EPA Western Regional Office Volta Regional Coordinating Council EPA Volta Regional Office Ghana EPA Location Washington, DC Washington, DC Lagos Lagos Abeokuta Lagos Abeokuta Badagry Ado Odo Ota Ifo Abeokuta Lagos Abuja Lom Lom Gbetsogbe Gbetsogbe Baguida Lom Lom Cotonou Cotonou Cotonou Cotonou Abomey-Calavi Ouidah Ouidah Abomey-Calavi Tema Accra Accra Amasaman Accra Sekondi Cape-Coast Cape-Coast Sekondi Tema Tema Sekondi Ho Ho Accra

TOGO

BENIN

GHANA

Table of Contents
Acronyms and Abbreviations Authors and Contributions Acknowledgements Executive Summary ......................................................................................................... ES-1 Project Benefits...................................................................................................... ES-1 Project Description................................................................................................. ES-4 Pipeline and Facilities ................................................................................ ES-4 Construction............................................................................................... ES-6 Alternatives ............................................................................................................ ES-7 Baseline Information.............................................................................................. ES-8 Natural Environment.................................................................................. ES-8 Onshore ...................................................................................................... ES-8 Offshore ..................................................................................................... ES-9 Human Environment................................................................................ ES-10 Impacts and Mitigation ........................................................................................ ES-11 Impacts..................................................................................................... ES-11 Emergency and Upset Conditions............................................................ ES-14 Secondary and Cumulative Impacts......................................................... ES-15 Mitigation................................................................................................. ES-16 Results...................................................................................................... ES-18 Management and Monitoring Plan....................................................................... ES-22 Summary and Conclusion .................................................................................... ES-22 Chapter 1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 1-1 1.1 Project Overview .......................................................................................... 1-1 1.2 Project Justification....................................................................................... 1-7 1.2.1 WAGP Benefits for Nigeria.............................................................. 1-7 1.2.2 Project Implementation................................................................... 1-15 1.3 Legal and Policy Framework ...................................................................... 1-16 1.3.1 Introduction..................................................................................... 1-16 1.3.2 Major Environmental Regulations.................................................. 1-19 1.3.3 Relationship of Project to World Bank Safeguard Policies and OPIC Prohibitions. ................................................................... 1-27 Chapter 2 Project Description ........................................................................................... 2-1 Summary for West African Gas Pipeline in Nigeria ................................................ 2-1 2.1 General Layout and Physical Description..................................................... 2-2 2.2 Natural Gas Sources (Upstream of WAGP)............................................ 2-10 2.3 Natural Gas Consumption (Downstream of WAGP) .............................. 2-12 2.4 Facility and Process Description................................................................. 2-14 2.4.1 Alagbado Tee .............................................................................. 2-15 2.4.2 Onshore Mainline in Nigeria .......................................................... 2-26 2.4.3 Lagos Beach Compressor Station and Primary Control System .... 2-31 2.4.4 Offshore Main Trunk Line and Laterals ......................................... 2-47

Table of Contents

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

2.10

2.11 2.12

2.13

2.4.5 R&M Stations and Onshore Portions of Laterals and Trunk.......... 2-49 Solid and Hazardous Waste from Pipeline Operations............................... 2-49 2.5.1 Domestic Solid Waste..................................................................... 2-50 2.5.2 Non-Hazardous Industrial Solid Waste .......................................... 2-50 2.5.3 Hazardous Waste ............................................................................ 2-50 2.5.4 Semi-Solid Waste............................................................................ 2-51 Operational Control and Safety Systems .................................................... 2-51 2.6.1 Operational Control Systems .......................................................... 2-51 2.6.2 Fire and Gas Detection and Protection Systems ............................. 2-53 2.6.3 Emergency Shutdown Systems....................................................... 2-53 2.6.4 Venting, Flaring, and Blowdown.................................................... 2-57 Design and Other Pre-Construction Activities ........................................... 2-59 2.7.1 Front End Engineering Design (FEED).......................................... 2-59 2.7.2 Design Basis: Philosophy and Standards........................................ 2-60 2.7.3 Other Pre-construction Activities ................................................... 2-62 Construction................................................................................................ 2-63 2.8.1 Alagbado Tee .............................................................................. 2-64 2.8.2 Onshore Pipeline and Marshalling Yards ....................................... 2-65 2.8.3 Lagos Beach Compressor Station and Primary Control System .... 2-87 2.8.4 Shore Crossings .............................................................................. 2-94 2.8.5 Offshore Main Trunk ...................................................................... 2-97 2.8.6 R&M Stations ............................................................................... 2-100 2.8.7 Weight Coating Plant.................................................................... 2-100 Commissioning ......................................................................................... 2-102 2.9.1 Flooding, Cleaning, Gauging, and Reflooding ............................. 2-102 2.9.2 Hydrostatic Testing....................................................................... 2-103 2.9.3 Dewatering and Drying................................................................. 2-103 2.9.4 Air Expulsion and Nitrogen Packing ............................................ 2-105 2.9.5 Hiring and Training....................................................................... 2-105 2.9.6 Ongoing Maintenance and Testing ............................................... 2-105 2.9.7 Regulatory Review and Participation ........................................... 2-105 Start-up...................................................................................................... 2-106 2.10.1 Line Fill with Gas ......................................................................... 2-106 2.10.2 Ongoing Maintenance and Testing ............................................... 2-106 2.10.3 Regulatory Review and Participation ........................................... 2-106 Pipeline Operations................................................................................... 2-106 Decommissioning and Abandonment ....................................................... 2-107 2.12.1 Alagbado Tee ............................................................................ 2-107 2.12.2 Onshore Pipeline........................................................................... 2-108 2.12.3 Compressor Station....................................................................... 2-108 2.12.4 Offshore Pipeline .......................................................................... 2-108 2.12.5 R&M Stations ............................................................................... 2-108 Remaining Uncertainties........................................................................... 2-108

Chapter 3 Project Alternatives .......................................................................................... 3-1 3.1 Introduction................................................................................................... 3-1 3.2 Project Alternatives....................................................................................... 3-2
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3.3 3.4

3.5

3.6

3.2.1 World Bank Regional Energy Sector Project Alternatives............... 3-2 3.2.2 EIA Project-Level Alternatives......................................................... 3-3 World Bank Regional Energy Sector Alternatives Analysis ........................ 3-4 EIA Project-Level Alternatives Analysis...................................................... 3-6 3.4.1 No-Project Alternative ...................................................................... 3-9 3.4.2 The Proposed Project Alternative: Developing a Gas Pipeline and Piping Gas from Nigeria to Benin, Togo, and Ghana ................ 3-9 3.4.3 Power Generation and Delivery Alternative: Developing Gas-Powered Electricity Generating Stations in Nigeria, and Transmitting the Electrical Power to Benin, Ghana, and Togo ...... 3-10 3.4.4 Natural Gas Fuel Export Alternative: Converting the Gas to LNG or CNG and Exporting via Tanker or Road from Nigeria to Benin, Togo, and Ghana ................................................................. 3-11 3.4.5 Renewable Fuels Alternative: Meeting Electricity Generating Demands in Benin, Ghana, and Togo with Renewable Resources (Hydropower, Solar, Wind, Agrofuels) ...................................................... 3-12 3.4.6 Project-Level Alternatives Rankings .............................................. 3-13 Overall Pipeline Routing Options............................................................... 3-18 3.5.1 Onshore Option............................................................................... 3-20 3.5.2 Offshore Option .............................................................................. 3-21 3.5.3 Onshore/Offshore Option Selected Overall Routing Option ....... 3-21 3.5.4 Comparison and Selection of Proposed Option .............................. 3-22 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 3-23

Chapter 4 Project Design Alternatives ............................................................................. 4-1 4.1 Introduction................................................................................................... 4-1 4.2 Evaluation Criteria for Alternatives.............................................................. 4-1 4.3 Routing Options from Existing Gas Transmission Network to Coastal Compressor Station................................................................................................... 4-8 4.3.1 Selection Criteria for Onshore Route from Alagbado Tee to Compressor Station Site................................................................................ 4-8 4.3.2 Onshore Routing Options within Nigeria ......................................... 4-8 4.3.3 Extending Pipeline Onshore for Gas Delivery to Benin................. 4-12 4.4 Onshore Lateral and R&M Station Alternatives......................................... 4-15 4.4.1 Onshore Lateral and R&M Station Alternatives in Benin .............. 4-15 4.4.2 Onshore Lateral Alternatives in Togo............................................. 4-15 4.5 Design Considerations ................................................................................ 4-16 4.5.1 Sizing of Offshore Pipeline and Midline Compression Facilities .. 4-16 4.5.2 Future Compression Facilities at Takoradi ..................................... 4-16 4.6 Construction................................................................................................ 4-16 4.6.1 Pipeline Construction Methods....................................................... 4-16 4.6.2 Equipment Transport to Compressor Station.................................. 4-17 4.6.3 Ancillary Facility Construction....................................................... 4-18 4.7 Commissioning and Start-up....................................................................... 4-20 4.7.1 Treatment of Hydrotest Water Prior to Discharge.......................... 4-20 4.7.2 Discharge of Hydrotest Water ........................................................ 4-20 4.8 Project Operations....................................................................................... 4-20
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4.8.1 Liquid Storage Tanks...................................................................... 4-20 4.8.2 Waste Management......................................................................... 4-20 4.8.3 Sanitary Waste Water Disposal ...................................................... 4-21 4.8.4 Stormwater Management ................................................................ 4-21 4.8.5 Utilities............................................................................................ 4-21 Chapter 5 Existing Situation.............................................................................................. 5-1 Overview................................................................................................................... 5-1 Natural Environment..................................................................................... 5-1 Onshore ......................................................................................................... 5-1 Offshore ........................................................................................................ 5-2 Human Environment..................................................................................... 5-3 5.1 Existing Environment and Resources ........................................................... 5-3 5.1.1 Onshore Environment ....................................................................... 5-7 5.1.2 Offshore Environment .................................................................... 5-58 5.1.3 Ecologically Sensitive Areas .......................................................... 5-94 5.2 Existing Socioeconomic Situation .............................................................. 5-94 5.2.1 Introduction on Data Sources and SIA Methodology..................... 5-94 5.2.2 Background and Geographic Detail................................................ 5-96 5.2.3 Macroeconomic Overview.............................................................. 5-99 5.2.4 Population and Demographics National, Regional, and Local .... 5-99 5.2.5 Ethnic and Cultural Background................................................... 5-102 5.2.6 Historical and Cultural Resources ................................................ 5-104 5.2.7 Infrastructure and Quality of Life ................................................. 5-105 5.2.8 Education ...................................................................................... 5-107 5.2.9 Land Tenure and Residential Ownership...................................... 5-108 5.2.10 Land and Water Use...................................................................... 5-109 5.2.11 Energy Consumption .................................................................... 5-110 5.2.12 Microeconomic Situation.............................................................. 5-111 5.3 Existing Public Health Situation............................................................... 5-119 5.3.1 Health Infrastructure ..................................................................... 5-120 5.3.2 Health Indicators........................................................................... 5-123 5.3.3 Food and Nutrition........................................................................ 5-124 5.4 Existing Safety Situation........................................................................... 5-124 5.4.1 Overview....................................................................................... 5-124 5.4.2 Institutions Responsible for Health Care Delivery ....................... 5-125 5.4.3 Institutions Responsible for Fire Fighting .................................... 5-126 5.4.4 Institutions Responsible for Disaster Management ...................... 5-127 5.5 Stakeholder Consultations ........................................................................ 5-127 5.6 Oversight and Monitoring Agencies......................................................... 5-130 Chapter 6 Impact Assessment............................................................................................ 6-1 Overview................................................................................................................... 6-1 Beneficial Impacts ........................................................................................ 6-1 Direct Negative Impacts ............................................................................... 6-2 Emergency and Upset Conditions................................................................. 6-5 Secondary and Cumulative Impacts.............................................................. 6-6
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6.1 6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.8

6.9

Introduction................................................................................................... 6-6 Project Activities and Affected Media.......................................................... 6-8 6.2.1 Project Activities............................................................................... 6-8 6.2.2 Affected Media ................................................................................. 6-9 Comprehensive Impacts Identification/Screening ...................................... 6-11 6.3.1 Overview......................................................................................... 6-11 6.3.2 Impact Identification Process.......................................................... 6-11 6.3.3 Impact Screening/Identification of Focus Areas............................. 6-12 6.3.4 Impact Screening Results................................................................ 6-13 Impact Severity Assessment Methodology................................................. 6-19 6.4.1 Significance Criteria ....................................................................... 6-19 6.4.2 Likelihood Criteria.......................................................................... 6-29 6.4.3 Severity Matrix and Conclusions.................................................... 6-29 6.4.4 Application of the Severity Assessment Methodology................... 6-30 6.4.5 Uncertainties ................................................................................... 6-32 Beneficial Impacts ...................................................................................... 6-32 6.5.1 Beneficial Environmental Impacts.................................................. 6-37 6.5.2 Beneficial Socioeconomic Impacts................................................. 6-37 6.5.3 Community Development/Health and Safety Benefits................... 6-44 Potential Onshore Impacts .......................................................................... 6-46 6.6.1 Site Preparation and Construction .................................................. 6-46 6.6.2 Commissioning and Start-up......................................................... 6-179 6.6.3 Operations and Maintenance......................................................... 6-184 6.7.2 Commissioning and Start-up......................................................... 6-220 6.7.3 Operations and Maintenance......................................................... 6-224 6.7.4 Decommissioning ......................................................................... 6-227 Emergency and Upset Conditions............................................................. 6-227 6.8.1 Controlled Gas Release................................................................. 6-228 6.8.2 Uncontrolled Gas Release............................................................. 6-228 6.8.3 Fire ................................................................................................ 6-232 6.8.4 Explosion ...................................................................................... 6-233 6.8.5 Offshore Fuel Spills ...................................................................... 6-235 Secondary and Cumulative Impacts.......................................................... 6-236 6.9.1 Environmental Secondary Impacts ............................................... 6-236 6.9.2 Socioeconomic Secondary Impacts .............................................. 6-239 6.9.3 Upstream Development Impacts................................................... 6-239 6.9.4 Health and Safety Secondary Impacts .......................................... 6-241 6.9.5 Cumulative Impacts ...................................................................... 6-241

Chapter 7 Mitigation and Amelioration Measures.......................................................... 7-1 7.1 Introduction................................................................................................... 7-1 7.2 Required General Mitigation Measures ........................................................ 7-3 7.3 Required Specific Mitigation Measures........................................................ 7-3 7.4 Potential Mitigation Measures .................................................................... 7-20 7.4.1 Utilize Horizontal Directional Drilling for Wetland Crossings...... 7-20 7.4.2 Perform the Shore Crossing from the North Side of the Lagos Lagoon Thus Avoiding the Barrier Island ...................................... 7-22
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7.4.3

Residual High Impacts from Onshore Construction in Nigeria...... 7-22

Chapter 8 Health, Safety, and Environmental Management Plan................................. 8-1 8.1 Health, Safety, and Environmental Management System ............................ 8-3 8.1.1 Operational Controls......................................................................... 8-5 8.1.2 Change Management ...................................................................... 8-11 8.1.3 Biological and Cultural Resource Chance Finds ............................ 8-13 8.2 Monitoring .................................................................................................. 8-14 8.2.1 Performance/Implementation Monitoring ...................................... 8-14 8.2.2 Empirical Monitoring...................................................................... 8-14 8.2.3 Monitoring Oversight Responsibilities ........................................... 8-20 8.3 WAPCo Human Resources, Roles, Responsibilities, and Authority.......... 8-20 8.4 EPC Contractors.......................................................................................... 8-25 8.5 Government Regulatory Agencies.............................................................. 8-27 8.6 Financial Resources .................................................................................... 8-28 8.7 Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building..................................... 8-30 8.8 Reporting..................................................................................................... 8-30 8.9 Health, Safety, and Environment Management Plan Sections ................... 8-32 8.9.1 Land Use ......................................................................................... 8-32 8.9.2 Topography, Geology, and Soils .................................................... 8-36 8.9.3 Habitats, Biological Resources, Water Resources, and Hydrology ....................................................................................... 8-41 8.9.4 Air Quality ...................................................................................... 8-49 8.9.5 Solid, Liquid, and Hazardous Waste............................................... 8-54 8.9.6 Cultural Conditions......................................................................... 8-58 8.9.7 Socioeconomic Conditions ............................................................. 8-62 8.9.8 Public and Worker Health and Safety............................................. 8-67 8.9.9 Emergency Preparedness and Response ......................................... 8-71 Chapter 9 Nigeria Conclusion............................................................................................ 9-1

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References Appendices Appendix 1-A: Appendix 1-B: EIA Terms of Reference Applicable Local and International Regulations

Appendix 2A-1: Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analyses Appendix 2A-2: Natural Gas Sources and Transmission Infrastructure (Upstream of WAGP) Appendix 2-B: Appendix 2-C: Appendix 2-D: Appendix 2-E: Appendix 2-F: Appendix 5-A: Appendix 5-B: Appendix 5-C: Appendix 5-D: Appendix 6-A: Appendix 6-B: Appendix 6-C: Appendix 7-A: Appendix 7-B: Appendix 8-A: Appendix 8-B: WAGP Waste Estimates WAGP ROW Access Policy Onshore-Offshore Commissioning Procedures and Specifications List Onshore-Offshore Technical Specifications List Potential Hazardous Materials First Season EBS Second Season EBS SPI Study Report Stakeholder Consultations Anchor Handling Air Quality Impact Assessment Qualitative Risk Assessments Mitigation Measures for Baobab Tree in Tema HIV/AIDS Policy Project Execution Plan Chapter 15: HSE Plan Operational Controls

8B1.0 Tier 1: WAGP HSE Policy Statement 8B2.0 Tier 2: WAGP HSE Management System Procedures 8B2.1 WAGP External Communications Procedures (To Be Developed) 8B2.2 HES Training 8B2.3 HES Audit Protocol 8B2.4 WAGP Management of Change 8B2.5 WAGP Compliance and Permitting Plan 8B2.5.1 WAGP Project Authorizations 8B2.5.2 WAGP Pipelines Hydrotesting Discharge Ecotoxicity Testing Plan (Rev A) 8B2.5.3 WAGP Waste Water Discharge Controls (To Be Developed) 8B2.5.4 WAGP Stormwater Management Plan 8B2.5.5 WAGP Air Emissions Management Procedure
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8B2.5.6 WAGP Project Execution Plan Chapter 21: Operations Plan 8B2.6 WAGP Waste Management Plan 8B2.7 Emergency Response 8B2.7.1 WAGP Spill Prevention and Control Procedure 8B2.8 WAGP Habitat, Biological, Cultural Resource Management Procedures 8B 2.8.1 ROW Reinstatement Criteria 8B 2.8.2 Proposed Wetland PL Construction Methods Study 8B 2.8.3 WAGP Sea Turtle Nesting Protection Procedure 8B 2.8.4 WAGP Chance Finds and Archeological Salvage Procedure 8B 2.8.5 WAGP Anchor Handling 8B 2.8.6 WAGP Procedure for Preventing Salt Water Intrusion into Fresh Water Lagoons and Creeks 8B2.9 Incident Investigation Procedure 8B3.0 WAGP Land Acquisition and Right of Way (ROW) Management Procedure 8B3.1 WAGP Resettlement Action Plan 8B3.2 WAGP ROW Access Policy 8B4.0 Risk Management 8B4.1 Onshore Pipeline and Facilities Design Basis 8B4.2 WAGP Environmental Design Basis 8B4.3 WAGP Loss Prevention Design Basis 8B4.4 Onshore Offshore Specifications List 8B5.0 WAGP Contractor Management Procedures 8B5.1 Exhibit F: HSE Standards 8B5.2 Exhibit N: WAGP Security Plan 8B5.3 Exhibit K: Drugs Standard-IFT Appendix 8-C: Environmental and Social Advisory Panel Terms of Reference

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List of Figures
Figure ES-1 Figure 1.1-1 Figure 1.1-2 Figure 1.1-4 Figure 2.1-1 Figure 2.1-2 Figure 2.4-1 Figure 2.4-2 Figure 2.4-3 Figure 2.4-4 Figure 2.4-5 Figure 2.4-6 Figure 2.8-1 Figure 2.8-2 Figure 2.8-3 Figure 2.8-4 Figure 2.8-5 Figure 2.8-6 Figure 2.8-7 Figure 2.8-8 Figure 3.5-1 Figure 4.3-1 Figure 4.3-2 Figure 5.1-1 Figure 5.1-2 Figure 5.1-3 Figure 5.1-4 West Africa Gas Pipeline Project Area....................................................... ES-2 West African Gas Pipeline Project Route...................................................... 1-2 WAGP Onshore Route in Nigeria.................................................................. 1-3 WAGP Reserved Capacity No VALCO Scenario .................................. 1-7 Proposed Pipeline Route ................................................................................ 2-3 Overall WAGP System Schematic Diagram ................................................. 2-7 Alagbado Site Location................................................................................ 2-17 Alagbado Tie-in Site .................................................................................... 2-21 Pipeline Route in Relation to Tee and Compressor Station ..................... 2-27 Compressor Station Site Location ............................................................... 2-32 Compressor Station Configuration .............................................................. 2-35 Flare Stack Location in Compressor Station ............................................... 2-41 Proposed Road Transport Route from Lagos............................................... 2-67 Pipeline Installation Methods in Uplands: Trenching ................................. 2-73 Pipeline Installation Methods for Road Crossings: Thrust Boring.............. 2-74 Typical Trenching Operation in Wetlands................................................... 2-79 Typical HDD Operation............................................................................... 2-81 Approximate Location of Temporary Unloading Facility and Access Road Relative to Compressor Station .......................................................... 2-89 Typical Temporary Dock Construction ....................................................... 2-91 Shore Crossing by HDD .............................................................................. 2-95 Overall Routing Options .............................................................................. 3-20 Routing Options in Nigeria: East-of-Lagos and West-of-Lagos Routes A, B and C...................................................................................................... 4-9 Benin Onshore Routing Alternatives ........................................................... 4-13 Location of the WAGP Project Within Nigeria from Alagbado Tee to Badagry...................................................................................................... 5-4 Onshore Sampling Locations in Nigeria........................................................ 5-6 Borehole Lithology ...................................................................................... 5-13 Direction of Groundwater Flow................................................................... 5-13

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Figure 5.1-5 Figure 5.1-6 Figure 5.1-7 Figure 5.1-8 Figure 5.1-9

Diurnal Variation in Ambient Air and Tidal Water Temperature in the Project Area ................................................................................................. 5-25 Water Temperature Related to Air Temperature in the Project Area .......... 5-26 Overall Mean Values of Pollutant Gases and Noise Levels Obtained at the Compressor Site Dry Season EBS ...................................................... 5-33 Offshore Stations Surface Water Metal Concentrations for Nigeria.......... 5-62 Offshore Stations Surface Water Nutrient Concentrations for Nigeria...... 5-62

Figure 5.1-10 Offshore Stations Surface Water Alkalinity and COD Concentrations for Nigeria.................................................................................................... 5-63 Figure 5.1-11 Distribution of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons for Nigeria Station N04C............. 5-64 Figure 5.1-12 Comparison of Mean PAHs Across Nigeria Sampling Locations............... 5-65 Figure 5.1-13 Distribution of Total Phytoplankton Abundance at Sampling Stations Off Nigeria ................................................................................................... 5-69 Figure 5.1-14 Distribution of Total Zooplankton Abundance at Sampling Stations Off Nigeria.......................................................................................................... 5-69 Figure 5.1-15 Distribution of Species Richness (S) by Country - Wet Season EBS.......... 5-70 Figure 5.1-16 Benthic Macrofauna Distribution on Main Pipeline Route in Nigeria ........ 5-72 Figure 5.1-17 Offshore Benthic Macrofauna Diversity Index Distribution on Main Pipeline Route in Nigeria............................................................................. 5-72 Figure 5.1-18 Benthic Macrofauna Distribution Along the Nigeria Lateral ...................... 5-73 Figure 5.1-19 Offshore Benthic Macrofauna Diversity Index Along the Nigeria Lateral .......................................................................................................... 5-73 Figure 5.1-20 Occurrence of Dominant Sedentary Polychaetes Across Countries ............ 5-74 Figure 5.1-21 Occurrence of Dominant Errant Polychaetes Across Countries .................. 5-75 Figure 5.1-22 Occurrence of Dominant Sedentary Polychaetes for the Entire Offshore Study Area ................................................................................................... 5-75 Figure 5.1-23 Occurrence of Dominant Errant Polychaetes for the Entire Offshore Study Area ................................................................................................... 5-76 Figure 5.1-24 Offshore Benthic Macrofauna Distribution Along the Diagonal of Nigeria Wet Season EBS .......................................................................... 5-77 Figure 5.1-25 Offshore Benthic Macrofauna Diversity index Distribution Along the Nigeria Diagonal Wet Season EBS........................................................... 5-77 Figure 5.1-26 Abundance and Distribution of Major Macrobenthic Fauna Group at Replicate Stations......................................................................................... 5-78 Figure 5.1-27 Distribution of Diversity at Replicate Stations ............................................ 5-78

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Figure 5.1-28 Catch Rates Along Pipeline in Nigeria ........................................................ 5-80 Figure 5.1-29 Catch Rates at Indicated Depth Ranges Along the Laterals ........................ 5-81 Figure 5.1-30 Shannon Diversity Index of Fisheries Species Along the Laterals and Main Pipeline ............................................................................................... 5-82 Figure 5.1-31 Shannon Diversity Index Values Wet Season EBS ................................... 5-83 Figure 5.1-32 Catch Rates by Depth Range on the Laterals Wet Season EBS ............... 5-84 Figure 5.1-33 Catch Rates at Stations off Nigeria Wet Season EBS............................... 5-85 Figure 5.1-34 Catch Rates at Stations Along Main WAGP Pipeline Route Wet Season EBS .......................................................................................... 5-85 Figure 5.1-35 Black Tern.................................................................................................... 5-86 Figure 5.1-36 Royal Tern ................................................................................................... 5-86 Figure 5.1-37 Humpback Whale......................................................................................... 5-87 Figure 5.1-38 Humpback Whale Breaching ....................................................................... 5-87 Figure 5.2-1 Figure 5.2-2 Figure 6.1-1 Figure 6.4-3 Figure 6.6-1 Figure 6.6-2 Figure 6.6-3 Figure 6.6-4 Figure 6.6-5 Figure 6.6-6 Figure 6.6-7 Figure 6.6-8 Figure 6.6-9 Communities Map for Onshore Pipeline Route, Nigeria............................. 5-97 West African Gas Pipeline Equipment/Material Delivery Route .............. 5-106 Impact Assessment Methodology .................................................................. 6-7 Severity Matrix ............................................................................................ 6-30 Land Use in Nigeria Project Area................................................................ 6-53 ypical Upland ROW Land Cover................................................................. 6-55 Current Land Cover at Proposed Compressor Station Site.......................... 6-61 Location of Horizontal Direction Drilling Footprint ................................... 6-69 Alagbado Tee Existing Installation .......................................................... 6-76 Thrust-boring for Road-Crossing................................................................. 6-85 ...................................................................................................................... 6-86 ...................................................................................................................... 6-86 ...................................................................................................................... 6-87

Figure 6.6-10 ...................................................................................................................... 6-87 Figure 6.6-11 Options for Transport of Heavy Equipment to Compressor Station.......... 6-137 Figure 6.6-12 Transportation Routes in Nigeria............................................................... 6-143 Figure 6.7-1 Small Fishing Boat Typical of Nearshore Area (observed in Ghana) ....... 6-202

Figure 6.7-2a Plankton Sampling During the First Season Offshore Baseline Survey.... 6-204

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Figure 6.7-2b Plankton Sampling During the First Season Offshore Baseline Survey.... 6-204 Figure 6.7-3 Documenting Water Quality (Color) During First Season EBS................ 6-212

Figure 8.3-1a WAPCo HSE Organization Chart............................................................... 8-20 Figure 8.3-1b WAGP Construction Management Agreement Organization..................... 8-21 Figure 8.3-1c WAPCo O&M Organization, Phase 4/5 ..................................................... 8-21

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List of Tables
Table ES-1 Table 1.2-1 Table 1.2-2 Table 1.2-3 Table 1.3-1 Table 1.3-2 Table 1.3-3 Table 1.3-4 Table 2.1-1 Table 2.1-2 Table 2.2-1 Table 2.2-2 Table 2.2-3 Table 2.3-1 Table 2.3-2 Table 2.3-3 Table 2.4-1 Table 2.4-2 Table 2.4-3 Table 2.4-4 Table 2.4-5 Table 2.6-1 Table 2.7-1 Summary of WAGP Project High and Moderate Severity Impact by Project Activity, Planned Mitigation, and Residual Impact Severity ....... ES-19 Basic Development Indicators ....................................................................... 1-8 Value of Global Warming Damages Avoided ............................................. 1-12 Estimated Air Pollutant Emission Reductions due to WAGP ..................... 1-13 National/Local Legislation Relevant to the Federal Republic of Nigeria.... 1-17 Summary of Relevant Regional and International Regulatory Instruments 1-18 WAGP and World Bank Safeguard Issues .................................................. 1-28 WAGP and OPIC Prohibitions .................................................................... 1-34 Pipeline Lengths and Lateral Sizes ................................................................ 2-6 Ancillary Systems and Facilities and Their Locations .................................. 2-9 Predicted Fuel Gas Compositions................................................................ 2-11 Predicted Fuel Gas Property ........................................................................ 2-12 WAGP Gas Pipeline Receipt Gas Quality Specification............................. 2-12 Expected Gas Delivery Demand.................................................................. 2-13 High-Case Demand and Maximum Capacity of Pipeline............................ 2-13 Foundation Customer Developments........................................................... 2-14 ...................................................................................................................... 2-15 Nigeria Onshore Pipeline............................................................................. 2-26 Lagos Beach Compressor Station ................................................................ 2-31 Blowdown Volume and Rates at the Compressor Station ........................... 2-43 Offshore Pipeline ......................................................................................... 2-47 Blowdown Volume and Rates for All Segments ......................................... 2-58 Preliminary Engineering Phase Reviews ..................................................... 2-59

Table 2.7-2 Design Codes for Major Pipeline Components ................................................ 2-61 Table 2.8-1 Table 2.8-2 Table 2.8-3 Table 2.8-4 Raw Materials Required for Construction of Tee Facilities..................... 2-65 Occurrence of Road Crossings During Onshore Pipeline Installation in Nigeria ..................................................................................................... 2-77 Occurrence of River, Stream and Wetland Crossings in Nigeria ................ 2-84 Raw Materials Required for Installation of Onshore Pipeline..................... 2-86

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Table 2.8-5 Table 2.8-6 Table 2.8-7 Table 2.8-8 Table 2.8-9 Table 2.9-1 Table 2.9-2

Raw Materials Required for Construction of Lagos Beach Facilities ......... 2-94 Raw Materials Required for Installation of Shore Crossings by HDD........ 2-97 Raw Materials Required for Installation of Offshore Pipeline .................. 2-100 Raw Materials Required for Line Pipe Coating (30in pipe) ...................... 2-101 Wastes Generated....................................................................................... 2-102 Location and Volume of Water Displacement/Discharge ......................... 2-103 Location and Volume of Hydrotest Water Discharge................................ 2-104

Table 2.13-1 Remaining Uncertainties............................................................................ 2-109 Table 3.3-1 Table 3.4-1 Table 3.4-2 Table 3.4-3 Table 3.5-1 Table 4.1-1 Table 5.1-1 Table 5.1-2 Table 5.1-3 Table 5.1-4 Table 5.1-5 Table 5.1-6 World Bank Draft EFA Summary of Alternatives ........................................ 3-7 Cost Comparison of Fuels............................................................................ 3-13 Comparative Assessment of Project-Level Alternatives ............................. 3-14 Comparative Evaluation of Project-level Alternatives ................................ 3-19 Overall Routing Options Critical Factors ................................................. 3-22 Overview of Alternatives Relating to Design Aspects .................................. 4-2 Land Cover Estimates for Proposed ROW .................................................... 5-7 Broad Community Characterizations in the Project Area.............................. 5-7 Sedimentary Formations in the Overall Nigeria Onshore Project Area ...... 5-10 Summary of the Hydrogeophysical Characteristics at the Six VES Stations......................................................................................................... 5-12 Groundwater Trace Metals Concentrations (ppm)* .................................... 5-14 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content (ppm) of the Groundwater at the Proposed Compressor Station Site ..................................................... 5-14

Table 5.1-7a Mean Particle Size Distribution of Soils from the Different Habitats Within the Coastal Area............................................................................... 5-16 Table 5.1-7b Average Chemical Characteristics of Soils in the Different Habitats Within the Coastal Area Dry Season EBS................................................ 5-16 Table 5.1-7c Average Chemical Characteristics of Soils in the Different Habitats Within the Barrier Island (Coastal Area) Wet Season EBS...................... 5-17 Table 5.1-8 Table 5.1-9 Heavy Metal Concentrations (ppm) of Soils in the Different Habitats Within the Coastal Area............................................................................... 5-17 Mean Particle Size Distribution of Soils from Habitats Within the Inland Area............................................................................................. 5-19

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Table 5.1-10a Average Chemical Characteristics of Soils in Habitats Within the Inland Area Dry Season EBS.................................................................... 5-19 Table 5.1-10b The Average Chemical Characteristics of Soils in the Different Habitats Within the Inland Area Wet Season EBS ................................................. 5-20 Table 5.1-11 Heavy Metal Concentrations (ppm) of Soils in the Different Habitats Within the Coastal Area............................................................................... 5-20 Table 5.1-12a Water Bodies Surveyed in January 2003 ..................................................... 5-22 Table 5.1-12b Physical Characteristics of Water in the Study Area (January 2003).......... 5-23 Table 5.1-13 Summary of Physical Characteristics of Water from Water Bodies Surveyed in the Study Area (January 2003) ................................................ 5-23 Table 5.1-14 Descriptive Statistics of Water Temperature in the Study Area (Morning and Afternoon)............................................................................. 5-24 Table 5.1-15 Parameters and Major Ions in the Investigated Water Bodies*................... 5-26 Table 5.1-16 Salinity Parameters and the Major Ions of the Major Water Bodies in the Project Area ....................................................................................... 5-27 Table 5.1-17 Project Area Water Body* Oxygen and Nutrient Compounds by Sample.......................................................................................................... 5-28 Table 5.1-18 Oxygen and Nutrient Compounds in Major Water Bodies* in the Project Area ................................................................................................. 5-28 Table 5.1-19 Descriptive Statistics of Heavy Metal Content of the Investigated Water Bodies*.............................................................................................. 5-29 Table 5.1-20 Heavy Metal Contents of Some Water Bodies* in the Study Area ............. 5-29 Table 5.1-21 Physical Characteristics of Sediments from Water Bodies in the Project Area ................................................................................................. 5-30 Table 5.1-22 Descriptive Statistics of pH, TOC and THC in Sediments From Water Bodies in the Project Area ........................................................................... 5-30 Table 5.1-23 Mean Values of Sediment pH, TOC and THC in Water Bodies in the Project Area ................................................................................................. 5-31 Table 5.1-24 Sediment pH, TOC and THC Wet Season EBS ...................................... 5-31 Table 5.1-25 Sediment Heavy Metal Concentrations at the Project Area Compared With Other African Environments (ppm) .................................................... 5-31 Table 5.1-26 Heavy Metal Concentrations in Water Sediments From the Project Area (ppm)............................................................................................................ 5-32 Table 5.1-27 Summary Results of Ambient Pollutant Gases and Noise Levels Obtained at the Compressor Site (February 2003) ...................................... 5-33

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Table 5.1-28 Summary Results of Ambient Pollutant Gases at the Compressor Site Wet Season EBS .......................................................................................... 5-34 Table 5.1-29 Biomass Estimates for the Herb Layer in the Different Habitat Types ....... 5-35 Table 5.1-30 Plant Species Composition Within the Strandline Zone Dry Season EBS5-36 Table 5.1-31 Plant Species Composition Within the Marsh Habitat ................................ 5-37 Table 5.1-32 Plant Species Composition in the Coastal Savanna Habitat ........................ 5-37 Table 5.1-33 Plant Species Composition in the Raphia Palm Dominated Swamp Dry Season EBS........................................................................................... 5-38 Table 5.1-34 Plant Species Composition in the Farms and Bush Fallows Dry Season EBS .............................................................................................................. 5-39 Table 5.1-35 Plant Species Composition Within the Secondary Forest Area Dry Season EBS.................................................................................................. 5-39 Table 5.1-36 Population Density of the Major Economic Plants Dry Season EBS....... 5-40 Table 5.1-37 Mammals in the Vicinity of the Proposed Pipeline ROW Dry Season EBS .............................................................................................................. 5-41 Table 5.1-38 Birds Seen or Heard in the Vicinity of the Proposed Pipeline ROWa ......... 5-42 Table 5.1-39 Reptiles Reported to Occur in the Vicinity of the Proposed Pipeline ROWa ........................................................................................................... 5-43 Table 5.1-40 Amphibians Recorded in the Vicinity of the Proposed Pipeline ROWa ...... 5-44 Table 5.1-41 Average Dry Season Microbial Densities of Soil Samples from Part of the Project Area*.......................................................................................... 5-46 Table 5.1-42 Average Microbial Densities of Soil Samples from A Beach Transect of WAGP EIA Project (Dry Season)*.............................................................. 5-47 Table 5.1-43 Mean Numbers of Soil Microarthropods Extracted from the Soil in Different Habitat Types (Mean Based on Four Sampling Units) ................ 5-48 Table 5.1-44 Distribution of the Recorded Fish Species in the Study Area ..................... 5-50 Table 5.1-45 Average Microbial Densities of Water Samples from WAGP EIA Project* ........................................................................................................ 5-51 Table 5.1-46 Concentrations of Photosynthetic Pigments in the Investigated Water Bodies* ........................................................................................................ 5-51 Table 5.1-47 Variation in Photosynthetic Pigments in Relation to Tide Regime in the Study Area.............................................................................................. 5-52 Table 5.1-48 The Occurrence of Aquatic Macrophytes in the Study Area....................... 5-53 Table 5.1-49 Average Microbial Densities of Sediment Samples* .................................. 5-54

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Table 5.1-50 Occurrence of Amphibian Tadpoles and Macroinvertebrate Animals Associated with Aquatic Macrophytes in the Selected Onshore Water Bodies................................................................................................ 5-55 Table 5.1-51 Summary of Species Richness, Abundance, Diversity, and Distribution of the Major Groups of Macrobenthic Fauna in the Project Area Sediment ...................................................................................................... 5-57 Table 5.1-52 Diversity of Macro-Invertebrate Sediment Fauna of the Investigated Water Bodies in Relation to Tidal Regime .................................................. 5-58 Table 5.1-53 Summary of Offshore Sediment Physicochemical Measurements for All Countries ...................................................................................................... 5-66 Table 5.1-54 Rapid Field Assessment of Sediment, Nigeria Stations............................... 5-67 Table 5.1-55 Results of Primary Productivity Recorded at Stations Offshore Nigeria in July, 2003................................................................................................. 5-71 Table 5.1-56 Dominant Species Recorded at the Laterals and Along the Main Pipeline Route with Catch Rates Wet Season EBS .................................. 5-84 Table 5.1-57 Marine Mammal Sightings During the October 2002 Geophysical Survey .......................................................................................................... 5-87 Table 5.1-58 State of Knowledge of Sea Turtle Presence in the Project Area and Environs ....................................................................................................... 5-88 Table 5.1-59 Officially Protected Species Known to Occur in the Project Area.............. 5-90 Table 5.2-1 Table 5.2-2 Table 5.2-3 Table 5.2-4 Table 5.2-5 Table 5.2-6 Table 5.2-7 Table 5.2-8 Table 5.2-9 Administrative Distribution of Communities Along the Pipeline ROW ..... 5-98 State Location of Surveyed Communities ................................................... 5-98 Population Density in Relevant LGAs in Lagos and Ogun States............. 5-100 Population Counts of Surveyed Communities and Population, 1996 and 2000............................................................................................ 5-101 Migratory Status of Households in Surveyed Communities...................... 5-102 Ethnic groups in the Surveyed Communities............................................. 5-103 Land and/or Water Ownership Around Dwellings in Surveyed Communities .............................................................................................. 5-108 Ownership Status of Residences in Surveyed Communities ..................... 5-109 Land Use Around Dwellings in Surveyed Communities........................... 5-110

Table 5.2-10 Affordability and Reliability of Energy Sources in Surveyed Communities .............................................................................................. 5-110 Table 5.2-11 Distribution of Energy Sources by Domestic Use in Surveyed Communities .............................................................................................. 5-111

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Table 5.2-12 Employment Distribution by Occupation in the Surveyed Communities (population aged 14 and over)............................................. 5-112 Table 5.2-13 Employment Distribution by Type of Employer in the Surveyed Communities (population aged 14 and older)............................................ 5-112 Table 5.2-14 Crop Production Among Survey Communities ......................................... 5-113 Table 5.2-15 Livestock Rearing in Surveyed Communities ........................................... 5-114 Table 5.2-16 Fishing Methods Within Surveyed Communities...................................... 5-115 Table 5.2-17 Income Earners per Household in Surveyed Communities ....................... 5-116 Table 5.2-18 Household Annual Income Distribution in Surveyed Communities ......... 5-117 Table 5.2-19 Distribution of Household Expenditures in Surveyed Communities......... 5-118 Table 5.2-20 Ownership of Household Items in Surveyed Communities....................... 5-119 Table 5.3-1 Table 5.3-2 Table 5.3-3 Table 5.3-4 Table 5.3-5 Table 5.3-6 Table 5.5-1 Table 5.5-2 Table 5.5-3 Table 5.6-1 Table 6.2-1 Table 6.2-2 Table 6.2-3 Table 6.3-1 Table 6.3-2 Table 6.4-1 Reliance of Surveyed Households on Water Source Type ........................ 5-120 Proximity of Surveyed Households to Most Frequently Used Water Supply Sources........................................................................................... 5-121 Sanitation: Household Human Waste Disposal Methods in Surveyed Communities .............................................................................................. 5-122 Sanitation: Household Non-human Waste Disposal Methods in Surveyed Communities.............................................................................. 5-122 Household Health Care Utilization by Type of Provider and Facility....... 5-123 Incidence of Illness and Disease in Surveyed Households, 2002.............. 5-124 WAGP Stakeholder Consultation Summary All WAGP Countries ....... 5-128 WAGP Stakeholder Consultation Summary Nigeria.............................. 5-129 WAGP Consultation Summary by Country and Individual Stakeholder ................................................................................................ 5-129 Government Agencies and Responsibilities for Regulatory Oversight in Nigeria........................................................................................................ 5-130 General On- and Offshore Project Activities................................................. 6-9 Initial Screening List of Affected Media ..................................................... 6-10 Post Screening List of Affected Media........................................................ 6-10 Screening Results: Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Focus Areas (March 2003) ............................................................... 6-14 Screening Results: Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Impact Focus Areas (March 2003) .................................................. 6-18 Negative Impact Significance Levels and Criteria ...................................... 6-23

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Table 6.4-2 Table 6.4-4 Table 6.5-1 Table 6.6-1 Table 6.6-2 Table 6.6-3 Table 6.6-4 Table 6.6-5 Table 6.6-6 Table 6.6-7 Table 6.6-8 Table 6.6-9

Likelihood Criteria....................................................................................... 6-29 How Uncertainties are Addressed in the Impact Assessment...................... 6-33 Local Content Value in Millions of Dollars (and as percentage of total project capital cost) ...................................................................................... 6-39 Severity Assessment: Nigeria Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Impacts ........................................................................... 6-48 Construction Equipment Noise Levels ........................................................ 6-65 Estimated Total Air Emissions for Site Preparation and Construction Phase (metric tons for entire phase)........................................................... 6-125 Diesel Exhaust Emissions Arising from Truck Movements to and from Upland Construction Sites ......................................................................... 6-127 Diesel Exhaust Emissions Arising from Mobile Generator Operation at Upland Construction Sites ......................................................................... 6-128 Diesel Exhaust Emissions Arising from Truck Movements to and from Tee .......................................................................................................... 6-131 Diesel Exhaust Emissions Arising from Mobile Generator Operation at Tee .......................................................................................................... 6-132 Diesel Exhaust Emissions Arsing from Mobile Generator Operation at Compressor Station Site............................................................................. 6-134 Diesel Exhaust Emissions Arising from Truck Transportation of Heavy Equipment from Port of Lagos .................................................................. 6-135

Table 6.6-10 Diesel Exhaust Emissions Arising from Truck Transportation of Pipe Lengths from Port Harcourt to the Coating Facility .................................. 6-140 Table 6.6-11 Land Use in Nigeria ROW......................................................................... 6-153 Table 6.7-1 Table 6.7-2 Table 6.7-3 Table 6.7-4 Table 6.7-5 Table 6.8-1 Table 6.8-2 Table 6.8-3 Table 6.8-4 Severity Assessment: Nigeria Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Impacts ......................................................................... 6-199 Air Emissions per Day per Offshore Fleet................................................. 6-216 Air Emissions per Day per Nearshore Fleet .............................................. 6-217 Maximum Discharge/Fill Flow Rates 0.9 meter/second pig speed ........... 6-222 Nominal Discharge/Fill Flow Rates 0.6 meter/second pig speed .............. 6-222 Possible Causes of an Uncontrolled Gas Release ...................................... 6-229 Receptors Potentially Affected by Gas Release......................................... 6-229 Possible Causes of Fire .............................................................................. 6-232 Receptors Potentially Affected by Fire...................................................... 6-232

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Table 6.8-5 Table 7.2-1 Table 7.3-1 Table 8-1 Table 8.2-1

Receptors Potentially Affected by Explosion ............................................ 6-234 Required General Mitigation Measures by Impact Category, and Potential Impact ............................................................................................. 7-4 Required Specific Mitigation Measures by Impact Category...................... 7-14 [Impact] Section of the WAPCo HSEMP...................................................... 8-3 Summary of WAPCo Empirical Monitoring ............................................... 8-15

Table 8.9-1a Land Use Section of the WAPCo HSEMP .................................................. 8-33 Table 8.9-1b Land Use Section of the WAPCo HSEMP .................................................. 8-34 Table 8.9-2a Topography, Geology, and Soils Section of the WAPCo HSEMP ............. 8-37 Table 8.9-2b Topography, Geology, and Soils Section of the WAPCo HSEMP ............. 8-39 Table 8.9-3a Habitats, Biological Resources, Water Resources, and Hydrology Section of the WAPCo HSEMP .................................................................. 8-42 Table 8.9-3a Habitats, Biological Resources, Water Resources, and Hydrology Section of the WAPCo HSEMP .................................................................. 8-45 Table 8.9-4a Air Quality Section of the WAPCo HSEMP ............................................... 8-50 Table 8.9-4b Air Quality Section of the WAPCo HSEMP ............................................... 8-52 Table 8.9-5a Solid, Liquid, and Hazardous Waste Section of the WAPCo HSEMP ....... 8-55 Table 8.9-5b Solid, Liquid, and Hazardous Waste Section of the WAPCo HSEMP ....... 8-56 Table 8.9-6a Cultural Conditions Section of the WAPCo HSEMP.................................. 8-59 Table 8.9-6b Cultural Conditions Section of the WAPCo HSEMP.................................. 8-60 Table 8.9-7a Socioeconomic Conditions Section of the WAPCo HSEMP ...................... 8-63 Table 8.9-7b Socioeconomic Conditions Section of the WAPCo HSEMP ...................... 8-64 Table 8.9-8a Public and Worker Health and Safety Section of the WAPCo HSEMP...... 8-68 Table 8.9-8b Public and Worker Health and Safety Section of the WAPCo HSEMP...... 8-69 Table 8.9-9a Emergency Preparedness and Response Section of the WAPCo HSEMP .. 8-72 Table 8.9-9b Emergency Preparedness and Response Section of the WAPCo HSEMP .. 8-73

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Acronyms and Abbreviations


Acronym or Abbreviation AASHTO ABE ABS AC acfh ACI AES Ag AGI AID AIDS AISC AIT AIW Al ALARP AML ANSI API As ASCE ASME ASNT ASTM atm AVR AWS Meaning American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials Benin Environmental Agency American Bureau of Shipping Alternating Current Actual Cubic Feet per Hour American Concrete Institute Engineering Company Silver Above Ground Installation Agency for International Development Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome American Institute of Steel Construction Auto Ignition Temperature Atlantic Intermediate Water Aluminum As Low As Reasonably Practical Approved Manufacturers List American National Standard Institute American Petroleum Institute Arsenic American Society for Civil Engineers American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society of Non-Destructive Testing American Society for Testing and Materials Atmosphere Automatic Voltage Regulation American Welding Society

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation B Ba BA BAT Bbl Bcf BDV BHP BME BMP BOD BP BPT Br BS BS EN Btu C C Ca CaCO3 CADD CAE CAPEX CBD CBO cc CCR CCTV Boron Barium Breathing Air

Meaning

Best Available Technology API Barrel Billion cubic feet Blowdown Valve Break Horse Power Benin Ministere de lEnvironnement Best Management Practice Biological Oxygen Demand Best Practice Best Practicable Control Technology Bromine British Standard British Standard Euro-Norm British Thermal Units Celsius Celsius Calcium Calcium Carbonate Computer Aided Design and Drafting Computer Aided Engineering Capital Expenditure Convention on Biological Diversity Community Based Organization Cubic centimeter Central Control Room Closed Circuit Television

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation Cd CDC CDM CEB CEDA CFA CFAF CFC CFR CFU CH4 CIA CII CITES Clcm CMMS CMS CMT CNG CNL CO CO2 COD COLREG CP CPDEP Cadmium

Meaning Centralized Dispatch Center Clean Development Mechanism (Kyoto protocols Greenhouse Gas Reduction) Communaut Elctrique du Bnin Center for Environment and Development in Africa Communaute Financiere Africaine (African Financial Community) Communaute Financiere Africaine Franc Chlorofluorocarbon Code of Federal Regulations Colony Forming Unit Methane Central Intelligence Agency Construction Industry Institute Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Chloride Centimeters Computerized Maintenance Management System Consortium Electric Power Consortium Management Team Compressed Natural Gas Chevron Nigeria Limited Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Chemical Oxygen Demand Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea Cathodic Protection ChevronTexaco Project Development and Execution Plan

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation CPI CPT CPU CPUE Cr CR CRA CRT CSC Cu CWAG D dbh dB dBA DC DCS DD DDET DGPS DIN DNV DO DOI DP DPR DPS DSC E Cone Penetration Test Central Processor Unit Catch per unit effort Chromium Critically Endangered

Meaning Chemical Process Industries

Corrosion Resistant Alloy Cathode Ray Tube Convention on the Continental Shelf Copper Chevron West African Gas Normal Outside Diameter Diameter Breast Height Decibels Decibels weighted to A scale Direct Current Distributed Control System Due Diligence Department of Properties, Registration and of Stamps Digital Global Positioning System Deutsche Industrie-Norm (German Industrial Standard) Det Norske Veritas Dissolved Oxygen Declaration of Isolation Dynamic Positioning Department of Petroleum Resources Dynamic Positioning System Decision Support Center East

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation EA EAP EBS EC ECC ECOWAS EEMUA EFAT EFD EGASPIN EG&S EIA EIS EJMA ELP EMC EMP EMS EN EN EPA EPC EPZ ER ERML ERP ERT ESD External Affairs

Meaning Environmental Action Plan Environmental Baseline Survey Electrical Conductivity Equatorial Counter Current Economic Community of West African States Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association Emergency First Aid Teams Engineering Flow Diagram Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria Environmental Guidelines and Standards Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Impact Study Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association Escravos Lagos Pipeline Electromagnetic Compatibility Environmental Management Plan Environmental Management System Endangered Euronorm Environmental Protection Agency Engineering, Procurement, Construction Export Processing Zone Emergency Response Environmental Resources Managers Limited Emergency Response Plan Emergency Response Team Emergency Shutdown

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation ESDV ESI ESIA ESL ESS et al. ETZ F F&G F&S FAO FAT FAU FBE FC FCA Fe FEED FEL FEPA FID FIN FMEA FMEnv FMOE FO FOB FOS

Meaning Emergency Shutdown Valve Environmental Sensitivity Index Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Environmental Solutions, Ltd. Emergency Support System Et alli (and others) Eastern Tropical Zone Fahrenheit Fire and Gas Fire and Smoke Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations Factory Acceptance Testing Formazin Attenuation Unit Fusion Bonded Epoxy Fail Closed Failure Characteristic Analysis Iron Front End Engineering Design Front End Loading Federal Environmental Protection Agency Final Investment Decision Facilities Information Network Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Federal Ministry of the Environment Federal Minister of the Environment Fail Open Free on Board Federal Office of Statistics

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation FRP Ft G Gal GC GDP GEF GEPA GEST Gg GHG GIEC GNPC GOg LME GPHA GRE GRP GSS GTA GTG H2CO3 H2S ha HAT HAZAN HAZID Feet Gram Gallon Guinea Current

Meaning Fiber Reinforced Plastic

Gross Domestic Product Global Environment Fund Ghana Environmental Protection Agency Ghana Ministry of Environment, Science, and Technology Gigagram Greenhouse Gas International Group of Experts on the Climate Ghana National Petroleum Corporation Gulf of Guinea Large Marine Ecosystem Ghana Ports and Harbors Authority Glass Reinforced Epoxy Glass Reinforced Plastic Ghana Statistical Service Gas Transportation Agreement Gas Turbine Generator Carbonic Acid Hydrogen Sulfide Hectare Highest Astronomical Tide Hazard Analysis - (A formal procedure used to identify hazards, quantify their impact, and analyze problems associated with a given process) Hazard Identification

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation HAZOP HAZOPS HCO3 HDD He HFE HFIP Hg HIC HIPP HIPPS HIPS HIV HMI HOA HOCNS HP HP hp hr HR HRc HSE HSEMP HSEMS HV HVAC I/C

Meaning Hazard and Operability Study (A formal procedure used to identify hazards and operability problems associated with a given process) Hazardous Operations Hydrogen Carbonate Horizontal Directional Drill Helium Human Factors Engineering Human Factors Implementation Plan Mercury Hydrogen Induced Cracking High Integrity Pressure Protection High Integrity Pressure Protection System High Integrity Protection System Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Machine Interface Heads of Agreement Harmonised Chemical Offshore Notification Scheme High Pressure High Power Horsepower Hour Human Resources Hardness Rockwell (C Scale) Health, Safety, and Environmental Health, Safety, and Environmental Management Plan Health, Safety, and Environmental Management System High Voltage Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning Interconnect

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation I/O IBCG IC ICEA ID IEC IEEE IESNA IFA IFC IFD IFH IFI IFO IGA IGN IITA IM IME IMO in IOPCFund IPA IPCC IRI IRR IRRR IS Input and Output

Meaning Industrie Bninoise des Corps Gras Institute of Corrosion Insulated Cable Engineers Association, Inc. Inside diameter International Electrotechnical Council Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Illuminating Engineering Society of America Issued for Approval International Finance Corporation Issued for Design Issued for HAZOP International Finance Institution Incident Free Operations Inter Government Agency tablissement Gographique National International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Information Management Integration Management Entity International Maritime Organization Inches International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage International Project Agreement Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Industrial Risk Insurers Internal Rate of Return Impoverishment Risks and Reconstruction Intrinsically Safe

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation ISA ISO ISSER IT ITB ITCZ ITD ITF IUCN JHA J.O.R.T. JVA K kg khz km km2 KO KP kW kWh L LAN LAT lb lbs/MWh LC50 LCN LCO

Meaning Instrument Society of America International Organization for Standardization Institute of Statistical, Social, and Economic Research Information Technology Invitation to Bid Inter-tropical Convergence Zone Inter-tropical discontinuity Inter-tropical front The World Conservation Union Job Hazard Analysis Official Journal Joint Venture Agreement Potassium Kilogram Kilohertz Kilometers Kilometer Squared Knock Out Kilometer Post Kilowatt Kilowatt Hour Liter Local Area Network Lowest Astronomical Tide pound Pounds per Megawatt Hour Lethal Concentration, 50 Percent Local Country Nationals Light Crude Oil

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation LCR LDC LEL LFL LGAs Li LME LNG LOI LP LPG LPP LR LV LVB m m2 m3 M&E MAC MARPOL MAOP MC MCC MCDA MCR MDAs MDT MEHU Local Control Room

Meaning Local Gas Distribution Company Lower Explosive Limit Lower Flammability Limit. Local Government Areas Lithium Large Marine Ecosystem Liquid Natural Gas Letter of Intent Low Pressure Liquid Petroleum Gas Low Point of Paving Lower Risk Low Voltage Land Valuation Board Meter Square meter Meter Cubed Monitoring and Evaluation Manual Alarm Call Marine Pollution Convention Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure Metal Clad Motor Control Center Multi-Criterion Decision Analysis Main Control Room Ministries, Departments, and Agencies Mean Down Time Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Town Planning
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation mEq Mg mg mg C/m2/day MIGA MIS mL mm MM MMm3D MMcmd MMS MMscfd MMTPA Mn Mo MOC MoLGRD MOU MP Ms MSC MSDS MTons MTBF Mtpa MTTR mV milliequivalent Magnesium Milligram

Meaning

mg carbon per square meters per day Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency Management Information System Milliliter Millimeter Million when used in the context of gas flow or heating value. Thus MMBtu implies million Btus. Million meters cubed per day Million cubic meters per day Maintenance Management System Million Standard Cubic Feet per Day Million Metric Tons per Annum Manganese Molybdenum Management of Change Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development Memorandum of Understanding Medium Pressure Millisecond Ministerial Steering Committee Material Safety Data Sheet Million tons Mean Time Between Failure Million Tons per Annum Mean Time To Repair millivolt

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation MV MVAR MW MWh N N N N N2 Na NACE NaCl NADMO NADW NAFDAC NAPCA NB NDPR NDT NE NEC NEMA NEPA NFME NGC NGO NH3 Ni Medium Voltage

Meaning Mega Volt Amps Regulation Megawatts Mega Watt Hour Naira Newton Nitrogen North Main coastal road in Togo Sodium National Association of Corrosion Engineers Sodium Chloride National Disaster Management Organization North Atlantic Deep Water Nigeria National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control National Association of Pipe Coating Applicators Nominal Bore Nigeria Federal Department of Petroleum Resources Non Destructive Testing North East National Electric Code National Engineering Manufacturers Association National Electric Power Authority Nigeria Federal Ministry of Environment Nigerian Gas Company Non-Government Organizations Ammonia Nickel

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation NISER nm NNPC NO2 NO3 NOx NOEC NPA NPDES NPS NPV NTU NW O&M OAU OD ODS OEM OILPOL OJT OP OPEX OPIC ORP OSHA OSPARCOM OTC OTP P
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Meaning Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research Nanometer Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation Nitrite Nitrate Nitrous Oxides No Observable Effect Concentration Nigerian Ports Authority National Pollution Discharge Elimination System Nominal Pipe Size Net Present Value Nephelometric Turbidity Units North West Operations and Maintenance Organization of African Unity Operational Directive Ozone Depleting Substance Original Equipment Manufacturer International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil On-the-Job-Training Operational Policy Operating Expenditure Overseas Private Investment Corporation Oxygen Reduction Potential Occupational Safety and Health Administration Commissions of Oslo and Paris Overhead Traveling Crane LOffice Togolaise des Phosphates Phosphorus
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation P&ID PAA PAGA PAH PALL PAP PAR PAS Pb PCBs PCS PDP PEP PES PFD PFP PHA PI PIC PID PLC PLE PM10 PO4 POB POP PNDCL PP&E ppb Project Affected Area

Meaning Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams Public Address/General Alarm Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Pressure Alarm Low Low Project Affected People Pre-assembled Piperack Process Automation System Lead Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls Process Control System Public Display Package Project Execution Plan Project Execution Strategy Process Flow Diagrams Passive Fire Protection Process Hazards Analysis Profitability Index Project Implementation Committee Proportional Integral Derivative Programmable Logic Controller German Engineering Company Feasibility study less than or equal to 10 micro meters Phosphate People on Board Persistent Organic Pollutants Provisional National Defense Council Law Protecting People and the Environment CT Policy 530 Parts Per Billion

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation PPE ppm PSI PSIA psig PSS PSV PVC PWHT QA QC QRA R&M Stations RAM RAP RBI RCM Redox RF RFQ RGPH ROV ROW RP RPD RTD RTJ RV RVP Parts Per Million Pounds per square inch

Meaning Personal Protective Equipment

Pounds per Square Inch Absolute Pounds per Square Inch Gauge Plant Safeguarding System Pressure Safety Valve Polyvinyl chloride Post Weld Heat Treatment Quality Assurance Quality Control Quantified Risk Assessment Regulating and Metering Stations Reliability, Availability, and Maintenance Resettlement Action Plan Risk Based Inspection Reliability Centered Maintenance Reduction/Oxidation Raised Face Request for Quotation Recensement General de la Population ed de LHabitat Remotely Operated Vehicle Right of Way Recommended Practice Redox Potential Discontinuity Resistance Temperature Device Ring Type Joint Relief Valve Reid Vapor Pressure

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation S s SACW SAEMA SAFE SAFOPS SAS SAZOF SBC SCADA Scf SDV Se SE Sec SHE Si SIA SID SIL SIMOPS SiO2 SIS SIT SMC SNGL SO2 SO4 SOx South Seconds

Meaning

South Atlantic Central Water Shama-Ahanta East Metropolis Area Safety Analysis Function Evaluation Chart Safety and Operability Studies Statistical Analysis System Societe dAdministration des Zones Franches Structured Breakdown of Costs Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Standard cubic foot Shut Down Valve Selenium South East Seconds Safety, Health and Environment Silicon Socioeconomic Impact Assessment Safety In Design Safety Integrity Level Simultaneous Operations Silicate oxide Safety Instrumented System Systems Integration Test Sponsor Management Committee Shell Nigeria Gas Limited Sulfur Dioxide Sulfate Sulfur Oxides

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation SoBeBra SOBEGAZ SOE SOLAS PROT SOP SOTOGAZ SPDC SPI SPM SPPM SPSS Sr SSS SST SSW STD STWC SW TBA TBD TCA TCN TDC TEG TEMA THC THPS TLV

Meaning Socit Bninoise des Brasserie Socit Bninoise de Gaz S.A. Sequence of Events Protocol Relating to the International Regulations for the Safety of Life at Sea Standard Operating Procedure Socit Togolaise de Gaz S.A. Shell Petroleum Development Company Sediment Profile Images Single Point Mooring Safe Practices and Procedures Manual Statistics Package for the Social Sciences Strontium Safety Shutdown System Sea Surface Temperature South-Southwest Sexually Transmitted Disease Standards of Training Certification and Watch-keeping for Seafarer South West To Be Advised To Be Determined Total Corrosion Allowance Third Country Nationals Tema Development Corporation Tri-ethylene Glycol Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc. Total Hydrocarbons Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium Sulfate Threshold Limit Value

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation TMA TME TMERF tn TNT TOC TOM TOR TPM TQM TSS TSW TTC TTPP TVP g m S/cm UBC UES UJV UL UNCED UNCLOS UNESCO UNO UPS US

Meaning Tema Municipal Authority Tema Municipal Executive Togo Ministere de lEnvironnement et des Ressources Forestieres ton Tema New Town Total Organic Carbon Total Organic Matter Terms of Reference Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons Total Quality Management Total Suspended Solids Tropical Surface Water Tema Traditional Council Takoradi Thermal Plant True Vapor Pressure microgram micrometer MicroSiemens per centimeter Uniform Building Code Uniform Effluent Standards Unincorporated Joint Venture Underwriters Laboratory United Nations Conference on Environment and Development United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization United Nations Organization Uninterruptible Power Supply United States

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or Abbreviation USEPA V V VAC VALCO VDC VDU VES VIP VRA VSAT/SCADA VSDS VU W WAGP WAGPA WAPCo WAPP WB WD WHRU WHO WMP WP WT yr ZH Zn Vanadium Volt

Meaning United States Environment Protection Agency

Volts Alternating Current Volta Aluminum Company Volts Direct Current Video Display Unit Vertical Electrical Sounding Value Improvement Practices Volta River Authority Very Small Aperture Terminal/Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Variable Speed Drive System Vulnerable West West African Gas Pipeline West African Gas Pipeline Authority West African Pipeline Company West African Power Pool World Bank Water Depth Waste Heat Recovery Unit World Health Organization Waste Management Plan Whispering Palms Wall Thickness Year Hydrographical zero Zinc

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Nigeria Environmental Impact Assessment Authors and Contributors


Nigeria
Funso Adeniyi Olajire Alao Agboola Amusan Pius Anada Godwin Asibor Ibrahim Attah Larry Awosika Adetola Badejo Joseph Bamidele Albert Ikolo Victor Imevbore Tunde Imoobe Michael Kehinde Elijah Ohimain Adeolu Ojo Anthony Okoh Lanre Olorunda Olumide Omisore Festus Orepo Osakwe Ibrahim Salau Alabi Soneye Lekan Taiwo Miriam Vwioko S.I. Abumere A.S. Gbadegesin C.O. Ikporukpo S.I. Okafor O. Oluwasola Hydrobiology, Fisheries and Water and Sediment Physico-chemistry Field Coordinator Soil Chemistry and Land Use Wildlife Statistical Analysis Analytical Chemist Oceanography and Coastal Geology Soil Biology Vegetation Acting Lab Manager Project Director Benthic Invertebrates Groundwater/Hydrogeology and Shallow Groundwater Resources Wetlands Delineation Project Manager Microbiology Safety Quality Control Soil Chemist Sample Preparation and Extraction Air Quality/Pollution Chemistry Climate and Meteorology Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Data Management Sample Custody Socioeconomic Team Leader Field and Report Coordination, Secondary Data, and GIS Support. Social Management Plan Social Impact Assessment Fieldwork, Culture, and Lifestyles

Authors and Contributors

United States
Henry Camp Ed Carr Marlene Cole Theodore Coogan James Gardiner William Gibson Sakina Khan Johanna Kollar J. Renee Morin Walter Palmer Kathy Thrun Existing Condition, Offshore and Onshore Environment, Impacts Analysis Air Quality Modeling Senior Ecologist Geographic Information Systems Engineering Author Habitats, Biological Resources and Environmental Management Socioeconomic Impact Analysis, Reviewer Coastal Zone Management, Wetlands Ecology, and Hydrology Environmental Impacts Analysis, Editor Technical Director/Reviewer and Socioeconomics Program Director, Chemistry

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Acknowledgements
The West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) team wishes to acknowledge and thank the West African Pipeline Gas Company Ltd. (WAPCo) and their WAGP engineering and front end engineering design (FEED) (Paragon and PCS Engineering) teams for their support throughout this project and, in particular, for providing the technical and project planning information necessary to produce a sound EIA for the proposed WAGP. We particularly wish to thank Mr. John Cornwell of WAPCo for his continuous guidance and encouragement. We were fortunate to receive constructive contributions and comments from a large number of West African and international agencies and organizations; we offer our deep appreciation to: Nigeria Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) Ministry of Petroleum Resources West Africa Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) International World Bank World Bank Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) United States of America The United States Agency for International Development and their technical support contractor, Nexant

Executive Summary
The proposed West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) will transport natural gas from Nigeria to Benin, Ghana, and Togo by way of a newly constructed 620 kilometer (km) (385 miles) long pipeline. The proposed pipeline will originate in Itoki, Nigeria, where it will connect to an existing natural gas system at the Alagbado Tee facility, traverse to the Nigeria coastline, and then run offshore to a distribution point near Takoradi, Ghana. Lateral branches will bring the gas to onshore distribution points near Cotonou, Benin; Lom, Togo; and Tema, Ghana to supply industrial and commercial gas customers, including electric power utilities. The map provided as Figure ES-1 shows the overall project area and the pipeline route. The WAGP project proponent is the West African Gas Pipeline Company Limited (WAPCo), an incorporated joint venture partnership formed in May 2003 between an affiliate of Chevron Nigeria Limited (CNL), Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), an affiliate of The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC), Socit Beninoise de Gaz S.A. (SOBEGAZ), Socit Togolaise de Gaz S.A (SOTOGAZ), and a subsidiary of the Volta River Authority (VRA). The total capital investment for WAGP, estimated at US$500 million, is being financed by the joint venture partners, each holding a percentage of the shares in the project. WAGP will be a gas transportation facility and WAPCo will neither own nor sell the product moved through WAGP, but will instead charge tariffs to its customers who move gas through WAGP. The primary anticipated gas transportation customer is another incorporated joint venture, N-Gas Limited (N-Gas), which is owned directly or by other affiliates of NNPC, CNL, and SPDC. The natural gas to be moved through WAGP will primarily come from the Niger Delta, and will consist of associated and non-associated gas from various gas fields in the Delta region. In order to maximize gas transport capacity, the great majority of the WAGP system will be a high-pressure system. Gas transport capacity of WAGP as initially built is 190 million standard cubic feet per day (MMscfd) and the project design capacity with all planned compressors, including a midline compressor in Togo, would be 578MMscfd. The actual rate of gas transport through WAGP will depend on end-user customer demand for natural gas.

Project Benefits
WAGP has the potential to bring about social and economic benefits at the global, regional, national, and local levels. From a global perspective, the WAGP project represents a major investment in infrastructure in a region that is one of the least developed in the world. Development of regionally integrated energy infrastructure and clean, reliable energy sources is vital to the economic development of the region. WAGP will provide another important global benefit by providing a means for bringing to market currently flared gas in the Niger Delta. In doing so, WAGP will contribute to the Global Flare Reduction Initiative, an initiative led by the World Bank that seeks to eliminate gas flaring worldwide. Elimination of gas flaring has many potential benefits, including reducing air pollution, and related impacts on communities; capturing and providing fuel for power and industry;

Executive Summary

Figure ES-1 West Africa Gas Pipeline Project Area

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Executive Summary

spurring economic development; and at the global level, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and combating global warming (Appendix 2A-1 describes expected reductions in GHG emission). WAGP will also provide additional reduction in GHG emissions and associated global warming impacts by inducing a switch to gas fuel from other fossil fuels (primarily light crude oil) among end-user gas customers. WAGP is a major initiative to integrate the regional energy sector and there is evidence that such regional integration provides benefits of increased flexibility, resilience, distribution, abundance, and diversity of energy supplies. The development of WAGP to date has broken new ground in bringing together governments and private sector enterprises and generally enhancing regional collaboration in the four countries. The project has started Nigeria on a path of extensive economic cooperation and energy integration with Benin, Ghana, and Togo, as well as cooperation and harmonization on many levels. Once approved, built, and put into operation, WAGP will become a permanent basis for cooperation among the countries, and one that has the potential to lead to broader economic cooperation and development. By supplying gas to regional power providers, WAGP will support the West Africa Power Pool (WAPP), another regional energy sector initiative that will also bring about substantial cooperation and integration. The natural gas source provided by WAGP will allow the WAPP to make reliable electricity available to many more areas and customers in the region, allow migration to cleaner gas-fired power generation to satisfy regional power demand, and cut power generation costs roughly in half. Switching from more polluting fuels to natural gas by end-user gas customers in Benin, Ghana, and Togo will bring about a substantial reduction in air pollutant emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates. WAGP will provide a number of important benefits at the local and national level for the people of Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo. WAGP provides a clean, reliable energy source for expanding power generation in Benin, Ghana, and Togo and thus reduces the energy supply gaps in these countries. Monetary benefits to the countries are also realized through taxes paid by WAPCo. The gas producers will realize additional revenue from the sale of gas transported by WAGP. Local economies will benefit from WAPCos commitment to hiring employees and contractors from surrounding communities to staff construction and operations workforce (total workforce estimated at more than 1,000); from WAPCos commitment to purchase 15 percent of supplies and materials locally; and from planned community development programs. As a nation, Nigeria will see economic benefits and infusion of funds into the national economy through the return on sales of Nigerian gas; tariffs charged for transportation of gas through the ELPS; and income tax on WAPCo operations. WAGP will provide important environmental benefits to Nigeria as it brings currently flared gas in the Niger Delta region to market and in doing so reduces air pollution and related impacts on communities; reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; and combats global warming. The majority of beneficial impacts associated with WAGP are socioeconomic effects. The provision of a market and a financial return for natural gas currently being wasted will provide an infusion of funds into Nigeria. Because a portion of the returns on the sale of this

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Executive Summary

gas is expected to remain in Nigeria, these will have positive economic impacts. Additionally, taxes paid by WAPCo to Nigeria will help strengthen the national economy and support economic development. Total tax benefits received by Nigeria over the lifetime of the project are projected to be in the range of $76 million to $95 million (WAGP, 2004). More economic benefits both direct and indirect will be generated through Nigerias participation in the pipeline project and return on equity investments and transportation tariffs. To involve and benefit local communities, WAPCo has made a commitment to purchase 15 percent of all goods and services required during construction from local businesses. This local content value for onshore construction procurement in Nigeria is estimated at $39.6 million. Employment income perhaps the largest contribution to socioeconomic benefits will be generated in many surrounding communities as local jobs are created both temporarily during construction and permanently throughout the operation and maintenance of the project. Local workers will be hired by contractors for several aspects of construction. In general, increased employment levels are expected to boost personal income and strengthen the local economy. Moreover, payments for local contract work will be substantial, generating direct, indirect, and induced benefits for the surrounding communities. Community Development and Health and Safety Benefits will occur through WAGPs planned Community Development Program and improved infrastructure. This program will target education and healthcare support during the construction period. Participatory needs assessments have identified future opportunities in terms of income generation and capacity building that can be incorporated into later year operations. Secondary benefits will be realized through new industrial development and the associated creation of employment opportunities and income facilitated by the availability of reliable energy transported through WAGP. Industrial development may also spur economic and land development, particularly in areas around major towns and cities. Local businesses such as food markets and household goods stores may see secondary benefits resulting from spending of wages earned in jobs directly and indirectly created by the project.

Project Description
Pipeline and Facilities
The main feature of WAGP is the 620km natural gas pipeline itself. The pipeline will connect to the existing Escravos-Lagos Pipeline (ELP) at the existing Alagbado Tee facility near Itoki, Nigeria. From there, a 30in diameter pipe will traverse 56km to a new compression facility at Badagry Beach, known as the Lagos Beach Compressor Station. A 20in line diameter pipe will be routed from the compression facility to the sea and run offshore for more than 500km, terminating near Takoradi, Ghana. Lateral branches off the main offshore line will bring the gas to new onshore distribution points near Cotonou, Benin; Lome, Togo; and Tema, Ghana. Sources of available natural gas volumes from existing oil and gas operations in Nigeria have been identified to provide the initial pipeline system capacity of 190MMscfd (Appendix 2A-

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Executive Summary

2 describes natural gas sources and transmission infrastructure upstream of WAGP). Most of this available natural gas is associated gas (i.e., produced with oil from the same reservoir or wellhead source), which is currently flared. Non-associated gas will also be produced as needed to supply WAGP, particularly as associated gas supply sources decline over time. The demand for WAGP gas is expected to increase with time and WAPCo plans corresponding increases in system capacity by boosting operating pressure. The WAGP Treaty and International Project Agreement (IPA) give exclusive transport rights to the NNPC, CNL, and SPDC joint ventures for the first 200MMscfd of capacity for 10 years and make provisions for development of open commercial access above these limits. Sources for gas volumes above 200MMscfd are not specifically known at this time and could involve existing or new oil and gas facilities. The existing ELP system can deliver up to 200MMscfd of natural gas to the Alagbado Tee without a need for upgrades or repairs. WAPCo is conducting a joint, due diligence assessment to ensure that the ELP can transport gas volumes up to the WAGP design capacity. The Alagbado Tee is the point where the WAGP transmission system is connected to the ELP transmission system. The Alagbado Tee will be improved to integrate WAGP and provide custody transfer, metering, and monitoring of the natural gas. The Nigeria section of WAGP will begin at the connection at the Alagbado Tee. The pipeline will extend southwesterly approximately 56km to the Lagos Beach Compressor Station in Nigeria. The route will either share or run adjacent to an existing natural gas pipeline Right of Way (ROW) for the first 36km and then continue on land previously unoccupied by or adjacent to any pipeline ROW. Natural gas will be transported from the Alagbado Tee under low pressure to the planned Lagos Beach Compressor Station to boost gas pressure for transmission offshore. The compressor station will be built on an 8.5ha site west of the village of Ajido, located approximately 12km east of Badagry, Nigeria and approximately 0.85km north of Badagry Creek. The compressor station will be one of two locations for system controls and the Emergency Shutdown (ESD) systems, the other located at WAPCo headquarters. Gas compression will initially occur only in Nigeria but provisions are being made in the design of the transmission system for expansion of compression capability in the future through the possible installation of midline compression facilities at Lom, Togo as well as additional compressors at the Lagos Beach Compressor Station. Should requirements necessitate extending the pipeline past Ghana, future compression facilities can be installed at the Takoradi location. Compressed natural gas will be sent from the Lagos Beach Compressor Station via a 20in pipeline for 567km to the Takoradi Thermal Power Plant. At three points along the pipeline route, tie-ins will be made for laterals to extend from the main offshore trunk line to distribution points near Cotonou, Benin; Lom, Togo; and Tema, Ghana. The pipeline route does not cross any shipping lanes and avoids passing through anchorage areas. Regulating and metering (R&M) stations at the end point of the offshore laterals in Benin, Togo, and Ghana as well as the terminus of the main trunk line at Takoradi, Ghana are where the WAPCo transmission system will end and customer usage and/or local gas distribution
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Executive Summary

by local gas distribution companies will begin. Pipeline pressure is reduced at the station and custody transfer and metering of the natural gas from WAPCo to the customer or local gas distributor will occur. A link line will extend 9.5km from the Benin R&M station to a relocated electric power facility at Maria Gleta and 1.0km from the Togo R&M station to an existing electric power facility across the Lom-Cotonou road. These link lines are considered in this EIA because WAPCo will build them, but they may be permitted separately from the rest of the pipeline. A temporary concrete weight-coating plant will be built on a currently unused industrial site near the port of Tema for the coating of approximately 600km of 20in offshore pipeline. Existing facilities in Choba, Nigeria will provide for the coating of 13km of 30in onshore pipeline to be installed in onshore wetland areas in Nigeria.

Construction
The pipeline itself will be constructed by linking 12ft sections of steel pipe having a wall thickness of approximately 0.5in, coated on the outside for corrosion protection. An external concrete weight coating is added to the pipeline where the pipeline is installed in saturated or marsh environments. The onshore pipeline will be installed in an excavated trench within a 25m ROW to a nominal depth of 0.9m in upland areas, wetlands and marshes, and stream crossings. Onshore pipeline construction activities in Nigeria are expected to last 6 to 8 months and involve 450 workers. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) techniques will be used to install the pipeline underneath Badagry Creek (downstream of the compressor station). The offshore pipeline will be placed directly on the seafloor in water depths in excess of 8m. In sections of the route where the water depth is less than 8m, the pipeline will be buried below the seafloor as a result of either HDD or trenching. This design alternative was selected given that it would reduce the impact to the benthic environment, among other reasons. For the great majority of its route, the pipeline will lie in waters 30m to 50m deep; the deepest point will be 70m below sea level. Commissioning of the pipeline segments will involve flooding with water, cleaning, gauging, and reflooding with treated water; hydrostatic testing; dewatering and drying; and air expulsion and nitrogen packing. Water for hydrostatic testing will be drawn from surface water bodies. Any biocides used for corrosion protection will be neutralized prior to discharge into the ocean. Construction of the Lagos Beach Compressor Station, including excavation, clearing and backfilling of the footprint, and the actual construction, will last 12 months to 15 months and involve a work force of 300 workers to 450 workers. Approximately 25,000m3 of soil will be excavated and then re-used as compacted fill. A temporary batching plant may be erected to supply concrete needs or concrete may be transported by truck from local providers. All deliveries of major equipment (e.g., compressors, tanks) will originate in the Port of Lagos and then be transported to the compressor station site via either existing roads from the Port of Lagos to Badagry, with delivery along the Badagry Creek road, west of Ajido, or

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transported through Lagos Lagoon and Badagry Creek to a new unloading facility and dock linked by a new access road to the site.

Alternatives
The need for alternative energy supplies in Benin, Ghana, and Togo is established by the coincidence of future energy deficits forecast in these countries and the comparatively high cost of thermal electricity generation using imported fuels. This need, together with the supply of natural gas, the requirement to reduce gas flaring in Nigeria, and the technical feasibility of delivering natural gas from Nigeria to Ghana, Togo, and Benin, provide a compelling rationale to proceed with the WAGP project. Even while using different approaches, both the World Banks draft Economic and Financial Analysis (EFA) and WAPCos project alternatives analysis conclude that the proposed WAGP design is the optimal solution. The World Banks draft EFA identified alternatives as part of a regional energy sector optimization strategy and studied domestic power development alternatives (hydroelectric, oil and gas, coal, nuclear, wind, solar), power importation alternatives (Cte dIvoire Liquid Natural Gas, Nigeria), and gas resource and transportation alternatives (gas source other than Nigeria, Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) transportation, alternate routes for the pipeline). The project alternatives considered in this EIA reflect the business capabilities and objectives of WAPCo and a limited number of competing power options and/or alternative energy resources. Besides the No-Project and Proposed Project Alternatives, the EIA evaluated a select number of alternate scenarios. Two alternatives considered developing gas-fueled power generation and export stations in Nigeria, and exporting natural gas as LNG meet some of these objectives but do not provide comparable benefits. These alternatives would produce more substantial environmental and socioeconomic impacts than WAGP, do not provide as timely a solution, and/or incur higher costs and the same benefits as WAGP. A renewable fuels alternative does not contribute to flare reduction in Nigeria and presents challenges in terms of reliability, security, and feasibility for Benin, Ghana, and Togo. In addition, it is doubtful that the renewable fuels alternative could provide sufficient power for industrial uses. Alternatives for the pipeline routing were considered: onshore/offshore, onshore, and offshore. The selected option, a combination of onshore and offshore routes, provides the greatest benefits at the lowest level of environmental and socioeconomic impacts and least cost. The EIA considered design alternatives for nearly every aspect of the project. Selection of preferred alternatives when devising, considering, and choosing between design options were based on a number of factors including: overall safety of the public and workers; environmental impact; potential impacts to communities; acceptance by stakeholders; best available practicable technologies; feasibility of construction, operation, and maintenance; and cost of construction, operation, and maintenance.

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Executive Summary

Final design of the pipeline route was given considerable attention due to the linear nature of the project and the extensive overall length. Within the preferred Onshore/Offshore option, more specific routing options were considered and chosen in order to minimize environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Alternate construction techniques for installing the pipeline across the shorelines were considered. In Nigeria, HDD was selected as it created the least disturbance in the Badagry wetland-lagoon-barrier island crossing from the Lagos Beach Compressor Station.

Baseline Information
Natural Environment
The climate in the area is tropical with alternating wet and dry seasons. Air quality in the rural areas is generally good, while air quality in cities is poor, with elevated concentrations of carbon monoxide, lead, volatile hydrocarbons, ozone, and particulate matter all pollutants associated with transportation sources. Existing concentrations of particulate matter exceed European and World Bank long-term standards in certain samples, indicating that existing air quality may be poor (with respect to particulates) in certain parts of the study area.

Onshore
Satellite images of the onshore pipeline ROW proposed in each of the four countries, including Nigeria, are shown in the oversized maps attached at the end of the Regional EIA report. From the Alagbado Tee in Nigeria, the proposed pipeline ROW follows an existing natural gas ROW already cleared of natural cover for the first 40km of its route. The ROW passes through a patchwork mosaic of fallow, agricultural, and residential areas with some secondary forest and seasonal wetlands. This pattern is mostly sustained through the uncleared new ROW route to the Lagos Beach Compressor Station, where the ROW then passes though the marsh, Badagry Creek, and the sandy barrier island, and out to sea. Soils near the shoreline tend to be sandy; away from the immediate coast, soils derived from the sedimentary rock are highly weathered, with low organic content, and of low inherent fertility. Soils in swamps/marshy areas tend to be acidic, with high organic content. Soils in the study area are generally free from metals or hydrocarbon contamination. Surface water bodies (both tidal and non-tidal) in the ROW include Badagry Creek, Yewa River, Ologe Lagoon, and tributaries of the River Owo. The physical and chemical characteristics of the surface water bodies do not indicate the presence of contaminants (although water quality for drinking is relatively poor). In general, water bodies in the study area are characterized by low turbidity. Tidal waters are near neutral, non-tidal waters are slightly acidic, and water from hand-dug wells is acidic. Tidal waters are slightly brackish; non-tidal and hand-dug well waters are relatively fresh. Sediments from the investigated area of Badagry Creek are essentially sandy, ranging from sandy silt (at Topo Island), through clayey sand (at the ROW), to sand eastward of the ROW. Sediments from the non-tidal water bodies contain more silt and clay. The wide range of sediment pH (3.4 to 8) measured in the dry season is due to variations in sediment grain size, organic carbon content, and the

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surrounding ecosystems in the brackish to saltwater environments. Measured coliform bacterial densities suggest that some of the water bodies may not be potable. Plankton community samples indicate that the brackish waters have high productivity. The finfish fauna reflects the mixed nature of the water environment comprising marine, brackish, and freshwater species. Fish communities in habitats connected with marine areas have species that are exclusively onshore, some that are exclusively marine, and others that travel between the two habitats. These habitats are therefore often rather rich in species and in abundance. The onshore habitats in Nigeria contain typical assemblages of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates, as the habitats tend to be both typical and common for the broader area where each is found. Certain habitats, such as mangroves, heavily vegetated wetlands, and secondary forests, support higher biodiversity and more protected species than other habitats. Terrestrial species of concern include pythons, monitor lizards, Nile crocodile, sitatunga, herons, egrets, and hawks.

Offshore
The offshore region is classified as a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) by the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development. The northern portion is thermally unstable and undergoes intensive seasonal upwellings; the southern portion is thermally stable and depends on the nutrient input from land drainage, river flows, and wave turbulence. These characteristics make the area highly productive and rich in fishery resources and biological diversity. Species diversity and abundance of plankton is linked to seasonal variation of the oceanographic regime and the rapid development of plankton has a rippling effect on fish populations. Fish production in the Gulf of Guinea is high and the migration of important fish stocks (e.g., herrings, shads, mackerels, tunas, and jacks) is dependent on upwelling events and the movement of climatic fronts and ocean currents. The rich fishery resource supports artisanal fisheries, local industrial fleets, and large international commercial offshore fishing fleets. Sea turtles nest on the sandy beaches near the shoreline crossing locations. Other marine species of concern include cetaceans (whales), dolphins, and the West African manatee. Physicochemical properties of the water column in the ocean indicate a healthy marine environment. Turbidity is generally low in the offshore, oceanic waters; however, there is a coastal zone of turbid, greenish water, which meets the clearer oceanic water 6km to 8km from the coast. On the seabed, the benthic communities are mature and in equilibrium with local physical conditions indicating little disturbance; biological composition of the benthos is generally homogeneous. Concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons were similar to region-wide averages, indicating little or no contamination.

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Executive Summary

Human Environment
The proposed pipeline route onshore is all within the Lagos metropolitan area. As compared to most rural residents in Nigeria, many of the residents in the surveyed communities enjoy relatively high income and access to infrastructure and are relatively cosmopolitan. However, access to water within the immediate pipeline vicinity has been a problem for some communities (the quality of water is poor and often polluted), and most residents surveyed use open pit latrines for sanitation. The Lagos area is more densely populated and experiencing more rapid population growth than other areas in Nigeria. A plurality (43 percent) of residents surveyed are self-employed; other major sources of employment include the public (24 percent) and private sectors (22 percent). Traditional, rural fishing or non-fishing villages of mostly native peoples exist near the Lagos Beach Compressor Station and Badagry Beach. Residents in most of the surveyed communities have access to basic infrastructure, including education and health care facilities. The Yoruba make up the overwhelming majority of the population in the project area. Although the majority of households in the surveyed communities are native to their respective community, there are no indigenous peoples, as defined by World Bank policy, in the pipeline ROW. For the pipeline itself, the actual amount of land taken in any area along the pipeline route is at most a 25 meter-wide strip. Thus, the project would affect relatively few people in any one locality and would in general only affect an isolated portion of a larger village or community. The planned pipeline and associated facilities will contact about 2,500 individual land plots in 27 settlements. About 67,000 people live in the communities along or near the pipeline. A total of 149 structures were within the ROW at the time of the estate survey; 97 of these were residential (28 fully complete, 35 partially complete, 24 only a foundation). Fully complete structures generally are cement block or concrete with metal roofs (aluminum or galvanized iron). Based on reconnaissance performed during engineering, environmental baseline, estate, and socioeconomic surveys, important cultural resources exist in the vicinity of the ROW, including churches, gravesites, praying grounds, shrines, and the homes and palaces of traditional rulers. The planning of the pipeline ROW and the related facilities included consideration of environmental and socioeconomic issues and care was taken to avoid community and population centers and cultural areas. This plan avoided known resources and the need for major resettlement of people. WAPCo is still in the process of conducting a literature review for archaeologic resources. This literature review will be followed by an archaeologic walk-through, which is scheduled to be completed in July 1004. WAPCo also will have a chance finds procedure in place throughout the construction phase (adherence to this procedure will be an explicit tem of construction contracts), and will provide cultural properties training to construction workers.

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Executive Summary

Impacts and Mitigation


Impacts
In addition to the benefits summarized above, the WAGP project as proposed in Nigeria has the potential to create a few direct negative impacts that can be mitigated to low levels, some risks associated with emergency and upset conditions, and some secondary and cumulative impacts. Initial screening was conducted to identify impacts that affect environmental and socioeconomic conditions. WAPCo participated in this initial step to identify impacts and issues that may affect project implementation or siting; cycle these back to the project design engineers; and recognize impacts that may warrant mitigation measures. A methodical and rigorous impact assessment was conducted to establish severity levels of specific project activities on each of the potentially affected environmental media and socioeconomic aspects. For the entire project, this resulted in 2,299 potential impacts being evaluated (209 activities, 11 impact media) using the methodology described in Chapter 6 of this EIA report. The impact assessment process took into account information on mitigation measures that was available at the time and was described in the project design specifications. When potential impacts were initially judged to be high or moderate even with the implementation of planned mitigation measures, additional measures were recommended to reduce the anticipated impacts to lower levels. In assessing socioeconomic impacts, it was assumed that the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) would be properly implemented. The RAP intends to mitigate displacement of current land and reduction in means of livelihood for people affected by the project. Direct negative impacts associated with the project include potential onshore and potential offshore impacts to the environment, socioeconomic conditions, and health and safety of workers and members of the general public. Onshore Environmental Impacts Fifty-four different activities were evaluated in detail across five categories of potential environmental impacts: land use; habitat and biological resources; soils, topography, and geology; water resources and hydrology; and air. Of the 270 impact possibilities that were assessed, 173 (64 percent) were determined to be of negligible concern and 74 (27 percent) were evaluated as being of low or moderate severity because they are short-term in duration, reversible, localized in area affected, and/or unlikely to occur given planned management practices. Many possible high severity impacts have been entirely avoided through the alternatives review and selection process, described in Chapter 4. However, some environmental impacts are inevitable with a project of this nature and scale. The most significant potential environmental impacts are associated with three activities in the site preparation and construction phase in Nigeria:

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Construction activities associated with installing the pipeline, particularly clearing and trenching; The potential impacts associated with traditional trenching methods to install the pipeline across Badagry Creek and across the barrier island if HDD methods, the preferred option, fails for any reason (unlikely); and The option of transporting the heavy equipment needed to construct the Lagos Beach Compressor Station via barge up Badagry Creek, which would require building new infrastructure (new dock and short access road) and dredging a small portion of the creek (the roadway transport option would result in a different set of less severe potential impacts). The potential environmental impacts of greatest concern involve conversion of farmland to pipeline ROW for the project duration and perhaps longer; disturbance of habitats and changes to hydrology as a result of trenching to install the pipeline in wetlands areas; changes in habitats, soils/sediments and topography, and hydrology associated with the barging option for heavy equipment delivery to the compressor station construction site; and negative effects on habitats resulting from trenching across Badagry Creek and the barrier island (if HDD is unsuccessful). Even these impacts, however, would be localized and not expected to significantly degrade any unique or especially sensitive natural resources. For example: The entire onshore portion of the pipeline in Nigeria, from the Alagbado Tee connection to Badagry Beach, would be 56km (35 miles) long. With a maximum width of 25m (82 feet), the pipeline ROW would occupy a total footprint of 140ha (346 acres). However, only 20km and 50ha would be on land that is not currently occupied by or adjacent to an existing pipeline ROW. The pipeline ROW would traverse a total of 31ha (76 acres) of wetland. The ROW across the barrier island would occupy a footprint of 1ha (2.5 acres). If the compressor station construction equipment is transported through Badagry Creek, dredging and construction would disturb an estimated 1.8ha (4.5 acres). During the course of this assessment, as activities of high concern were identified, alreadyproposed mitigation and monitoring measures were strengthened (e.g., WAPCo Turtle Impact Monitoring and Mitigation Plan for Construction and Maintenance Operations), or entirely new measures developed (e.g., WAGP Storm Water Management Plan, Air Emissions Management Procedure, Spill Prevention and Control Procedure, and Procedure for Preventing Salt Water Intrusion into Fresh Water Lagoons and Creeks). Implementation of these measures will minimize, and in some cases prevent, potential significant adverse impacts identified in this assessment. Onshore Socioeconomic and Health and Safety Impacts The WAGP project is expected to result in the following categories of negative socioeconomic impacts: transportation and other infrastructure; social and cultural
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Executive Summary

conditions; access to goods and services; means of livelihood; and public/worker health and safety. These impacts are evaluated and assessed in detail, with most impacts considered to be of low to moderate severity. There are no anticipated socioeconomic impacts of high severity associated with the project in Nigeria. The influx of workers and equipment for the Alagbado Tee, onshore mainline, and compressor station construction will increase the pressure on existing infrastructure systems, particularly transportation. Pipeline construction will require 20 truck trips per day, and the Tee and compressor station construction will each require a total of 50 to 100 truck trips. There are various mitigation measures planned by WAGP that will ameliorate impacts on transportation infrastructure, such as delivery of material during off peak time frames and avoidance of congested roads. In terms of social and cultural conditions, the influx of construction workers at the mainline, Tee, and compressor station sites has the potential to result in negative impacts such as short term changes in gender ratios and differential incomes for surrounding communities. An additional impact on social and cultural conditions stems from the disturbance of physical cultural resources; six churches, 16 gravesites, three praying grounds, and 60 shrines have been identified within the ROW. In addition, 37 built and 43 partially built residences will be displaced. Impacts on displaced resources will be mitigated through the framework of the RAP. There is also the potential for disruption of community access to goods and services as the influx of construction workers places strains on services and results in price inflation, and as the increased construction traffic impedes access. The workers concentrated in a smaller area at the compressor station, in particular, may result in moderate impacts on the availability of goods and services. Means of livelihood are expected to be moderately impacted by the influx of construction workers, by construction traffic (particularly if transportation of compressor station equipment occurs on existing roads), and by road/pathway obstruction, all of which have the potential to disrupt economic activity in communities. The clearing and removal of structures is also expected to displace economic activity (other than livestock grazing) on land within the ROW, Tee, compressor station, and construction camps (if built), though the RAP is expected to fully mitigate the majority of losses associated with such land acquisition. If trenching takes place in wetland areas and Badagry Creek, impacts to fisheries and loss of economic activity may occur. A key potential impact on public and worker health and safety is the increase in accident and illness rates associated with the transportation of equipment. Mitigation measures include driver training and avoidance of congested roads. The influx of workers could also result in increased incidence of life-threatening or incurable illnesses such as HIV/AIDS. Impacts will be ameliorated by targeted mitigation measures such as HIV/AIDS awareness programs for workers, and worker camp (and if needed housing camp) management measures. Accident rates for workers are also expected to be elevated due to higher exposure of occupational risk during construction activities, particularly from earthmoving equipment;

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Executive Summary

however, these are mitigated through overt Health, Environment, and Safety (HES) management system requirements of the EPC contractors. Offshore Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Impacts The offshore portion of the project in Nigeria begins at the Lagos Beach Compressor Station, where gas transmission will occur via an offshore 20in (50.8cm) pipeline. The pipeline route will run generally southwest from Badagry Beach for 40km (25 miles) to the edge of the Nigerian territorial waters. None of the activities associated with the offshore pipeline is expected to result in high severity environmental, socioeconomic, or health and safety impacts. Activities of most concern occur during the site preparation and construction phase and include the passive installation of the pipeline in water that is greater than 8m deep (i.e., the pipeline will be laid on the sea floor in waters this deep), the movement of barges and vessels near the shoreline and ports, pipeline burial in less than 8m water depth (if necessary), and shore crossing implemented via jet trenching (which is not a preferred alternative and will be used only if HDD fails). Filling the onshore and offshore pipeline with water from Badagry Creek during start-up operations and the subsequent discharge of the first fill of the onshore pipeline back into the creek is also a potential concern, although no chemicals are expected to be introduced to the first fill water, which will also be filtered prior to discharge. These offshore activities could potentially affect benthic habitats, water quality and resources, and means of livelihood of coastal peoples. Overall, 15 offshore activities over the life of the project were analyzed for Nigeria across 11 different potentially affected media. Of these media and activity combinations, 138 activities (84 percent) were found to have no impacts, 17 (10 percent) low severity impacts, and 10 (6 percent) moderate severity impacts. None of the proposed offshore activities are expected to cause high severity impacts.

Emergency and Upset Conditions


Emergency and upset conditions may, in a low probability, high consequence worst case scenario, lead to events with a significant potential for impact to human and environmental receptors. The most significant possible events are: Controlled gas release: Blowdowns and other controlled gas releases may occur at the Alagbado Tee, the midline manual venting facility, and the Lagos Beach compressor station. Because controlled blowdowns are expected to be very infrequent and will be conducted at rates that will ensure effective dispersion (or combustion in the case of non-routine flaring at the compressor station), the impacts to environmental receptors and to the health and safety of workers and the general public are expected to be minor, if any. Uncontrolled gas release: Uncontrolled gas releases may occur anywhere along the pipeline due to a rupture, or at WAGP facilities due to a rupture of piping or poor maintenance. The WAGP pipeline and facilities have been designed with safeguards

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to prevent uncontrolled releases and with mitigation measures to minimize their impacts, should they occur. Fire: The potential sources of fires include the uncontrolled release of gas or the ingress of air into piping containing gas. Since the WAGP facilities have been designed to avoid fire hazards, the likelihood of a fire occurring is considered low to very low. The significance of any resulting impacts would vary with the size and duration of a fire, if one occurs. Worst-case conditions could involve significant impacts to some workers, but are unlikely to extend to members of the general public, because the proposed facilities are all isolated from population centers. Explosion: The likelihood of an explosion arising from the buried (or submerged), corrosion-protected pipeline is very low. Also, equipment in the facilities will be spark-proof in areas where the risk of explosion is significant in order to reduce the likelihood of explosion. Nevertheless, in the unlikely event of a large explosion, public health and safety would be of highest concern at the compressor station, given its proximity to residential and industrial buildings. There also could be a variety of socioeconomic effects from an explosion. WAPCo has conducted studies to maximize the safety of the WAGP pipeline and facilities and is developing an emergency-response strategy and system safeguards.

Secondary and Cumulative Impacts


In addition to the primary, direct impacts, there are various indirect consequences that may occur. These indirect impacts may occur in areas beyond the immediate influence of the WAGP Project, at an undetermined time in the future, or as a result of complex pathways (second- or third-level impacts). Secondary impacts affect the same qualities identified for direct impacts (e.g., land use, water quality, livelihood, etc.). Many secondary effects were not considered to be significant. Several identified secondary impacts attributable to the proposed WAGP project include the following: in the onshore environment, increased access to hunting grounds and timber stands due to ROW maintenance, potential for incremental changes in ecology due to solid waste generation, changes in wetlands vegetation, and decrease in groundwater quality; and in the offshore environment, the potential for a localized increase in fisheries production. Cumulative impacts are the incremental effects of proposed development activities evaluated in tandem with pre-existing or additional proposed development activities. They may be considered distinct from direct (primary) and indirect (secondary) impacts from the proposed project in that cumulative impacts may occur when a receptor is already impacted by existing sources and/or from other separate, planned sources. Nigeria has few existing industrial development projects that are currently additive to any direct WAGP project impacts. Therefore, few cumulative impacts have been identified; the ones described in this report consist of the following: short term increased marine traffic, strain on waste management infrastructure (more so during construction rather than operations), longer term upstream development impacts (particularly to meet expected increases in gas demand in Benin, Ghana and Togo), and increased water and road transport.

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Executive Summary

Mitigation
The following general mitigation principles were applied to address the linear nature of the design and construction of the onshore pipeline installation: Avoid sensitive receptors in site and route design. Observe protective perimeters around steep and erosion-sensitive gradients, water supply basins, and wet areas. Avoid deforestation or other vegetation losses. Minimize the footprint in site and route design. Limit the expropriation of ROW, fragmentation of properties, and agricultural and forestry areas. Conserve and reuse topsoil during the burial of the pipe, coordinate the work with other land users. Control access to work sites, use adequate road signs on the routes leading to the work sites. Establish adequate human and environment protection personnel training. Perform reinstatement at the end of the work to clean and return the elements of the environment that were affected to their original condition. Formulate an emergency action plan in coordination with the interested authorities in the event of an accidental spill during the construction and operational phases. Develop and maintain alignment sheets that reduce impacts by making all relevant operational control information available by operation and geographic location. Compensate for major residual impacts. Wastes generated during construction could include vegetation removed during clearing and minimal amount of fluids related to equipment operations. Mosquitoes will be controlled in the areas of construction operations by limited spraying of pesticides. Potential impacts from any hazardous materials and wastes are mitigated by adherence to the Hazardous Materials Management Plan and a Spill Prevention and Control Plan. The project has the potential to impact land use, habitat and biological resources, topography and soils, water resources, and air quality. For the most part, these impacts are expected to be minor and limited to the immediate vicinity of the project. A few potential impacts were assessed to be of moderate or high severity, but these can be adequately mitigated as described below and should not pose any concern at the regional level. The mitigation and monitoring in place to minimize the potential environmental impacts includes: Clearly defining the cut zones in order to limit deforestation and establishing protective perimeters around productive habitats such as wetland areas and spawning beds.

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Restoring vegetation at end of the work. Avoiding deforestation and destruction of bordering vegetation, including clearing the ROW in such a way that trees fall within the ROW and refraining from disturbing mangrove trees and vegetation outside the ROW. Not working in breeding grounds during breeding seasons. Scheduling work and setting the calendar of activities taking into account the use that wildlife makes of the land. Protecting known productive habitats, wet areas, and spawning beds. Developing and maintaining policies and related training programs regarding fishing, hunting, and tree harvesting. Developing and maintaining effective protection of sea turtles during the construction at the shoreline crossing. Potential impacts in the social and economic aspects are related to loss of land or land use, interruptions to means of livelihood (farming and fishing), disturbances to cultural resources, and influx of workers. The project has developed plans to mitigate these potential impacts that include: Providing for a work schedule that will avoid disturbing the traditional life of communities (e.g., sowing, growing, harvesting seasons in or adjacent to cultivated lands or festivals and other celebrations in the places they are held). Establishing a communication program to inform communities of on-going work and establish appropriate measures to minimize the disturbance caused by the work. Guaranteeing access to private property and the safety of residents and passersby during the course of the work by enacting appropriate measures (fencing, guards, etc.). Minimizing service interruptions during the work by notifying the concerned jurisdictions and taking the appropriate measures to keep interruptions to a minimum for the residents of the affected area. Minimizing disruption to road traffic, farming, fishing, forestry, tourist, and other community activities by avoiding blocking public access, including blocking access to fishing when crossing inland surface water. Developing and maintaining an external communication procedure that minimizes impacts through proper training, public notices, designations on nautical maps, etc. Reducing depletion of energy resources and creation of pollution by maintaining transportation vehicles, compressor engines, and power generators in good working order.

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Executive Summary

Following the maintenance approach in the previous item for all other equipment and machinery needing periodic inspection and maintenance to attain optimal efficiency and reduction in fuel consumption. Conducting regular and frequent HIV/AIDS awareness training for construction workers, with more frequent and focused training for workers with higher risk (truckers, offshore crew change, etc.). Avoiding impacts to archaeologic resources by completing a literature review for such resources, conducting an archaeologic walk-through, implementing a chance finds procedure throughout the construction phase (adherence to this procedure will be an explicit term of construction contracts), and providing appropriate training to construction wokers. Public and worker health and safety is a central concern for all project activities and was given a high degree of attention in the assessment of potential impacts and development of the following mitigation measures and plans: Heightening the safety of workers and of the surrounding communities by establishing safety and emergency action plans and related training programs. Ensuring that all employees adhere to the safety program. Providing for the establishment of emergency plans and action plans in the event of fire, accidents causing injury, accidental spills of contaminants, or gas leaks.

Results
The result of the assessment was that no potentially high severity impacts (as defined by the methodology) would remain after the planned mitigation measures are applied in accordance with current commitments and plans. All of the residual impacts become either moderate or low severity. Those that were initially ranked high and moderate are summarized in Table ES-1 with the residual severity after application of the planned mitigation.

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Executive Summary

Table ES-1 Summary of WAGP Project High and Moderate Severity Impact by Project Activity, Planned Mitigation, and Residual Impact Severity
Impact Category/Potential Impact High Severity Impacts Conversion of current land use within pipeline ROW and facility footprints Project Activity Construction Planned Mitigation Perform reinstatement and at the end of the work clean and return the elements of the environment that were affected to their original condition. Conserve and reuse topsoil during the burial of the pipe, coordinate the work with other land users. Implement appropriate operational controls/procedures (such as ROW Access Policy). Compensate for major residual impacts (as described in the RAP). Avoid sensitive receptors in site and route design. Observe protective perimeters around steep and erosion-sensitive gradients, water supply basins, and wet areas. Avoid deforestation or other vegetation losses and/or reinstate vegetation. Conserve and reuse topsoil during the burial of the pipe, coordinate the work with other land users. Perform reinstatement and at the end of the work clean and return the elements of the environment that were affected to their original condition. Implement appropriate operational controls/procedures, such as Compliance and Permitting, Turtle Nest Protection, Wetland Construction Methods, and Prevention of Salt Water Intrusion. Same as for impacts to wetlands, etc. above Residual Impact Severity Moderate

Impacts to wetlands, forests, streams, lagoons, barrier island, and gulf waters habitats

Construction

Low

Change in soil surface and topography within pipeline ROW and facility footprints

Construction

Low

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Table ES-1 Summary of WAGP Project High and Moderate Severity Impact by Project Activity, Planned Mitigation, and Residual Impact Severity
Impact Category/Potential Impact Moderate Severity Impacts Changes in air quality, noise and vibration Project Activity Construction, Operation Planned Mitigation Train staff in human and environment protection. Implement appropriate operational controls/procedures (such as Air Emissions Management, Contractor Management, Compliance and Permitting) Train staff in human and environment protection. Avoid disruption of known or potential cultural or archeological sites. Implement appropriate operational controls/procedures (such as Chance Finds & Archeological Salvage). Minimize disruption to road traffic, farming, fishing, forestry, tourist, and other community activities Implement appropriate operational controls/procedures (such as External Communications and Contractor Management). Recruitment of labor from surrounding communities, as appropriate. Presence of workers during working hours only and for limited construction period. Maintenance of closed construction camps (as appropriate) and restriction of access to camps and work locations to authorized personnel only. Implementation of HIV/AIDS awareness programs for workers. Development of special service facilities by work crews and contractors to meet worker service needs. Improvements to local infrastructure such as transportation upgrades in order to improve worker access. Compensate for major residual impacts (as described in the RAP). Residual Impact Severity Low

Incidental destruction or alteration of significant cultural, historical, or archeological sites

Construction

Low

Disruption of community activities, impairment of maritime traffic, and perturbation of fishing Strains on infrastructure, social and cultural conditions, access to goods and services and means of livelihood due to influx of construction workers

Construction

Low

Construction

Moderate

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Table ES-1 Summary of WAGP Project High and Moderate Severity Impact by Project Activity, Planned Mitigation, and Residual Impact Severity
Impact Category/Potential Impact Adverse health risk to general population and construction workers due to hazardous material spill in a densely populated area or from other mishaps associated with installation of pipeline Project Activity Construction Planned Mitigation Formulate an emergency action plan in coordination with the interested authorities in the event of an accidental spill during the construction and operational phases. Train staff in human and environment protection. Implement appropriate operational controls/procedures (such as External Communications, Emergency Response, Spill Prevention and Control, Loss Prevention Design Basis, and Contractor Management). Same as immediately above. Residual Impact Severity Low

Adverse health risk to general population and construction workers due to gas leak from the pipeline Adverse health risk to general population and construction workers due to presence, movement, and anchoring of barges in Gulf waters and general operation of vessels and equipment

Operation

Low

Construction

Same as immediately above.

Low

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Executive Summary

Management and Monitoring Plan


A comprehensive Health, Safety, and Environment Management Plan (HSEMP) has been established to achieve regulatory compliance, institutional responsibilities (e.g. World Bank Safeguard Policies and Guidelines), and other related commitments. For each potentially severe impact (high or moderate severity), the HSEMP identifies and describes the linkage between: regulatory requirements, institutional responsibilities and other commitments; WAPCo operational controls (e.g., best management practices (BMPs), construction and operation specifications, procedures, and work instructions); monitoring approach; mitigation and regulatory role; and mitigation measures. The HSEMP describes an HSE organization and outlines approaches for training, auditing, independent reviews, waste management practices, emergency response, construction activities, contractor requirements, air emissions, preventive maintenance, and change management. WAPCo has developed roles, responsibilities and authorities and committed the financial resources to implement the HSEMP. Potential socioeconomic impacts will be addressed through the RAP prepared by WAPCo. The RAP will ensure that affected peoples receive compensation for lost land and resources.

Summary and Conclusion


For Nigeria, WAGP has the potential to bring about social and economic benefits at the global, regional, national, and local levels. For a project of its size and complexity, after application of appropriate mitigation measures WAGPs potential negative impacts are relatively minor and the project is largely benign from the standpoint of environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Thus, the potential benefits of the project substantially outweigh the potential negative impacts.

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Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Project Overview

The West Africa Gas Pipeline (WAGP) project proposes to construct and operate a natural gas transmission pipeline to transport natural gas from Nigeria to three other West African countries: Benin, Ghana, and Togo. WAGP will originate at a connection to an existing natural gas pipeline just west of Lagos in Itoki, Nigeria, and extend 620 kilometers (km, or 385 miles), predominantly offshore in the Gulf of Guinea, to a point near Takoradi, Ghana. Lateral pipelines will branch off along this route to transport gas to locations near Cotonou, Benin, Lom, Togo, and Tema, Ghana. The proposed overall pipeline route is presented on a map in Figure 1.1-1. The Nigeria section of WAGP will begin near Itoki where WAGP will connect to the existing Escravos-Lagos Pipeline (ELP, owned by Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation or NNPC), at a connection termed the Alagbado Tee. From the Alagbado Tee, WAGP will extend over land in a southwesterly direction for approximately 56 kilometers (km) (35 miles), to the point where it goes offshore near Badagry. The first 4km of the pipeline route will share an existing Right of Way (ROW) with two gas pipelines built recently by Nigerian Gas Company (NGC, a subsidiary of NNPC) and Shell Nigeria Gas. For the subsequent 32km to a point near Agbara Estate, the WAGP ROW will run adjacent to Shells existing ROW. From Agbara Estate to the beachhead where the pipeline goes offshore, a distance of approximately 20km (12.5 miles), WAGP will be constructed in a new ROW (i.e., this final portion of the route will not be in or adjacent to any existing ROW). A map of the WAGP route onshore in Nigeria is presented in Figure 1.1-2. A compressor station, referred to as the Lagos Beach Compressor Station, will be built in Nigeria to boost gas pressure in the pipeline for transmission offshore. This compressor station will be located on the pipeline route west of Ajido, near Badagry, roughly 2 km (1.2 miles) inland from the beachhead, and just inland of Badagry Creek. From the beachhead near Badagry, WAGP will extend into the Gulf of Guinea in a southwesterly direction, to a distance of approximately 15km (9 miles) from shore. There the route will turn west and run roughly parallel to the shoreline, passing out of the territorial waters of Nigeria and into Benin territorial waters. The WAGP project proponent is the West African Gas Pipeline Company Limited (WAPCo), an incorporated joint venture between an affiliate of Chevron Nigeria Limited (CNL), Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), an affiliate of The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC), and a subsidiary of the Volta River Authority (VRA). In addition, two companies incorporated in Benin and Togo, respectively Socit Beninoise de Gaz S.A. (SOBEGAZ), and Socit Togolaise de Gaz S.A. (SOTOGAZ), have options to participate in the ownership of WAPCo.

Chapter 1

Figure 1.1-1 West African Gas Pipeline Project Route

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WAPCo was formed in May, 2003 specifically to construct, maintain, and operate WAGP. Prior to that time, development of WAGP was carried out by an unincorporated joint venture of these companies referred to as the Joint Venture or the Commercial Group. The project has been and will continue to be financed by the joint venture participants, with each participant originally holding a percentage of the project and now holding a percentage of the shares in WAPCo. The total capital investment for WAGP is estimated at US$500 million. WAGP will be a gas transportation facility. WAPCo will not sell the product moved through WAGP, but will instead derive revenue by charging tariffs from its customers for moving their gas through WAGP. The primary anticipated gas transportation customer is another incorporated joint venture, N-Gas Limited (N-Gas), which is owned directly by, or by other affiliates of NNPC, CNL, and SPDC. The natural gas to be moved through WAGP will primarily come from the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, and will consist of associated gas from various oil fields, and non-associated gas from various gas fields in the Delta region. Associated natural gas shipped via WAGP is currently being flared at its point of origin. NGas will transport natural gas from the Delta region to the Alagbado Tee via the existing ELP, which is owned by NNPC and operated by the Nigerian Gas Company (NGC), a subsidiary of NNPC. Anticipated end users of the natural gas transported through WAGP include electric power utilities and industrial and commercial gas customers in the three receiving countries. Several primary foundation gas customers have been identified, including the VRA electric power station in Takoradi, a relocated electric power station proposed by Communaut Elctrique du Bnin (CEB) at Maria Gleta, Benin; and an existing CEB power station near Lom, Togo. Once WAGP is operating and providing a ready supply of natural gas, it is anticipated that additional existing industrial and commercial users will switch to gas fuel, and that new power generation and industrial facilities will be developed to take advantage of the available gas. The great majority of the WAGP system will be a high-pressure system in order to maximize gas transport capacity. As mentioned above, the Lagos Beach Compressor Station will pressurize the gas. WAPCo has made provision for the installation of up to six compressors at Badagry, and for the eventual construction of a midline compressor station in Lom, to enhance the capacity of the system. This additional compressor capacity will be installed/built some time in the future (i.e., after the initial construction stage of the project), once growing demand for natural gas from WAGP justifies the increase in system capacity. Gas transport capacity of WAGP as initially built is expected to be 190 million standard cubic feet per day (MMscfd, or 5.3 million cubic meters per day (MMcmd)). The system design capacity assuming additional compressors installed near Badagry will be 462MMscfd (13.1MMcmd), at a maximum operating pressure of 153 barg. Ultimate system capacity would be 578MMscfd (16.4MMcdm) with midline compression at Lom. The actual rate of gas throughput by WAGP will depend on end-user customer demand for natural gas. There is some question, for example, as to whether the VALCO aluminum smelter in Ghana will continue operation. This smelter would purchase substantial amounts of electric power from the VRA Takoradi power plants, which are a key WAGP foundation

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customer. The question of VALCOs continued operation therefore has a significant bearing on the demand for gas from WAGP as will be shown in data presented below. Projected WAGP reserved capacities (throughput capacity reserved by customers) under various scenarios are presented in Figures 1.1-3 and 1.1-4. These projections are based on two main scenarios: the with VALCO scenario, in which the VALCO smelter is assumed to continue in operation (resulting in higher demand for natural gas fueled power generation Figure 1.1-3); and the no VALCO scenario, in which the VALCO smelter is assumed to cease operation (resulting in lower gas fueled power demand in the near term Figure 1.1-4). Within each of these two main scenarios, low, high, and mid-range gas demand projections are presented, termed respectively the P90, P10, and P50 projections.1
Figure 1.1-2 WAGP Reserved Capacity - "With VALCO" Scenario
800 700 600 500
MMscf/d

Figure 1.1-3

P50 Reserved Capacity P10 Reserved Capacity P90 Reserved Capacity

400 300 200 100 0 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026

The P10 demand projection is a high-end projection and is considered to have a 10 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded. The P90 demand projection is a low-end projection and is a level considered to have a 90 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded. The P50 demand projection is a mid-range projection that is considered to have a 50 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded. These projections are from Purvin and Gertz (2003). The Purvin & Gertz report is an independent market analysis commissioned by the West Africa Gas Pipeline Authority and WAPCo to establish a mid-market forecast as an input to determining the gas pipeline tariffs. In the remainder of this chapter emission reductions and other economic benefit projections that are based on gas demand are all based on mid-range demand projections.

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Figure 1.1-4 WAGP Reserved Capacity No VALCO Scenario


800 P50 Reserved Capacity P10 Reserved Capacity P90 Reserved Capacity

700

600

500 MMscf/d

400

300

200

100

2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026

1.2

Project Justification

WAGP has the potential to bring about significant benefits well beyond the financial returns for its shareholders. These include substantial social and economic benefits for society at large at the global, regional, national, and local levels. The WAGP Regional Final Draft EIA Rev 1 details beneficial and detrimental project impacts at the global and regional level and summarizes impacts at the national and local level. That report indicates that for a project of its size, complexity, and potential benefits, WAGPs negative environmental and socioeconomic impacts are relatively benign (after application of appropriate mitigation measures), and that overall the significant potential benefits of the project substantially outweigh the potential detrimental impacts. This Nigeria EIA report focuses on the positive and negative impacts of WAGP in Nigeria. The potential negative impacts, and the corresponding mitigation measures, are addressed in detail in the remainder of this volume. The ultimate conclusion of this analysis is that within Nigeria, the project is also largely benign from the standpoint of environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and that the significant potential benefits of the project to Nigeria substantially outweigh the potential negative impacts. Potential benefits of the project to Nigeria are summarized in the following subsections.

1.2.1 WAGP Benefits for Nigeria


The WAGP project represents a significant investment in infrastructure development in Nigeria, which by most economic and social indicators among the less-developed countries
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of the world (see Table 1.2-1). Based on World Banks World Development Indicators (World Bank, 2004), Nigeria falls within the lowest income group among countries worldwide, with a per-capita gross national income (GNI) of US$300, compared to the global average of US$5,120. Nigerias and the West Africa regions energy sector is considered among the least developed in the world (Yartley, 2003). Development of regionally integrated energy infrastructure and clean, reliable energy sources is widely viewed as vital to the acceleration of overall economic development in Nigeria and all countries in the region (WEC, 2003). Table 1.2-1 Basic Development Indicators
Country/Region Nigeria Sub-Saharan Africa World European Union GNI per capita (US$, Atlas method) 300 450 5,120 20,320 Life Expectancy (Years) 45.3 45.8 66.7 78.3

Source: World Bank 2003. All data are for 2002.

Clearly, significant investment in infrastructure development, particularly in the energy sector, is highly desirable in this region of the world and in Nigeria. Such investment has the potential to contribute to general economic growth, general improvement in social indicators, and stability in Nigeria and the region. The following subsections summarize additional specific benefits for Nigeria that will be brought about by WAGP. 1.2.1.1 Enhanced Integration into the Regional Economy

It has long been recognized that cooperation among the countries of West Africa is key to accelerating the rate of development in the region, and can yield benefits to all countries involved, including Nigeria. To this end the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was formed in 1975, with the objective of increasing economic cooperation among the countries of the region, and continues to work toward that goal. It is clearly to Nigerias benefit to participate as fully as possible in an integrated regional economy. In the energy sector, there is strong evidence that regional integration of energy development provides many benefits in terms of increasing the flexibility, resilience, distribution, abundance, and diversity of (and from Nigerias perspective, markets for) energy supplies, and also in enhancing regional collaboration and increasing economic inter-dependence among countries of a region (WEC, 2003). As stated above, development of regionally integrated energy infrastructure is recognized as a vital step in the acceleration of overall economic development in the West Africa region (ibid). This understanding has led to two major initiatives for energy integration in West Africa: WAGP; and

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The West Africa Power Pool (WAPP), an initiative to develop integrated electric power infrastructure throughout the West Africa region (discussed in more detail below). The development of WAGP has broken considerable new ground in bringing the government and private sector enterprises in Nigeria together with those in the other three WAGP countries. It has brought about unprecedented collaboration among the energy planners and economic policymakers from all four WAGP countries, initiated formally with the signing of a Heads of Agreement (HOA) among the governments of the four countries in 1995 mapping out plans for the commercial development of WAGP. Intensive, collaborative planning since that time among the involved governments and the Commercial Group of WAGP partners has resulted in comprehensive joint plans for project development, and further formalized agreement among the WAGP countries. The Governments of the WAGP countries signed the Treaty On The West African Gas Pipeline Project in January 2003, which: Established the WAGP Authority, an administrative body to act on behalf of the four WAGP countries to oversee the regulation of WAGP, together with associated governance and appeal processes; and Laid the groundwork providing for a harmonized investment regime to apply to WAGP in all four countries. Comprehensive provisions setting out the detail of the fiscal, legal, regulatory, and pricing regimes to apply to the project were agreed in a formal agreement, the International Project Agreement (IPA), signed in May of 2003 by the four Governments and WAPCo (World Bank, 2004c). The Treaty and IPA provide for the WAGP Authority to have jurisdiction across all four countries, as the oversight agency for WAGP.2 WAPCo itself, formed in 2003, represents an international partnership of private sector entities and government corporations that is unique in the region. The project has therefore started Nigeria on a path of extensive economic cooperation and energy integration with Benin, Ghana, and Togo, as well as cooperation and harmonization on many levels. Once approved, built, and put into operation WAGP will become a permanent basis for cooperation among the four WAGP countries, and one that has the potential to lead to broader economic cooperation and development benefits in Nigeria and the region.

Note that environmental oversight for WAGP, including approval of the country-specific EIAs, remains with the national environmental authorities

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1.2.1.2

Contribution to WAPP

As stated above, WAPP will also bring about substantial energy cooperation and integration in the region. It will provide the infrastructure for electrical cooperation among 14 West African nations. WAPP will make reliable electricity available to many more areas and customers in the region, allow for the migration to cleaner hydropower and gas-fired power generation for much of the regions power generation, and cut power generation costs roughly in half compared to current costs (World Bank, 2004a). From Nigerias perspective, it will also provide a substantial market for Nigerian natural gas. The scheme will be dependant on two main primary energy sources (WEC, 2003): Hydropower, mainly on the Niger (Nigeria), Volta (Ghana), Bafing (Mali), and Bandama (Cte D'Ivoire) Rivers; and Natural gas for thermal power stations including Nigerian gas delivered by WAGP to power plants in Benin, Togo, and Ghana. In view of the substantial potential benefits WAPP will bring to Nigeria, WAGPs complementarity in objectives with WAPP represents a benefit of WAGP for Nigeria. 1.2.1.3 Income Taxes

Nigeria will benefit from income taxes from WAGP. After a 60-month tax holiday, WAPCo will pay a 35 percent income tax in all four WAGP countries. In accordance with the IPA, WAPCo income taxes will be apportioned to each WAGP country according to a formula that takes into account the pipeline length in each country (45 percent), and the capacity reservations for delivery in each country (45 percent), with a small portion of the income tax (5 percent) shared equally. Projected income taxes to be paid by WAPCo to Nigeria over the lifetime of the project is in the range of US$76 million to US$95 million (WAGP, 2004).3 1.2.1.4 Revenue Benefits

Nigeria will benefit directly from WAGP through the return on sales of Nigerian gas. A portion of the returns on the sale of this gas will remain in Nigeria, and will provide an infusion of funds into the national economy. Nigeria will also benefit from the tariff charged for transportation of gas through the ELPS. Nigerian equity investment in the will provide an additional benefit to Nigeria. 1.2.1.5 Environmental Benefits

WAGP will provide an important environmental benefit to Nigeria and globally by providing a means for bringing currently flared gas in the Niger Delta region to markets. In doing so, WAGP will contribute to the Global Flare Reduction Initiative, a worldwide initiative led by the World Bank that seeks to eliminate gas flaring worldwide. Elimination of gas flaring has
3

Undiscounted nominal 2003 US$; not adjusted for inflation. Based on mid-level gas demand projection (modified P50). Low and high values reflect no VALCO and with VALCO scenarios respectively.

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many potential benefits, including reducing air pollution and related impacts on communities, providing increased fuel for power and industry, spurring economic development, and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and combating global warming. WAGP is also a significant project in the CNL and SPDC joint venture gas program portfolios that are intended to monetize currently flared gas and assist Nigeria to achieve its 2008 Flares Out initiative. Promoters of the Global Flare Reduction Initiative indicate that the greatest challenges for flare reduction worldwide are in the lesser-developed countries that carry out significant flaring, including Nigeria. A key to success of the initiative in less developed counties is increased investment in energy infrastructure aimed at bringing flared gas to markets and enhancing gas market efficiency (Kaldany, 2001). WAGP constitutes precisely this kind of investment, in one of the countries and regions of the world that presents the greatest challenge for flare reduction and therefore most needs this type of investment. WAGP will provide additional reduction in GHG emissions, and associated global warming impacts, by inducing a switch to natural gas fuel from other fossil fuels (primarily light crude oil) among end-user gas customers in Benin, Ghana, and Togo. The use of natural gas fuel results in approximately 20 percent lower GHG emissions per unit of energy than does the use of other liquid fossil fuels. Nigeria will participate in the global benefits associated with these GHG reductions. Table 1.2-2 presents the economic value4 of projected GHG emission reductions brought about by WAGP over the projects lifetime, considering reductions associated with both flare reduction in Nigeria and fuel switching in the other three WAGP countries. The estimated value of GHG emission reductions worldwide, and Nigerias share of this benefit, are presented.

This is an estimate of the net present value of global climate change damages that will be avoided as a result of the GHG emission reductions achieved by the project. The values are not based on global GHG trading market values, but rather on an evaluation of damages caused by global climate change. The high-end and low-end estimates of the value of these damages are presented in the Asian Development Bank workbook: Economic Evaluation of Environmental Impacts - A Workbook (ADB 1996). The first two rows of data in Table 1.2-1 present estimated values of damages avoided globally due to the projects GHG reductions.

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Table 1.2-2 Value of Global Warming Damages Avoided Due to WAGP GHG Emission Reductions (Million US$)
Worldwide Nigerias Share Low value High value Low value High value 224.6 505.4 5.44 12.2

Notes: 1. Discounted at 12% 2. Based on P50 gas demand projection and maximum baseline scenario5

WAGP will bring about additional environmental benefits to Nigeria in the form of reduced emissions of specific air pollutants. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and suspended particulates (expressed here as the respirable fraction, PM10) will be reduced in Nigeria, due to the reduction in gas flaring. These emission reductions will bring about an improvement in air quality in the areas surrounding the present flares, primarily in the Niger Delta region. This represents an important environmental benefit in terms of improved air quality, associated human health benefits, and reduced air pollutant-related property damage. Emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM10 will also be reduced in Benin, Ghana, and Togo as a result of WAGP, as power plants and industrial and commercial facilities in these countries switch to cleaner-burning gas fuel. Reductions in SO2, NOx, and PM10 emissions in Benin, Togo, and Ghana will benefit Nigeria because these atmospheric pollutants not only affect areas immediately surrounding their emission points, but can also be transported long distances in the atmosphere, and can affect air quality far from the point of origin (EPA, 2004). Reduction in the regional load of these pollutants will benefit overall regional air quality including that of Nigeria. Table 1.2-3, presents the SO2, NOx, and PM10 emissions reductions expected to be brought about by WAGP over the lifetime of the project.

See Appendix 2A-1 for details regarding assumptions and CO2eq emission reduction estimates used in deriving the values in Table 1.2-2. Emission reduction estimates have been adjusted to reflect declining associated gas input to WAGP over project lifetime. June 2004 Nigeria Final Draft EIA Rev 1 1-12

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Table 1.2-3 Estimated Air Pollutant Emission Reductions due to WAGP (thousand tonnes over 20 years)
Country Benin Ghana Nigeria Togo Total SO2 123 571 0.42 147 842 NOx 62.7 297 27.3 66.8 454

PM10
2.5 1.9 3.8 12.8 21.0

Source: Appendix 2A-1 Notes: 1. Country numbers may not add up to total due to rounding 2. Based on P50 gas demand projection and maximum baseline scenario. See Appendix 2A-1

1.2.1.6

Jobs and Materials Procurement

WAPCo is committed to maximizing the hiring of employees and contractors from surrounding communities, for both construction and operation of WAGP. The terms of the IPA formally commits WAGP to a minimum local content requirement of at least 15 percent of the total capital cost. It is anticipated that this requirement will be easily met through construction labor hiring, selected services contracts and materials procurement from surrounding communities. The total value of labor and materials procurement in Nigeria during the construction of WAGP is projected to be US$41 million (WAGP 2004). With regard to labor, WAGP has contractual requirements and will strongly influence its EPC contractors to hire construction crewmembers from the communities local to the construction sites to the extent practicable. Contractors will also draw labor as needed for both construction and operation from larger population centers and cities within each WAGP country. The majority of the jobs created by WAGP will be shorter-term jobs during the construction phase. Opportunities for employment of people from the local area during the WAGP operational phase are more limited, although a small number of long-term jobs will be created by WAGP. Job creation has benefits at the local and national levels that go well beyond welfare improvements for employees themselves. Infusion of cash into the local communities has a ripple effect throughout the local economies, resulting in increased demand for goods and services, and secondary and tertiary opportunities for business, employment, or income improvement. Employment in Nigeria on the level anticipated by WAGP has the potential to bring about economic development within the affected Nigerian communities. Sourcing of certain materials from within Nigeria will also benefit local businesses and their employees. As with local hiring, the infusion of cash to local communities associated with materials procurement will have a ripple effect throughout the local economies, and has the

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potential to bring about some degree of economic development within these Nigeria communities. 1.2.1.7 Community Development

In order to support WAPCos role and efforts with regard to corporate responsibility to the communities in which it operates, WAPCo intends to establish a community development program. This program is carried out at the sole discretion of WAPCo, in consultation with the surrounding communities, and supplements compliance requirements to address socioeconomic impacts of the project. The community development program will emphasize capacity-building, training and institutional strengthening. The overall objective will be to help communities increase their productivity and competitiveness in the marketplace so that they can make long-term social and economic improvements. WAPCo has developed a list of priority community development areas, via a participatory needs assessments (PNA) process (Terra, 2003). WAPCo has also encouraged community members to identify and rank in order of priority their own needs, and these have then been assessed and ranked in order of priority by WAPCo based on greatest impact on health, education, income generation, etc. The results of the PNA work and community consultations indicate the following initial priority areas for community development in Nigeria during WAGP construction and in the first few years of operation (Ibid): Youth and development (technical skill training, apprenticeships); Scholarship programs; Community and preventive health program (clinics and education); and Clean water supply. WAPCos focus during this initial timeframe will be on education and healthcare support, and overall fixed budget commitments towards these objectives are being finalized. The PNA work also identified future opportunities in terms of income generation and capacity building that can be incorporated into later year operating budgets. Distribution of benefits will be based on a geographic allocation in terms of community impact of WAGP operations, initially established as follows: 50 percent 20 percent 20 percent 10 percent Nigeria Benin Ghana Togo

Implementation plans are being developed, with initial efforts scheduled for before and after the Final Investment Decision. This voluntary community development program will provide direct benefits to communities in the WAGP countries, in terms of quality of life improvements, and long-term social and economic improvements.

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1.2.1.8

Enhancement of Environmental Knowledge Base

An additional benefit already provided by WAGP is a significant contribution to the scientific knowledge about the terrestrial environment in Nigeria, and the marine environment in Nigerias territorial waters. The environmental baseline survey (EBS) conducted in support of this EIA included extensive sampling and analysis of sediment, water, soil, and biota along the entire onshore and offshore WAGP route in Nigeria, over both of the two main climatic seasons. Thousands of samples were collected and analyzed, and the results have been catalogued and entered into databases. These data represent a significant resource for understanding and managing the related areas.

1.2.2 Project Implementation


On 5 September 1995, the HOA was signed by the Countries to construct a pipeline to transport natural gas from Nigeria to Ghana through Benin and Togo. The HOA required that an independent feasibility study be conducted to determine the viability of the pipeline. The Engineering Feasibility Study was carried out by Pipeline Engineering GmbH of Germany and documented in a report issued in March 1999. This study determined that WAGP was technically and commercially feasible, pending additional evaluation. In a formal Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) dated 11 August 1999, the Countries appointed a consortium known collectively as the Commercial Group to be the Project Developer for WAGP. At that time the Commercial Group included CNL, the Ghana National Petroleum Company (GNPC), NNPC, SPDC, SOBEGAZ, and SOTOGAZ. In May 2001, VRA replaced GNPC as a member of the Commercial Group. In the MOU, the Countries confirmed the exclusive designation of the Commercial Group as the Project Developer. This definitional phase was intended to fully establish the commercial viability of the pipeline and execute certain technical studies, including a detailed EIA. On 31 January 2003 in Dakar, Senegal, the Countries signed the WAGP Treaty, which will operate under international law. This treaty commits the countries to establishing a harmonized investment regime for WAGP across the four countries and sets up a single regional entity (the WAGP Authority) with administrative authority, under the control of the states, to regulate pipeline construction and operation. Functionally, the WAGP Authority will report to the relevant Energy/Petroleum Ministries in each of the four countries. On 19 May 2003, the four funding sponsors signed a Shareholders Agreement forming WAPCo. On 22 May 2003, WAPCo executed an International Project Agreement (IPA) with the governments of Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo. The IPA sets out the commercial and regulatory structure applicable to the project, to be harmonized across all four countries, consistent with the intentions of the WAGP Treaty. WAPCo is the legal entity that will build, own, and operate WAGP in all four countries. The Countries are currently proceeding with the legal and administrative steps necessary to ratify the WAGP Treaty and introduce WAGP-specific legislation as required by the IPA.

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These activities need to be completed before WAPCo takes a Final Investment Decision to build the pipeline. The current objective for implementation of the WAGP project is completing the current predevelopment activities, such as the front-end engineering design (FEED) that will be approved by the Countries. Once the design and Pipeline Development Plan are approved, licenses to construct the pipeline shall be granted by each relevant Energy/Petroleum Ministry, based on a recommendation from the WAGP Authority. Along the same schedule, the EIA is being submitted for public disclosure and then finalized upon receipt of and response to public comments. WAPCo forecasts pipeline construction activities commencing in 2004, and for first gas, or gas delivery, to occur in 2006.

1.3

Legal and Policy Framework

1.3.1 Introduction
In Nigeria, several legislation and regulations guide the operations of the oil and gas industry. These regulations include local laws as well as some international treaties, acts and conventions. In this section, an overview of the laws pursuant to the WAGP project is presented. Local regulations for the oil and gas industries are under the jurisdiction of four government agencies: the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv),6 the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR), the Lagos State Environmental Agency and the Ogun State Environmental Agency. FMEnv and DPR regulations applicable to WAGP are briefly discussed here. These regulations are contained in the following documents: DPR Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN, 2002); and Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA, now the Federal Ministry of Environment) Environmental Guidelines and Standards, including the FEPA EIA Decree No. 86 of 1992. A listing of the Nigerian national legislative frameworks pertinent to gas industry activities and international regulations are presented in Tables 1.3-1 and 1.3-2, respectively. A summary of these regulations (both local and international) is presented in Appendix 1-B.

Formerly the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA).

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Table 1.3-1 National/Local Legislation Relevant to the Federal Republic of Nigeria


Applicable Regulations Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) Environmental Guidelines and Standards (EG&S) for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria National Inland Waterways Authority Decree No. 13 Lagos Urban and Regional Planning Board and Town Planning Authority Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) Edict Mineral Oils (Safety) Regulations Oil and Gas Pipelines Act and Regulationsa Environmental Impact Assessment Act National Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria (DPR): Effluent Limitation Regulations; Pollution and Abatement in Industries in Facilities Producing Waste; and Management of Solid Hazardous Wastes. Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act Endangered Species (Control of International Trade and Traffic Act 1985, CAP 108, LFN 1985) Associated Gas Re-Injection Decree No. 99 Criminal Justice (Misc. Provisions) Act Petroleum Pollution and Distribution (Anti-Sabotage) Act Oil in Navigable Waters Act
a

Year Adopted 2002 (revised from 1991 and interim 1999) 1997 1997 1996 1995 1995 1992

1991 (revised in 2002; see above)

1988 1985 1979 1975 1975 1968

This law will eventually be overridden by the Enabling Legislation (legislation passed in each State for the purpose of implementing the International Project Agreement and establishing the necessary enabling environment) of that State.

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Table 1.3-2 Summary of Relevant Regional and International Regulatory Instruments


Regulation Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) Gulf of Guinea Large Marine Ecosystem Project (GOG-LME) United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund 1992 (IOPC Fund), London UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Convention of Fisheries Cooperation among African States Bordering the Atlantic Ocean International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response, and Cooperation Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention) Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer [Note to Reviewer: The protocol was amended for the first time on 29 June 1990 in London. A second set of amendments was adopted in Copenhagen in November 1992; these entered into force on 1994.] Vienna Convention on the Ozone Layer UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Montego Bay Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region (Abidjan Convention) Protocol Concerning Cooperation in Combating Pollution in Cases of Emergency in the West and Central African Region International Convention on Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarer (STCW) Protocol Relating to the International Convention for the Safety of life at Sea (SOLAS PROT) Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and National Heritage (World Heritage Convention), Paris International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) [note: supercedes OILPOL, 1954] Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution By Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter [Note: The Convention was amended in 1992] Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG) African Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic Convention of the High Seas, Geneva Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone Convention on the Continental Shelf Memorandum of Understanding Concerning Conservation Measures for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic Coast of Africa Year Adopted 2001 1999 1994 1992 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1985 1982 1981 1981 1978 1978 1975 1974 1973 1972 1972 1968 1965 1958 1958 1958 1999

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The regional and international guidelines in Table 1.3-2 are treaties and conventions the country of Nigeria has ratified. Furthermore, international treaties such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (Marine Pollution Convention (MARPOL) 73/78) are cited among the World Banks list of key international agreements on environment and natural resources (Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update, Number 10, Environment Department, World Bank). In addition to Nigerian laws, regulations and international treaty commitments, this EIA is also structured to address the World Banks environmental and socioeconomic safeguard policies, and the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) prohibitions. Their applicability to the WAGP project is discussed in more detail in Section 1.3.3, below.

1.3.2 Major Environmental Regulations


1.3.2.1 Environmental Guidelines And Standards For The Petroleum Industry In Nigeria 2002 (Revised from 1991; Interim Guidelines of 1981 and 1999) Objective: Made pursuant to the statutory regulatory functions of the Ministry of Petroleum Resources to, among other things, prescribe guidelines and standards to ensure that petroleum industry operators do not degrade the environment in the course of their operations. Highlights of the Provisions An EIA is mandatory prior to commencing onshore exploration drilling and production operations, the construction of onshore and offshore oil and gas transmission pipelines greater that 50km in length, and the construction of oil and gas separation facilities. Oil and gas installation operators shall be required to ensure that the levels of pollution control technology are fully in line with the Best Practicable Control Technology (BPT) currently available. BPT represents the average of the best existing performances of well-known technologies for the control of these specific pollutants (Part 111, Article 1.0). During gas flaring, pre-treated clean gas shall be burnt and the flare shall be luminous and bright (i.e., show complete smokeless combustion at operating gas flow rate. The relative density of emitted smoke shall not exceed two Ringelmann Number, which is related to 40 percent of smoke density and 60m from the base of the flame (Part 11, Article 4.1). Contingency plans for accidental release of pollutants are subject to DPR approval and must include the following:

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The purpose and objectives of the plan; A description of the facilities and areas of operation; The results of environmental sensitivity index (ESI) mapping; Details of the response equipment that is to be held available; Details of the containment and clean-up procedures that are to be used for inland, near-shore and offshore waters; and The communication network that is to be established. Specifies requirements concerning the remediation of land in the event of oil spill incident specifically, it is mandatory on those responsible for the spill to restore the impacted land to its original state, as far as is possible. The restoration process must achieve the following: For waters, there must be no visible sheen within the first 30 days of the spill. For swamp areas, there must be no oil stain within 60 days of the spill. For land, the oil content of the soil must be less than 30 parts per million (ppm) within six months of the spill. 1.3.2.2 Environmental Impact Assessment Decree No. 86, 1992

Objective: To set out the procedure and methods to enable the prior consideration of an EIA on certain public or private projects and give specific powers to FMEnv to facilitate environmental assessments of proposed projects. Highlights of the Provisions Pertains to a restricted public or private project without prior consideration of the environmental impact. Specifically, the public or private sector of the economy except where they are exempted pursuant to the Decree, are enjoined not to undertake or embark or authorize projects or activities without prior consideration at early stages of their environmental effects (Section 2(1)). Where the extent, nature or location of a proposed project or activity is such that it is likely to significantly affect the environment, an EIA must be undertaken in accordance with the provisions of the Decree. The proponents of such projects or activities are required, before embarking on the proposed project, to apply in writing to FMEnv, so that an EIA may be undertaken while the project is being planned (Section 2(4)).

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Makes EIA mandatory for certain specified projects/activities. Projects that require mandatory EIA are: oil and gas field development, construction of offshore pipelines in excess of 50km in length, construction of oil and gas separate processing, handling and storage facilities. Construction of oil refineries and construction of product depots for the storage of petrol, gas, or diesel (excluding service stations) which are located within 30km of any commercial, industrial or residential areas and which have a combined storage capacity of 60,000 barrels or more (Section 13 and schedule there to). An EIA is also mandatory where: conversion of forest land to other land uses is planned to take place within river basin catchment areas, irrigation areas for hydropower generation of areas adjacent to state and national parks and national marine parks, and where clearing of mangrove swamps is planned or islands adjacent to national marine parks (Section 13 and schedule thereto). Provides for fair examination of EIA of an activity. Specifically, for any EIA submitted by a proponent of an activity, it is required that FMEnv gives an opportunity to governmental agencies, members of the public, experts in any relevant discipline, and interested groups to make comments on the EIA of the proposed activity. FMEnv is required to give its decision in writing including reasons thereof and provisions if any, to prevent, reduce, or mitigate damage to the environment (Section 7). Grants public access to information relating to environmental assessment (Section 57). Prescribes that the minimum level of environmental impact assessment must include the following stipulations, (a) through (h): Description of the proposed activities; Description of the environment of the proposed project including specific information necessary to identify and assess the environmental effects of the proposed activities; Description of all practical activities as appropriate; An assessment of the likely potential environmental impacts of the proposed activities and the alternatives, including the direct or indirect, cumulative, short term and long-term effects; An identification and description of measures available to mitigate adverse environmental impacts of proposed activity and assessment of those measures; An indication of gaps in knowledge and uncertainty which may be encountered in computing the required information;

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An indication of whether the environment of any other state or Local Government Area (s) outside Nigeria is likely to be affected by the proposed activity or its alternatives; and A brief and non-technical summary of the information provided under paragraphs (a) through (g) (Section 4). 1.3.2.3 National Policy on Environment (1989, Revised 1999). Issued by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Objective: The goal of the National Policy on the Environment is to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria, and in particular to: Secure a quality of environment adequate for good health and well-being; Conserve and use the environment and natural resources for the benefit of present and future generations; Restore, maintain, and enhance the ecosystem and ecological processes essential for the functioning of the biosphere to preserve biological diversity and the principle of optimum sustainable yield in the use of living natural resources and ecosystems; Raise public awareness and promote understanding of the essential linkages between the environment, resources, and development, and encourage individual and community participation on environmental improvement efforts; and Co-operate in good faith with other countries international organizations and agencies to achieve optimal use of Trans-boundary natural resources and effective prevention or abatement of Trans-boundary environmental degradation (Article 2.0). Highlights of the Provisions The National Policy on the Environment is a program of actions rooted in a conceptual framework within which the linkages between environmental problems and their causes, effects, and solutions can be discussed. This is achieved in the policy document through five major policy initiatives: Preventive activities directed at the social, economic, and political origins of the environmental problems; Abatement, remedial, and restorative activities directed at the specific problems arising from industrial production processes, problems caused by rapid population growth and the attendant excessive pressure of the population on the land and other resources, and problems due to raid growth of urban centers; Design and application of broad strategies for sustainable environmental protection and management at systematic or sub-systematic levels;

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Enactment of necessary legal instruments designed to strengthen the activities and strategies recommended by this policy; and Establishment/emplacement of management organs, institutions and structures designed to achieve the policy objectives (Article 3.0). Provides for comprehensive proposed implementation strategies for the various sectors of the economy covering issues such as: human population, culture, housing and human settlements, biological diversity, natural resources conservation, land use and soil conservation, agriculture, water resources, forestry, wildlife and protected natural areas, marine and coastal area resources, mining and mineral resources, industry, energy, trade, tourism, and science and technology. It also provides for implementation strategies for specific issues such as: disasters, drought and desertification, flood and erosion, and cross-sectoral issues as: sanitation and waste management, toxic, hazardous, air pollution, noise pollution, working environment (occupational health and safety), and public participation. The proposed implementation strategies covers matters such as: institutional and inter-governmental arrangements, legal arrangements, international treaties and obligations, financing environmental protection and natural resources conservation, and the use of economic instruments and incentives in the management of the environment and natural resources (Articles 4.0 11.0). In particular, the sustainable exploitation strategies to be adopted in the oil and gas sector nationally will seek to: Evolve a realistic national conservation policy that ensures optimum economic returns from oil and gas exploration and production, while ensuring adequate provisions for strategic reserves and taking into consideration the welfare of the local inhabitants of the oil and gas producing areas; Ensure minimal disturbance of the soil topography, vegetation, sensitive ecological zones, including critical wildlife habitats, wetlands, avian migratory routes, etc. during the process of exploration, production, refining, transportation, and marketing of oil and gas; Proscribe all forms of oil and gas exploration and production in estuaries, coastal waters, beaches and resorts, and take such measures as will minimize disturbance to any contamination of benthic and aquatic habitats; Minimize disturbances/displacement of the local inhabitants, their artifacts, roads historical sites sacred groves/places of worship, etc., source of livelihood (agriculture, fishing, transportation etc.) and pay adequate compensation for proven cases of pollution; Prescribe stringent regulations for the efficient collection, treatment and disposal of oil field wastes (drilling muds and addition formation waters etc.);

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Monitor water quality in open drains, streams and other water bodies around oil and gas operations, as well as groundwater quality in all areas prone to pollution; Inspect periodically pipelines, ships, barges, tanks, and other oil field and refinery facilities for early detection of corrosion, fatigue leakages, damages, etc., and ensure prompt maintenance; Encourage all oil and gas operators to keep accurate records of crude oil and product spills as well as other accidents that impact environmental quality and report them promptly to the appropriate authorities; Maintain an inventory of certified/approved oil spill control chemicals and document their toxicity levels and biodegradability; Monitor air emissions and gaseous wastes (CO, CO2, NO2, H2S, CH4, SO2, etc.) discharged at production platforms, refineries petrochemical and gas processing facilities through continual air quality sampling as well as through daily visual checks for leakages around tanks, pumps pipelines and transfer points; Promote conservation and restoration of natural formation pressure through elimination of gas flaring and the re-injection of produced associated gas and formation waters; Promote the complete utilization of produced associated gas, reduce gas flaring and the production of greenhouse gases; Monitor regularly the functioning of well head and drilling platform devices to prevent blowouts and install early warning electronic devices for their detection and prevention; Install pressure monitoring gauges and automatic shut-off devices on pumps and pipelines and ensure their integrity through periodic inspection and testing; Prescribe minimum standards of environmental safety in all upstream and downstream oil sector facilities and maintain regular environmental audits of all existing oil and gas production facilities to ensure the adoption of environmentally safe practices as well as compliance with set standards; Prescribe minimum environmental and safety regulations for the protection of the health of workers, the general public and the environment and ensure compliance through terms of competent inspectors; Prescribe a realistic Quality Control Assurance scheme for the adoption of all operators and monitor compliance; Ensure the implementation of the National Oil Spill Contingency Plan;

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Prepare a national Plan of Action for Awareness Preparedness for Emergencies at the Local Level (APELL); Prescribe stringent penalties for deliberate sabotage of oil and gas installations; Promote research aimed at accumulating baseline ecological data on oil and gas production areas; Encourage the establishment of waste/crankcase oil recovery and reuse systems; and Review and periodically harmonize existing laws to reflect new realities in environmental management in the sector. 1.3.2.4 National Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, 1991 1.3.2.4.1 Effluent Limitations Regulations

Objective: This regulation was made pursuant to Section 37 of the FEPA Act Cap 131 LFN, to regulate ways and manners of treating effluent as well as installation of anti-pollution equipment by industries operating in Nigeria. Highlights of the Provisions Mandates every industry to install anti-pollution equipment for the detoxification of effluent and chemical discharges emanating from the industry (Regulation 1(1)). Such installed anti-pollution equipment shall be based on Best Available Technology (BAT), BPT or the Uniform Effluent Standards (UES) (Regulation 1(2)). An industry which discharges effluent shall treat the effluent to a uniform level as specified in the schedule to the receiving water into which the effluent is discharged (Regulation 3(1)). An industry specified in column 1 of schedule 3 to the regulations shall be subject to the additional sectoral effluent limitations set out in columns 2 and 3 respectively, to the schedule (Regulation 4). The regulation sets out effluent limitations and gaseous emissions guidelines in Nigeria for the petroleum exploration and production industry. Contravention of this regulation is an offense punishable as specified in Section 35 or 36 of FEPA (Regulation 5).

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1.3.2.4.2

Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes

Objectives: This regulation is made pursuant to FEPA Act, CAP 131 LFN Section 37, to designate and regulate the management of solid and hazardous wastes generated from facilities in Nigeria. Highlights of the Provisions Unless with the approval of the Agency (FEPA, now FMEnv), no industry or facility shall release hazardous or toxic substances into the air, water or land of Nigerias ecosystem and such limits approved by the Agency shall not be exceeded. Storage, treatment, and transportation of harmful toxic waste without permit are also prohibited (Regulations 1, 10, and 15). Mandates that an industry or facility has a pollution monitoring unit within its premises, sets up a machinery for combating pollution hazard and maintains equipment in the event of an emergency, and assigns the responsibility for pollution control to a person or corporate body accredited by the Agency (Regulations 2 and 8). Solid waste generated by an industry or facility, including sludges and all by-products resulting from the operation of pollution abatement equipment shall be disposed of in an environmentally safe manner, and no industry solid waste shall be disposed of in any municipal landfill (Regulation 16). Enjoins every industry or facility that is likely to release gaseous particles or solid untreated discharges to install into its system a prescribed abatement equipment by the Agency (Regulation 17). Empowers the Agency to demand environmental audit from existing industries and environmental impact assessment from new industries and major development projects and the industries shall comply within 90 days of the receipts of the demand (Regulation 21). Places responsibilities of collection, treatment, transportation, and final disposal of waste on the industry or facility generating the waste, and imposes a liability, on such industry or facility, for any clean-up, remediation or restoration connected with the waste and where necessary, compensation to all affected parties (Regulation 11(1) (2)). Any person or group, whether corporate or unincorporated who contravenes any provision of the regulations shall be guilty of an offense and liable on conviction to the penalty specified in Sections 35 or 36 of the FEPA Act (Regulation 22). Establishes monitoring pollution units, pollution response centers and other machinery for combating pollution (Regulations. 3, 6, and 7).

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1.3.2.4.3

Management of Hazardous Waste Regulation

Highlights of the Provisions Designate those solid wastes, which are dangerous or extremely hazardous to the public health and environment. In order to determine if the waste generated is to be designated as dangerous i.e. hazardous waste or extremely hazardous waste in accordance with the stipulations under Part II of the Regulations, the generator or operator has to consult the dangerous waste list, characteristics and criteria set out under schedules 6-13 and follow the detailed cross checking procedures established there. Provides for surveillance and monitoring of dangerous and extremely hazardous waste and substances, until they are detoxified, reclaimed, neutralized, or disposed of safely. Provides the form and rules necessary to establish a system for manifesting, tracking, reporting, monitoring, record keeping, sampling and labeling dangerous, and extremely hazardous wastes. Establishing the siting, design operation closure, post-closure, and monitoring requirements for managing hazardous waste disposal facilities. Encourage recycling, reuse, reclamation, and recovery to the maximum extent possible.

1.3.3 Relationship of Project to World Bank Safeguard Policies and OPIC Prohibitions.
In this section the features of the overall WAGP project are compared to the specific provisions of the World Banks environmental and socioeconomic safeguard policies, and to the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) prohibitions. The results of this comparison are presented in Tables 1.3-3 and 1.3-4.

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Table 1.3-3 WAGP and World Bank Safeguard Issues


World Bank Policy WAGP Response GENERAL POLICY POINTS The Bank requires an environmental assessment This EIA document constitutes the EA for the (EA) of projects proposed for Bank financing to WAGP project. It contains an assessment of all of the specified points, as follows: ensure they are environmentally sound and sustainable, and thus improve decision-making. a) Risks and impacts evaluation - Chapter 6; The EA: b) Project alternatives analysis Chapters 3 a) Evaluates a projects potential and 4; and environmental risks and impacts in its c) Mitigation measures and environmental area of influence; management plan Chapters 7 and 8. b) Examines project alternatives, identifies The Terms of Reference for this EIA are ways of improving project selection presented in Appendix 1-A. siting, planning, design; and c) Proposes implementation by preventing, minimizing, mitigating, or compensating for adverse environmental impacts and enhancing positive impacts; includes mitigating and managing adverse environmental impacts throughout project implementation. EA takes into account the natural environment; This EIA takes into account all of these aspects, in human health and safety; social aspects, and the following sections: transboundary and global environmental aspects. a) Natural environment Sections 5.1, and Sections 6.5 6.8; b) Health and safety and social aspects Sections 5.2, 5.3 and 6.5-6.8; c) Transboundary effects Section 6.6; and d) Global effects Chapter 1 of the Regional EIA report provides a general discussion and Appendix 2A-2 of this EIA report provides a greenhouse gas analysis. Borrower is responsible for carrying out the EA. This EIA has been carried out by ICF Consulting, an independent consulting firm of EA experts The borrower retains independent EA experts under contract to WAPCo, and by local EIA not affiliated with the project to carry out the experts subcontracted by ICF Consulting. EA. Advisory panel of independent experts. World Bank action item. The Bank advises the borrower on the Banks EA requirements. The Bank reviews the findings and recommendations. The Bank may, if appropriate, require additional EA work, including public consultation and disclosure.

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Table 1.3-3 WAGP and World Bank Safeguard Issues


World Bank Policy The Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook describes pollution prevention and abatement measures and emission levels that are normally acceptable to the Bank. The EA report must provide full and detailed justification for the levels and approaches chosen for the particular project or site. Depending on the project, a range of instruments can be used to satisfy the Banks EA requirement. OP 4.01 Paragraph 7 requires a Regional EA for projects spanning several countries. When the borrower has inadequate legal or technical capacity to carry out key EA-related functions (EA review, monitoring, inspection) the project should include components to strengthen that capacity. WAGP Response This EIA describes all emissions associated with WAGP and the emission levels (see Chapter 2), assesses associated impacts (see Chapter 6), and presents justification for these emission levels (see Chapters 7 and 8).

The Regional EIA for WAGP satisfies this requirement. The WAGP EIA includes 4 separate, country-specific EIAs, this being one of those four. The project is further supported by four country-specific Resettlement Action Plans. This EIA addresses Bank Policy by identifying key government institutional roles with respect to the oversight and management of WAGP, and government agencies currently responsible for these roles in the WAGP countries. Any additional Institutional Assessment is not applicable to WAPCo as a private investor. The borrower consults project-affected groups A comprehensive program of stakeholder and local non-governmental organizations about consultation has been carried out in conjunction the projects environmental aspects and takes with WAGP and this EIA. See Chapter 5 for a their view into account. summary of this program for details. Throughout the stakeholder consultation process For meaningful consultation, the borrower information has been provided to stakeholders by provides relevant material in a timely manner prior to consultation and in a form and language WAPCo in a timely manner as specified (Chapter 5). that are understandable and accessible to the groups being consulted. Information has been provided in the initial stages The borrower provides for the initial consultation a summary of the proposed projects as specified (Chapter 5). The draft EIA, including a summary, will be made available in publicly objectives, description, and potential impacts, accessible places. and for consultation after the draft EA, a summary of EAs conclusions and the draft available in a public accessible place. The executive summary is distributed to the World Bank action item. executive directors and makes the reports available through the Infoshop. During project implementation, the borrower The Environmental Management Plan (see reports on compliance, status of mitigation Chapter 8) specifies a plan for status and measures, findings of monitoring programs. compliance monitoring and reporting. NATURAL HABITATS (OP 4.04, September 1995) Bank does not support projects that involve the WAGP will not result in the significant significant conversion of critical natural habitat. conversion of critical natural habitat, as indicated in Chapters 5 and 6 of the EIA.

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Table 1.3-3 WAGP and World Bank Safeguard Issues


World Bank Policy Projects are sited on land already converted when feasible. WAGP Response Significant care was taken in siting WAGP onshore components to use existing pipeline ROWs or land already converted. This was done wherever feasible. Siting considerations and assessment of siting alternatives are presented in Chapters 2, 3, and 4. If natural habitats would be significantly Every effort was made to avoid habitat loss in the converted, acceptable mitigation measures are design and siting of WAGP (See Chapters 2 included in design: minimizing habitat loss and through 4). Mitigation measures have been establishing and maintaining ecologically similar adopted to mitigate any minimal habitat loss protected area. associated with the project as specified in Chapter 7. Institutional capacity of implementing WAPCo is a private sector entity and a member of organization should be taken into account. the regulated community, and is not in a position to propose changes to government regulatory bodies or regulations. Project needs to take into account the views, A comprehensive program of stakeholder roles of affected groups (NGOs, communities) in consultation has been carried out in conjunction project design/implementation. with this EIA. Views expressed by stakeholders were taken into account in the design of WAGP (Section 5.5). PEST MANAGEMENT (OP 4.09, July 1996) Not Applicable WAGP is not a public health In Bank financed public health projects, the project. Bank supports controlling pests primarily through environmental methods. Where environmental methods alone are not effective, the Bank may finance use of pesticides for control of disease vectors. Use of a pesticide is contingent on an assessment WAGP will limit its use of pesticides to the of associate risks (made in context of projects control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases during the construction phase. Pesticide EA) taking into account proposed use and the intended users. The following criteria apply to Management Plan policy requirements are met via mitigation measures and operational controls as the selection and use of pesticides: a) have described in this EIA (see Chapters 7 and 8). negligible adverse health effects, b) effective against target species, c) minimal effect on non Herbicides will not be used to remove or control target species and environment, d) takes into account need to prevent development of vegetation in the pipeline ROW. This is an resistance in pests. explicit term of ROW clearing and maintenance contracts. Pesticides must be manufactured, packaged, Pesticide Management Plan policy requirements labeled, handled, stored, disposed of, and are met via mitigation measures and operational applied in acceptable standards. controls as described in this EIA (see Chapters 7 and 8).

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Table 1.3-3 WAGP and World Bank Safeguard Issues


World Bank Policy WAGP Response INVOLUNTARY RESETTLEMENT (OP 4.12, 2001) The objective of the Banks resettlement policy A comprehensive WAGP Resettlement Action is to ensure that the persons displaced by a Plan (RAP) is being prepared to supplement project benefit from it. WAGP land acquisition procedures. This plan details measures to ensure that all project-affected people will be addressed properly. Involuntary resettlement should be avoidable or Involuntarily resettlement has been avoided to the minimized where feasible. extent possible in the planning of WAGP. Extensive measures were taken to avoid displacement of people or other resettlement impacts, particularly in the routing of the pipeline and siting of ancillary facilities (Chapters 2 and 3). Involuntary resettlement for WAGP is considered minimal. Where displacement is unavoidable, resettlement A comprehensive WAGP RAP is being prepared to supplement WAGP land acquisition plans should be developed to: procedures. This plan details measures to ensure 1) Compensate for losses; that project-affected people are: 2) Assist with the move and support during 1) Compensated for losses; the transition period; and 2) As determined, assisted with any move and 3) Assist in their efforts to improve or at supported during the transition period; and least to restore earning capacity and 3) As determined, assisted in their efforts to production levels. improve or at least to restore earning capacity and production levels. Community participation in planning and Comprehensive community consultation is being implementing resettlement. carried out in conjunction with the development of the RAP. This is detailed in the RAP. A participatory approach is being used in development of the RAP. Resettlers should be integrated. Physical displacement is low to non-existent. To the very limited extent that resettler integration will be required; the RAP provides measures to ensure that resettlers will be integrated into host communities. Land, housing, and infrastructure compensation The project will not resettle or displace or affect any indigenous populations or ethnic minorities. provided to adversely affected population, The RAP details plans to provide compensation indigenous groups, ethnic minorities (where and/or in-kind restitution to all project-affected appropriate). people. Resettlement plan, timetable, and budget. The RAP will provide a detailed schedule and budget for resettlement associated with WAGP.

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Table 1.3-3 WAGP and World Bank Safeguard Issues


World Bank Policy WAGP Response The WAGP RAP reflects this organization and Content and level of resettlement plan: will provide all content specified. a. organization responsibilities b. Community participation and integration with lost population c. Socioeconomic surveys d. Legal framework e. Alternative sites and selection f. Valuation and compensation for lost assets g. Land tenure, acquisition, and transfer h. Access to training employment and credit i. Shelter infrastructure and social services j. Environmental protection and management k. Information schedule Bank roles and project options. PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY (OP NOTE 11.03, Sept. 1996) The WB general policy is to assist in WAGP will affect very few known cultural preservation and to avoid elimination: properties or sites. The Bank declines to finance projects WAGP will not significantly damage nonthat will significantly damage nonreplicable cultural property; and replicable cultural property; WAPCo will have a Chance Finds The Bank will assist in the protection procedure in place throughout the and enhancement of cultural properties construction phase and adherence to this in WB financed projects; procedure will be an explicit term of construction contracts. WAGP does not Deviation justified only where project and will not deviate from the WB policy benefits are great and unavoidable; and on the Protection of Cultural Property. Policy pertains to any WB project. Management of cultural properties is the responsibility of government: Need to determine what is known about cultural properties; and Reconnaissance survey is to be undertaken. Reconnaissance has been performed by engineering, environmental baseline, estate, and socioeconomic survey teams, which have surveyed all construction sites in detail. Based on this reconnaissance and on consultation with stakeholders in and around the project footprint, WAPCo has identified a limited number of cultural properties on the surface (which are listed in Chapter 5 and are being addressed by the RAP). WAPCo is in the process of conducting a literature review for archaeologic resources. This literature review will be followed by an archaeologic walk-through, which is scheduled to be completed in July 2004. WAPCo also will have a Chance Finds procedure in place throughout the construction phase (adherence to this procedure will be an explicit term of construction contracts), and will provide cultural

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Table 1.3-3 WAGP and World Bank Safeguard Issues


WAGP Response properties protection training to construction workers. PROJECTS ON INTERNATIONAL WATERWAYS (OP 7.50) The Policy applies to projects on bodies of water WAGP does affect international waterways; inon their tributaries that form a boundary between country regulatory approvals will be obtained. or flow through two or more states. World Bank advises that (1) the Policy is It sets out notification requirements. triggered by WAGP and (2) the WAGP Treaty satisfies the notification requirements of OP 7.50 because all four of the affected riparian states are party to the Treaty and therefore specific notification and details about the Project would be redundant. PROJECTS ON DISPUTED AREAS OP 7.60) Is there any dispute among Riparian including WAPCo is not aware of any Riparian disputes in demarcation of sea (continental Shelf, the proposed project area. economic exclusive zone or other)? DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION WAPCo and the WAGP project team will disclose this EIA in conformance with the World Bank Disclosure Policy and with the legally required EIA public notice and review procedures in each state. Disclosure implementation steps include: Providing copies of earlier EIA drafts to relevant stakeholders (completed following submittal of the Preliminary Draft EIA report in March, 2003); Advertisements in newspapers and print media, particularly in Project Affected Areas, announcing the project and the availability of this Final Draft EIA; Placement of the draft EIA in town halls, libraries and other public facilities of Project Affected Areas; Stakeholder consultations in Project Affected Areas to present and discuss the EIA content prior to legally required Public Hearings; and Public hearings. World Bank Policy

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Table 1.3-4 WAGP and OPIC Prohibitions


I. OPIC Prohibition Infrastructure and extractive projects located in primary tropical forests. Extractive projects include oil, gas, mineral resources, steam/geothermal and surface resources such as timber. Infrastructure refers to roads, pipelines, and, in some cases, transmission lines, to the extent that these provide human access to otherwise inaccessible areas. Projects involving the construction of large dams that significantly and irreversibly: (A) disrupt natural ecosystems upstream or downstream of the dam, or (B) alter natural hydrology, or (C) inundate large land areas, or (D) impact biodiversity, or (E) displace large numbers of inhabitants (5,000 persons or more) or (F) impact local inhabitants ability to earn a livelihood. Projects involving the commercial manufacturing of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) or the production or use of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) that are banned or scheduled to be phased out of production and use by international agreement during the life of the project. A list of these substances and chemicals can be obtained from OPIC on request. The ODS list is defined by the Montreal Protocol as amended and US implementing regulations. The POPs prohibition refers to 12 products whose ban and phase out are currently subject to negotiation leading to an internationally legally binding agreement by the year 2000. OPICs prohibition is consistent with the position of the U.S. government in these negotiations with respect to the various categories of POPs, which include pesticides, industrial chemicals and unintentional by-products. Projects that require resettlement of 5,000 or more persons. Projects in or impacting natural World Heritage Sites (Areas of significant ecological value that have been internationally recognized as necessary for strict protection by members of the World Heritage Convention). WAGP Response WAGP will not traverse or result in increased human access to otherwise inaccessible areas of primary tropical forests.

II.

Not applicable. WAGP will not involve the construction of dams.

III.

Not applicable. WAGP will not involve the commercial manufacturing of ODS or the production or use of POPS.

IV. V.

WAGP will not require resettlement of 5,000 or more persons. WAGP is not located near and does not affect any World Heritage sites.

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Table 1.3-4 WAGP and OPIC Prohibitions


VI. OPIC Prohibition Projects in or impacting areas on the United Nations List of National Parks and Protected Areas. Extraction or infrastructure projects in or impacting: protected area Categories I, II, III, and IV (Strict Nature Reserve/Wilderness Areas and National Parks; Natural Monuments and Habitat/ Species Management Areas), as defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Projects in IUCN Categories V (Protected Landscape/Seascape) and VI (Managed Resource Protected Area) must be consistent with IUCN management objectives. Areas protected by the Ramsar Convention are considered within the appropriate IUCN Category to which they are assigned. WAGP Response Based on available information WAGP will not be located near or affect any areas on the 1997 United Nations List of National Parks and Protected Areas. Based on available information WAGP will not be located near or affect any protected area Categories I, II, III, IV, V, or VI. WAGP will not be located in or near any areas protected by the Ramsar Convention.

VII.

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Chapter 2 Project Description


Summary for West African Gas Pipeline in Nigeria
West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) facilities and installations in Nigeria will consist of: Facilities and Installations Alagbado Tee A connection to the existing Escravos Lagos gas pipeline at an existing NNPC-Shell facility (Section 2.4.1). Onshore 30 pipeline A subterranean pipeline of diameter 30 inches (in) (76 centimeters (cm)) and length 56 kilometers (km) (35 miles) carrying gas at 40 barg from the Tee along a Right of Way (ROW) to a compressor station 200 meters (m) from the north bank of Badagry Creek in the vicinity of Ajido (Section 2.4.2). Construction Summary Footprint: 0.31 hectares (ha) (0.78 acres) Duration: 4 months Staging Area: 0.028ha (0.07 acres) Workforce: 25 (average) Footprint: 140ha (346 acres) Duration: 6 months to 8 months Workforce: 450 Installation methods: trenching (uplands), push-method trenching (wetlands), thrust boring (road crossings) Crossings: 32 road, 28 wetland or water body Staging Area: 3ha (7.4 acres) within the compressor station construction site (with a possible second at the midline location) Accommodation: homes and hotels, possible camp adjacent to ROW Footprint: 8.5ha (20.9 acres) Duration: 12 months to 15 months Workforce: 300 to 450 Staging Area: 8.5ha (20.9 acres) Accommodation: homes and hotels, possible camp within staging area Shore-crossing method: Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) (also for Badagry Creek) Duration: 6 months to 8 months (for all mainline to Ghana) Workforce: 300 to 920 Fleet Size: 10 vessels to 15 vessels Accommodation: onboard vessels

Lagos Beach Compressor Station and primary control center A facility for boosting gas pressure prior to transmission offshore to Benin, Ghana and Togo (Section 2.4.3). Offshore main line A weight-coated pipeline of diameter 20in (50.8cm) and length 567km lying on the ocean floor carrying gas from the compressor station to Takoradi, Ghana (Section 2.4.4).

Chapter 2

WAGP will employ an existing weight-coating business in Choba to coat approximately 13km of the onshore 30in pipeline that will be installed below wetlands and water bodies. The coating consists of a 2in to 3in (5cm to 7.6cm) thick cement layer applied to the outside of the pipe. The onshore 30in and offshore mainline segments will be commissioned and started-up by: Flooding, cleaning, gauging and reflooding; Hydrostatic testing; Dewatering and drying; and Air expulsion, nitrogen packing and fill with natural gas (strart-up). For the onshore 30in pipeline the source of flood and reflood water will be the Badagry Creek; for the offshore pipeline it will be the Atlantic Ocean. Flood water will be filtered but not chemical treated; reflood water will be treated with a biocide to prevent corrosion. Onshore flood water will be discharged back into the Creek; other fill water will be discharged at the offshore pipeline terminus near Takoradi, Ghana. Gas transport capacity of WAGP as initially built is expected to be 190 million standard cubic feet per day (MMscfd, or 5.3 million cubic meters per day (MMcmd)). The system design capacity assuming additional compressors installed near Badagry will be 462MMscfd (13.1MMcmd), at a maximum operating pressure of 153 barg. Ultimate system capacity would be 578MMscfd (16.4MMcdm) with the planned midline compression at Lom, Togo. Detailed plans for facility decommissioning, abandonment, and facility and ROW reinstatement will be developed towards the end of the lifetime of the project.

2.1

General Layout and Physical Description

The West African Pipeline Company (WAPCo) has proposed a pipeline route that extends from a connection at an existing Escravos-Lagos Pipeline (ELP) junction at the Alagbado Tee near Itoki, Nigeria to a beach head in Ajido, Nigeria (near Badagry, Nigeria) and, from there, offshore to the Takoradi Thermal Plant at Takoradi, Ghana. (The ELP is owned by Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and operated by the Nigerian Gas Company (NGC), a subsidiary of NNPC.) Lateral connections will extend from the offshore trunk to intermediate locations in neighboring countries: Benin, Ghana, and Togo. Figure 2.1-1 illustrates the proposed pipeline route.

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Figure 2.1-1 Proposed Pipeline Route This figure is an oversized plate. It is included in the Regional Final Draft EIA Revision, and will be included here when the report is final.

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WAPCo will provide the connection to the ELP at the Alagbado Tee. From the WAPCo connection, a 30in (76cm) pipeline will extend southwesterly approximately 56km (35 miles) to Lagos Beach in Nigeria where the gas will be compressed on land for transmission offshore. Between the Alagbado Tee and Agbara Estate, a distance of approximately 36km (22 miles), the onshore pipeline route will share an existing Right of Way (ROW) with NGC and Shell Nigeria Gas for the first 4km (2.5 miles). For 31km (19 miles) of the next 32km (20 miles) the WAGP ROW will run adjacent to the Shell Nigeria Gas pipeline ROW. For 1km (0.6 miles) there will be a 25m (82 feet) separation between the two ROWs to allow for installations for construction in this wetland stretch. From there to the Lagos Beach Compressor Station, a distance of about 18km (11 miles), and proceeding from there 2km (1.2 miles) to the shoreline downstream of the compressor station after crossing the lagoon, the pipeline will be constructed on land previously unoccupied by or adjacent to any pipeline ROW. A compressor station to be known as the Lagos Beach Compressor Station will be built at Ajido, near Badagry to boost gas pressure for transmission offshore. Gas compression will initially occur only in Nigeria, but provisions are being made in the design of the transmission system for expansion of compression capability in the future through the possible installation of midline compression facilities at Lom, Togo as well as additional compressors at the Lagos Beach Compressor Station. Should requirements necessitate extending the pipeline past Takoradi, Ghana, then future supplementary compressor can be installed at Takoradi. While the initial design calls for a compression station at the Lagos Beach station, a temporary bypass pipeline will be installed around the compressor station to expedite initial gas deliveries into customers while the construction of the permanent station bypass and compressor station are completed. This will allow a minimal flow of gas to downstream customers. Based on anticipated delivery rates and pressures from the upstream ELP system, delivery rates in the range of 30MMscfd to 60MMscfd will be possible without compression. Initial pipeline capacity with compression at Lagos Beach will be 190MMscfd. (5.3MMcmd) From the Lagos Beach compression station, the gas will be transmitted through a 20in (50.8cm) or 18in (45.7cm) diameter pipeline installed offshore a distance of approximately 15km (9 miles). From Lagos Beach, the route will turn west and extend through the territorial waters of Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo, terminating at Takoradi, Ghana. The offshore pipeline will be placed on the seafloor in 24m to 72m (78 feet (ft) to 236ft) water depths, its distance from shore varying between approximately 15km and 25km (9 miles and 15 miles). At three locations, connections will be made in the main offshore trunk to 8in to 18in (20.3cm to 45.7cm) laterals, which will transmit the gas to targeted delivery points at Cotonou, Benin; Lom, Togo; and Tema, Ghana. These laterals are in addition to the main trunk line terminus at Takoradi, Ghana. Table 2.1-1 summarizes the pipeline lengths and diameters between the various points along the pipeline system. Figure 2.1-2 is an engineering schematic of the whole system. Table 2.1-2 shows the WAGP ancillary systems and facilities.

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Table 2.1-1 Pipeline Lengths and Lateral Sizes


Segment Type Onshore Mainline (Nigeria) From ELP Badagry Beach Offshore Mainline Cotonou Offshore Subsea Tie-in Lom Offshore Subsea Tie-in Tema Offshore Subsea Tie-in Cotonou Offshore Subsea Tie-in Lom Offshore Subsea Tie-in Tema Offshore Subsea Tie-in To Badagry Beach Cotonou Offshore Subsea Tie-in Lom Offshore Subsea Tie-in Tema Offshore Subsea Tie-in Takoradi Shore Crossing Cotonou Shore Crossing Lom Shore Crossing Tema Shore Crossing Cotonou Regulating and Metering (R&M) Station Lom R&M Station Tema R&M Station Takoradi R&M Station Site of Future Communant Elctrique du Bnin (CEB) Facility at Maria Gleta CEB power plant Length 56.0km 86.0km 106.6km 153.4km 221.0km 567.0km 14.7km 18.3km 16.4km 49.4km 616.4km Cotonou Shore Crossing Onshore Laterals Lom Shore Crossing Tema Shore Crossing Takoradi Shore Crossing 5.1km 0.25km 0.52km 0.9km 6.77km 8in (20.32cm) 10in (25.4 cm) base case or 18in (45.7cm) 18in (45.7cm) 20in (50.8cm) base case or 18in (45.7cm) Diameter 30in (76.2cm) 20in (50.8cm) base case or 18in (45.7cm) 20in (50.8cm) base case or 18in (45.7cm) 20in (50.8cm) base case or 18in (45.7cm ) 20in (50.8cm) base case or 18in (45.7cm) 8in (20.3cm) 10in (25.4cm) base case or 18in (45.7cm) 18in (45.7cm)

Offshore Mainline Subtotal Offshore Laterals Offshore Laterals Subtotal Offshore Total

Onshore Laterals Subtotal

Link Lines

Cotonou R&M Station

9.5km

10in (25.4cm) base case or 8 in (20.3cm) 8 in (20.3cm) base case or 10 in (25.4cm)

Lom R&M Station Link Lines Total Grand Total

0.32km 9.82km 689km

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Table 2.1-2 Ancillary Systems and Facilities and Their Locations


Ancillary System Control Room/Facilities, including Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Communications Center Workshop, Offices, Sanitary Facilities Gas Filtration, Cleaning, Scrubbing Equipment Compressor(s) Fuel Gas Supply System (for compressors, gas heaters, generators, and instrumentation, etc.) Air Compression for Instrumentation Gas Coolers Gas Heaters Electrical Systems Emergency Shutdown, Flare/Vent, Fire & Gas Detection Systems Gas Metering Run Gas Quality Measurement (as required by Transportation Agreements) Pressure Regulating Run Odorization Groundwater Wells and Water Treatment Plant X X X X X X Alagbado Tee X Lagos Beach Compressor Station X Main facility Back-up SCADA control system X X X Delivery Point R&M Stations X SCADA control facility at WAPCo headquarters (Accra, Ghana) X X Midline compressors possible at Lom subject to gas demand X

X X

X X X YES X X X (for control purposes) X X X

If Midline compressors are installed at Lom X X X X X X X

X = To be installed after additional design and analysis. Shore crossings to all onshore destinations will occur through directionally drilled boreholes from onshore drilling sites or by conventional trenching methods where directional drilling methods are not possible. For example, this could be due to the hardness of the rock at the site of the shore crossing. Section 2.8.4 explains those circumstances in more detail. The laterals will extend onshore a distance of 0.5km to 1km (0.3 miles to 0.6 miles) except in Benin where the lateral will extend a distance of approximately 5.0km (3.0 miles) to the R&M station.

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A link line will extend 9.5km (5.9 miles) from the Bnin R&M station to a future CEB facility at Maria Gleta and 0.81km (0.5 miles) from the Togo R&M station to an existing CEB facility across the Lom-Cotonou road. These link lines, considered in this environmental impact assessment (EIA) because WAPCo will build them, will be permitted separately from the rest of the pipeline. At the R&M stations, the gas will undergo heating (to prevent hydrate formation), pressure reduction, and sales metering and custody transfer to customers and/or local gas distribution companies (Table 2.1-1). The description of the WAGP project given in this chapter is as thorough a description as can be provided at this time, prior to detailed design and engineering. However, there are a number of aspects of the WAGP system design and construction where WAPCo will choose from several existing options, depending on further site investigation and construction contractor preferences. These options are described in the appropriate subsections of Chapter 2 (where the facilities themselves are described) and included in Table 2.13-1 in Section 2.13.

2.2

Natural Gas Sources (Upstream of WAGP)

Initial pipeline capacity following construction and startup of WAGP is expected to be 190MMscfd (5.3MMcmd) with compression at Lagos Beach, with an initial delivery volume of 140MMscfd (3.9 MMcmd). The ultimate system design capacity is for 462 MMscfd (13.1MMcmd) with supplementary compression at Takoradi and a maximum operating pressure of 153 barg for the 20in mainline. The initial delivery volume rate and the ultimate system design capacity are based on an assumed demand scenario. The actual rates, up to the ultimate design capacity, will depend on market demand. To support this initial capacity and some of the expected future gas demand, WAPCo has identified available gas volume sufficient for the transport of up to 200MMscfd (5.7MMcmd) from oil and gas operations in Nigeria. Most of this available natural gas is associated gas, (i.e., produced with oil from the same reservoir or wellhead source). The utilization of this gas after transporting it through the WAGP will contribute to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions as most of the associated gas is currently flared. Appendix 2A-1 provides details on greenhouse gas emission reductions calculations and assumptions. As gas demand increases and the WAGP system is expanded via additional compressors, associated gas reserves may become depleted or may not be able to completely provide for the increased demand. Subsequent delivery requirements are likely to be supplemented with non-associated gas.1 The ability to eventually increase the volume of gas transmitted to serve a potentially larger customer base has been incorporated in the design of the proposed system up to a design capacity of 462MMscfd (13.1MMcmd). The project design calls for up to six compressors to be installed at the Lagos Beach location over time.

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Although oil and gas facilities associated with the available gas volume identified above (200 MMscfd (5.7MMcmd)) are already in place or are expected to be installed before the end of WAGP construction, the sources for gas volumes above 250MMscfd (7.1MMcmd) are not specifically known at this time and could involve existing or new oil and gas facilities. Appendix 2A-2 provides additional information regarding oil and gas facilities operated by the Chevron Nigeria Limited (CNL) NNPC and Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) NNPC operating joint ventures, who, per the WAGP Treaty and International Project Agreement (IPA), have an exclusive right to transport their gas up to a volume of 200MMscfd (5.7MMcmd) or 10 years, which ever occurs first. Meeting either criterion, the WAGP Treaty and IPA also dictate the gas transport would then convert to an open access system, where gas transport from any source could occur if certain technical and economic criteria are met (criteria to be developed via an Access Code agreed to between the States and WAPCo). There is little to no information at this time regarding potential open access gas sources outside of the CNL-NNPC and SPDC-NNPC operating joint ventures. WAGP gas from the CNL-NNPC and SPDC-NNPC operating joint ventures will be delivered to the Alagbado Tee via the existing EscravosLagos Pipeline (ELP) system without a need for upgrades or repairs to the ELP system, to meet the initial WAGP gas demand of up to 200MMscfd. This initial natural gas supply amount exceeds the 190MMscfd initial capacity of WAGP. Information regarding this system can also be found in Appendix 2A-2. Currently, WAPCo and NGC are conducting a joint, due diligence assessment to ensure that the ELP can transport gas volumes up to the WAGP design capacity of 462MMscfd. The predicted gas composition and other properties are listed in Tables 2.2-1 to 2.2-3. Table 2.2-1 Predicted Fuel Gas Compositions
Components Methane Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane Hexanes Heptane+ CO2 N2 Mole Fraction 88.75 percent 5.93 percent 1.28 percent 0.26 percent 0.26 percent 0.09 percent 0.06 percent 0.06 percent 0.10 percent 2.55 percent 0.66 percent

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Table 2.2-2 Predicted Fuel Gas Property


Properties Molecular Weight Lower Heating Value (mass) Lower Heating Value (volume) Wobbe Index Modified Wobbe Index Fuel Volume Ratio Fuel Mass Ratio Values 18.46 19,770 British themal unit (btu)/pound (lb) 962 btu/standard cubic foot (scf) 1,205 50.0 (at 120o Fahrenheit (F) 1.013 1.09

Table 2.2-3 WAGP Gas Pipeline Receipt Gas Quality Specification


Parameter H2S, Maximum Total Sulfur, Maximum CO2, Maximum N2, Maximum O2, Maximum Total Inert (CO2 + N2), Maximum Solid, Dust, Gums, Other Solids Water Content, Maximum Limitations 4 parts per million by volume (ppmv) 28 parts per million (ppm) 4.0 volume percent 3.0 volume percent 10 ppmv 5.0 volume percent Free by normal commercial standards 7 lb/MMscfd

Under the IPA for WAGP, there is a provision for open access, i.e., that access to the pipeline is available to other producers and consumers. For total sales volume requirements below 200MMscfd, gas supply is reserved for Nigerian sources. For total incremental sales volumes above 200MMscfd, gas supply may come from any source along the pipeline route, up to the tie-in with WAPCo, if the appropriate contractual relationships are in place between gas sellers, shippers, users and WAPCo. These contractual relationships include facility interconnection agreements, gas composition, EIA requirements, etc. This EIA addresses the environmental impacts associated with all potential rates of gas transport, from the minimum viable rate to the design capacity of 462MMscfd (13.1MMcmd). WAPCo intends to address any project expansion over 462MMscfd (13.1MMcmd) via a supplementary EIA.

2.3

Natural Gas Consumption (Downstream of WAGP)

Electrical power producers and industries with the capability to use natural gas are the primary consumers that could benefit from the construction of the pipeline. According to a recent market report, close to 80 percent of potential natural gas demand would come from the modification of existing power generation plants, or from new power plants. Negotiations have started with potential gas sales and purchase customers, and to date the Takoradi Thermal Plant in Ghana and Communaut Elctrique du Bnin (CEB) in Cotonou, Benin and Lom, Togo have signed letters of intent with the WAGP consortium to purchase natural gas. In terms of industrial use of natural gas; the Tema oil refinery in Ghana and

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LOffice Togolaise des Phosphates (OTP) in Togo appear to be the most significant potential industrial users (Purvin and Gertz, 2003). When gas demand reaches the 462MMscfd (13.1MMcmd) design capacity, the expected gas delivery volumes are expected as follows (Table 2.3-1), based on current market analyses (WAGP, 2002b). Table 2.3-1 Expected Gas Delivery Demand
Outlet Cotonou, Benin Lom, Togo Tema, Ghana Takoradi, Ghana Total Anticipated Delivery 27MMscfd 0.76MMcmd 57MMscfd 1.61MMcmd 252MMscfd 7.14MMcmd 126MMscfd 3.58MMcmd 462MMscfd 13.09MMcmd

The WAGP system can be configured to deliver higher or lower volumes to individual customers, based on the maximum hydraulic design capacity of each individual lateral, and the system hydraulic relationships between the laterals (i.e., higher demand in Benin and/or Togo would reduce the capacity for Tema due to pressure drops). The total capacity of the system, however, is designed to deliver 462MMscfd. The high case demand forecast, based on current market analyses and future installation of mid-line compression facilities at the Lom R&M station site (beyond the initial design capacity) is provided in Table 2.3-2, below. Table 2.3-2 High-Case Demand and Maximum Capacity of Pipeline
Segment Cotonou Lateral Lom Lateral Tema Lateral Takoradi Total High Case Demand Forecast 34MMscfd (0.962MMcmd) 57MMscfd (1.61MMcmd) 333MMscfd (9.43MMcmd) 126MMscfd (3.58MMcmd) 550MMscfd (15.6MMcmd) Maximum Capacity 100MMscfd (2.83MMcmd) 105MMscfd (2.97MMcmd) 342MMscfd (9.68MMcmd) N/A 578MMscfd2 (16.4MMcmd)

Total system capacity would be 578MMscfd (16.4MMcmd) with a 20in diameter mainline and midline compression at Lom. A future system incorporating these elements is beyond the scope of this EIA other than the initial land use impacts associated with acquiring the future Togo compressor station site. Nigeria Final Draft EIA Rev 1 2-13

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The development activities encouraged by the WAGP project and taken on by the initial foundation customers, VRA in Ghana at Takoradi and CEB in Togo and Benin, are summarized in Table 2.3-3. Other additional gas consumers have not been definitively identified at the time of this EIA, nor has the scope of local distribution systems to deliver gas to future customers. Foundation customers and induced secondary developments are described further in Section 6.9.3. Other than the specific Beninoise and Togolese link lines to CEB referenced in this EIA, future local distribution systems would not be constructed or operated by WAPCo. However, the R&M stations have been located in as optimal a manner as possible to minimize future impacts from downstream gas transmission facilities (Section 6.9). Table 2.3-3 Foundation Customer Developments
Location Maria Gleta, Benin Developments Relocation of the existing CEB power plant in Cotonou to Maria Gleta 25MW gas turbine, possible later addition of a 25MW Gas Turbine and steam tail for combined cycle operation, with total capacity increasing to 75MW. The proposed site for relocation would have a footprint of 20ha (49.4 acres). Currently, these facilities use light crude oil (Bonny Light from Nigeria) in 4 gas turbines and will switch to natural gas as fuel. A steam tail will be added to two of the turbines to generate additional power via combined cycle operations. Anticipated expansion is within the current footprint. WAPCo R&M station located on plant property. (Purvin and Gertz, 2001) Retrofit the single 25MW gas turbine (nominal capacity at Lom) currently fuelled by jet kerosene, with the possibility of installing an additional 25MW gas turbine and steam tail for combined cycle (75MW total power) at a later date (Purvin and Gertz, 2002). Anticipated expansion/upgrades will occur on plant property, within the existing footprint.

Takoradi, Ghana

Lom, Togo

2.4

Facility and Process Description

This section describes the major permanent facilities making up the WAGP transmission system, the major components of those facilities, and their operation. In this section, less emphasis is placed on construction of the facilities and their components. Section 2.8 deals with construction aspects of the WAGP transmission system. The principal facilities of the proposed transmission system are as follows: Alagbado Tee; Onshore pipeline in Nigeria; Lagos Beach Compressor Station and primary control center; Offshore main trunk and lateral lines; R&M stations and onshore trunk and lateral lines; and Backup control center located at WAPCo Headquarters.

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The following subsections describe the location, processes, and emission inventories expected during facility operation. The facilities that will operate in Nigeria are: Alagbado Tee; Onshore pipeline; Lagos Beach Compressor Station and primary control center; and Offshore main line.

2.4.1 Alagbado Tee


The existing Alagbado Tee facilities consist of a launcher, scrubber, metering facilities, and condensate handling equipment. The WAGP project components listed in Table 2.4-1 would be an incremental addition to the existing industrial facility. Table 2.4-1 Alagbado Tee Overview
Aspect Location Site Area Description Alagbado, Nigeria 0.31ha (0.78 acres); 0.11ha (0.28 acres) of which are outside existing facility footprint Provide custody transfer, metering, and monitoring of the natural gas from ELP to WAGP transmission System Gas Scrubber Figures/Further Descriptions Figure 2.4-1 Figure 2.4-2

Purpose

Section 2.4.1.2

Main Equipment

Liquid Storage Tanks


Custody Transfer and Metering Fuel and Instrument Gas Systems

Section 2.4.1.2.1 Section 2.4.1.2.2 Section 2.4.1.2.5 Sections 2.4.1.2.7 and 2.4.1.2.8

2.4.1.1 Location The Alagbado Tee is approximately 3.2km (2 miles) off the Ijoko Ota road at Itoki, Nigeria. Figure 2.4-1 shows a site location map for Alagbado. The facility will occupy approximately 0.31ha (0.78 acres), which includes an area approximately 0.11ha (0.28 acres) above the present footprint of approximately 0.6ha (1.5 acres) used by NGC and SNGL operations for delivery of gas to customers downstream of the ELP terminus. The additional area is needed to accommodate the WAPCo operating systems. A planned 25m (82ft) wide buffer zone around the facility will be included in the 0.11ha incremental footprint. Access to the facility will be via the Ijoko Ota road, which is off the Lagos to Abeokuta road.

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2.4.1.2 Process Description The Alagbado Tee is the starting point of the onshore portion of the transmission system. It is the point where the WAPCo transmission system is connected to the ELP transmission system. Its purpose is to provide custody transfer, metering, and monitoring of the natural gas from ELP to WAPCos transmission system. The major operating components of the Tee will be skid mounted, and installed in two parallel equipment runs to provide 100 percent uninterruptible operational back up. This design is accompanied by single installation of non-operationally critical components (e.g., liquid tanks). The Alagbado Tee will be manned by NGC personnel. The Tee currently supports NGC pig traps receiver from Egbin Node and a launcher for Ewekoro supply as well as valves for routine pigging of the pipeline system. The SPDC facility consists of a launcher, scrubber, metering facilities, and condensate handling equipment. The new transmission system components at the Tee will include the following, which will be operated by WAPCo unless otherwise stated: Gas scrubber (to be operated by NNPC); Over-pressure protection (e.g. relief valves, excess pressure control valves, etc.); Pressure control valve; Custody transfer metering (to be operated by NNPC); Gas sampling and analysis; Automated shutdown valves; Line-break facility; Safety and emergency shutdown (ESD) system, Safety Shutdown System (SSS); Liquids-handling tank; Venting/blowdown systems using existing ELP facilities at the Alagbado Tee; Fuel gas system; Pressure and temperature measurement; Pig launching for the WAGP onshore pipeline; Electrical power supply consisting of gas generator, small standby diesel startup generator, and solar; Instrumentation and control with natural gas;
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SCADA/very small aperture center (VSAT) operating and monitoring systems; Corrosion protection system (Section 2.4.2.2.3); Small equipment control room; Potable and non-potable water systems and gravity tank storage; and Sanitary septic system. Regardless of the operator, WAPCo will construct the facilities listed above. Figure 2.4-2 is a site plan view illustrating existing Tee configuration and planned installations. The following paragraphs explain the function of significant components of the Tee. 2.4.1.2.1 Gas Scrubbers

The pipeline will be operated as a dry-gas pipeline. The contractual moisture content of all upstream natural gas sources delivered to WAPCo shall not exceed seven pounds per MMscfd of natural gas and liquids will not be allowed to accumulate in the pipeline. Continuous gas monitoring via dewpoint analysers will be employed to ensure contractual moisture levels are met. Nonetheless, provisions to collect and flash liquids from the various sources at the Tee, as well as at the other downstream WAPCo facilities, will be provided. The gas scrubber will remove entrained solids or liquids entering the Tee from upstream sources. Liquids from the scrubber are expected to consist of water and gas condensates. The solids are expected to consist of pipe scale solids. Liquids and solids, if any, will be removed from the system via gravity and pressurized drains to a handling tank. As entrained solids and liquids will enter the Tee only during upset conditions, the quantities involved are expected to be incidental and may accumulate very slowly over time. Most of the liquid accumulation is expected to evaporate from the open-air tank. The scrubber will be vented to the ELP vent system. 2.4.1.2.2 Liquid Storage Tanks

Removed liquids at the gas scrubber or other facility drainage points will be gathered via pressure- and gravity-drain systems via a header system and vent stack to a single 16,000 liter (L) (4,200 gallon (gal)) liquids-handling tank. The liquids-handling tank will be placed in a secondary containment vault. The accumulated liquids will await periodic removal by a local waste removal vendor, if needed. The liquids-handling tank will be equipped with a high level gauge and will be vented to the atmosphere. The secondary contaminant vault will be equipped with a drain valve that will normally be closed during operation. WAPCo will not accept pipeline liquids at the Tee from pigging operations at upstream sources (Section 2.4.1.2.3).

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2.4.1.2.3

Pig Launcher/Receiver

A pig launcher/receiver is a special appurtenance built into a pipeline to allow devices, known as pigs, to be inserted/removed from the pipeline. The pigs can either be mechanical or instrumented pigs, also known as smart pigs or intelligent pigs. Mechanical pigs are used to either scrape the walls of the pipeline to remove debris or to physically move liquids through the lines, such as to remove hydrostatic test water from a new pipeline or to remove liquid accumulations from low points in an existing pipeline. Instrumented pigs are used to inspect the condition of the pipe through various measuring devices. These instruments may be used to measure pipe wall thickness, to detect corrosion pits, to detect defective welds, or to detect defects in the manufactured pipe. Even though the gas will have low liquid content and be nearly free of condensates, normal natural gas pipeline operation can result in the accumulation of liquids in the transmitting line over time. To enable removal of these liquids as well as to monitor pipeline integrity, the Tee is already equipped with a pig receiver (operated by NNPC to capture liquids from upstream of the Tee) and will be equipped with a pig launcher to service the onshore pipeline spread from the Tee to the WAPCo Lagos Beach Compressor Station. Accumulated liquids from pigging operation between the Tee and the compressor station will be managed at the compressor station. The pig launcher will be vented to the existing ELP vent system. As stated previously, WAPCo will not accept pipeline liquids at the Tee from pigging operations at upstream sources. 2.4.1.2.4 Vent System

Substantial safety components are designed into WAPCo gas transmission system to prevent upset events; however, start-up, emergency, as well as upset conditions may require depressurization of the system to safely manage responses to those events. In response to start-up, emergency, or upset conditions and to allow for system blowdown (depressuring) during these events, all pressurized vessels, lines, and operating components at the Tee will be connected to the existing ELP vent system. The ELP vent system consists of a relief header, vent scrubber, and vent stack. The decision to use the existing ELP vent rather than construct a separate vent system was based on an anticipated small cumulative contribution of vent gas and liquids from the WAPCo system to the ELP vent system. The primary function of the vent system is to lower the pressure of the gas released from the equipment at the Tee in a controlled manner during an overpressure event. The worst-case blowdown event for the Tee would involve the blowdown of gas contained within the system components of the Tee itself. In an upset condition, the Tee would be isolated from the rest of the transmission system, including the ELP inlet, by an emergency shutdown system. A controlled blowdown of the entire facility is expected to take less than 10 minutes at a rate of 100MMscfd and result in the release of 2,000scf of gas. A complete description of blowdown events and the emergency shutdown system to control such events is provided in Section 2.6.3. Though the vent will normally not be operating at the Tee, a small amount of purge gas will be continuously injected into the vent header piping at the extremities to ensure that the

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header system remains free of oxygen to prevent backflash from an unplanned ignition. The venting of this purge gas is not expected to exceed approximately 155 actual cubic feet per hour (acfh), which represents approximately 0.003 percent of initial pipeline capacity (140MMscfd) and is equivalent to the rate of purge venting at the R&M stations. 2.4.1.2.5 Custody Transfer Metering Runs

Custody transfer metering runs and associated equipment will be installed to gauge and record gas volumes transferred at the Tee. Associated equipment will include a gas chromatograph, a dew-point measuring system, and a manual sampling point. The metering system will consist of one or more uncovered, skid mounted parallel meter runs, sized to deal with the entire range of design flow rates. There are no sources of emissions to atmosphere or liquid effluent generated by the operations of the metering package at the Alagbado Tee. 2.4.1.2.6 Electrical Power

A 46 horsepower (hp) natural gas powered generator will provide primary electrical power to the Tee. The Tee will have batteries for a 24-volt (V) direct current (DC) control and shutdown system and will also have batteries for a 230V alternating current (AC) uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system. The overall power system is designed to be uninterruptible but is intended to also minimize the need for the delivery of emergency operation diesel or other liquid fuels for power to the Tee. 2.4.1.2.7 Instrument Gas System

Natural gas will be taken from the system at Alagbado to be used as the control medium for pneumatic instrumentation, pumps and some valve actuation. Each pneumatic user (instrument) should use approximately 1 standard cubic foot per minute (scfm). With this estimate, it is expected that the pneumatic devices at the Alagbado Tee should use approximately 5scfm, equivalent to approximately 0.005 percent of initial pipeline capacity of 140MMscfd. Unlike at the compressor station (Section 2.4.3.2.10), there are enough pneumatic users to justify the installation of flameproof equipment rather than air compressors for an instrument air system. The fugitive emissions from the instrument gas system and other sources (flanges, valves, etc.) are not expected to exceed 0.25scfm (5 percent of the 5scfm usage rate). 2.4.1.2.8 Fuel Gas System

Natural gas will be taken from the system at Alagbado to be used as a fuel to operate the Tees primary electrical power generator. Fuel gas consumption is expected to total 0.75MMscfd, equivalent to approximately 0.5 percent of the140MMscfd initial pipeline capacity. Fugitive emissions are not expected to exceed 5 percent of this figure (0.038MMscfd). 2.4.1.2.9 Solid and Hazardous Waste

Section 2.5 presents a complete description of sources of solid and hazardous waste at the various WAPCo facilities and an explanation of how they will be managed. Rates and
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volumes for wastes generated during operations (including liquids accumulated in the liquids-handling tank) are given in Appendix 2-B. 2.4.1.2.10 Water and Waste water Normally the Tee will be unmanned, but workers will occasionally be present to maintain the SCADA and VSAT systems housed there. Consequently, domestic potable water will be provided for occasional use by up to two workers. If this cannot be provided by sinking a well to groundwater, it will be brought in by tanker truck in sufficient quantities to ensure a supply of 50gal/person/day (189L/person/day) (Corbitt, 1990). There will be no firewater system at the Tee. Fire fighting systems are described in Section 2.6.2. Sanitary waste water from occasional usage by up to two workers will be treated through a septic tank system that is capable of collecting and holding the waste water. The design of the sanitary waste septic system will be done in accordance with the design parameters contained in the environmental standards adopted for this project and applicable local requirements. It will be sized to cope with six facility operators or 1,135L (300gal) per day. The preferred option for disposing of treated sanitary waste water is discharge into the soil by means of a properly designed and sized drainage field. Other options for disposing of treated sanitary waste water would be: Discharging into nearby receiving waters; and Hauling off-site for disposal. Although the facility will require no process water and therefore generate no process waste water, other waste water sources will exist, including equipment wash-down water and incidental process-area stormwater that may come in contact with operating equipment. To minimize the latter, some equipment, especially that which undergoes routine maintenance, will be erected beneath a roof to limit exposure to stormwater. Waste water from this source, though expected to be small, will be gathered beneath the component on drip pans and drained via gravity drains to the liquids-handling tank. Non-contact stormwater will not be collected but will drain freely from the facility. 2.4.1.2.11 Other Facility Components Other components important to operations at the Tee include: Guard/security building; Generator and SCADA building for both NGC and WAGP personnel; SCADA/VSAT system; Parking area; Security fence; and A transformerrectifier unit for the corrosion protection system (Section 2.4.2.2.3).

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2.4.1.3 Facility Material Management Summary Rates and volumes for wastes generated during operations (including liquids accumulated in the liquids-handling tank) are given in Appendix 2-B. Sanitary waste water is discussed in Section 2.4.1.2.10.

2.4.2 Onshore Mainline in Nigeria


Table 2.4-2 provides an overview of the Onshore pipeline in Nigeria. Table 2.4-2 Nigeria Onshore Pipeline
Aspect Location Site Area Description Alagbado, Nigeria to Ajido, Nigeria 140ha (346 acres); or, 56km pipeline, along a 25m ROW Purpose The onshore pipeline will provide the connection from the Alagbado Tee to the Lagos Beach Compressor Station. Crossings NGC/NNPC pipeline 32 road crossings 28 wetland and water bodies Main Equipment 30in Pipeline Isolation Valve and Manual Venting Facilities Figures/Further Description Figure 2.4-3 Figure 2.4-3 Section 2.4.1.2 Section 2.8.2.2.2 Section 2.4.2.2.1 Section 2.4.2.2.2

2.4.2.1 Facility Location A 30in (76cm) pipeline of wall thickness ranging from 0.469in to 0.562in (1.19cm to 1.43cm) will be installed below grade at a distance of 56km (35 miles) from the Alagbado Tee to the Lagos Beach Compressor Station. For most of its route, the pipeline will be buried to a minimum depth of 0.9m (3ft), and 1.2m (4ft) deep at road crossings.3 Figure 2.4-3 illustrates the pipeline route in relation to the Tee and the compressor station (see above), running for the most part alongside the existing SPDC ROW (Section 2.1). The WAPCo Right of Way Access Policy (Appendix 8B-3.2) will govern access to the ROW by the local population.

per API Recommended Practice 1102. Nigeria Final Draft EIA Rev 1 2-26

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2.4.2.2 Process Description The transmission system components to be installed in the onshore pipeline include: 30in pipe (with corrosion protection coating and cement weight coating in wetlands, seasonal swamps or marshes, and possibly in river crossings) within a pipeline ROW with an average width of 25m; One midline isolation valve; Corrosion protection system; and Temporary marshalling yards. The following paragraphs explain the function of the significant onshore pipeline components. 2.4.2.2.1 30in Pipe (Cement Weight Coated in Wetlands or Marshes)

The onshore pipeline will provide the connection from the Alagbado Tee to the Lagos Beach Compressor Station. The pipeline will carry natural gas between these two points at a contractual minimum operating pressure of approximately 40 barg. The following areas through which the onshore pipeline will pass warrant special consideration during the construction phase: Crossovers with other pipelines; Streambeds/river crossings; Road crossings; and Significant wetlands areas. An inventory of each of these areas is given in Section 2.8.2.3, Onshore Pipeline Installation Methods, where they are discussed further. 2.4.2.2.2 Isolation Valve and Manual Venting Facilities

An isolation valve will be placed in the pipeline at a strategic location for safety of people and personnel that, when operated, will reduce the volume of gas and duration of release during a controlled onshore pipeline blowdown (depressuring) event. This location is currently envisaged to be adjacent to the existing 12in SNGL Pipeline valve, south of the Odowe Idi Iroko Road and is indicated in Figure 2.4-3. The worst-case blowdown event for the onshore pipeline would involve the controlled release of gas contained within the onshore pipeline itself. In an upset condition involving the onshore pipeline, the pipeline would be isolated from the upstream Tee by the emergency shutdown system (Section 2.6.3) and allowed to blowdown at the Lagos Beach Compressor Station flare. A controlled blowdown of the entire onshore pipeline is expected to take 18 hours at a blowdown rate of 50MMscfd and result in the release of 37MMscf of gas. The rate of 50MMscfd has been chosen as the most practical design basis considering

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the low elevation of the vent, the close proximity to the Odowe Idi Iroko Road (a major transportation route) and, hence, the need for effective dispersion of the gas cloud. A complete description of blowdown events and the emergency shutdown system to control such events is provided in Section 2.6.3. Manual venting facilities will also be installed should the line need to be depressurized at the midline isolation valve, which would occur in only the most extreme circumstances (Section 2.4.2.2.2). Blowdown duration and release volumes at the midline isolation valve are expected to be almost identical to a controlled blowdown at the Lagos Beach Compressor Station. 2.4.2.2.3 Corrosion Protection Systems

All onshore line pipe will be externally coated with a fusion bond epoxy (FBE) coating. This will be applied at a coating yard likely to be located outside of West Africa and so aspects of the FBE coating operations are not within the scope of this EIA. The FBE is intended to provide the first line of corrosion protection for all line pipe, simply in the form of a barrier. Shrink-wrap will be applied on all weld joints as the line pipe is being assembled at the installation site as further corrosion protection. In addition to FBE coating and shrink-wrap, added corrosion protection will be achieved electrochemically by means of impressed-current cathodic protection systems in which a low voltage DC current is applied to counterbalance the corrosion process. The components of these systems will be a transformer-rectifier unit (to transform AC to DC) at the Tee and the compressor station and impressed current groundbed anodes to transmit current across pipeline, preventing external corrosion from occurring and maintaining pipeline integrity. 2.4.2.3 Water and Waste water There will be no consumption of water and no sources of process waste water during the operation of the 56km (35 miles) onshore pipeline system. Nonetheless, incremental stormwater runoff may occur until reinstatement of the ROW is complete, see Section 2.8.2.3. 2.4.2.4 Solid and Hazardous Waste During the lifetime of the transmission system, the wastes to be removed and disposed of during maintenance of the 25m (82ft) wide ROW would be overgrowth and illegally dumped wastes. Vegetation clearance will be performed four times a year by hand. No pesticides will be used. It is expected that local inhabitants would remove overgrowth debris from this maintenance for use as firewood. Nonetheless, provisions will be made for the management of this overgrowth debris, including possibly accumulation and burning. Other wastes would be managed off-site in accordance with local regulations and an approved waste-management plan. Hazardous wastes will not be generated by operation of the onshore pipeline.

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2.4.2.5 Facility Material Management Summary Under routine operations there will be no emissions to atmosphere other than incidental fugitive emissions at valves, flanges, or waste water discharges. As a highly implausible worst-case scenario, all of the vegetation cleared along the ROW would require disposal four times per year. In Nigeria this would be an area of 140ha. Assuming an average height of 1m and clearing four times per year, the worst-case waste volume requiring landfill would be 0.56 million cubic meters per year (Mm3/yr).

2.4.3 Lagos Beach Compressor Station and Primary Control System


Table 2.4-3 provides an overview of the Lagos Beach Compressor Station. Table 2.4-3 Lagos Beach Compressor Station
Aspect Location Site Area Workforce Purpose Description Ajido, Nigeria 8.5ha (20.9 acres) 30 operators and maintenance personnel The compressor station is being installed to deliver gas at the designed transmission rate, and is required in order to boost upstream pressure from the Alagbado Tee to downstream destinations. Gas Scrubbers Liquid Storage Tanks Gas Compression Flare System Pig Launcher/Receiver Freshwater System Fire Fighting System Sanitary and Process Waste Water System Electrical Power Fuel and Instrument Gas Systems Figures/Further Descriptions Figures 2.4-4, 2.4-5, and 2.4-6 Figures 2.4-4, 2.4-5, and 2.4-6 Section 2.4.3.2

Main Equipment

Section 2.4.3.2.1 Section 2.4.3.2.2 Section 2.4.3.2.3 Section 2.4.3.2.4 Section 2.4.3.2.5 Section 2.4.3.2.6 Section 2.4.3.2.7 Section 2.4.3.2.8 Section 2.4.3.2.9 Sections 2.4.3.2.10 and 2.4.3.2.11

2.4.3.1 Facility Location A compressor station will be constructed at the terminus of the onshore pipeline at Ajido, near Badagry, in Nigeria. Figure 2.4-4 illustrates the location of the compressor station. The compressor station will be the location for the primary SCADA/VSAT control and ESD systems.

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Figure 2.4-4 Compressor Station Site Location

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The compressor station is just to the west of the village of Ajido and to the south of Lagos Badagry expressway. It is approximately 12km (7.5 miles) East of Badagry, Nigeria. It lies approximately 0.85km (0.5 miles) north of the Lagos Lagoon. The site footprint will be 220m by 385m (787ft by 1,260ft) (i.e., approximately 8.5ha (21 acres)). This comprises the footprints of the: Compressor station itself: 140m by 185m (459ft by 607ft) (i.e., 2.6ha (6.4 acres)) Flare stack site: 100m by 100m (328ft by 328ft) (i.e., 1ha (2.5 acres)) Buffer zone around both the above: 4.9ha (12.1 acres) Access to the compressor station during the operations phase will be via the existing road network and, if it is decided that it should be built, from a dock by the nearby lagoon and an associated access road that would both be built to enable the transport of heavy equipment to the site during construction (Sections 2.8.3 and 2.13). 2.4.3.2 Process Description For gas to be delivered at the design transmission rate, compressors are required in order to boost upstream pressure from the Alagbado Tee to downstream destinations. The compressor station is being installed in the transmission system for that purpose. Pressure upstream of the compressor station is expected to be 40 barg at the maximum operating flow rate and a maximum operating pressure of 153 barg to 164 barg after compression at the same flow rate. The facility will come on line six months after first gas; natural flow will be strong enough for gas delivery until then. The facility will be manned 24 hours per day, seven days per week. The nominal staff number is expected to be 25 to 30 persons. Like the Alagbado Tee, the major components of the compressor station will be installed in two parallel equipment runs to provide 100 percent, uninterruptible operational backup and accompanied by single installation of non-operationally critical components. Should the compressor station require isolation from the main transmission line for an extended period, or during start-up, a bypass pipeline around the compressor station has been included in the design to allow uninterrupted delivery of the gas, albeit at a lower pressure and transmission rate. Though lower quantities of gas will be delivered under a bypass situation, delivery will not be cutoff entirely and safety will not be compromised. Figure 2.4-5 is a site plan view illustrating the compressor station configuration.

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The compressor station components are as follows: Liquids knockout vessels; Over-pressure protection (e.g., relief valves); Pressure control valves; Under-pressure protection; Low pressure protection against air ingress; Automated shutdown valves; Safety and Emergency Shutdown (ESD) system; Inlet, outlet system controls (which may include flows and water content); Pressure and temperature measurement and controls; Gas chromatograph, dew point measuring device, and manual sampling point; Utility gas supply and metering; Pig receiving for the WAGP onshore pipeline; Pig launching for the WAGP offshore mainline; First and second stage turbine compressors; First and second stage suction scrubbers; First and second stage coolers; Filters and separators; Flaring system for sectional and complete station de-pressurization; Fuel gas scrubber and superheater systems; Liquids storage tank; Instrument air system; SCADA/VSAT operating and monitoring systems; Corrosion protection system (Section 2.4.2.2.3); Fresh water system (two water wells and treatment plant); Offices, control room, maintenance shop, and warehouse; Cathodic protection system; Fuel storage tanks; Chemical storage compound; Waste management compound; Fire detection and suppression system; Sanitary septic system; Temporary concrete batch plant; and Clearing for medical evacuation helicopter landing. The following paragraphs explain the function of the significant compressor station components. 2.4.3.2.1 Gas Scrubber

Like at the Alagbado Tee, undesirable solids or liquids, if any, from upstream sources will be first removed at a gas scrubber and drained to the facility liquids-handling tank via a pressurized drain system. Again, liquids from the scrubber are expected to consist of water and gas condensates, and the solids are expected to consist of pipe scale. As entrained solids and liquids will be present in the gas only during upset conditions, the quantities involved are

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expected to be incidental and will accumulate only very slowly over time. The scrubber relief system is piped to the compressor station flare system. 2.4.3.2.2 Liquids Storage Tanks

Removed liquids at the gas scrubbers or other transmission drainage points, will be pressure and gravity drained through a header and flare systems to a 16,000L (4,200gal) liquidshandling tank where they will await removal by a waste removal vendor. The liquidshandling tank will be placed inside a secondary containment vault and have a high liquids level alarm, automatic shut-off system and be vented to the atmosphere. The secondary contaminant system will be equipped with a drain valve that will be operated normally closed. The liquids that drain into the tank are equipment washdown liquids, lube oil from the compressor and some rainwater containing small quantities of condensate and entrained solids such as pipeline scale. The contents of the tank will be removed periodically by an approved contractor and disposed of off-site according to an approved waste management plan (Chapter 8). 2.4.3.2.3 Gas Compression

The initial gas volume (140MMscfd; 3.9MMcmd) will be compressed in two stages and undergo filtration and cooling between stages before being sent offshore. Selecting twostage, inter-cooled compression allows wider variations in efficiencies in compressor selection and ultimately produces overall energy savings. The energy savings resulting from the cooled compression become apparent in the later years of the project. Each compressor (six in total to support the maximum 462MMscfd capacity) will be driven by a 12,000 horsepower (hp) gas turbine engine. At maximum capacity, depending on gas market demand, the compressor system would comprise five tandem-operating and one backup compressors and related components (filters, coolers). The first two compressors will be installed to come on line six months after first gas. An additional compressor will be installed every five years thereafter. Each compressor and related components, including backups, will be installed in covered enclosures. The turbines are natural gas fueled, low nitrogen oxide (NOx) engines. Exhaust emission from the gas turbines will be controlled by a dry-type combustion emission suppression system to reduce the emission levels of NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and other contaminants to below those specified by the World Bank guideline and local regulations.4 The dry-type technique controls emission levels by limiting the formation of pollutants in the burning zone by utilizing the lean-premixed combustion technology. Unlike water or steam injection methods, it does not require frequent combustion inspections and does not decrease the hardware life resulting from the use of diluent injection. The techniques are relatively new and are being continuously improved under the current manufacturers development programs.

See WAGP-W-S-SA-SA-0001-0, Environmental Design Basis. Nigeria Final Draft EIA Rev 1 2-38

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Noise produced from the gas turbine compressor operation is controlled by silencers and acoustic insulation provided with the turbine enclosure to reduce it below the upper acceptable limits for industrial hygiene/hearing protection in the workplace (85 decibels (dB)) and in compliance with World Bank and local regulations at the station boundary (55dB). Main noise sources typical of gas turbine compressor facility are the gas turbine combustion air intake, exhaust, gas turbine casing, gearbox, compressor, process piping, valves, coolers, blowdown vents, and other background noises such as generators. All of these noise sources must be added together and compared with the noise limit criteria taking into account the distance attenuation from the sources to the measured noise receptor area(s). The noise control systems must be designed and evaluated during the detailed design stage to prevent the site sound levels from exceeding the limits specified by the World Bank guideline and local regulations. 2.4.3.2.4 Flare System

To allow for a controlled system blowdown during emergency and upset conditions and other events, such as start-up, all pressurized vessels, lines, and operating components at the compressor station will be connected to the facility flare system. Unlike the Alagbado Tee and R&M stations, where controlled blowdown will be vented to the atmosphere, blowdown of natural gas at the compression station will be flared because: Gas releases will be larger and more frequent as the compressor station is larger and more complicated than the Tee and the R&M stations and will require more maintenance for safety reasons; and The compressor station has been designated at the facility to handle a controlled blowdown of the entire offshore pipeline, including the laterals into Benin, Togo and Ghana. The flare system will consist of relief header, flare scrubber, flare stack and smokeless burner tip and is designed to be capable of gathering and disposing of hydrocarbons released during the largest single contingency relief or blowdown event at the facility, and for the offshore pipeline when operating at design capacity. All relief and blowdown valves shall discharge into flare header and be routed to the flare scrubber. Carryover and flashed liquids within the flare header shall be separated from the gas and removed in the flare scrubber and sent to the liquids storage tanks (Section 2.4.3.2.2). Although the flare will not be operating continuously, a small amount of purge gas will be continuously injected into the flare header piping at the extremities to ensure that the header system remains free of oxygen. Purge gas velocity will be approximately 0.05ft/second (sec) (0.015m/sec). The 16in (40.64cm) flare header will therefore yield purge gas at a rate of approximately 250acfh, equivalent to approximately 0.008 percent of initial pipeline capacity. All flare and purge gas shall be measured and recorded. A pilot flame will also be continuously operated in the flare to combust the purge gas. Operating flares produce significant heat, which can be dangerous to workers, nearby residences, and the environment. In order to provide safe operating distances between the

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flare and those receptors, a flare height and radiant diameter buffer zone was provided in the flare system design assuming a worst-case but controlled blowdown release rate of 100MMscfd of gas. A study was performed that indicated a flare height of 46m (151ft) and a radiant diameter of 50m (164ft) are required to reduce exposure to radiant heat by plant occupants or other receptors to acceptable levels under the worst-case blowdown event (Holmes, 2003). Accordingly, a gated and locked flare perimeter area with controlled access is included in the design. Total radiant heat at the perimeter of the controlled area will not exceed 1.57 kilowatts (kW)/m2 (1,500 Btu/m2). Figure 2.4-6 illustrates the location of the flare stack in relation to the compressor station. In the event that the compressor station is isolated from onshore and offshore pipelines, a blowdown of the compressor station itself would take less than five minutes and result in the release of up to 460m3 (16,250scf) of gas. Table 2.4-4 shows blowdown volumes and rates at the compressor station. 2.4.3.2.5 Pig Launcher/Receiver

Both pig launching and receiving traps will be provided at the compression station to facilitate pipeline liquids removal and pipeline integrity monitoring between the Alagbado Tee and the compressor station (Section 2.4.1.2.3) and in the offshore main trunk from the compression station to the R&M station at Takoradi, Ghana. Liquids received from the 56km (35 mile) onshore pipeline between the Alagbado Tee and the compressor station will be sent by way of a flash tank to the facility flare system. Carryover liquids, if any, will be drained to the liquids-handling tank. Liquids produced from pigging operations downstream of the compressor station will be managed at the Takoradi R&M station. Maintenance pigging for the onshore line from Alagbado to Lagos Beach is expected to take place annually for the first five years. The type and quantity of liquids and debris thus pigged out would determine how frequently to pig in future years and whether or not to pig the mainline downstream from Lagos Beach. 2.4.3.2.6 Freshwater System

Potable and utility freshwater as well as firewater will be provided to the compression station by two planned groundwater wells. Groundwater will be filtered to standards suitable for its intended use. The estimated expected daily use of water from the two wells is 159L (42gal) per day per inhabitant. Maximum expected operators/maintenance personnel on-site are 30, leading to an estimated total water use, excluding fire fighting, of 4,770L (1,260gal) per day. 2.4.3.2.7 Fire Fighting Systems

The compressor station will contain a firewater system consisting of a firewater distribution system, firewater equipment (pumps, tanks and control valves), hydrants, firewater monitors, hose reel stations, gas extinguishing systems, and portable fire extinguishers. Water will be supplied from groundwater wells described in Section 2.4.3.2.6 and will undergo no treatment other than filtration at fire-pump suction.

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Table 2.4-4 Blowdown Volume and Rates at the Compressor Station


Section Blowdown Interval (Hours) at: 50 MMscfd 75 MMscfd 100 MMscfd 5.6 5.6 11.2 4.2 4.2 8.4 Blowdown Interval (Days) at: 50 MMscfd 75 MMscfd 100 MMscfd 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.4 Actual Volume Released 17.5 MMscfd 0.496Mcmd 17.5 MMscfd 0.496Mcmd 35.0 MMscfd 0.991Mcmd 649 MMscfd 18.4Mcmd 711 MMscfd 20.1Mcmd 801 MMscfd 22.7Mcmd 876 MMscfd 24.8Mcmd 170 MMscfd 4.81Mcmd 186 MMscfd 5.27Mcmd

Onshore Pipeline Alagbado Tee to 8.4 Midline valve Midline valve to Lagos 8.4 Beach Alagbado Tee to 16.8 Lagos Beach Offshore Pipeline (18in Case) Lagos Beach to Takoradi (without 311.6 laterals) Lagos Beach to all 341.2 R&Ms (with spurs) Offshore Pipeline (20in Case) Lagos Beach to Takoradi (without 384.7 laterals) Lagos Beach to all 421.2 R&Ms (with laterals) Lagos Beach to Takoradi (without 81.5 laterals) (40 barg initial pressure) Lagos Beach to all R&Ms (with laterals) 89.3 (40 barg initial pressure)

207.7 227.4

155.8 170.6

13.0 14.2

8.7 9.5

6.5 7.1

256.4 280.8 54.4

192.3 210.6 40.8

16.0 17.5 3.4

10.7 11.7 2.3

8.0 8.8 1.7

59.5

44.6

3.7

2.5

1.9

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At Lagos Beach the fire protection system will be installed to provide cooling water to protect the equipment in the event of a gas fire. The firewater system will be designed for a nominal 450m3/hour (2,000gal/min). A looped underground firewater ring constructed of 10in (250cm) high density polyethylene will carry the firewater to end devices. Firewater will be supplied from a 170m3 (45,000gal) storage tank. Two firewater booster pumps, one diesel and one electric, will be installed. Each booster pump will have nominal capacity of 675m3/hour (hr) (3,000gal/min). Pressure is maintained on the firewater loop utilizing two jockey pumps of 100gal/min capacities. Sustained firewater pressure will be maintained at 7 bars to 8 bars (100 pounds per square inch (psi) to 120 psi). The firewater loop will deliver to four hydrant monitors strategically located with a delivery capacity of 45m3/hr (200gal/min). Each monitor will cover approximately 50m. There will be four firewater hose stations located approximately 25m from each monitor. The fire hose stations will house 50m of 1.5in flexible fire hose with 23m3/hr (90gal/min) nozzle capacities. Three stub-ups will be provided for future additions. Used firewater will drain away from the site to grade or via gravity drains to the facility liquids-handling tank. 2.4.3.2.8 Sanitary and Process Waste Water

A sanitary waste water treatment system to collect waste fluids coming from toilets, lavatories, and showers will be installed. Treatment of the sanitary waste water at the compressor station will incorporate a biological-type sewage waste treatment plant sized to accommodate a staff of 25 to 30 workers. Using values of 190L/person/day (50gal/person/day) from the Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering (Corbitt, 1990), the sewage treatment system would be designed to handle 4,730L/day to 5,690L/day (1,250gal/day to 1,500gal/day) of black water effluent (i.e., sewage waste). However, it is anticipated that the compression station facilities will also include showers and sinks for cleanup at the end of shifts. If this gray water from sinks and shower facilities is included as an additional 76L/day (20gal/person/day), then the sewage treatment package will need to handle approximately 6,620L/day to 7,940L/day (1,750gal/day to 2,100gal/day). The treatment system will be a RedFox Unit with the following features: (1) screening of coarse solid waste; (2) compensation of flow rates and pumping; (3) biological purification in a reactor of activated sludge in an aeration chamber; (4) secondary sedimentation; and (5) contact chamber and chlorination system (as necessary depending on disposal method chosen). The design of the sanitary or sewer waste treatment plant shall be done in accordance with the design parameters in the environmental standards adopted for this project and any applicable local requirements. The preferred option for disposing of treated sanitary waste water is discharge into the soil by means of a properly designed and sized drainage field without chlorination, (chlorination not appropriate for drainage field discharge). Other options for disposing of treated sanitary waste water are: Discharging into nearby receiving waters (probably the Lagos Lagoon), possibly after chlorination; and

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Hauling off-site for disposal (off-site disposal location would determine appropriateness of chlorination). Other waste water will include equipment wash-down water and incidental process-area stormwater. To minimize the latter, all system components subject to maintenance needs and that generate oily or hazardous maintenance wastes or have the potential for leaks and spills will be placed under roof cover. Waste fluids from these sources will be gathered beneath the system components on drip pans and drained via gravity drains to the facility liquidshandling tank. Non-contact stormwater will not be collected and allowed to flow freely from the facility. Equipment wash-down water volume is expected to be 500gal/year. These liquids will be collected in the liquid storage tanks described above in Section 2.4.3.2.2 and will either be recycled in an internal water recycling system or hauled off-site for handling at an approved/licensed waste management facility (Chapter 8). Process-area stormwater volumes will be incidental. 2.4.3.2.9 Electrical Power

Initially there will be two natural-gas-powered 2 megawatt (MW), 6,600 volt (V) generators, with an emergency 500 kilowatt (kW), 415V diesel backup generator system to provide respectively primary and emergency electrical power at the compressor station. The primary system will be operated 24 hours per day. A 79,000L (21,000gal) diesel supply tank will be provided to store diesel fuel for continuous operations of the compressor station diesel emergency generation and fire engines fuel needs. The generator day tank will be housed in a secondary containment system beneath the generating unit it will serve. Similarly, a diesel powered pump firewater day tank, designed for 12 hours of operation at full load, will be located at the base of the diesel firewater pump skid. The station will also have batteries for a 24 volts direct current (VDC) control and shutdown system. The station will also have batteries for a 230 volts alternating current (VAC) UPS system. The overall power system is designed to be uninterruptible but is intended to also minimize the need for the delivery of emergency operation diesel or other liquid fuels for power to the compressor station. 2.4.3.2.10 Instrument Air Instrument air will be provided as the control medium for pneumatic instrumentation, and valve actuation. Pneumatic hand tools will also use the compressed air. The compressed air system will be supplied with a minimum of two 100 percent air compressors, two 100 percent heatless desiccant type air dryers and related headers systems and controls. Screw type compressors will be used. The air compressors will be driven by electric motors. Air will be used instead of gas, as at the Alagbado Tee and R&M stations, because the greater number of installations equipment requiring pneumatic power makes the installation of air compressors preferable to installing flameproof equipment throughout the plant. Liquids (e.g., water) removed from the compressed air system scrubbers and filter separators will be sent to the liquids-handling tank via the atmospheric drain header.

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2.4.3.2.11 Fuel Gas System Natural gas will be taken from the system at the compressor station to be used as fuel to operate the generators, fuel skid heater and compressor turbines. The primary source of fuel gas is process gas from the discharge off the first stage of compression. Gas enters the fuel gas package and is let down across a pressure control valve. This valve regulates the pressure of the fuel gas system to maintain sufficiently high pressure to the main compressor gas turbine driver. Liquids, if any, are separated from the gas stream in a fuel gas scrubber. The liquid-free vapor stream is then heated in the indirect fired fuel gas superheater above its dew point under temperature control. The gas is then filtered using fuel gas filters to remove any solid particles (such as pipe scale, etc.) prior to distribution. The quantity of lowpressure (LP) fuel gas required in the facility is relatively small and thus a dedicated LP fuelgas-conditioning package is unnecessary. A small stream of high-pressure (HP) fuel gas is taken downstream of the fuel gas filters and let down for distribution through the LP fuel gas header. For start-up of the facility, fuel gas is taken from the pipeline to be used for starting the power generation system. This in turn will be used to start the main compressor. Based on the 20in lined pipe scenario and mid-case reserve forecast, the initial fuel gas consumption for a single compressor is estimated at 3.32MMscfd. The maximum fuel use at the Lagos Beach Compressor Station is estimated to be 14.3MMscfd based on additional compressor installations over time (maximum of five compressors in year 2024, 20 years after gas start-up). Fugitive emissions are not expected to exceed 3 percent of this figure (0.01MMscfd initially, 0.43MMscfd at the maximum capacity in the later years). 2.4.3.2.12 Solid and Hazardous Waste See Section 2.5 for complete description of the sources of solid and hazardous waste at the various WAPCo facilities and explanation of how they will be managed. Rates and volumes for wastes generated during operations (including liquids accumulated in the liquids-handling tank) are given in Appendix 2-B. 2.4.3.3 Other Facility Components Other significant components of the compressor station include: An office building, a meeting room, toilet and shower room, break room with pantry and kitchenette, a telecommunications room, and an office supply storage room; Warehouse building including a storage room for maintenance equipment and spare parts and a washroom; and SCADA building, a main control room and a guardhouse with a toilet and washbasin for security personnel to use a transformerrectifier unit and corrosion indicators (sacrificially corroding coupons) for the corrosion protection system (Section 2.4.2.2.3).

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2.4.3.4 Facility Material Management Summary Rates and volumes for wastes generated during operations are given in Appendix 2-B. Wastes will include liquids accumulated in the liquids-handling tank, 500 gal/year of which will be equipment wash-down water volume. Sanitary waste water is discussed in Section 2.4.3.2.8.

2.4.4 Offshore Main Trunk Line and Laterals


Table 2.4-5 provides an overview of the Offshore Pipeline. Table 2.4-5 Offshore Pipeline
Aspect Location Description From Ajido, Nigeria to Takoradi, Ghana Site Area 567km (352 miles) Purpose The purpose of the offshore pipeline is to carry the compressed natural gas between the Lagos Beach Compressor Station and Takoradi R&M station and along the laterals to the intervening R&M stations in Benin, Ghana and Togo. Main Equipment 20in or 18in (50.8cm or 45.7cm) Concrete Weight Coated Main Trunk Line and Laterals (various widths) Subsea Lateral Take-Off and Provision for Temporary Line Pig Launcher Monitoring and Corrosion Protection System Control Systems Figures/Further Descriptions Figure 2.4-1 Figure 2.4-2 Section 2.4.4.2.1

Section 2.4.4.2.1

Section 2.4.4.2.2

Section 2.4.4.2.3

2.4.4.1 Facility Location The offshore pipeline will be placed directly on the seafloor (and, for certain shore crossings, in jetted trenches) a distance of 567km (352 miles) from the Lagos Beach Compressor Station to the Takoradi thermal power plant. At three points along the pipeline route, ties will be made for laterals to extend from the main offshore trunk line to Cotonou, Benin; Lom, Togo; and Tema, Ghana; in addition to the terminus of the main trunk line at Takoradi, Ghana. Figure 2.1-1 illustrates the offshore pipeline route (see above). It is currently envisaged that the diameter of the line pipe comprising the mainline will be 20in (50.8cm). Midline compressor facilities may be required at Lom sometime during the middle of the life of the project as the market demand increases. The diameter of each lateral is given in Table 2.1-1.

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2.4.4.2 Process Description The offshore transmission system components to be installed include: 20in (50.8cm) concrete-weight-coated main trunk line and laterals; Subsea lateral line take off and provision for temporary installation of a pig launcher; and Corrosion protection system. The components that will be installed in Nigeria are: 20in (50.8cm) concrete weight coated main trunk line; and Corrosion protection system. The following paragraphs explain the function of the significant offshore pipeline components. 2.4.4.2.1 20in (50.8cm) Concrete Weight Coated Main Trunk Line and Laterals (various widths)

The purpose of the offshore pipeline is to carry the compressed natural gas between the Lagos Beach Compressor Station and Takoradi R&M station and along the laterals to the intervening R&M stations in Benin, Ghana and Togo. The maximum allowable operating pressure between these points will be 153 barg. In addition, the offshore pipeline will be entirely coated with concrete weight coating to overcome buoyancy forces as well as lateral drag force due to waves and currents. Actual radius of cement coating to be installed will be determined during detailed design, but is anticipated to average 3in (7.6cm) as described further in Section 2.8.7.2 of the Regional Final Draft EIA. The offshore pipeline will be placed directly on the seafloor in water depths in excess of 8m (26ft). In sections of the route in Nigeria that are less than 8m (26ft) deep the pipeline will be either buried below the seafloor as a result of HDD (for the shore crossing) or covered with concrete mats, such as in areas of hard bottom substrate. Section 2.8 describes the basis for these specifications and other aspects of the offshore pipeline construction in more detail. The preferred minimum depth for unburied (or uncovered) line pipe is 8m below sea level. An alternative, deeper minimum burial criterion of 30m (98ft) is discussed in Chapter 4. For the great majority of its route, the pipeline will lie 30m to 50m (98ft to 164ft) below sea level. At the deepest point it will be 70m (230ft) below sea level. The pipeline route does not cross any shipping lanes and avoids passing through anchorage areas. 2.4.4.2.2 Lateral Line Pig Launchers

Lateral line pig launchers are described in Section 2.4.4.2.2 of the Benin, Ghana and Togo Final Draft EIAs. There will be none in Nigerian waters.

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2.4.4.2.3

Corrosion Protection System

All offshore line pipe will be coated externally with an FBE by an FBE coating vendor. The FBE is intended to provide the first line of corrosion protection in the subsea environment. Like the onshore pipeline, shrink-wrap sleeves will be applied at the weld joints as the line pipe is being assembled. Furthermore, all 20in line pipe downstream from the Lagos Beach Compressor Station will be coated internally with an FBE. In addition to the physical protection methods described above, the offshore line pipe will be protected by a sacrificial-anode cathodic protection system, in which a sacrificial zinc/aluminum anode will be attached to the offshore line pipe at a frequency of one anode for every 25 joints (approximately 305m or 1,000ft) of line pipe and corrode in preference to other metal components of the line pipe. Cathodic protection potential measurements can be performed on the onshore pipeline ends on a periodical basis to ensure cathodic system is protecting the pipeline. 2.4.4.3 Facility Material Management Summary With the exception of an upset condition such as during a leak or rupture, there will be no emissions including those from solid or liquid sources from the operation of the offshore pipeline. A small amount of gas will be released from the subsea pig launcher each time it is disconnected from the subsea tie-in during pigging, approximately 0.34m3 to 1.27m3 (12ft3 to 45ft3).

2.4.5 R&M Stations and Onshore Portions of Laterals and Trunk


The R&M stations and onshore pipeline portions in Benin, Ghana, and Togo are described in Section 2.4.5 of the Benin, Ghana and Togo Final Draft EIAs.

2.5

Solid and Hazardous Waste from Pipeline Operations

Solid waste generated at the Alagbado Tee and Lagos Beach Compressor Station can be divided into the following categories: Domestic solid waste; Non-hazardous industrial waste; Hazardous industrial waste; and Semi-solid waste. These wastes will be generated during the construction as well as the operations phase, although the quantities generated in the operations phase will be much less. This section outlines the types and quantities of waste generated in the operations phase. The quantities and types of waste generated are described in Appendix 2-B. WAPCo Waste Management Plan is described in Appendix 8B2-6. WAPCo has identified existing waste management facilities. These facilities will be audited and formally approved by WAPCo prior to use. In cases where audits identify the potential for mismanagement of wastes, WAPCo will consider one or more of the following:
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Work with proposed waste management facility to correct identified deficiencies; Consider alternative in-region waste management facilities, including those used by WAPCo Sponsors; and Consider out-of-region waste management facilities or consider development of onsite waste management facilities at WAPCo facilities in accordance with World Bank requirements. WAPCo will assume its responsibilities as a waste generator, from the generation to ultimate disposal.

2.5.1 Domestic Solid Waste


Included in this type of waste are food scraps, pruning, grass or tree clippings, paper, cardboard, wood scraps, and all other biodegradable refuse that is generated in facilities such as offices and eating facilities at the site. This domestic waste may be stored in properly labeled plastic or metal drums located at strategic locations at the site. Domestic waste at the facility will be disposed of at an approved off-site landfill by waste carriers and operators who have been duly authorized by appropriate environmental authorities.

2.5.2 Non-Hazardous Industrial Solid Waste


Included in non-hazardous solid waste are waste materials generated in operating or maintenance areas that did not come in contact with hydrocarbons, solvents, etc. This nonhazardous waste will be stored in properly identified plastic or metal drums that are strategically located throughout the facility. Non-hazardous waste will be periodically collected and taken to a designated waste material storage location on site. Non-hazardous waste materials will be used and/or recycled as much as possible and any remaining nonhazardous wastes will be occasionally transported by an approved waste carrier for disposal or recycling at a to-be-determined approved off-site disposal or recycling facility.

2.5.3 Hazardous Waste


Hazardous wastes are typically identified via laboratory testing of hazardous characteristics or are designated as hazardous by local regulations. For WAGP, these wastes are likely to include sediment sludge, packing, belts, hoses, fireproofing, paint cans, activated carbon filters, mineral wool, grease, rags, gloves, oakum and other materials commingled with oil, hydrocarbons, solvent, paint, and any other material that contains hydrocarbon residue including pigging wastes. Hazardous waste will be stored in properly labeled and sealed plastic or metal drums that are strategically located throughout the facility where this waste may be generated. Pigging fluids will be contained in the liquids-handling tank, awaiting removal be a waste removal contractor. Periodically, the hazardous waste will be collected and taken to hazardous waste temporary storage locations on-site. Temporary hazardous waste storage facility will have a concrete floor and a continuous concrete barrier approximately six inches high around the

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perimeter of the concrete floor. The storage site will contain a roof to protect the drums from the weather. The storage site will also be lighted and contain adequate ventilation. Hazardous waste carriers and operators who have been duly authorized by appropriate environmental authorities will perform the treatment and final disposal of this hazardous waste at a to-be-determined, approved off-site treatment plant or disposal locations. Appendix 2-D lists potentially hazardous materials.

2.5.4 Semi-Solid Waste


Semi-solid waste generated will include sludge from the sanitary and industrial waste water treatment plants. Sludge from the industrial waste treatment plant shall be periodically extracted and placed into properly identified and sealed metal or plastic drums or vessels. Semi-solid waste shall be treated and disposed of at a to-be-determined, approved off-site treatment plant.

2.6

Operational Control and Safety Systems

2.6.1 Operational Control Systems


WAGP facilities will be capable of continuous and automatic operations across the entire pipeline system. Pipeline and facilities control will primarily be from a Central Dispatch Center (CDC) located at the Lagos Beach Compressor Station and in event of an emergency situation, from a backup CDC co-located with WAPCo Headquarters. The CDC shall be capable of complete pipeline and facility operation, start-up, shutdown, and initiation of emergency shutdown and blowdown systems. All information necessary to achieve these requirements shall be available within the CDC and at the backup CDC. R&M stations will be monitored and controlled from the CDC or backup CDC with the ability to be controlled locally. Gas compressors will have a local control station at Lagos Beach, which will be linked to the CDC. Pipeline, plant facilities, and personnel shall be protected from hazardous conditions by appropriate safety devices and procedural controls. The Process Control System (PCS) will serve as the central point for the process control operations at the Alagbado Custody Transfer Station, the Lagos Beach Control and Dispatch Center (CDC), and at each of the four R&M stations. The backup CDC located within WAPCo Headquarters will have the ability to perform identical functions. The PCS shall provide the following functions as a minimum: Centralized control of the process facilities from each sites control room; Remote control of process valves, motors, compressors, etc.; Interface with other plant systems which include, but are not limited to, the SSS, compressor control panels and SCADA system;

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Continuous capacity and pressure control of the control loops defined in the piping and instrument diagrams and cause and effect diagrams; Measurement and calculations associated with gas flow, volumes, and composition; and Sequencing, configuration, and logic control of all control sequencing and control loops (control sequencing includes the necessary logic to accomplish all Level 2 and Level 3 shutdowns of the process system controlled and sequenced by the PCS). The control system will consist of three tiers: Primary and backup SCADA computers located in the central control center at the Lagos Beach Compressor Station. The main function of the SCADA system will be operational interface to support operation of the complete pipeline network. The SCADA system will report pipeline system status to the control center, showing normal, abnormal or alarm conditions, so operators can monitor and take action if needed. Remote terminal units at each field compressor, metering, or pigging station will receive and execute commands from the control centers. Communications/control computers also located in the dispatching and backup dispatching centers for the purpose of communications and issuing control commands and initiating corrective actions. Operators will be able to view the entire system and ensure that the demand for product flow is met and that pipeline-operating conditions are safe and optimized. Corrective actions can be initiated, either automatically or with operator over-ride, if necessary. The backup dispatch center will be located at WAPCo Headquarters. The remote stations will have a degree of local automation and control which will ensure safe and continuous operation of the station independent of whether the operator is present on-site and whether he will take the required corrective action. Similarly, the individual stations will be able to operate safely with or without communications from the central dispatch or backup dispatch centers. Local control of the facilities from the plant for at least maintenance purposes. The SCADA system will provide the mechanism by which the data will be collated, transferred and stored and will utilize VSAT telecommunications technology for data transmission and voice communications as it provides the lowest total cost of ownership. The system will be designed to serve only the pipelines telecommunications needs. VSAT facilities will be located at each pressure reduction, metering, and compressor station. Local and international communications system where available will also be utilized as a backup. Voice communication from the R&M stations to customers facilities will be provided by line of sight radio link.

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2.6.2 Fire and Gas Detection and Protection Systems


The Fire and Gas Detection and Protection System (the F&G system) will provide a common central facility for all fire and gas detection and protection equipment and will be dedicated only to the detection of and protection against fire and gas. No other monitoring control or shutdown function shall be incorporated into this stand-alone system. It will be designed to operate under normal conditions with minimum operator interface. The process and essential-services areas within each WAGP site will be continually monitored by detectors that initiate alarms upon detection of a hazard. All F&G detection equipment will be provided with line monitoring facilities on both input and output circuits. Common facilities such as power supplies will be duplicated, but the system shall be designed utilizing simplex fail-safe input and output (I/O) units, and functional logic modules. The F&G System will operate normally from an external 24VDC System with a backup battery within each panel for four hours of operation. The F&G system will be capable of operating for up to eight hours without air conditioning in an ambient temperature of 40 Celsius (C). The F&G system shall have the capability to annunciate two different types of alarm tones. One alarm tone shall alert the operator of confirmed fire detection with in the perimeter of the facility. A different alarm tone will alert the operator of a confirmed high-gas detection within the perimeter of the facility. The F&G system will generate a low-level gas-detected alarm at 20 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) and a high-level gas-detected alarm at 60 percent LEL. Executive actions resulting from detection of fire or gas will result in alarms, equipment or facility shutdown, depending the on level of alarm and location. Fire detection will employ various detection methods including ultraviolet (UV) detectors, heat detectors, smoke detectors, and rate of rise detectors dependent on application/ location. Gas detection will employ conventional point detection methods. Open path line of sight gas detectors will be utilized within the Lagos Beach Compressor Station. Outputs from the F&G System will be processed in the SSS for executive actions. Depending on location and application, suppression systems may include handheld fire extinguishers (either carbon dioxide (CO2) or dry powder), trolley-mounted extinguishers (dry powder), hose reels, fixed monitors, and inert-gas suppression systems. No Halon will be used in WAGP facilities. The fire fighting system for the compressor station is described in Section 2.4.3.2.7.

2.6.3 Emergency Shutdown Systems


All WAGP sites shall include Emergency Shutdown Systems to alarm and shut down systems in the event of process upsets, power failures and emergencies such as fires or accidental releases of flammable vapors. These Emergency Shutdown Systems shall be independent of Plant Control Systems described in Section 2.6.1.

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Emergency Shutdown and Control of WAGP Facilities will be managed by two separate systems: the SSS5 and the PCS.6 The principal aims and objectives of the SSS and the PCS are to minimize the consequence of an incident, hazard or accident, in order to ensure the following: Protection of personnel and public; Minimization of potential for adverse environmental impact; Protection of the installation, equipment and facilities infrastructure; and Maintenance of safe operations compatible with business requirements. 2.6.3.1 Safety Shutdown System (SSS) The Safety Shutdown System for WAGP facilities will be designed for high integrity operation. It shall be a stand-alone system that initiates the shutdown and blowdown/depressurization of systems and facilities during upset or abnormal conditions. The system components, such as sensors, logic, actuators, etc., shall be designed to operate independently of other control and monitoring systems. Since reliability of safe operation is of primary importance, the system shall be designed on an inherently fail-safe principle. The WAGP facilities will have four levels of shutdown. Starting with the highest, these are: Manual Emergency Shutdown shutdown, isolation and depressurization of all WAGP facilities; Level 1 for localized shutdown, isolation and depressurization of the relevant facility; Level 2 for localized shutdown and isolation without depressurization of the relevant facility; and Level 3 for localized individual equipment shutdown and isolation without depressurization at the relevant facility. A Level 3 shutdown may result in escalation to a Level 2, which in turn to may escalate to a Level 1 shutdown. This is called cascading when one executive action initiates further higher-level shutdowns. 2.6.3.1.1 Manual Emergency Shutdown (ESD)

Manual Emergency Shutdown is the highest level of shutdown. ESD activation will result in the shutdown, isolation and automatic depressurization of all process and utility systems throughout the WAGP system. This will include electrical isolation of non-essential equipment to minimize the potential for ignition sources. This will normally be initiated at

5 6

Described in WAGP Technical Specification WAGP-P-I-SA-0070 ESD System Specification. Described in WAGP Technical Specification WAGP-P-I-SA-0073 Process Control System Specification. Nigeria Final Draft EIA Rev 1 2-54

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either of the CDCs by Operator intervention and only in extreme circumstances. It will result in the following: Shutdown and isolation of gas feed from the ELP and closure of ESD valves at Alagbado Tee facility; Equipment shutdown, closure of ESD valves and depressurization of facilities via flare system at Lagos Beach; Equipment shutdown, closure of ESD valves and facilities depressurization via vent system at the R&M stations; Electrical isolation of all non-essential equipment; and Activation of audible and visual alarms located around the facility such that in event of an emergency shutdown personnel will be alerted to the situation. These alarms will be specific to a Manual ESD. 2.6.3.1.2 Level 1 Shutdown

Alagbado Tee

A Level 1 shutdown at the Alagbado Tee station will be initiated by the following events: Manual initiation (from the local station control room); Receipt of an ESD signal from Lagos Beach Compressor Station CDC or the backup CDC; and Total loss of instrument electrical power. A Level 1 shutdown at Alagbado will result in the following actions: Closure of ESD valves; and Activation of audible and visual alarms located around the facility such that, in event of a Level 1 shutdown, personnel will be alerted to the situation. These alarms will be specific to a Level 1 shutdown.
Lagos Beach Compressor Station

A Level 1 shutdown at Lagos Beach Compressor Station will be initiated by any of the following events: Manual initiation (from the CDC, backup CDC or plant egress); Confirmed fire detection within a hazardous area; High liquids level in atmospheric drains tank; Low instrument air pressure at Lagos Beach Compressor Station; Total loss of instrument electrical power at Lagos Beach Compressor Station; and Detection of high gas level beyond process boundaries.

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A Level 1 shutdown at Lagos Beach Compressor Station will result in the following actions: Equipment shutdown, closure of ESD valves and depressurization of facilities via flare system; Isolation of electrical power to rotating equipment and non-essential equipment; Activation of audible and visual alarms located around the facility such that so that in event of a Level 1 shutdown, personnel will be alerted to the situation. These alarms will be specific to a Level 1 shutdown; and Depending on the type of emergency, automatic start-up of fire fighting systems may be initiated (Section 2.6.2).
R&M Stations

The events that will initiate a Level 1 shutdown at the R&M stations are described in Section 2.6.3.1 of the Regional Final Draft EIA Rev 1, as are the resulting actions. 2.6.3.1.3 Level 2 Shutdown All Facilities

A Level 2 shutdown at any facility will be initiated by the following events: Manual initiation (from the local station control room); High liquid level in the gas scrubbers/vessels; Complete loss of backup power from the UPS; and Failure of any equipment or process system that results in the complete loss of gas feed to the facility or the ability to control it. A Level 2 shutdown at any facility will result in: A complete localized plant shutdown, and will cause the entire process to shut in, rotating equipment to stop and heaters to be shutdown; Level 2 shutdown functions are limited to blocking in the affected system; Manual depressurization may be initiated from the local control room; and Each process and utility subsystem will be capable of being shutdown from the local control room. 2.6.3.1.4 Level 3 Shutdown All Facilities

Level 3 shutdown refers to automatic equipment shutdowns resulting from protection of individual equipment items or process trips, e.g., air compressor, generator, etc. shutdown by equipment protection systems supplied as part of equipment package;

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Each unit of electrical equipment package shall also have a local push-button for shutdown; and Alarms will be built into control loops to sound audible warnings for deviation from operating conditions for those controlled variables that will give the operator sufficient time to take remedial action.

2.6.4 Venting, Flaring, and Blowdown


2.6.4.1 Depressurization Events Worst-case depressurization events in Nigeria are outlined in Sections 2.4.1.2.4 and 2.4.3.2.4. Flaring will only take place at Lagos Beach and will not be a normal operational occurrence. It will only occur during emergency shutdown, maintenance or, possibly, start-up activities. The overall philosophy is to isolate and depressurize equipment and facilities using the SSS and PCS functions as outlined in Section 2.6.2. A table of rates and volumes for the blowdown of each segment is given in Table 2.6-1. 2.6.4.1.1 Depressurization of Onshore Line in Nigeria

The onshore line from Alagbado Tee to Lagos Beach Compressor Station will have a midline break valve and manual venting facilities should the line need to be depressurized at the midline valve (Section 2.4.2.2.2). The entire onshore section in Nigeria can be manually depressurized under controlled conditions at Lagos Beach Compressor Station (Section 2.4.3.2.4). 2.6.4.1.2 Depressurization of Lagos Beach Compressor Station

Lagos Beach Compressor Station can be depressurized by closing inlet and outlet ESD valves, and releasing the contained volume of the station to the flare stack (Section 2.4.3.2.4). 2.6.4.1.3 Depressurization of Offshore Mainline (including Laterals)

The offshore section, including laterals, can be manually depressurized under controlled conditions at Lagos Beach Compressor Station. Should the Lagos Beach Compressor Station facility be unavailable for depressurization, the stack at Takoradi has been designed to accommodate a controlled manual depressurization of the offshore section including laterals. Depressurization of the offshore line is a highly unlikely occurrence and would in all probability be carried out to facilitate major repairs to the offshore line. This would be a planned and controlled event (Section 2.4.3.2.4). 2.6.4.1.4 Depressurization of Laterals

The depressurization of laterals is described in Section 2.6.4.1.4 of the Regional Final Draft EIA.

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Table 2.6-1 Blowdown Volume and Rates for All Segments


Section Onshore Pipeline Alagbado Tee to Midline valve Midline valve to Lagos Beach Compressor Station Alagbado Tee to Lagos Beach Compressor Station Offshore Pipeline (18in Case) Lagos Beach Compressor Station to Takoradi (without laterals) Lagos Beach Compressor Station to all R&Ms (with spurs) Offshore Pipeline (20in Case) Lagos Beach Compressor Station to Takoradi (without laterals) Lagos Beach Compressor Station to all R&Ms (with laterals) Lagos Beach Compressor Station to Takoradi (without laterals) (40 barg initial pressure) Lagos Beach Compressor Station to all R&Ms (with laterals) (40 barg initial pressure) Laterals Cotonou Lateral Lom Lateral Tema Lateral 8.4 8.4 16.8 5.6 5.6 11.2 4.2 4.2 8.4 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.4 17.5 MMscfd 0.496Mcmd 17.5 MMscfd 0.496Mcmd 35.0 MMscfd 0.991Mcmd 649 MMscfd 18.4Mcmd 711 MMscfd 20.1Mcmd 801 MMscfd 22.7Mcmd 876 MMscfd 24.8Mcmd 170 MMscfd 4.81Mcmd 186 MMscfd 5.27Mcmd 4.8 MMscfd 0.136MMcm 6.54 MMscfd 0.185MMcm 16.3 MMscfd 0.461MMcm Blowdown Interval (Hours) at: 50 75 100 MMscfd MMscfd MMscfd Blowdown Interval (Days) at: 50 75 100 MMscfd MMscfd MMscfd Volume Released

311.6 341.2

207.7 227.4

155.8 170.6

13.0 14.2

8.7 9.5

6.5 7.1

384.7 421.2 81.5 89.3

256.4 280.8 54.4 59.5

192.3 210.6 40.8 44.6

16.0 17.5 3.4 3.7

10.7 11.7 2.3 2.5

8.0 8.8 1.7 1.9

2.4 3.5 8.8

1.6 2.3 5.9

1.2 1.7 4.4

0.1 0.1 0.4

0.1 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.2

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2.6.4.1.5

Depressurization of R&M Stations

The depressurization of R&M stations is described in Section 2.6.4.1.5 of the Regional Final Draft EIA. 2.6.4.2 Depressurization Equipment Performance The flare and vent scrubbers shall be designed to remove 99.9 percent of entrained liquid droplets 450 microns or larger from the hydrocarbon gas streams prior to releasing the gas to flare or vent stack. The minimum design pressure for flare and vent system piping and equipment shall be 10.3 barg. The maximum permissible thermal radiation (including solar radiation) from the flare tip measured at 1m above ground elevation at the flare site area boundary shall be 1.57kW/m2 (1,500Btu/ft2).

2.7

Design and Other Pre-Construction Activities

2.7.1 Front End Engineering Design (FEED)


WAPCo began a number of technical studies following the August 2002 Preliminary Commercial Evaluation. Immediate efforts focused on risk reduction (e.g., geotechnical and geophysical surveys and the EIA). Concurrent with this phase, FEED is being conducted in Houston, Texas USA. In this phase of the engineering, the design was driven through the development of the following: Process designs; Piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs); System safety systems designs; Project equipment specifications as described above; Preliminary drawings; Design reports; Alternatives analysis for issues likely to be considered significant in this EIA; and Other key project documentation. During this phase, WAPCo proactively solicited stakeholder input and evaluated Best Available Technology (BAT) for incorporation into the designs, to ensure that the project minimizes health, safety, and environmental (HSE) impacts. Several detailed reviews were conducted during the preliminary engineering phase including those in Table 2.7-1. Table 2.7-1 Preliminary Engineering Phase Reviews
Review Item Hazard Identification (HAZID) Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) Facility Route and Siting Conceptual Safety Evaluation Studies/Reviews Week of 11 November 2002 X X Preliminary Week of 27 January 2003 Follow Up Updates Survey Results Design Basis Documents Week of 2 June 2003 Updates if any Updates if any

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Table 2.7-1 Preliminary Engineering Phase Reviews


Review Item Qualitative Risk Assessment Drawing Reviews, including P&ID Project Specifications Preliminary Instrument Protective Function (IPF) Classification Hazards Analysis (follow-up to HAZID & Qualitative Risk Assessment) Preliminary Conceptual and FEED Level Equipment Layout Hazardous Area Classification Fire and Explosion Study Fire Protection Analysis Escape/Evacuation/Rescue Week of 11 November 2002 Week of 27 January 2003 Training X List SD/Control Philosophy Training X Changes X X X Update X Week of 2 June 2003 X As changes occur As needed Update X

During these and other reviews, representatives from EIA and permit/license approval agencies in each of the countries participated to provide relevant input and guidance on regulatory compliance issues and prudent protective measures. Development of the detailed information to support the EIA process was a critical engineering and FEED activity to ensure timely EIA approval before the start of construction. An iterative process of stakeholder input, design adjustment, impact analysis and follow-up stakeholder consultations and impact analyses were used to develop the FEED and a detailed HSE plan (WAGP, 2002b). The HSE plan developed at this stage will be ultimately incorporated into the EIA Environmental Management Plan.

2.7.2 Design Basis: Philosophy and Standards


Design, fabrication, and construction of the transmission system is being done in accordance with the requirements of the environmental laws and regulations of the host country; WAGP regulations; approved, certified design and specification documentation; and restrictions imposed by the environmental management plan of the final EIA. 2.7.2.1 Design Philosophy A number of design philosophies were observed throughout the design of the transmission system. These were: Protection of personnel and public; Minimization of potential for adverse environmental impact; Protection of the installation, equipment and facilities infrastructure; and Maintain safe operations compatible with business requirements.
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Since reliability of safe operation is of primary importance, the system was designed on an inherently fail-safe principle. This section of the EIA will summarize the elements of the design that were incorporated to achieve that principle. Ultimately, in order to uphold the design philosophy tenets, the design process included the development of documented design basis criteria that will be observed throughout construction, start-up and operation of the transmission system. Those documents are available at the WAPCo Operations Office for inspection. 2.7.2.2 Design Standards The technical standards for the engineering, design, and construction of the WAGP system are proposed to be based on the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and American Petroleum Institute (API) systems. The primary design code of reference will be the ANSI/ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems design code. The ANSI/ASME B31.8 design code is the only general pipeline code that covers both onshore and offshore gas pipeline systems as well as metering and compressor stations. The B31.8 code is the most widely used design code in the industry for natural gas pipelines and is the predominant code of reference for WAGP installations. The components of the pipeline system will be designed and installed using API, ASME, or ANSI design codes that are specific for the component. Listed below in Table 2.7-2 are the design codes for major pipeline components as agreed to between the States and incorporated into the IPA: Table 2.7-2 Design Codes for Major Pipeline Components
Pipeline Component Onshore/Offshore Pipeline Design (including materials) Offshore Pipeline Construction Line Pipe Specification Pipeline Welding Specification Corrosion Protection Other Pipeline Components (Valves, Flanges, Fittings) Process Piping Welding Spec Compression Spec Gas Measurement Spec Safety System Spec Power Turbines Fire Protection Instrumentation Pressure Vessels Design Codea ANSI/ ASME B31.8 API RP 1111, Det Norske Veritas (DNV) OS-F101 API Spec 5L API Stand 1104 National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) RP0675, NACE RP0169 API 6D, ASME B16.5, ASME 16.9 ASME Sec IX (Boilers & Pressure Vessels) API Spec 617 API MPMS Spec 14.3 or ISO 5167 API RP Spec 14C API 616 National Fire Protection Association Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, API RP 551, International Electrotechnical Council (IEC), NEMA ASME VIII D1

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Table 2.7-2 Design Codes for Major Pipeline Components


Pipeline Component Electrical Systems Buildings Civil Works
a

Design Codea API RP 540/IEC International Electrotechnical Commission, British Standards, IEC, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) CENELEC, National Engineering Manufacturers Association Local Building Codes British Standards, Euronorm, ISO

The above listed design codes are being established as the minimum design standards for the WAGP system. However, ISO, DNV or other high quality equivalent specifications may be substituted if warranted.

The technical specifications devised by WAGP are listed in Appendix 8B-4.4.

2.7.3 Other Pre-construction Activities


In addition to design activities, WAPCo conducted the activities described in Sections 2.7.3.1 through 2.7.3.5 and are integrated with the EIA processes and deliverables. 2.7.3.1 Routing and Siting Surveys Onshore engineering surveys were conducted to determine ELP tie-in, pipeline routing, Lagos Beach Compressor Station, and R&M locations in Benin, Ghana, and Togo. Offshore surveys were conducted to determine appropriate marine routing of the pipeline. Relatively non-invasive survey techniques were utilized, although soil and seabed coring operations were used for geo-technical evaluation in both the onshore and offshore environments. WAPCo coordinated External Affairs, Engineering, and EIA consulting resources in implementing the surveys, to ensure that all issues and impacts associated with routing and siting were comprehensively and consistently identified. An appropriately scoped HSE Management plan was prepared prior to routing and survey work to minimize the impacts of these activities. Local communities and other stakeholders were advised of the survey activities prior to commencement. 2.7.3.2 Estate Surveying and Identification of Real Estate Titles These activities will determine land tenure aspects of the project for the Nigerian onshore portion of the project and gas delivery points in Benin, Ghana, and Togo. This determination will include assessments of land ownership and other existing rights associated with potential routing or siting options for the pipeline and facilities. The results of these activities will be incorporated into a Resettlement Action Plan following World Bank requirements. 2.7.3.3 Land and ROW Acquisition Land and ROW acquisition activities started via the Estate Survey process described above. Based on this work, WAPCo will negotiate the acquisition of permanent land rights (for

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facilities such as the compressor and R&M stations) and ROWs (for the pipeline itself). Other temporary and permanent estate acquisitions (camps, staging areas, roads, etc.) will be pursued either directly by WAPCo or through contractors or other third parties, with appropriate compensation guidelines established. WAPCo was advised that legal ownership and control of the offshore area, which the pipeline will traverse, is vested in each of the countries on the national government. Accordingly WAPCo will negotiate for ROWs over these offshore areas with the governments concerned. Compensation for acquisition of permanent land rights and ROWs will be in accordance with local and international best practices. WAPCo will deal closely with appropriate government, community, and traditional leaders during negotiations to acquire land or ROWs. WAPCo expects to find few resettlement issues associated with the construction of the pipeline, particularly physical dislocation of people affected by the project. Resettlement plans, which are a World Bank requirement however, will be provided as a supplement to this EIA Report. WAPCo also recognized that initial land and ROW target areas might not be suitable at the time of construction and that alternative routes should be considered as a contingency. Proposed and alternative sites and routes were pursued in a manner consistent with the description above, and all agreements included terms and conditions such as acquisition contingent on EIA approval, Permit issuance etc. 2.7.3.4 Material Procurement, Staging, and Transportation The line pipe itself, along with compressors, vessels, meter runs and pressure-regulating equipment will be fabricated at off-site fabrication yards. The locations of the fabrication yard(s) will be located outside West Africa. The location of staging areas is discussed in Section 2.8. 2.7.3.5 Other Activities Additional Safety and Operational Reviews with EIA and Permitting Agencies will occur during project implementation including: Critical safety equipment and quality assurance inspection and testing; and Functional testing of corrosion and fire protection equipment. Other activities include logistical planning, contracting for construction, and cost minimization studies. Prior to commencing construction, WAPCo and/or the construction contractors will obtain the necessary access permits and approvals in line with the legal framework described in Chapter 1.

2.8

Construction

This section describes the major construction and installation aspects of the WAGP transmission system.
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The principal elements of the proposed transmission system and major associated temporary facilities are as follows: Alagbado Tee; Onshore pipeline (including onshore laterals) and marshalling yards; Lagos Beach Compressor Station and primary control complex; Concrete batch plant (likely to be located adjacent to the Lagos Beach Compressor Station); Offshore main trunk and lateral lines; R&M stations; and Weight coating plant. The facilities that will be constructed and installed in Nigeria are: Alagbado Tee; Onshore pipeline and marshalling yards; Lagos Beach Compressor Station and primary control complex; Concrete batch plant; and Offshore main trunk. Approximately 20 percent of the 30in onshore pipeline lengths will be coated at an existing weight coating plant in Nigeria. The following subsections describe major aspects associated with the construction and installation of each of these elements.

2.8.1 Alagbado Tee


2.8.1.1 Alagbado Tee Construction Activities Between 50 and 100 truck movements will be required in total during the construction period to bring to the site the materials and equipment for construction and operation of the WAPCo facilities at the Tee. The main plant equipment to be installed is listed in Section 2.4.1.2. Construction equipment and facilities include: Earth moving equipment, etc.; Temporary office; Temporary sanitation facilities (for 50 people, see below); and A 500kW diesel-fueled generator. A temporary staging area equal to 25 percent of the layout area (i.e., 0.028ha/0.07 acres) will be required. This area will be incremental to the 0.11ha (0.28 acre) footprint.

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Construction activities will start with excavation, clearing and backfill of the footprint. Concrete for the foundations will then be prepared and poured. Plant equipment will be installed and a security fence erected allowing for a 25m wide buffer zone around the facilities. It is expected that construction of the Tee will take four months and that the workforce will average 25, with a maximum of 50 at any one time. No provisions for personnel accommodations or related support facilities are to be provided at the Alagbado Tee site as it is expected that most workers will be recruited locally and reside in their own homes. Those who are not will reside in local hotels. The numbers of local workers and non-local workers have not yet been determined (Section 2.13). 2.8.1.2 Alagbado Tee Construction Material Management Summary The precise quantities and types of raw materials will not be known for certain until the construction contract has been awarded and work is undertaken. However, Table 2.8-1 provides a summary estimate of raw material requirements: Table 2.8-1 Raw Materials Required for Construction of Tee Facilities
Type Food and bottled water Construction water (possibly purchased from local wells) Diesel fuel for generators and construction equipment Solvents, lubricating oils, greases, etc. Paint, coatings, welding materials, piping materials, electrical materials Blockwall, concrete, framing lumber, asphalt, rebar Quantity Daily supplies for 25 workers (50 max) 1,100L/day to 2,200L/day (290gal/day to 580gal/day) 230L/day to 450L/day (60gal/day to 120gal/day) Incidental volumes Small quantities sufficient for permanent equipment (Section 2.4.1.2) Sufficient for foundations for a footprint of 0.11ha (0.28 acres)

See Appendix 2-B for details of types and estimated quantities of wastes and waste water generated. Wastes will be treated and disposed of according an approved waste management plan.

2.8.2 Onshore Pipeline and Marshalling Yards


2.8.2.1 Mobilization, Labor, Duration In Nigeria, pipeline lengths will be brought in three at a time by truck from Port Harcourt or Lagos to wherever they are needed on the ROW. This, and the transport of construction equipment, will account for up to 20 truck movements per day. The likely road transport routes from Lagos are shown in Figure 2.8-1.

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Workers will be transported daily either from their accommodation camp, if there is to be one, or from local accommodations. Pipeline installation will be performed by up to three different crews of 100 to 150 workers per crew working simultaneously during daytime hours only. The duration of installation work is expected to be six to eight months. Work will be undertaken in the dry season as far as possible The main plant equipment to be installed is listed in Section 2.4.2.2. Construction equipment and facilities in Nigeria will include: Earth moving equipment; One or two temporary offices; Three sets of temporary sanitation facilities (for 100 to 150 people each); Three 500kW diesel-fueled generators; and Possibly, a temporary construction camp with of footprint of 4ha (10 acres) and a personnel requirement of 20 to 50 people. 2.8.2.2 Onshore Pipeline Installation Methods The onshore pipeline will be installed in an excavated trench within a 25m (82ft) ROW to a nominal depth of 0.9m (3ft) in upland areas and 1.2m (4ft) at road crossings; or for certain wetlands and marshes, in directionally drilled boreholes. The majority of the onshore pipeline will be in upland areas; the theoretical maximum ROW acreage in Nigeria is 140ha (340 acres) (based on a length of 56km, and average width of 25m). The pipe itself will consist of 12m (40ft) random lengths with wall thickness ranging from 0.469in to 0.562in (1.19cm to 1.43cm) that have been pre-coated with a FBE for corrosion protection and weight coated in saturated or marsh environments. Plastic sheeting and hay bales will likely be used to control rainfall runoff until all earth work is completed. Wash-down areas will be designated and controlled for concrete trucks utilized for foundation slabs. Sanitation waste similar to that for normal operations is expected. Biocide use will be limited to common pesticides (e.g., diazinon), to be used to control mosquitoes and mosquito borne diseases within the construction zone. 2.8.2.2.1 Pipeline Installation Methods (Uplands)

The main method that will be used to install the pipeline in upland terrain is trenching. Thrust boring, similar to horizontal directional drilling (HDD) (Section 2.8.2.2.4) will be used to cross major roads.
Trenching

The following is a summary of the basic steps undertaken to install a pipeline in upland terrain by trenching. Onshore pipeline construction will typically begin with the surveying or staking of the construction ROW. After surveying is complete, the construction crew will perform the

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following operations: clearing, grading, fencing (as necessary), digging of trench, stringing, bending, welding, pipe coating, lowering-in, backfilling, hydrostatic testing, and clean-up and restoration. Areas that typically require special construction techniques may be one or more of the following: agricultural areas; crossings including road, railroad, or foreign lines (pipelines or utilities); water bodies and wetlands; unusual topographies such as unstable soils and trench conditions, residential or urban areas, and areas requiring rock removal Surveying This step involves identification of the ROW, determining its legal location (as described in Section 2.7.3.3) and performing soil evaluation. Normal modes of transportation are used to the locations for these activities. Along remote pipeline routes, visual inspection may be done by air. Land survey crews will mark by flags and/or stakes the boundaries of the construction ROW and extra workspaces to show the approved work areas. Also, areas to be avoided, such as wetlands, cultural resource sites, and sensitive species habitat, will be marked with appropriate fencing or flagging based on environmental and archaeology surveys. The centerline for the pipeline will be marked at 200ft intervals, at known crossings of foreign pipelines (pipelines owned by other operators) and at points of intersection, where the line changes horizontal direction. Pipeline locators and other methods will be used to identify these crossings. Clearing and Grading The construction ROW will be cleared and graded to remove brush, trees, roots, and other obstructions such as large rocks and stumps. Crops and other non-wooded vegetation may be mowed while other crops, such as grain, may be left in place to limit soil erosion. The construction ROW will be graded in some places to create a safe working area, accommodate pipe-bending equipment and allow the operation and travel of construction equipment. The natural drainage will be preserved to the extent possible. If necessary, a fence crew, typically operating in conjunction with the clearing crews, will cut and brace fences that intersect or cross the proposed route. Fences may be installed to keep livestock out of the working area. Where necessary, temporary gates will be constructed to allow landowners to move livestock from pasture to pasture, and to allow construction crews access along the ROW. Timber will only be removed when absolutely necessary for construction purposes. Commercially saleable timber may be cut and removed from the ROW. Timber that is not merchantable and other vegetative debris may be chipped, burned, or disposed of according to the landowners wishes. Burning, if used, will be conducted in compliance with local regulations and also performed in a manner to minimize fire hazard and prevent heat damage to surrounding vegetation. Stumps may be buried only in non-tilled land on the construction ROW and only with the agreement of the landowner. Stumps and other timber considered to be non-merchantable may be used to construct off-road vehicle barriers at the request of the landowner. Disposal of materials taken off-site will be done at facilities or locations approved by WAPCo.

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After the ROW has been cleared and the stumps removed, grading may be necessary. Minimum grading will be required in flat terrain. In areas with steep terrain, more extensive grading may be required. A maximum of 12in of topsoil will typically be removed or stripped and segregated. Topsoil that has been removed or stripped will typically be stored on the spoil side (i.e. opposite of the working side of the trench) of the construction ROW. However, circumstances may require the topsoil be stored or placed on the working side adjacent to the ditch or at the edge of the construction ROW. Digging of Trench The pipe trench will be dug using track mounted trenchers or backhoes from the working side of the ROW. Excavated spoils will be placed on the non-working side of the excavation for reuse. Backhoes, rotary wheel ditching machines, or rippers will be used to excavate the trench. The depth of the trench will vary depending on soil type and the class of pipe being buried. Typically when backhoes are used, the trench will be excavated before the welding of the pipe. On the other hand, when rotary wheel ditching machines are used, the trench will be excavated after the welding of the pipe and shortly before the pipe laying. If backhoes are used to excavate, the trench will typically be wider than a rotary wheel ditched trench due to the trench being open for a longer period of time and due to soil stability concerns. Measures will be taken to minimize free flow of water into and through the trench. Ditch plugs, or areas that are not trenched, will be left in place on either side of an approach to a stream crossing or wetland crossing, or to provide free-range to livestock. Road and certain river crossings may be done through thrust boring (in which a bore is drilled from the end of a trench dug on one side of the road through to the end of another trench dug on the other side) or directionally drill boreholes. Other river crossings may be done by conventional open cut methods, particularly if they can be done during low flow or dry season time frames. Where they are to be trenched, construction through water bodies will be scheduled so that the trench is cut just prior to pipe-laying activities. Where fluming or other similar measures are used to maintain stream flow during construction, the crossing will be designed to pass high flows and prevent excessive scouring. Trenching across rivers and streams will be performed in accordance with all applicable country requirements. Pipe Stringing Prior to construction, the pipe will be moved into the project area by barge, rail or truck and placed in pipe storage yards. Within Nigeria, most likely, the majority of the pipe will be stored at a pipe yard adjacent to the Lagos Beach Compressor Station site. The pipe-laying or stringing operation involves transporting pipe sections (joints) from pipe storage yards into position along the prepared ROW. Typically trucks or other vehicles will travel along the ROW and string the individual joints parallel to the centerline of the trench so they are easily accessible to construction personnel. The joints are usually strung on the working side of the trench for bending, welding, inspection, coating and lowering-in operations.

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Bending, Welding, Coating, and Lowering-in Typically, pipe will be delivered to the construction area in straight sections where it is bent to conform to changes required for pipeline alignment and to conform with natural ground contours. Track mounted hydraulic pipe-bending machines perform bending of the sections. Alternatively, some of the special bends may be performed ahead of time, at the pipe factory. After the pipe has been bent, it is aligned and welded. Typically, the joints will be welded together with assistance of line-up clamps. As each weld is completed, the pipe will be placed on supports adjacent to the trench. Each weld will be inspected visually and via X-ray (or some other non-destructive test method) by qualified inspectors. All bending, welding and coating in the field shall comply with industry and company standards and specifications. All pipe will be protected with an external coating designed to protect the pipe from corrosion. Except for a small area at the end of the pipe joint, coating will be applied at the pipe mill before shipment to the site. After welding together in the field, pipe joints are coated with similar or compatible materials. Before lowering-in, the pipe coating will be inspected for defects called holidays, with special attention given to all field applied coatings. In compliance with construction specifications, all holidays will be repaired prior to lowering-in. To avoid kinks, up to three cranes are positioned along the working pipeline spread and used to lower the pipeline into the excavation. Side boom tractors will also be used to lower the pipe into the trench (Figure 2.8-2). The ditch will be free of debris and foreign material. If the bottom of the trench is rocky, the pipe may be lowered onto sandbags or support pillows. Alternative sources of padding for pipe in rocky soil may be sand, gravel, or screened soil, excluding topsoil. In areas where the excavated trench material may damage the pipe, the pipe will be protected with a protective wrap of rock shield. The pipe is placed in the ditch so as to conform to the alignment of the ditch and to prevent damage to the coating. Wherever rain or groundwater has infiltrated the trench, the trench will be dewatered in order to prevent the pipe from floating and also to enable inspection of the pipe in the trench. Usually the dewatering will be accomplished with a portable pump, and the outlet will be placed near the edge of the ROW to prevent backflow into the ditch, while minimizing erosion of surface soils. Hydrotesting As part of the commissioning process the onshore pipeline will be hydrotested (Section 2.9). Backfilling Once the pipe is in the trench, the trench is backfilled using a bulldozer, backhoe, or other suitable equipment. Backfill usually consists of the material originally excavated from the trench. However, in some cases additional backfill from other sources may be required. Any excess excavated materials or materials unsuitable for backfill will be spread evenly over the ROW or disposed of in accordance with reasonable landowner requests. In areas where topsoil has been segregated, the subsoil will be first placed in the trench and then the topsoil will be placed over the subsoil. Backfilling will occur to grade or slightly higher to accommodate any future soil settlement.
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Figure 2.8-2 Pipeline Installation Methods in Uplands: Trenching

During backfilling and final grading, measures will be taken to minimize erosion, restore the natural contour of the ground and restore surface drainage patterns as close to preconstruction conditions as practicable. In order to minimize the possibility of subsurface water flow on slopes along the pipeline trench, sand bags or foam-type trench breakers will be placed across the trench prior to backfilling. In other areas like terrace, levee and stream crossings and the banks at streams and ditch crossings, the trench backfill will be solidly compacted. When the trench crosses streams, wetlands or groundwater, trench plugs may be used to minimize the flow of water from the intersected body to and from the trench. Clean-up and Restoration After the completion of backfilling, all disturbed areas will be finish graded and any remaining trash and debris will be properly disposed of in compliance with country and local regulations. After construction is completed, the entire ROW will be protected by the implementation of erosion control measures, including the site specific contouring, permanent slope breakers (low profile berms constructed diagonally across the ROW to divert runoff), mulch and reseeding, or sodding with soil holding grasses. Contouring will be accomplished using acceptable excess soil from construction. The erosion control measures used will comply with country regulations or guidelines. Cathodic Protection Test, Bonding Leads, and Facilities Cathodic protection test stations, rectifiers, block valves and pipeline markers will be located along the ROW as per Company requirements.

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Line Markers and Signs After construction is complete, line markers indicating the content of the pipeline will remain at each road and river crossing as well as every 2km (6,560ft) along the entire onshore pipeline ROW. 2.8.2.2.2 Crossings with Roads and Other Pipelines

Thrust Boring Method

Thrust boring is a hydraulic push method used to drive a pipeline under a road or railroad and avoiding open trenching through the road. Thus, where the thrust boring method is used, traffic will not be disrupted. Figure 2.8-3 illustrates a typical thrust boring operation. Figure 2.8-3 Pipeline Installation Methods for Road Crossings: Thrust Boring

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Surveying The surveying is the same as for the trenching method. Clearing Trenches will be dug either side of the road in the direction of the ROW. No clearing is needed for this method except at the entry point and the exit point. However, extra workspace will be needed to string the welded pipe. If any excavation is done in preparation of equipment then proper erosion control measures will be followed. Setup Drilling Equipment The footprint required for the thrust-boring entry location is typically 50m by 30m, located in the approach trench. The drilling equipment, comprising a cutter head attached to flighted auger shafts, is set up in the approach trench. Drill Pilot Hole The cutting head drills horizontally under the road or railroad and exits with high accuracy near the pre-determined exit point in the trench on the other side. The auger pushes the soil fragmented by the cutter out of the hole. The distance limitation of the drill is based upon the size of the pipe and the composition of the substrate to be drilled but these road and rail crossings, typically a few meters long, will be well within that limit. String the Pipe The pipe is pre-welded, inspected and staged at the exit in a string as long as the thrust-bore hole. Depending upon the diameter of the pipe, the hole may need to be reamed to a larger diameter before the pipe string is pulled. Pull the Pipe The pipe is then attached to the drill string and is then pulled back through the hole by the drill rig. Clean-up and Restoration, Reclamation of Surface Pits After the completion of horizontal drilling, any remaining trash and debris will be properly disposed of in compliance with country and local regulations. The site will be cleaned, restored, and reinstated. The mud pits will be leveled and remediated. Backfill within the boundary limits of a road crossing will be carried out in controlled layers of not more than 15cm thickness. Each layer will be thoroughly tamped and consolidated (using mechanical rammers) to the satisfaction of a WAPCo representative and the Road Authorities concerned. Any culverts and drainage ditches shall be restored to their original profile and condition.

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Line Markers and Signs Markers will be placed at the crossing either side of the road or railroad. The cost, specialized equipment needed, and potential for environmental harm in getting the special equipment to isolated jobsites would outweigh the temporary ecological benefits of using the thrust-bore method for small, infrequently used road crossings, which can be crossed easily by normal, open-cut trenching and quickly re-instated.
Crossing with NGC/NNPC Pipeline

The pipeline will cross the NGC/NNPC pipeline at 31507.18E and 64417.93N. The NGC/NNPC pipeline locations and depths will be determined by electronic means in advance of pipeline construction and confirmed by carefully exposing through mechanical excavation or hand digging. NGC/NNPC will be informed of the excavation of the crossing 48 hours in advance. The NGC/NNPC will be excavated and raised while the WAGP pipeline is passed underneath. A 60cm clearance will be established by means of sandbags and the depth of the WAGP pipeline will be maintained for the full angular width of the NGC/NNPC ROW.
Road Crossings in Nigeria

Table 2.8-2 shows the occurrence of 32 road crossings that have been identified from the initial survey. Eleven roads require thrust bore crossings and the remaining twenty-one minor roads or tracks will be crossed by conventional open cut method. Thrust boring of the roads along the pipeline route is expected to take seven to ten days per road on average (possibly as quick as five days, maybe as slow as 14 days). The 21 roads to have open cut crossings require specific consideration including traffic diversion, safety, fill materials, compaction, and road surface reinstatement as required. During the construction, temporary diversion roads shall be provided to maintain public traffic flow. Where applicable, the surface of these diversion roads will be dressed with subbase course material to prevent deterioration during rainy season and to reduce the maintenance costs. At locations where the pipeline is routed across or along roads or highways, adequate detour signs will be maintained and appropriate traffic control systems will be provided. 2.8.2.2.3 Temporary Marshalling Yards

Marshalling yards will be located as needed along the pipeline route to stage and dispatch labor and equipment. The locations will be based, in part, on the recommendations of the construction contractors and will be known when construction contract award has been made in March 2004. Currently the preferred option is for only one marshalling yard in Nigeria, occupying approximately 3.0ha (7.4 acres) within the footprint of the compressor station site. An additional marshalling yard may be considered at the midline valve location described in Section 2.4.2.2.2.

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Table 2.8-2 Occurrence of Road Crossings During Onshore Pipeline Installation in Nigeria
Distance Along ROW from Badagry Beach to Road Crossing (m)a 2,054 4,265 8,825 11,913 12,575 13,118 13,459 14,266 16,494 18,085 18,809 19,854 21,677 25,004 32,002 32,572 34,788 35,567 36,417 37,652 37,870 39,142 39,362 41,428 42,501 43,416 45,095 45,765 48,686 49,438 50,846 54,613
a

Road Ajido Topo Road (offset to Lagos Beach Compressor Station) Imeke/Ajido Road Badagry Expressway Agunmo/Ilogbo Eremi Road Unnamed Road Ilogbo Eremi Igbolo Road Okanran Road Unnamed Road Unnamed Road Egudu Road Ago Titun/Idoyin Road Ago Titun Road Agbara/Igbesa Road Igbesa Road Unnamed Road Unnamed Road Unnamed Road Ago Titun Road Agbara/Igbesa Road Igbesa Road Unnamed Road Unnamed Road Owode Idi Iroko Road Unnamed Road Unnamed Road Owade Ota Town Road Ilogbo Road Unnamed Road Ajibode Road Abeokuta Road Owode Ota Town Road Sango/Ijoko Road

Crossing Method Thrust Bore Thrust Bore Thrust Bore Thrust Bore Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Thrust Bore Thrust Bore Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Thrust Bore Open Cut Open Cut Open Cut Thrust Bore Open Cut Open Cut Thrust Bore Thrust Bore Thrust Bore

Survey marker, in relation to Badagry Beach.

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2.8.2.2.4

Pipeline Installation Methods (Wetlands)

Some of the pipeline route including the onshore in Nigeria will cross streams and pass through wetland areas. Installation at those locations will be in excavated trenches using a traditional push method or, as an alternative method, through directionally drilled boreholes. Both methods are described below. To overcome buoyancy forces in those areas, concrete weight coated pipe will be used. Application of the weight coating is explained in Section 2.8.7. Similarly, all shore crossings will be provided by means of directionally drilled boreholes or, if found to be technically unfeasible, in excavated trenches. Horizontal methods are preferred in these settings.
Push Method7

The push method of constructing a pipeline through a wetland has many of the same steps as constructing a pipeline on dry land. The main differences are that the heavy equipment may have to be supported by mats or on a barge, depending upon depth of water on the working side of the ROW; and that pipe floated into place over the trench before installation, rather than lifted over the trench with cranes. The main steps are described below: Surveying This is essentially the same as on dry land, except special modes of transportation, such as all-terrain vehicles or airboats may have to be used to transport the surveyors and survey equipment. Clearing This is essentially the same as on dry land except that if the wetland is forested, the tree stumps and root mass from all plants will be left intact on the non-working side of the ROW. Trenching The pipe trench will be dug using trenchers or backhoes on mats or pontoons or from barges. For wetlands with saturated soils, or very shallow standing water, this equipment may have to be supported on timber mats or on prefabricated equipment mats. If the ROW extends over wetlands or open water, construction of a barge canal may be required and excavation conducted from a barge. Long trenches may be excavated in spreads to minimize caving of the trench wall prior to pipeline lowering. Spoil from the trench will be stored within the ROW on the non-working side of the ROW. Topsoil will be stored separately in zones where there is no standing water or saturated soils. There, filter fences will be installed to control sediment runoff from spoil storage areas along

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the work corridor. Stockpiling of soil will be interrupted at intervals to prevent change of sheet flow. Figure 2.8-4 illustrates a typical trenching operation in wetlands. Figure 2.8-4 Typical Trenching Operation in Wetlands

If there is reason to believe the bottom of the pipe trench is at a lower elevation than the wetland, a permanent trench plug of impervious clay will be placed into the trench at the wetland boundaries. Trenching will be conducted in a manner that does not significantly impact hydrology, or surface water flow of streams or wetlands, and in a manner that will not result in saltwater intrusion to a stream or wetland. If the barrier island at Lagos Beach has to be trenched, then temporary trench plugs will be left in place during construction, and permanent trench plugs will be installed after pipeline installation to prevent migration of ocean water into the brackish lagoon. A spoils management program will be developed and implemented for temporary spoils storage and a monitoring program will be implemented to ensure that significant impacts do not occur, as approved by the government agencies. Pipe Welding and Inspection The welding and non-destructive inspection (X-raying) of the pipe will be performed in the uplands or on a barge. Once welded, tested, and approved, a shrink-wrap is applied to each joint and the pipe is lowered into the excavation with cranes.
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Add Floats and Push Pipe into Place A series of floats, such as drums welded onto brackets, will be attached to the pipeline. For short wetland crossings, the pipe string can then be pushed across the wetland. For longer crossings, a cable is also attached to the lead pipe and the pipe string is pushed and pulled across the wetland. Pipe Lowering Once the pipe is in place above the pipe trench, the floats are removed and the pipe is allowed to sink in place. The ends of the pipe segment are capped, pending hydrostatic testing and tie-in with the upland portions of the pipeline. Backfill To stabilize the pipeline, the trench will be backfilled as soon as possible. Excavated wetlands will be backfilled with either the same material as removed or a comparable material that is capable of supporting similar wetland vegetation. Original marsh elevations will be restored. Adequate material will be used so that following settling and compaction of the material, the proper pre-project elevation is attained. If excavated materials are insufficient to accomplish this, material with similar grain size will be purchased locally and utilized in situ to restore the trench to the required elevation. After backfilling, erosion protection measures will be implemented where needed to prevent fish and wildlife habitat degradation and loss. The spoils management program mentioned in the trenching step above will also describe how all spoils will be used, giving preference to the use of spoils for backfill and determining the source of additional backfill material in the event of a spoils shortage, and will provide for the disposition of excess spoils materials. Line Markers and Signs Markers and sign boards will be placed at the ends of the wetlands. The above steps outline the basic push method. There may be some variations made dependent on the type of wetland or water body being crossed. These variations are described in Section 2.8.2.2.5.
Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Method8

HDD is a pipeline installation method to minimize surface disturbance to ecologically sensitive areas (such as wetlands, stream crossings and beach crossings). WAPCo will use this method to install the Nigeria onshore portion of the pipeline underneath Badagry Creek and for the Nigeria shore crossing (Section 2.8.4). This method has been proven to be the best for having little or no effect upon sensitive aquatic environments. The drilled crossings

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will eliminate the wave or storm action on the pipe and reduce the time of installation compared to the conventional method of sheet pilling, excavating and backfilling. The HDD construction technique has distance and soil limitations and has its own types of negative impacts; thus, the HDD method may not be suitable for all wetlands crossings. The basic steps of an HDD pipeline installation are given below. Figure 2.8-5 illustrates a typical HDD operation. Figure 2.8-5 Typical HDD Operation

Surveying The surveying is the same as for the push method. However, if it is known early enough that this method will be used, the survey points for surface locations only apply to the entry and exit points. Survey points through the wetland would not be needed.

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Clearing No clearing is needed for this method except at the entry point and the exit point. However, extra workspace will be needed to string the welded pipe. If any excavation is done in preparation of equipment then proper erosion control measures will be followed. Setup Drilling Equipment The footprint required for the HDD entry location is typically 50m by 30m, located in the adjacent upland. An onshore pipeline access and egress ROW is also required. The drill site would require leveling, fill and compaction in order to support the drilling equipment. Typically up to thirty large truckloads of equipment and supplies are required at each HDD site. The driller will need to excavate a bore pit for the entry hole. Non-hazardous bentonite (montmorillonite clay) will be used as the drilling medium. The water source will be determined by the contractor at each site; however, for drilling occurring in the vicinity of Badagry Creek, lagoon water is more likely to be used than groundwater. The driller will also install a lined return pit to collect the slurry of muds and cuttings circulating back to the surface and prevent them from being washed into the wetland by stormwater runoff. The slurry is then pumped to a lined settling and containment pit which is typically larger and varies in size. The slurry is then passed through shaking sieves and/or hydrocyclones, which separate the drill cuttings from the slurry before being recycled in the drilling operation. Mobile diesel generators provide power to the operation. Depending upon available living accommodations, drilling crews may require temporary living and sanitary facilities. Drill Pilot Hole The drill string drills an arc under the wetland or beach crossing and exits with high accuracy near the pre-determined exit point. The distance limitation of the drill is based upon the size of the pipe and the composition of the substrate to be drilled. A maximum distance of 1,500m (4,900ft) with a corresponding depth of 30m (100ft) is typical. String the Pipe If the HDD exits on land, the pipe is pre-welded, inspected, coated and staged at the exit in a string as long as the HDD hole. Depending upon the diameter of the pipe, the hole may need to be reamed to a larger diameter before the pipe string is pulled. Pull the Pipe The pipe is then attached to the drill string and is then pulled back through the hole by the drill rig. Recover the Drilling Muds The drilling muds that were returned to the mud pit are then reclaimed into a tank and taken off-site for disposal. Typically the used muds are recycled for the next HDD, if possible. However, final disposal does not typically require much treatment, because the slurry of muds and cuttings are primarily native soils, water, and bentonite clay. Bentonite clay is a

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naturally occurring clay and is non-toxic. The disposal of the slurry will performed in accordance with a waste-management plan. Typically, the slurry is disposed of by evacuation to an approved land dump site or spread onto the land for water retention improvement. The amount of slurry requiring disposal is not expected to exceed 3,800L (1,000gal) per HDD operation. Clean-up and Restoration, Reclamation of Surface Pits After the completion of HDD any remaining trash and debris will be properly disposed of in compliance with country and local regulations. The site will be cleaned, restored, and reinstated. The mud pits will be leveled and remediated. Line Markers and Signs Markers and sign boards will be placed at the ends of the wetlands. If the need to minimize surface disturbance is strong enough and the distance exceeds the technically feasible drill distance for the diameter of pipe, the drill rig can be moved near the first exit hole and the HDD process can be repeated. For shoreline approaches and to cross the beach at the landfalls for each country, where it is technically feasible, the HDD process will be used to minimize impact to the shallow water, beach, and dunes habitats. Use of the HDD method is recommended for other isolated wetlands or fringe wetlands along lagoons or rivers only if the ecological value of the wetland is verified as a regional or international wetland (e.g., a Ramsar site). The cost, specialized equipment needed, and potential for environmental harm in getting the special equipment to isolated jobsites would outweigh the temporary ecological benefits of using the HDD method at small, isolated wetlands. 2.8.2.2.5 Crossing Wetlands and Water Bodies

The following table (Table 2.8-3) contains a preliminary listing of the water bodies that will be encountered along the pipeline ROW during onshore installation in Nigeria between the Tee and the compressor station. These were identified and mapped by the onshore engineering survey team. The categories are groupings of crossings that will be traversed using the same method.
Perennial Swamp

Trenching in these areas can be performed by backhoes, thus barge-mounted equipment is not expected to be required.
Thick Deep Swampy Forest

The two crossings in this kind of environment will require barge-mounted equipment for trenching.

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Table 2.8-3 Occurrence of River, Stream and Wetland Crossings in Nigeria


C/L Station Begina 2,298 3,571 4,669 5,362 8,918 9,593 10,393 14,648 17,242 22,063 27,583 28,664 31,498 33,035 35,000 38,419 40,910 41,755 43,818 44,223 46,879 47,712 49,180 49,204 50,014 50,231 51,582 51,909
a

C/L Station End 2,759 3,955 4,886 8,093 9,318 9797 10,606 14,928 17,827 22,388 27,708 29,546 31,598 34,354 35,100 35,827 41,180 42,385 44,040 45,095 47,041 48,402 49,371 49,221 50,392 50,239 51,974 51,924

Length (m) 461 424 217 2,731 400 204 213 280 585 325 125 882 100 1,319 100 108 270 630 222 872 162 690 191 17 378 8 392 15

Area (m2) 11,525 9,600 5,425 68,275 10,000 5,100 5,325 7,000 14,625 8,125 3,125 22,050 25,000 32,975 25,000 2700 6,750 15,750 5,550 21,800 4,050 17,250 4,775 425 9,450 200 9,800 375

Description Galloping Swamp 1 (with thick bush and raffia palm) Galloping Swamp 2 (with thick bush and raffia palm) Swamp 1 (with thick bush and raffia palm) Galloping Swamp 3 Galloping Swamp 4 Deep Swamp 1 Deep Swamp 2 Galloping Swamp 5 Deep Galloping Swamp 1 Thick Swampy Forest with raffia Galloping Swamp 6 Thick Deep Swampy Forest 1 (estimated depth 4m) Seasonally Flooded Area Thick Deep Swampy Forest 2 (estimated depth 4m) Swampy Seasonally Flooded Area Seasonal River and Flooded Area Seasonal Swampy Flooded Area Thick Swampy Forest 2 with raffia Seasonal Flooded Area 2 Seasonal Swampy Flooded Area 2 Swamp 1 Swamp 2 (with raffia palm) Galloping Swamp 7 Unnamed Stream (within Galloping Swamp 7 above) Thick Forest Swampy Area 3 Unnamed Stream (within Thick Forest Swamp Area 3 above) Swampy Area 1 Unnamed Stream (within Swampy Area 1 above)

Category Perennial Swamp (PS) PS PS PS PS PS PS PS PS PS PS Thick Deep Swampy Forest Seasonally Flooded Area (SFA) Thick Deep Swampy Forest SFA SFA SFA PS SFA SFA PS PS PS Stream PS Stream PS Stream

Survey marker, in relation to Badagry Beach.

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Trenching work will be conducted in two steps: the first step will be dredging to allow movement of a floating barge; the second step will be trenching from the barge. In this second step, the trench will be dredged by means of a 25 tonne (tn) to 30tn swamp excavator fitted with a clamshell bucket mounted on the barge. Pipe lowering will be conducted as quickly as possible due to the risk of the trench collapsing. Extreme care will be taken during backfilling to ensure that the dredge bucket or barge do not hit the pipeline.
Seasonally Flooded Areas

Pipeline construction activities in seasonally flooded areas will be scheduled and conducted during the dry season so as to minimize impacts.
Rivers and Streams

Rivers and streams will be crossed using the same method that will be used for crossing the wetlands containing them.
Lagoons

The other significant water body to be crossed is the lagoon south of the compressor station in Nigeria. The lagoon is approximately 800m to 1km (0.5 miles to 0.6 miles) wide. HDD of the Nigerian lagoon from the north shore to the barrier island would be expected to take approximately 15 days. Options for crossing the Nigerian lagoon are combined with those for the Nigerian shore crossing and so are discussed in Section 2.8.4. If HDD proves unfeasible then push-method trenching will be used to cross these two water bodies. The push-method trenching and HDD operations would have similar durations. 2.8.2.2.6 Re-Instatement9

Reinstatement will be undertaken to return the physical environment to a state similar to that in which it was found in order to prevent erosion, encroachment by undesirable vegetation and damage to the pipeline from root systems of unplanned, colonizing plants or trees. Potential land uses of the pipeline ROW area, such as farming or public space, will be considered during reinstatement planning, as these may affect the level or type of appropriate reinstatement. All construction related materials (e.g., timber riprap, prefabricated equipment mats, geotextile fabric) will be removed upon completion of construction. In upland areas, the ROW will be restored by replacing stockpiled topsoil and excavated sediment. This material will be compacted to limit erosion. Excess soil will be re-graded to conform to the surrounding terrain and to limit erosion by wind and running water. The gradient of slopes should not exceed 2:1.

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The graded surface will be planted with native grasses only and routinely mowed or cut to minimize tendency for natural reforestation throughout the life of the project. The site to be reinstated will be scarified (ripped and disked to a depth of 6in) and immediately broadcast seeded. Where the pipeline trench may drain a wetland, trench breakers will be installed and/or the trench bottom sealed as necessary to maintain the original wetland hydrology. A permanent slope breaker will be installed at each wetland crossed along with a trench breaker at the base of the slopes near the boundary between the wetland and the adjacent upland areas. Fertilizer, lime, or mulch will not be used in the ROW within a wetland, nor immediately upslope from a wetland. Species suitable for seeding wherever brackish water is present will be used wherever that is required. For all forested wetlands (mangrove swamp) affected native trees will be planted to ultimately restore the temporary construction ROW and the non-maintained portion of the permanent ROW to its pre-construction state. Native shrubs and herbaceous species will also be planted to re-vegetate a 9m (30ft) wide portion of the permanent ROW, which for maintenance purposes will not be allowed to revert to forested wetlands (mangrove) for the life of the project. Revegetation will not occur on portions of land required for maintenance roads or fire-breaks. 2.8.2.3 Onshore Pipeline Construction Material Management Summary The precise quantities and types of raw materials will not be known for certain until the construction contract has been awarded and construction planning and procurement is undertaken. However, Table 2.8-4 provides a summary of estimated raw materials: Table 2.8-4 Raw Materials Required for Installation of Onshore Pipeline (not including shore crossings)
Type 12m 30in Line Pipe Sections (Nigeria) Food and Bottled Water Construction Water (possibly purchased from local wells) Diesel Fuel for Generators and Construction Equipment Solvents, Lubricating Oils, Greases, etc. Paint, Coatings, Welding Materials, Piping Materials, Electrical Materials Pesticides (e.g., diazinon) Drilling Muds (Nigeria) Blockwall Quantity 4,642 joints Daily supplies for 300 to 450 workers 9,000L/day (3,300gal/day) 30,000L/day (7,900gal/day) Incidental volumes Quantities sufficient for approximately 6,200*12m lengths of pipe Small volumes 2,000m3 Sufficient for a block wall 80m in length and 2.4m tall at isolation valve.

Details of types and estimated quantities of wastes and waste water generated will be presented in Appendix 2-B.

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Wastes will be treated and disposed of according an approved waste management plan. They are expected to consist principally of cleared vegetation from the ROW (i.e., the vegetation cover of an area of 140ha in Nigeria and debris consisting of one or two small buildings, approximately 1 tonne of solid non-hazardous waste. Vegetation wastes will first be made available to the local population as a fuel source and, secondarily, disposed of by incineration (burnt on-site).

2.8.3 Lagos Beach Compressor Station and Primary Control System


2.8.3.1 Mobilization Including Transport of Heavy Equipment to Site All deliveries of major equipment (e.g., compressors, tanks) will originate in the Port of Lagos and be transported to the compressor station site via one of two options (see also Table 2.13-1 where all project options are summarized): 1. Using existing roads from the Port of Lagos to Badagry, with delivery along the Badagry Creek road, west of Ajido. This option may necessitate road widening and upgrades to the road network from Badagry to Ajido to accommodate heavier and larger truckloads than the current infrastructure is capable of bearing; or 2. Transport through Lagos Lagoon and Badagry Creek to a newly built unloading facility or dock linked by an access road to the compressor station site (Figure 2.8-6). If the latter option is chosen, the lagoon is likely to have to be deepened in some areas to permit vessels to navigate those areas. Similarly, a temporary unloading facility, possibly a dock, will be required to offload equipment at the site and a road from the dock to the site installed. The temporary unloading facility will be located so as to minimize the length of canal to be dredged through Badagry Creek and adjacent wetlands to the facility and also to minimize the length of access road to be constructed from the facility to the compressor station site or existing road, especially the length through the wetlands adjacent to the creek. A dock, if built, would be 50m long (parallel to lagoon shore) 15m wide (5m of which will jut into the creek) and 3m high (1m above water line, 2m from lagoon bed) (Figure 2.8-7). A crane would be installed on the dock for unloading. The shore of the creek is only 2m deep, making necessary to dredge a channel from the dock to a point 316m from the shore where the water is 3m deep and thus navigable. Dredging will be by clam bucket. If a chemical analysis of the sediment shows it to be suitable, then the dredged sediment may be used as backfill for the access road. The access road is expected to be 10m wide, 1m deep and is not expected to exceed 200m in length. It will therefore require approx 6,000m3 of backfill material. A dock, if built, would be constructed from sheet piling and require 2,750m3 of backfill material.

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pigure2PFVETX2epproximte2votion2of2emporry2nloding2pility2nd2eess2od2eltive2to2gompressor2ttion

Raphia Palm

Bare Land/ Cleared Area Settlement Road

Secondary Forest

Proposed Road 10 m wide


Raphia domin. f/water forest

Proposed Dock 50m x 15m

+/- 316 m from dock based on bathymetry at Pipeline Crossing


Swamp

Approximate Location of 3m depth

River Bush Fallow

Legend
roposed2od2to2hok y2vine roposed2hok vnduse

Marsh

Coconuts Domin. Barrier Island

weters H IPS PSH SHH USH IDHHH

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Figure 2.8-7 Typical Temporary Dock Construction

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The dock and access road are temporary facilities but may be retained rather than dismantled if the local community wishes to make use of them after construction ends. As an alternative to a dock with a crane, WAPCo could use a barge-mounted crane with spuds to transfer equipment and materials from a barge to the newly constructed road. This would mean less dredging, as a barge of this kind would have a shallower draft, and would imply a smaller dock since the dock would not have to support a crane. 2.8.3.2 Labor An estimated 300 to 450 craft workers will be required to construct the compressor station over a yet to be determined period. It is likely that many of the skilled craft workers will not be available locally, necessitating relocating a labor force of 150 workers to the construction site plus security resources of up to 50 people. Camp facilities will either be established using existing, local accommodations or the creation of a camp within the footprint of a temporary marshalling yard adjacent to the compressor station site. A temporary camp facility would contain mobile living quarters, portable power generators and sanitary facilities, is expected to have a 200m by 200m footprint, and would be operated as a closed facilitiy with workers being shuttled daily to the site. 2.8.3.3 Construction Methods/Equipment Due to the poor quality of the soil at the compressor site location, approximately 25,000m3 of soil will be excavated and then used as compacted fill. Locally sourced aggregate or, possibly, excess concrete from concrete coating operations in Nigeria will need to be used as additional backfill material (Table 2.13-1). Excavation will be focused on areas that will receive equipment foundations. 2.8.3.4 Compressor Station Construction Activities In addition to the mobilization traffic described above, between 50 and 100 truck movements will be required to bring to the site the materials and equipment for construction and for operation of the compressor station and control center. The main plant equipment to be installed is listed in Section 2.4.3.2. Construction equipment and facilities include: Earth moving equipment (cranes, etc.); Temporary office; Temporary sanitation facilities; A 2500kW diesel-fueled generator; Temporary 38,000L to 57,000L (10,000gal to 15,000gal) diesel storage tanks; and 24-hour security. A staging area equal to 100 percent of the layout area (i.e., 8.5ha/21 acres) will be required to be cleared. This area will be incremental to the 8.5ha footprint and will be restored after construction activities have been completed. Construction activities will start with excavation, clearing, and backfill of the footprint. It is expected that cleared vegetation from grading will be used by locals as firewood. Water will
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be obtained from two deep boreholes extending to a depth of 100m below the site, thus avoiding shallow aquifers used by local inhabitants. Foundations will either be pre-cast and delivered to the construction site, or poured in place using concrete from a temporary concrete batching plant erected for that purpose (Section 2.8.3.5) or from off-site batch plants (Section 4.6.3.3). The amount of concrete required for the foundations is 52,000m3. Plant equipment will be installed and a security fence erected allowing for a 25m wide buffer zone around the facilities. It is expected that construction of the compressor station will take 12 to 15 months and that the workforce will be between 300 and 450, who will be housed in the construction camp described in Section 2.8.3.2. 2.8.3.5 Temporary Concrete Batching Plant Current estimates indicate that more than 52,000m3 of concrete will be required to construct the compressor station. In order to assure supply, a temporary batching plant may be erected to supply concrete needs. The plant would be located within the temporary staging and laydown area described in Section 2.8.3.4 adjacent to the current footprint of the compressor station and would be removed once its operations were complete. The plant would occupy approximately 0.4ha (1 acre) within the site and be used to store raw materials and support concrete batching operations. Operations would last for two to three months. The quantities of raw materials required are 17,000tn cement, 31,000tn sand, 62,000tn aggregate, and 9,200m3 water. 2.8.3.6 Compressor Station Construction Material Management Summary The precise quantities and types of raw materials will not be known for certain until the construction contract has been awarded and work is undertaken. However, Table 2.8-5 provides a summary of estimated raw materials:

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Table 2.8-5 Raw Materials Required for Construction of Lagos Beach Facilities
Type Food and bottled water Sanitary water (3gal/person/day) Construction water (from borehole) Diesel fuel for generators and construction equipment Solvents, lubricating oils, greases, etc. Paint, coatings, welding materials, piping materials, electrical materials Pesticides and rodenticides First-fill volumes for equipment Cement Water for concrete operations Sand Blockwall Framing lumber, asphalt, rebar, structural steel Quantity Daily supplies for 300 to 450 workers 3,400-5,100 liters/day (900-1,350gal/day) 3,800 liters/day (1,000gal/day) 230 to 450 liters/day (60 to 120gal/day) Small volumes Small quantities sufficient for permanent equipment (Section 2.4.3.2) Small volumes 19,000L (5,000gal) diesel, 3,800L (1,000gal) lube oil 17,000 tonnes 9,200m3 31,000 tonnes 1,250m Sufficient for piling and foundations for a footprint of 8.5ha (21 acres), buildings and storage tanks

Details of types and estimated quantities of wastes and waste water generated will be presented in Appendix 2-B.

2.8.4 Shore Crossings


2.8.4.1 Construction Activities Shore crossings may be performed either by HDD or, if that proves unfeasible, by open cut trenching. WAPCo prefers HDD to avoid impacting Badagry Creek. Open cut trenching is described in Section 2.5.4.2.2 of the Regional Final Draft EIA. Shore crossing by HDD is described below. With HDD, a temporary work staging and construction area (approximately 50m by 30m) will be established for approximately four to seven weeks. One or two drilling units will be brought in by truck as discrete, land-transportable skids, requiring ten truck movements. Operations will be performed on 24-hour basis. Once the shore crossing is completed and the equipment has been removed, the area will be remediated. In Nigeria, the base case consists of performing HDD for the shore crossing from the barrier island out to sea, but the possibility exists for by-passing the barrier island by drilling from the north side of Badagry Creek directly out to sea. Figure 2.8-8 illustrates a shore crossing by HDD.

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2.8.4.2 Materials Management Summaries Table 2.8-6 Raw Materials Required for Installation of Shore Crossings by HDD
Type Food and bottled water Diesel fuel for generators and construction equipment Solvents, lubricating oils, greases, etc. Welding materials, piping materials, electrical materials Drilling muds for the crossing from barrier island (estimated length 1,200m) Construction water (possibly purchased from local wells) Drilling mud required for HDD from north bank of Nigerian lagoon (approx 1800m) Construction water (possibly purchased from local wells) Quantity Daily supplies for 10 workers 190L/day (50gal/day) Incidental volumes Quantities sufficient for approximately 100*12m lengths of pipe 1,700m3 1,700m3 2,500m3 2,500m3

Details of types and estimated quantities of wastes and waste water will be presented in Appendix 2-B. Cuttings are expected to be approximately 5,400m3 and will be managed via the waste management plan. (It is expected that solids will be buried but that liquids will have to be drawn off and disposed of separately.)

2.8.5 Offshore Main Trunk


2.8.5.1 Mobilization The offshore pipeline will be installed from a lay barge vessel possessing an anchoring or dynamic positioning system (DPS). A pipe barge, supply vessel, and anchor handling vessel will support the anchoring lay barge; all vessels will mobilize from the selected contractors nearest port of availability. The vessels will arrive with all the equipment they need. It is expected that smaller support vessels such as the survey vessel, dive support vessel, and supply boats would mobilize from Tema, Warri, or Port Harcourt. For the laying of the 20in trunk, the fleet will consist of: Eight to ten cargo barges plus a tug (five crew members each); One or two lay barges (200 to 400 crew members each); Two or three anchor handling tugs (five crew members each); A supply boat (five crew members); A dive support vessel (25 crew members); and A survey vessel (25 crew members). The lay barges are not expected to require any port visits during the duration of the WAGP work. (Lay vessels do not come into port unless required by mechanical repairs, vessel
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overhauls, or lack of work.) Due to the length of time that the lay barge will be in operation, there will be a need for offshore bunkering (refueling). The bunkering procedures will be consistent with standard international practice. The EPC contractor will have a spill prevention and response plan that will meet or exceed industry code requirements. The pipeline equipment to be installed consists of weight coated pipeline lengths and lateral tie-ins. Installation equipment includes lifting gear, welding equipment, and generators. Typical fuel consumption rates are 7,500L/day to 9,500L/day (2,000gal/day to 2,500gal/day) for the range of proposed WAGP lay vessels. All needed consumables (food, fuel and water) will be provided by supporting supply vessels. Water consumption is expected to be 12L/person/day (3gal/person/day). A typical supply vessel can transfer up to 340,000L (90,000gal) of fuel. Supplies will be shipped from Tema. The offshore route has been previously surveyed to avoid obstacles during pipe-laying. However, a second survey will be performed to ensure suitable anchorages for the vessels. 2.8.5.2 Labor The crew of the fleet laying the 18in or 20in trunk is expected to number between 300 and 920 members. They will live on the vessels. Crew rotation will occur every one to three months. The crew of the fleet laying the laterals will number between 270 and 380 members. 2.8.5.3 Construction Methods/Equipment The lay barge will begin installation by tying the pipeline into each directionally drilled or excavated subsea exit point. From that location, it will navigate along the main trunk or lateral pipeline route tending up to eight anchors, two from each corner of the vessel, a distance of up to 1km (0.6 miles) from the lay barge. An anchoring vessel will lift and place anchors in accordance with an anchoring plan along which the lay barge will navigate.10 The lay barge will guide itself forward along the tended anchor lines with a global positioning satellite system. Installation will occur on a 24 hours per day, seven days per week schedule. Assembly and installation begins with the offloading of waiting pipe using self-contained overhead cranes from the pipe barge to the lay barge. Line pipe will be staged and assembled along an assembly line of welding, coating, and inspection process. Throughout the process, the pipeline is continually advanced toward the stern of the vessels as the lay barge makes way along the pipeline route. The ends of the line pipe will be aligned and joined by an automatic welder, which when advanced, a weld bead is applied at four separate welding stations. The welds will be inspected via non-destructive techniques (X-Ray or U.T.) when the weld is complete and any out-of-code defects repaired. Also much like the onshore process, each approved weld joint is protected with shrink wrap sleeve. An additional coating of poly foam injected into a

10

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bladder is placed over the shrink-wrap and will be added to the joint to prevent it from catching on conveyor apparatuses. As the pipeline is lowered into the water, over bend and under bend radii (arcs formed in the pipe as it exits the ship and before it comes to rest on the seafloor) are constantly observed and monitored by divers to ensure the pipeline is not overstressed during installation. A protective guard extends below the pipeline-laying vessel to a depth of 20ft below sea level to prevent it from becoming entangled in the nets of fishing vessels. WAGP has performed a survey of seafloor obstructions and the pipeline route is selected to avoid these features as far as possible. Occasionally, however, due to depressions in the seafloor, there may be spans where the pipeline will be unsupported by the seabed. In these instances, sandbags or concrete mats will be manually placed in the depression before being crossed by the pipeline to provide support of the span. Where the pipeline route crosses undersea cables, concrete mats will be used to achieve a 9in (23cm) separation. If the directionally drilled subsea exit point occurs in water depths less than 8m (26ft), jet trenching will be used to ensure that the pipeline is installed below the seabed floor. The lay barge vessel will deploy water-jetting equipment to cut a trench on the seabed by displacing sediment after the pipeline has been laid on the seabed. Water jets break up, remove or liquefy the soil from under the pipeline allowing it to settle at an elevation below the seabed. The pipeline would eventually be covered due to the natural movements of the sediments on the seabed floor. The jet machine ejects plumes of fluidized soil out of the eductors on the sides of the machine to the bottom of the water column. Once a water depth of 8m is reached, the passive (non-buried) pipe laying operations as described above in Section 2.5.4.1.1 will resume. 2.8.5.4 Duration Installation is expected to proceed at a rate of 2km to 3km (1.24 miles to 1.86 miles) per day. Installation is expected to take 6 to 8 months for the main trunk line and will be carried out so as to avoid the main wet season. As the shore crossing is due to be undertaken by HDD, the crew will stay in place for an extra two weeks. Interruptions due to adverse meteorological conditions at sea are not expected to seriously impact the overall schedule. In the event of storms, the vessels would move into protected waters and return when the seas were safe to return to work. 2.8.5.5 Demobilization Once pipeline laying is complete, the vessels depart taking their equipment with them. 2.8.5.6 Offshore Main Trunk Line Construction Material Management Summary The precise quantities and types of raw materials will not be known for certain until the construction contract has been awarded and construction planning and procurement is undertaken. However, Table 2.8-7 provides a summary of estimated raw materials for the offshore pipeline.
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Table 2.8-7 Raw Materials Required for Installation of Offshore Pipeline


Type Line pipe Lateral tie-ins with associated valves Food and bottled water Diesel fuel for ships, generators and construction equipment Solvents, lubricating oils, greases, etc. Welding materials, piping materials, electrical materials Quantity Approximately 600km Three Daily supplies for between 300 and 920 workers (mainline crew) and 270 and 380 workers (lateral crew) 7,600L/day to 9,500L/day (2,000gal/day to 2,500gal/day) per ship Incidental volumes Quantities sufficient for approximately 600km of pipe

All wastes will be stored onboard and disposed of in accordance with Marine Pollution Convention (MARPOL) 73/78.

2.8.6 R&M Stations


The construction of R&M stations is described in Section 2.8.6 of the Benin, Ghana and Togo Final Draft EIAs.

2.8.7 Weight Coating Plant


A new concrete weight-coating plant will be built on a 17ha (42 acre) industrial site near the port of Tema, Ghana (on land owned by the Free Zone Board) for the coating of approximately 600km of 20in offshore pipeline. Existing facilities, in Choba, Nigeria, will provide for the coating of 13km of 30-inch onshore pipeline to be installed in onshore wetland areas in Nigeria (other alternatives considered are discussed in Section 4.6.3.1). 2.8.7.1 Facility Location and Size The weight coating facility to be established in Ghana is described in Section 2.8.7.1 of the Regional Final Draft EIA Rev 1. 2.8.7.2 Process Description The weight coating process to be undertaken at an existing plant in Choba, Nigeria consists of the following steps: Receive FBE coated pipe; Move pipe from staging area to process jig; Apply wire mesh reinforcing screen; Combine cement, weighting material (iron ore, river sand or granite), aggregate/sand and water in hopper;

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Extrude mixture to outside of pipe over wire mesh reinforcement; Approximately 5cm to 8.9cm (2in to 3in) are applied; and Wrap pipe with polyethylene and then set aside to cure. The first activity will involve the unloading of FBE coated pipe at the port. Either local cranes or those brought in specifically for that purpose would unload the pipe from large cargo vessels onto waiting trucks. Once loaded on trucks, the pipe will be transported to the plant site. There the FBE-coated pipe is offloaded and staged in pipe racks. Handling at the site is done with cranes and forklifts. When ready, the pipe is placed in a jig and wire mesh attached to the outside to act as a reinforcement agent and assist in maintenance of the cement bond. The weight coat itself is somewhat brittle and may break away from the pipe especially during handling. Ingredients for the weight coating material are managed on site in bulk and combined to specification in a hopper. Iron ore is the preferred aggregate weighting material as it has a higher density than river sand or granite. The weighting material is then pumped to an extruder where the mixture is applied to the rotating pipe. To assist in the curing process and to protect the newly applied un-cured or green concrete coating, the entire pipe is wrapped with polyethylene, ready to be removed from the concrete coating facility and shipped to the port for loadout. The finished pipe is placed on racks to cure for approximately seven days. When cured, the pipe is transferred back to the port where it is loaded onto a material barge and towed to the lay barge. The facility is expected to operate at a similar rate to the new weight coating facility in Tema with a cycle time of about seven days. 2.8.7.3 Facility Material Management Summary The following estimated raw materials (Tables 2.8-8) will be required for the pipeline assembly activities, based on the coating requirements of the 30in pipeline: Table 2.8-8 Raw Materials Required for Line Pipe Coating (30in pipe)
Raw Material Line Pipe Water Cement Aggregate Wire Mesh Adhesives Plastic Wrap Anodes Diesel Fuel Quantity 13km 300 tonnes 1,100 tonnes 1,100 tonnes 37,000m2 (400,00ft2) 1,700L (450gal) 37,000m2 (400,00ft2) 50 2.2m3 Source Imported Local Local Local Imported Imported Local/Imported Imported Local

The following estimated inert waste products (Table 2.8-9) are expected (no non-inert waste produced). Waste disposal will be undertaken according to the facilitys existing waste management procedures.

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Table 2.8-9 Wastes Generated


Waste Adhesive Concrete Plastic Wrap Wire Mesh Sewage Produced Water Quantity 40kg 1,000kg 100kg 200kg 32,000L 600L

Emissions common to diesel engines and generators will be produced in relatively small quantities.

2.9

Commissioning

Commissioning will be undertaken in all WAGP pipeline segments (offshore mainline, onshore Nigeria pipeline, offshore laterals, onshore Benin, Ghana and Togo segments) and will consist of the following steps: Flooding, cleaning, gauging, and reflooding;11 Hydrostatic testing;12 Dewatering and drying;13 and Air expulsion and nitrogen packing.14 It is envisaged that the main pipeline will be commissioned first and then the laterals.

2.9.1 Flooding, Cleaning, Gauging, and Reflooding


Upon completion of a pipeline segment and prior to connection with station piping, temporary pigging and testing equipment will be installed at the pipeline ends. For offshore segments, this will be done in such a way as to avoid inhibiting the normal passage of local boat traffic. A single train of pigs will be used to flood, clean and gauge the segment. The segment will be filled with water that has been filtered to remove 99 percent of particles of diameter greater than or equal to 92 microns but not chemically treated. The segment will then be flushed by means of two bi-directional plain or poly pigs. The source of the water will vary according to the segment: water from Badagry Creek will be used for the 56km onshore segment and for filling the offshore main trunk line; water from the Atlantic Ocean will be used for filling the laterals. (In theory, ocean water could be used for the offshore trunk and 56km onshore segments. However, that would require a 2km temporary pipe to carry water from the ocean to the ends of those two segments at Badagry Beach and so is not envisioned
11 12

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by FEED). Water used to flood the 56km onshore segment will be discharged back into Badagry Creek. Water used to flood the offshore trunk will be discharged into the Atlantic Ocean at Takoradi beach, Ghana. Flood water will be filtered but not chemically treated prior to discharge. The volumes of water used to flood these two segments of the pipeline are given in Table 2.9-1. Table 2.9-1 Location and Volume of Water Displacement/Discharge
Segment Onshore 30in Offshore Mainline Location Badagry Creek Takoradi Beach Volume 23,640m3 (148,550 API Barrels (bbl)) 106,360m3(668,450bbl) Discharge rate 0.376m3/sec 2.37bbl/sec 0.846m3/sec 5.33bbl/sec

Cleaning will be done by two wire-brush pigs next in the train. Finally, a gauging pig will then check the segment for dents, buckles, ovality, or other obstructions. The plate on the gauging pig will be sized to 95 percent of the segments internal diameter and be chamfered at the leading edge. After gauging, the segment will be flooded with water into which a biocide chemical has been injected downstream of the filters. This is in order to mitigate the effects of corrosive anaerobic bacteria entrained within the lagoon water or seawater used for testing activities. The active ingredient of the biocide will be tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulphate (THPS), which has been chosen as it is effective, is not expected to bioaccumulate and has superior biodegradability to other biocide active ingredients. For the lagoon water used for the 56km onshore and offshore main trunk segments, the effective concentration there will be 190ppm. For the ocean water used for the laterals, the effective concentration will be 125ppm. Hydrotest water from both segments will be discharged into the Atlantic Ocean at Takoradi Beach, Ghana (Section 2.9.3), regardless of water source, because of the biocide.

2.9.2 Hydrostatic Testing


Hydrostatic pressure testing consists of verifying the integrity of the pipeline through subjecting it to increasing internal pressure from water introduced during flooding for that purpose. The testing procedure is described in detail in the WAGP technical specification WAGP-P-Y-SA-0087-0 (Appendix 8B-4.4), including the precautionary measures required to avoid damaging the pipeline, e.g., supporting piping and anchoring temporary flexible hosing. Any leaks and bleeds of hydrotest water will be accounted for. At the end of successful hydrotesting, the pipeline will be depressurized to 1 barg or less.

2.9.3 Dewatering and Drying


After hydrotesting is complete, temporary pigging and testing equipment will be removed and blind flanges installed at ends until the pipeline tie-ins are ready to be installed. It could take weeks or months until tie-in occurs. After tie-ins are installed, the pipeline will be ready
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for dewatering. This will be achieved by means of mechanical techniques using conventional bi-directional pigs with hi-seal facilities in one pigging cycle. Hydrotest water will be treated with a biocide whose active ingredient will be tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulphate (THPS), which has been chosen as it is effective, is not expected to bioaccummulate, and has superior biodegradability to other biocide active ingredients. Water from Badagry Creek will be used for the 56km onshore segment rather than ocean water; the effective concentration (based upon the physical characteristics of the make-up water) will be 190 parts per million (ppm). WAPCo will discharge hydrotest water, at a minimum, in compliance with the effluent discharge requirements of each country, including the acquisition of discharge permits. To assure this, the THPS-containing hydrotest water will be appropriately treated with hydrogen peroxide in an onshore train of neutralization tanks. Permissible discharge concentrations will be based on the results of a suitable ecotox testing program (using local species). Nigerian Environmental Guidelines and Standards (EGAS) protocols, and the West African industry practice. Appendix 8B-2.5.2 presents the WAGP Pipeline Hydrotesting Discharge Ecotoxicity Leasing Plan. Appropriate waste water discharge controls, which will be developed based on the results of the ecotoxicity and other testing, will be established as part of specific applications for discharge permits appropriate within each country, likely in the 6 month to 12 month timeframe following the Final Investment Decision. A total of approximately 130,000m3 (817,000bbl) of treated water will require discharge from the onshore 30in and offshore mainline. The pig speed will be 5ft/sec and the volumetric rate of discharge will vary according to the diameter of the pipe. Proposed water discharge points for this dewatering operation are shown in Table 2.9-2. These points will be 10m to 15m (33ft to 50ft) offshore below sea level. Table 2.9-2 Location and Volume of Hydrotest Water Discharge
Segment Onshore and Offshore Mainline Location Takoradi Beach Volume 130,000m3 (817,000bbl) Discharge Rate 0.376m3/sec 2.37bbl/sec

Sample points will also be established at these locations. All water shall be discharged through multi-point discharges to maximize dispersion and aeration. Outlets will be below water at all times. During dewatering, the quantity of discharge water will be metered. Dewatering will be considered complete once a target volume has been reached. Dry air purging will be performed within two weeks of hydrotesting by blowing dry, filtered, compressed air through the line to thus attain a dew point of -20C (-4F). Dryness will be verified through tests before purging is commenced.

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2.9.4 Air Expulsion and Nitrogen Packing


After drying is complete, the air inside the pipeline must be expelled before natural gas can be introduced. Nitrogen will be the inert gas used to purge the pipeline. A temporary nitrogen generation unit will be installed on the beach (for the mainline) or on an offshore support vessel (for the laterals) and connected to the pig launcher and a high seal type pig will be launched to displace air. Such a nitrogen generation unit would typically consist of a 8ft by 12ft nitrogen generator, a 4ft by 6ft electrical generator, and three 7ft by 19ft air compressors, each with a 450hp diesel engine and a spark arrestor. The typical fuel requirement for each engine is 2,000L/day (530gal/day). Once the pig is received at the receiver, the nitrogen will continue to purge the pipeline until the gaseous mixture sampled at the receiving end meets the company specified limit of 99 percent nitrogen. The pipeline will then be packed with nitrogen up to a pressure of 0.33 barg (5 pounds per square inch guage (psig)) in the case of the laterals and 0.5 barg (7.2psig) in the case of the mainline. All temporary equipment will be disconnected and final connections made to station piping. The contractor will then hand over the commissioning process to WAGP.

2.9.5 Hiring and Training


Hiring of commissioning contractors will commence during the latter stages of construction. The extent of personnel and other needs for commissioning will be determined during execution phase of the project. WAPCo employees will receive comprehensive training in Health, Environment, Safety (HES), specific job skills (technical and non-technical), Plant Operations, etc. This will be an ongoing process and will commence prior to commissioning and start-up. WAPCo employees will work closely with the Engineering, Procurement, Construction (EPC) contractor, suppliers, and vendors during construction and commissioning.

2.9.6 Ongoing Maintenance and Testing


Ongoing maintenance will be undertaken throughout this phase: compressors and other equipment will be lubricated, calibrated and tested as well as all control and telecommunications including the VSAT systems. Commissioning ends and start-up will begin when the pipeline is ready for introduction of hydrocarbons.

2.9.7 Regulatory Review and Participation


EIA and Permitting Agency reviews and participation is expected to continue during the construction stage including: Project workshops; Training; Joint safety inspections; Pre start-up safety audit; and Review of specific operating permit requirements.

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2.10 Start-up
Start-up will be undertaken by WAPCo. The main step will consist of filling the pipeline with natural gas, but ongoing testing and maintenance (e.g., of compressors and control equipment) will continue from the commissioning phase.

2.10.1 Line Fill with Gas


A hi-seal pig will be inserted into the launcher and commence displacing the purge nitrogen with high-pressure natural gas. The nitrogen will be vented to a safe location. Once the pig arrives, the venting operation will cease and the pipeline will be filled up to a specified pressure with natural gas.

2.10.2 Ongoing Maintenance and Testing


As with commissioning, hiring and training of start-up personnel will commence during the latter stages of construction and be completed in time to support the schedule. The extent of personnel and training needs will be determined.

2.10.3 Regulatory Review and Participation


As with commissioning, EIA and Permitting Agency reviews and participation is expected to continue during this stage including: Project workshops; Training; Joint safety inspections; Pre start-up safety audit; and Review of specific operating permit requirements.

2.11 Pipeline Operations


The main pipeline operation, the transport of gas from Nigeria to Benin, Togo, and Ghana is described in the early sections of this chapter, Section 2.1 through 2.4, particularly through the description of WAPCo facilities, Sections 2.4.1 through 2.4.5. Activities and facilities associated with health and safety of both the workers and nearby communities are listed below: Ancillary equipment, particularly monitoring and control systems are discussed in Section 2.6.1; Emergency shut down systems are described in Section 2.6.3; Fire prevention, detection, and suppression systems are described in Section 2.6.2; Gas detection systems are described in Section 2.6.2;

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Waste management (sanitary, non-hazardous and hazardous) is described in Section 2.5; Hazardous materials management (see below); Maintenance of ROWs is described in Section 2.4.2.3. Access roads will be graded as required; Corrosion control systems: cathodic protection is described in Section 2.4.2.2.3 and pigging operations (see below); and Training of employees (see below). Regarding pigging operations, it is currently envisaged that an intelligent pig run will be performed at least once during the first five years of operation to set a baseline and verify that the corrosion mitigation program is working effectively. Subsequent intelligent pigging will be performed on the basis of the risk assessments of the Pipeline Integrity Management Plan than according to a pre-arranged time frame (Sections 2.4.3.2.5 and 2.4.4.2.2). The transportation, storage, and use of hazardous materials will be in accordance with WAPCo HES procedures and local HES regulations. Their treatment and final disposal will be according to WAPCos Waste Management Plan, which will conform to local HES regulations. Appendix 2-D lists the kind of hazardous materials that will be used, mostly in small quantities (i.e., not more than a few liters or kilograms and mostly much less). WAPCo employees will work closely with mentors to acquire the necessary skills required to competently operate and maintain WAPCo facilities and meet all WAPCo business requirements. Comprehensive training and development plans will be put in place as WAPCo evolves.

2.12 Decommissioning and Abandonment


As described in the Concession Agreement, WAPCo intends to decommission and abandon the pipeline consistent with local regulations and accepted industry practices prevailing at the time of abandonment. Detailed plans for facility decommissioning, abandonment, and facility/ROW reinstatement will be developed towards the end of the lifetime of the project. Measures for each element of WAGP are outlined below.

2.12.1 Alagbado Tee


WAPCo facilities may be taken over by NNPC. If not, they will be dismantled and removed for appropriate disposal according to a management plan to be developed and approved nearer the time.

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2.12.2 Onshore Pipeline


The 56km stretch in Nigeria and the onshore laterals in the other countries will be cut at their respective beaches, flushed, capped, and abandoned in place. If required by the regulations in force at the end of the project lifetime or by the local communities or stakeholders, then the pipeline will be removed and disposed of according to a management plan to be developed and approved nearer the time. However, it may be presumed that the impacts of disinterring an empty gas pipeline would be higher than leaving it in place.

2.12.3 Compressor Station


Detailed plans for facility decommissioning, abandonment, and facility/ROW reinstatement will be developed towards the end of the lifetime of the project. Equipment will be dismantled and removed for appropriate disposal according to a management plan to be developed and approved nearer the time. If required by the regulations in force at the end of the project lifetime, then the concrete foundations will also be removed.

2.12.4 Offshore Pipeline


The offshore trunk and laterals will be cut at their respective beaches, flushed, capped and abandoned in place. A formal decommissioning plan will be developed at the appropriate point in time; it will adhere to the current environmental regulations and incorporate stakeholder concerns.

2.12.5 R&M Stations


Decommissioning of the R&M stations is described in Section 2.12.5 of the Benin, Ghana and Togo Final Draft EIAs.

2.13 Remaining Uncertainties


Table 2.13-1 summarizes the elements of the WAGP project execution that have yet to be definitively determined. These were discussed within the above text, but are reiterated here for the purpose of clarity. Decisions regarding project uncertainties at this point in time will later be confirmed at the time of the final investment decision or within 6 to 9 months from that date.

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Table 2.13-1 Remaining Uncertainties


Accommodation for construction workforce Water Supply Alternatives Sanitary Waste Water Disposal Alternatives* Alagbado Tee Not yet known how many locals will be employed and therefore how much lodging space will be needed Sinking a well to groundwater (preferred), or Bringing in by tanker truck Discharge into soil via drainage field (preferred); or Discharge into nearby receiving waters; or Hauling off-site for disposal Onshore Mainline Preferred option is one marshalling yard of 3.0ha (7.4 acres) within the footprint of the compressor station construction site An additional marshalling yard may be considered at the midline compressor valve location Not yet known how many locals will be employed. Off-site accommodation (homes or hotels) preferred but may be a need for a camp. The camp would be adjacent to the ROW and have a personnel requirement of up to 50 people Water will be hauled by truck, but the source is to be determined. Lagos Beach Compressor Station Prefer to use existing roads; or Widen existing road (if necessary) from Badagry to Ajidop; or Dredge channel in Badagry Creek, dock and access road built onsite; or Barge-mounted crane with spuds and smaller onshore unloading facility. Prefer to rent houses, estate lodging, etc.; or Rent rooms in local hotels; or If needed after the above two options, build a closed camp for non-local workers Purchased from local sources, to be determined On-site temporary batch plant or off-site plants Purchased from local sources, to be determined Discharge into soil via drainage field (preferred); or Discharge into nearby receiving waters; or Hauling off-site for disposal. Shore Crossing One-stretch HDD from Compressor Station directly out to ocean Two-stretch HDD from the barrier island to the Compressor Station and from the barrier island and then to ocean

Number of Marshalling Yards/Staging Areas

Accommodation for construction workforce

Construction water supply Means of access (esp. for heavy equipment during construction)

Accommodation for construction workforce

Source of aggregate for foundation backfill Source of concrete Source of sand for concrete Sanitary Waste water Disposal Alternatives*

Nigeria

* Chlorination not appropriate with drainage field, possibly appropriate with other two options (dependent upon local regulations and requirements).

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Chapter 3 Project Alternatives


3.1 Introduction

The purpose of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) project alternatives analysis is to provide a transparent and objective basis for identifying optimal project alternatives consistent with stakeholder, sponsor and regulatory goals. The alternatives analysis is structured to accord a high priority to environmental and social concerns in the selection process, in addition to considering technical and economic criteria. By explicitly incorporating environmental and social impacts into a high-level, early-stage evaluation of the proposed project, this analysis is expected to assist in identifying the approach to meeting project objectives that offers the best combination (i.e., the minimum) of cost and negative environmental/social impacts (World Bank, 1996). The need for alternative energy supplies in Benin, Ghana, and Togo is established by the coincidence of future energy deficits forecast in these countries and the comparatively high cost of thermal electricity generation using imported liquid fuels. This need, together with the supply of natural gas, the requirement to reduce gas flaring in Nigeria, and the technical feasibility of delivering natural gas from Nigeria to Ghana, Togo, and Benin, provide a compelling rationale to proceed with the West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) project. This chapter details the methodology by which WAGP was assessed to be the optimal alternative to meet project objectives in separate analyses conducted by the World Bank (pending finalization) and this EIA. The following sections list alternative project options and comparatively evaluate a selection of them on a comprehensive array of criteria, spanning technical, economic, environmental and social impacts of the project. In the following analyses, project alternatives are identified by the World Bank and this EIA using two differing, but not mutually exclusive, approaches. The World Bank is preparing an Economic and Financial Analysis (EFA) analyzing project alternatives to the WAGP project. While this report has not yet been completed, a summary of an early draft of the report and its initial conclusions is provided in Section 3.3. The alternatives being assessed by the World Bank, listed in Section 3.2.1 and evaluated in Section 3.3, are an extensive range of options intended to examine alternatives across the whole energy sector and to focus on the options that maximize net regional benefits in a broader context of project as defined by the World Bank. On the other hand, the project-level alternatives considered in this chapter as part of the EIA for the most part reflect the business capabilities and objectives of the West African Pipeline Company (WAPCo) and its joint venture partners. The primary objective of the proposed WAGP project is to transport Nigerian-produced natural gas to commercially viable markets in Benin, Ghana, and Togo. These project-level alternatives, listed in Section 3.2.2 and

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evaluated in Section 3.4, generally cover, and in some cases are a subset of, project alternatives as identified by the World Bank. Apart from differences in the approach used to identify project alternatives, the World Bank EFA and this EIA also used different methodologies in evaluating the short-listed alternatives. These methodologies are described in sections 3.3 and 3.4 respectively. Section 3.5 describes the overall pipeline routing design options considered for the WAGP project. Section 3.6 concludes.

3.2

Project Alternatives

As described in the introduction, project alternatives are identified by the World Bank and this EIA using differing approaches. While the World Bank identifies alternatives as part of a regional energy sector optimization strategy, this EIA focuses on project-level alternatives consistent with WAPCos objectives. The EIA does not specifically address all the alternatives that will be included in the World Bank Study; however, certain alternatives were assessed that further validate the EFA screening conclusions as indicated below.

3.2.1 World Bank Regional Energy Sector Project Alternatives


The World Banks EFA is studying alternatives to (i) improve the competitiveness of the energy sectors in Benin, Ghana, and Togo, and (ii) foster regional economic and political integration that would support economic growth; in particular, the development of the West Africa electricity market. As part of that study the World Bank is examining a number of project alternatives, using the No-Project Alternative as the base case. The main alternatives, and variations therein, have been grouped as follows, with cross-references provided to options separately evaluated in the EIA. (The section where the same or similar alternative was considered in this EIA is provided after the alternative in parenthesis.) 3.2.1.1 Domestic Power Development Alternatives In this group the EFA examines power generation alternatives within Ghana, Benin and Togo, considering: Hydroelectric power Oil and gas fired generation Coal-fired generation Nuclear generation Wind power Solar photovoltaics Alternative 1 (see also Section 3.4.5 below) Alternative 1 (see also Section 3.4.2 below) Alternative 8 Alternative 8 Alternative 2b (see also Section 3.4.5 below) Alternative 2b (see also Section 3.4.5 below)

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3.2.1.2 Power Importation Alternatives In this group the EFA considers imports from: Cte dIvoire Burkina Faso Nigeria Alternative 4 Alternative 5 Alternative 6

3.2.1.3 Gas Resource and Transportation Alternatives In this group the EFA considers: The use of indigenous Ghanaian and Beninoise gas Natural gas imports from Cote d'Ivoire Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) transportation Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) transportation Alternative pipeline routes Alternative 2a Alternative 3 Alternative 7/8 (see also Section 3.4.4 below) Alternative 7/8 (see also Section 3.4.4 below) Alternative 7 (see also Section 3.6

3.2.2 EIA Project-Level Alternatives


The project alternatives considered in this EIA for the most part reflect the business capabilities and objectives of WAPCo and its joint venture partners. In addition, a limited number of competing power options and/or alternative energy resources were also considered. The primary objective of the proposed WAGP project is to transport Nigerian-produced natural gas to commercially viable markets in Benin, Ghana, and Togo, thereby: Providing a reliable source of energy for electrical power generation and industrial use in the three receiving countries; Providing a commercially viable market for Nigerian natural gas produced at oil wells, reducing the need to flare this gas; and Facilitating regional cooperation and integration of reliable energy services through a large-scale joint venture partnership among four nations in the region.

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Therefore, the project options that were considered as possible technology alternatives during the planning of the WAGP project focused on alternative ways of bringing Nigerian natural gas to market, and alternative means of providing energy resources to Benin, Ghana, and Togo. The following alternatives were considered: The No-Project Alternative; The Proposed Project Alternative: Developing a gas pipeline (8 inch (in) to 30in diameter) and piping gas from Nigeria to Benin, Togo, and Ghana (a total distance of 691 kilometers (km)); Energy Generation and Delivery Alternative: Developing gas-powered electricity generating stations in Nigeria, and transmitting the electrical power to Benin, Ghana, and Togo; LNG Fuel Export Alternative: Converting the gas to LNG and exporting it to Benin, Ghana, and Togo; and Renewable Fuels Alternative: Meeting electricity generating demands in Benin, Ghana, and Togo with renewable resources (hydropower, solar, wind, agrofuel). Each project-level alternative is evaluated in Section 3.4.

3.3

World Bank Regional Energy Sector Alternatives Analysis

The World Banks draft EFA evaluates all of the reasonable alternatives to the WAGP project. The draft EFA observes that while there are a broad range of options for delivering energy to fill the potential energy gap in the West Africa region, not all are practical or technically feasible at present. In order to focus the analysis on the most realistic options, the draft EFA employs a filter process to eliminate impractical options, comprising technical, physical, cost and implementation criteria. The draft EFA states that it seeks to meet the following two objectives: In the context of the World Bank Groups due diligence, there are two reasons for analyzing the project alternatives. Firstly, to ensure that the Project, as formulated, represents the least-cost way of bringing about the project benefits such that the expected present value of the projects net benefits must be higher than or equal to the expected present value of mutually exclusive project alternatives.1 Secondly, assuming that the Project is indeed the least-cost alternative, for the purposes of assessing the incremental net benefits of the Project, it is necessary to formulate the without project alternative the baseline against which the incremental project benefits are compared. The draft EFA considers three categories of alternatives: (i) domestic power development alternatives (ii) power importation alternatives and (iii) gas resource and transportation

World Bank Operations Policy 10.04, Economic Evaluation of Investment Operations, September, 1994.

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alternatives. Specific project options within each of these categories have been previously listed in section 3.2.1. The methodology used in the draft EFA has minor differences from that used in the analysis of WAPCo project-level alternatives later in this chapter. According to the EFA, consideration has been made to a method of differentiating energy delivery options, while: considering the value of any supply source in a diversified portfolio of energy supply sources; considering environmental/social impacts; and not conducting extensive modeling of unlikely alternatives. In the draft EFA analysis, each of the energy supply options are analysed against the following criteria: Technical Feasibility: Is it technically feasible to satisfy the development and energy policy objectives with the energy delivery option under consideration? Physical or Resource Constraints: Are there sufficient resources to be an alternative to the delivery of natural gas from Nigeria? Cost-effectiveness of Alternatives: Is the delivered cost of energy cost-effective in comparison with electricity generated from gas delivered by WAGP? Implementation Constraints: Are there significant financing, regulatory, stakeholder acceptability or securitisation barriers that would prevent implementation? Environment and Social Impacts: If the above criteria have been satisfied, what is the social and economic impact of the energy delivery methods? The draft EFA filters out projects at each stage of analysis. It does not consider the costeffectiveness of alternatives which are not technically feasible or lack physical resources. Domestic non-gas power generation and power import options have been considered for meeting the regional power shortfall determined within the mid-market case of demand forecast. (The mid-market case represents the median or 50th percentile of the modeled statistical demand distribution.) The draft EFA concludes that at an assumed load factor of 80 percent, electricity generated from WAGP gas is more cost-effective than oil-based generation or any other energy delivery option. If the capacity factor is less than approximately 65 percent (at the World Bank oil price forecast), however, then oil-based generation is more cost-effective than WAGP. A range of gas-based resource and import options were considered in relation to the oil-based scenario. The draft EFA observes that it is difficult to envisage an LNG supply scenario that would yield a full cost of supply less than the equivalent cost estimated for oil and oil-

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product consumption. Further, doubts also exist as to the supply capacity of existing regional LNG export projects. The draft EFA also observes that although the CNG option generates estimates of unit cost that are less than the equivalent cost estimated for oil and oil-product, the cost is higher than the proposed WAGP. In addition the technology is untried and this option does not have a commercial sponsor. Project-level alternatives analysis in this EIA further validates these conclusions in the context of environmental and social impacts (Section 3.4.4 below). On this basis, the draft EFA reaches the initial conclusion that pipeline delivery of natural gas is the most cost-effective means of meeting the growth in regional energy demand when the capacity factor is approximately 65 percent or greater. Substitution from oil to gas also yields environmental benefits. However, the draft EFA observes that future demand for gas-fired generation in the Ghanaian electricity market is ambiguous due to uncertainties about the future operation of the VALCO aluminum smelter. In response, the States and VALCO are finalizing with VALCO and without VALCO tariff structures, where WAGP remains the preferred alternative in either scenario. A comprehensive summary of the performance of each alternative on each criteria of interest is provided in Table 3.3-1, which is taken from a similar table in the draft EFA. More detail on the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative is available in the draft EFA.

3.4

EIA Project-Level Alternatives Analysis

This section describes the methodology by which the project-level alternatives identified in the EIA were comparatively assessed and reports the results of these evaluations. For context, most alternatives were analyzed in terms of the primary project objective, delivery of natural gas from Nigeria to markets in Benin, Ghana, and Togo (for a detailed technical project description refer to Chapter 2, Project Description). The following aggregate criteria were considered when evaluating alternatives: The potential for both beneficial and negative environmental and socioeconomic impacts; Effectiveness in meeting the primary WAGP project objectives (detailed above); Local and regional suitability, including stakeholder acceptance; Technical feasibility; and Costs (capital and operating). Some of these criteria were disaggregated to generate the following list of specific criteria: Greenhouse gas emissions reduction benefits;

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Table 3.3-1 World Bank Draft EFA Summary of Alternatives


1 Traditional sources of energy 2 Increased indigenous sources 3 4 Gas imports Power imports from Cte from Cte dIvoire dIvoire 5 Power imports from Burkina Faso 6 Power imports from Nigeria 7 Nigerian Gas Alternatives 8 Overseas fuel imports

Hydro generation Technical Feasibility Physical / Resource Availability Yes

Liquid thermal generation Yes

Indigenous Gas Yes No significant gas resources

Indigenous Renewables Yes Yes Yes Yes, in the short term, subject to transmission constraints No Yes Yes - gas; No - electricity Prior satisfaction of Nigerian electricity demand is likely to significantly delay/constrain the availability of electricity for export

LNG Yes Yes - Gas No - LNG

CNG Yes Yes - Gas No - CNG

Pipeline Routes Yes

Coal Yes

Nuclear Yes

Yes

Yes

Site-specific

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Implementation Constraints

Long lead time for largeNo significant scale hydro constraints development; relative to gaslimited private fired electricity sector appetite. LCO is more New hydro is cost-effective less costthan WAGP up effective than to approx. 65% gas-fired LF (@ WB oil generation price forecast) from WAGP but less cost (approx. 7 - 8 effective c/kWh) thereafter. No CO2, SO2 Significant and NOx additional emissions, but emissions potential relative to gas resettlement of fired generation, large numbers Gas flared: 2.7 of people & m tonnes CO2e per annum. Fuel negative use: additional impact on 0.8 m tonnes of ecological CO2 e per resources. annum.

N/A

No significant implementation constraints

N/A

No significant implementation constraints

N/A

Nigerian LNG Securing export wayleaves for A nuclear There are programme is volumes are onshore presently no No significant already routes would likely to face implementation sponsors for a committed to impose significant CNG export constraints European & significant implementation project. constraints N. American delays to gas buyers delivery

Cost-Effectiveness

N/A

Existing renewable technologies are less costeffective than WAGP (wind approx. 7.5c/kWh)

N/A

At the current import price of 6.6c/kWh is less cost-effective than electricity generated by WAGP gas. Similar savings on CO2 e per annum in the power sector, but no benefit from flaring reduction or from fuel switching in the C&I sector.

N/A

N/A

LNG is unlikely to be competitive with existing LCO thermal generation Similar savings on CO2e per annum to that of the proposed gas pipeline from reduced gas flaring and from fuel substitution.

N/A

Base load Base load coal Alternative nuclear fired generation routes are less generation is is less costcost-effective less costeffective than than WAGP, effective than WAGP (approx. as designed. WAGP (approx. 4.6c/kWh) 9 c/kWh) No CO2, NOx and SO2 emissions but potential negative health /environmental impacts if exposed to waste material or following malfunction.

Environmental/Social Impact

N/A

No damaging greenhouse gases but potential loss of visual amenity, aural intrusion and damage to bird populations.

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Potential Emissions of negative NOx, SO2 and particulates impact if from coal-fired pipeline is power stations routed through areas are generally greater than of high those from gas population and oil-fired density plants.

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Environmental impact of construction; Displacement/Land take; Sociological/Public health impact of construction; Economic benefits; Effectiveness in meeting WAGP project objectives; Local and regional suitability/Stakeholder acceptance; Technical feasibility; and Costs (capital and operating). All of these criteria were used when comparing project alternatives; however, some criteria were considered to be more important when comparing alternatives at the overall project design level (e.g., technical feasibility), while other criteria were considered to be more important when evaluating routing alternatives (e.g., stakeholder acceptance). The alternatives described below were initially considered during the scoping and feasibility stages of the project (1996 to 1999). Alternative assessment has continued into the current pipeline planning and design stage incorporating socioeconomic and environmental concerns, as well as investor objectives, project needs, and future gas markets. The reasoning behind the alternatives analysis is presented here. The assessment methodology employed in determining the optimal alternative relied on two distinct but related approaches: A qualitative assessment approach was used to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each project alternative on each criterion of interest. The differential weighting of the different criteria used in the assessment methodology are not explicitly quantified. These discussions are presented in sections 3.4.1 through 3.4.5 and summarized in Table 3.4-2. A semi-quantitative approach was used to rank the performance of the different alternatives on the specified criteria of interest on an ordinal scale. This approach is described in Section 3.4.6 and the rankings are presented in Table 3.4-3. This approach facilitates a transparent and readily accessible comparison of the different project alternatives across the different criteria. No explicit weighting methodology was used to assign differential weights to performance on each criterion; instead, each alternatives performance over the diverse criteria was aggregated using an implicit approach consistent with the values and preferences discussed in the alternatives analysis in sections 3.4.1 through 3.4.5. The final optimization and selection process used in this approach is presented in Section 3.4.6.

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3.4.1 No-Project Alternative


Taking no action would, naturally, be a feasible option. Under the No-Project Alternative, gas would not be transported to markets in Benin, Ghana, and Togo. No action on any alternative would mean a lack of a viable energy solution in Benin, Ghana, and Togo, limiting economic growth. Advantages and disadvantages of the No-Project Alternative are provided in Table 3.4-2 and certain key points discussed below. Given the advantages and disadvantages summarized in Table 3.4-2, the No-Project Alternative is not the preferred option because it does not help to alleviate the immediate energy resource needs of Benin, Ghana, or Togo, nor provide a market for Nigerian natural gas, nor advance regional integration. All of the alternatives examined here but one (the supply-side management or renewables alternative) utilize the readily available gas excess in Nigeria, which would result in flare reduction and economic and industrial growth in the region. The possible energy generation scenarios that may occur if the proposed project is not implemented would not provide lower cost or cleaner fuel in a timely, efficient, or technically feasible manner. Based on current information, project alternatives exist that could be commercially and technically viable and implemented with a tolerable level of environmental and socioeconomic impacts; therefore, the No-Project Alternative was rejected from further consideration. While this No-Project Alternative does avoid the negative environmental and socioeconomic impacts associated with the other alternatives (which in the case of the Proposed Project Alternative are limited and tolerable), this does not justify foregoing the socioeconomic and environmental benefits associated with the primary project objectives achieved by WAGP.

3.4.2 The Proposed Project Alternative: Developing a Gas Pipeline and Piping Gas from Nigeria to Benin, Togo, and Ghana
The Proposed Project Alternative calls for a gas pipeline to be constructed to supply natural gas from Nigeria to markets in Benin, Ghana, and Togo. For a detailed technical project description, refer to Chapter 2. The advantages and disadvantages of this alternative are provided in Table 3.4-2 and certain key points discussed below, along with some additional specific information about the pipeline and potential demand for WAGP gas. Chapters 6 and 7 of this EIA report also provide more detail on potential positive and negative impacts and the project sponsors commitment to reducing negative impacts. The West African Gas Pipeline Feasibility Study (PLE, 1999) fundamentally established the need for this project based on the following: Potential demand for natural gas in Benin, Ghana, and Togo; Technical feasibility to implement the project; No major legal nor commercial aspects have been identified that could obstruct project implementation; and Feasibility to implement the project in a cost effective, efficient, and timely manner.

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WAPCo will meet the project objective to transport Nigerian produced natural gas to commercially viable markets in Benin, Ghana, and Togo, providing a more reliable supply of energy and feedstock for a variety of industrial processes, while accelerating regional integration and stimulating foreign investment. At the same time, natural gas currently being flared in Nigeria will be used (with a subsequent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and reduced dependence on less environmentally desirable fuels) and provide a market and financial return. Economic growth in Benin, Ghana, and Togo is, in part, limited by the lack of a stable energy supply. Thus, this project addresses the needs of all four countries, provides natural gas to support a stable energy supply, reduces greenhouse gas emissions, and provides a revenue stream to Nigeria for natural gas currently being wasted. Finally, a new tax and tariff revenue stream would be enabled for the four countries. These benefits far outweigh the costs associated with constructing WAGP, even when the cost for mitigating any negative impacts is taken into account. The current cost of constructing WAGP is estimated at US$500-$600 million. The initial pipeline demand and capacity are expected to be about 140 and 190 million standard cubic feet per day (MMscfd) respectively. The pipeline capacity will be augmented to an ultimate design capacity of 462MMscfd with subsequent incorporation of additional compression facilities as demand for gas rises. The aggregate potential gas demand in Benin, Ghana, and Togo is forecasted to grow from 50MMscfd in 1999 to 328MMscfd in 2018, with most of the demand coming from the power sector in Ghana (West African Gas Pipeline Project, Market Report Update, 2003). Thus WAGP will meet the estimated demand, with excess capacity for future growth. First gas is expected to be delivered in 2005. Potential downstream customers for the gas, including gas-driven generating plants, are documented in Chapter 6 and further substantiate the Feasibility Studys assertion that potential demand exists and other sources of natural gas may not be available as soon as WAGP gas, and, possibly, not at a competitive cost.

3.4.3 Power Generation and Delivery Alternative: Developing Gas-Powered Electricity Generating Stations in Nigeria, and Transmitting the Electrical Power to Benin, Ghana, and Togo
Table 3.4-2 provides the advantages and disadvantages associated with this alternative. Certain key points are discussed below, as well as some information about power generation and delivery. In this alternative, many of the same benefits as described for the Proposed Project Alternative are recognized in terms of reliable energy, regional integration, and reduction in natural gas currently being wasted in Nigeria (if natural gas is used as the fuel for power generation). In this alternative, natural gas would not be available as a feedstock for use by industry in Benin, Togo, and Ghana, thus limiting flexibility in end use. Other possible disadvantages include running additional transmission lines onshore with environmental and socioeconomic impacts, particularly the need for permanent land acquisition not only for incremental transmission lines, but also for possible additional generating stations or the expansion of existing power plants. Another negative factor compared to the preferred alternative is that long distance electric power transmission is less efficient due to the power

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loss in cables. There would be a substantial cost associated with construction, operation, and maintenance of onshore transmission lines and increasing and improving the reliability of the current installed capacity in Nigeria. Thus while the benefits are similar, costs may be higher than any new power generation or transmission facilities built in association with WAGP. Further, improvements to the power grids in Nigeria and the other three countries are anticipated to take longer than delivering gas to existing generating plants in each country. Nigeria has an installed capacity of about 5,800 megawatts (MW), although only about twothirds of this capacity is currently reliable. Nigeria itself has a considerable power supply shortfall, thus additional capacity would need to be developed. There is a project to connect grids of Benin and Togo with Nigeria, with an anticipated start-up date of 2006 and secured funding, however there are concerns due to infrastructure constraints in Nigeria (West African Gas Pipeline Project, Market Report Update, 2003). This power supply shortfall indicates the need for new or expanded power plants. The objective of the West African Power Pool (WAPP) project is to integrate the West African power grid, but this will occur over several years. The World Bank is supporting the transmission infrastructure, while generating plant investment is being sought from state utilities and/or the private sector. The total investment requirements are significant, about US$13 billion over the next 20 years. Construction of transmission lines are anticipated to occur between 2003 and 2012, generation plants (mostly gas powered in Nigeria and hydropower in Guinea) between 2013 to 2018, and final organizational, regulatory, and investment activities between 2018 and 2023 (West African Gas Pipeline Project, Market Report Update, 2003). Thus, providing a complete transmission infrastructure to export power to Benin, Ghana, and Togo will take longer than the Proposed Project Alternative. The World Bank views the WAGP project as complementary to the WAPP.

3.4.4 Natural Gas Fuel Export Alternative: Converting the Gas to LNG or CNG and Exporting via Tanker or Road from Nigeria to Benin, Togo, and Ghana
Table 3.4-2 provides the advantages and disadvantages of this alternative. Certain key points from that table are discussed below with some additional information about costs associated with LNG projects. In this alternative too, many of the same benefits as described for the Proposed Project Alternative are expected in terms of reliable energy, regional integration, and reduction in natural gas currently being wasted in Nigeria; however, there are a number of negative environmental impacts. These include impacts resulting from: the construction and operation of terminals needed to receive LNG tankers (these would likely be more significant than impacts from the Regulating and Metering [R&M] stations needed for WAGP), air emissions from tanker and/or road transport, marine traffic, and construction and operation of onshore pipelines to deliver either LNG or natural gas from LNG regasification facilities (similar to impacts for WAGP). Moreover, massive infrastructure and technology investments would be required for gas liquefaction, storage, and regasification facilities, as well as port upgrades, including terminals, and/or roadways.

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Capital costs for LNG projects are generally higher than for CNG projects; however, LNG projects are capable of transporting more gas at a faster rate than CNG. At the same time, the payback from LNG is faster and may account for the capital costs more quickly. However, the project must be large enough for that payback, such that dedicated markets need to exist, which limits the capacity flexibility that the Proposed Project Alternative represents. For this option, the consumers in Benin, Ghana, and Togo cannot provide the initial market demand necessary.

3.4.5 Renewable Fuels Alternative: Meeting Electricity Generating Demands in Benin, Ghana, and Togo with Renewable Resources (Hydropower, Solar, Wind, Agrofuels)
The primary advantages and disadvantages of this alternative are summarized in Table 3.4-2. Some of the key points about advantages and disadvantages, and additional information about existing hydroelectric resources and costs associated with renewable resources are provided below. Possible renewable resources include hydropower, solar, wind, and agrofuels. The benefits of renewable resources include: (i) the use of generally cleaner energy sources; (ii) a decentralized power supply that may reach domestic consumers faster; and (iii) resources that may complement power supply expansion. However, they would not provide the added benefits of reducing flaring and venting of gas in Nigeria nor provide natural gas for direct use by industrial consumers, as would the proposed alternative. Clearly these options are dependent on the availability of the resources. With the possible exception of hydropower, it is doubtful that wind, solar, or agrofuels would meet the energy demands required for the economies of these expanding, developing countries. The power sector in Ghana has developed around the Akosombo and Kpong hydroelectric stations; the Bui hydroelectric project has been under consideration for years and its earliest start-up date is 2010. But uncertainties exist, however, due to costs and environmental impacts. Benin and Togo purchase imported electricity from VRA hydro facilities in Ghana. Ghanas concerns about hydropower were exacerbated in 1997/1998 and 2001/2002 when as a result of reduced rainfall, the Volta Lake water level dropped and Ghana was left in short supply. Togo and Benin also import power from Ghanas hydroelectric plants. The main source of indigenous generation (in Benin and Togo) is the Nagbeto hydroelectric dam. Communaut Elctrique du Bnin (CEB) is also considering a hydroelectric station in Adjarala, however no start-up date or financing has yet been arranged. Hydro production cost in Benin and Togo is estimated between 0.600 cents/kWh and 11.131 cents/kWh; in Ghana, from 0.600 cents/ kilowatt hour (kWh) to 9 cents/kWh. New supplies are represented by the upper range of costs. By comparison, power production costs for gas turbines in Togo and Benin range from 2.225 cents/kWh to 6.602 cents/kWh, and in Ghana, 1.486 cents/kWh to 4.786 cents/kWh. According to a recent draft market study, gas-fueled thermal plants in Ghana are the most cost-effective source of supply in contrast with any new hydroelectric supplies (West African Gas Pipeline Project, Market Report Update, 2003). Hydropower typically requires extensive land taking, with the potential displacement of a large number of people.
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For the purposes of comparison, costs for a Combined Cycle Plant, which uses both gas turbines and steam generators for energy generation, are provided below along with several alternative fuels (Table 3.4-1). A brief review of the costs summarized below indicate that estimated costs for gas-fueled generating plants are probably less than costs associated with renewable resources. Table 3.4-1 Cost Comparison of Fuels
Combined Cycle 400 3 532 11.73 1.95 Wind 10 3 1,031-2,625 26.41 0 Solar Voltaic 5 2 2,576 9.97 0 Solar Thermal 100 3 3,187 47.40 0 Biomass Gasification 100 4 1,490 44.81 5.34 Landfill Gas 100 1 1,299 78.58 10.48

Size (MW) Lead Time (yrs) Capital ($/kW) Fixed Operations & Maintenance (O&M) ($/kW/yr) Variable O&M ($/MwH)

Sources: EPA, July 2003; EPA, March 2002

3.4.6 Project-Level Alternatives Rankings


The approach in sections 3.4.1 through 3.4.5 has been to utilize a qualitative assessment methodology to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each project alternative. In some instances, criteria have been aggregated and the negative and positive effects are bundled together. While this line of reasoning leads to the clear conclusion that the proposed project alternative outranks all other options, this section attempts to provide a disaggregated semi-quantitative approach to the same problem. This section assigns explicit ranks to the performance of each project alternative on each criterion of interest using an ordinal scale. The ranks are assigned by ICF Consulting using professional judgment based on the information presented in the previous sections. This approach facilitates ready comparison of project alternatives with each other and with respect to the baseline No-Project Alternative. While this approach bears similarity to the methods of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), it must be noted that this section does not attempt to aggregate the performance scores on the diverse criteria using any of the MCDA algorithms. Instead, it relies on the same implicit system of weighting used in sections 3.4.1 through 3.4.5 in choosing the optimal alternative. The alternatives were ranked in a manner consistent with the expected impacts described in sections 3.4.1 through 3.4.5.

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Table 3.4-2 Comparative Assessment of Project-Level Alternatives


Project Alternative No-Project Advantages Land that would otherwise be occupied by the pipeline (or other project alternatives) would continue to remain available; in some instances, the population employs this land for income-earning activities (e.g., agriculture). With the reduced need for land acquisition and development, the likelihood of people being displaced would be reduced. No increase in likelihood of environmental impacts. Potential impacts that may be avoided if the No-Project Alternative were implemented include: Habitat disruption; Contamination associated with construction; and Resuspension of sediments (offshore) some sediments could be contaminated. Low-cost fuel solution for Benin, Ghana, and Togo (Economic Implications of the West African Gas Pipeline). Reduction of associated gas flaring in Nigeria and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Cleaner energy matrix in three receiving countries. Potential to spur industrial development, employment opportunities, and foreign investment (Economic Implications of the West African Gas Pipeline). Allows flexibility in destination countries with regard to energy type; can be used as gas fuel or (potentially) feedstock or converted to electrical power. Pipeline reinstatement criteria will consider multiple uses of the pipeline Right of Way (ROW). Disadvantages Lack of energy solution for Benin, Ghana, and Togo (energy alternatives, such as the proposed pipeline, are required for continued economic growth). No reduction in existing environmental impacts would occur. Existing gas resources are being flared, and ongoing flaring from Nigerian oil production would continue to contribute to the production of greenhouse gases. Cleaner fuel (natural gas) would not replace fuel oil in power plant turbines. Ultimately, stopgap solutions to the energy demands in Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo could be expected to be developed. These solutions are likely to be less efficient and more environmentally damaging, and to have significantly lower net benefits (or even have net economic costs) for these countries. Land would be acquired for the pipeline ROW, and therefore likelihood of people being displaced increased. Potential loss of income-earning activities on land developed for pipeline. Boom town socioeconomic effects (pollution, disease, inflation) associated with construction workers. Potential for water quality, ecological, and fisheries impacts, in particular: Habitat disruption; Contamination associated with construction; and Resuspension of sediments (offshore) some sediment could be contaminated. Would require construction in sensitive habitat and ecosystems (both onshore and offshore), such as wetlands, mangroves, and lagoons. Potential safety/security hazards associated with pipeline.

The Proposed Project: Developing a gas pipeline and piping gas from Nigeria to Benin, Togo, and Ghana

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Table 3.4-2 Comparative Assessment of Project-Level Alternatives


Project Alternative Power Generation and Delivery Alternative: Developing gas-powered electricity-generating stations in Nigeria and transmitting the electrical power to Benin, Ghana, and Togo Advantages Low-cost energy solution for Benin, Ghana, and Togo (Economic Implications of the West African Gas Pipeline). Reduction of associated-gas flaring in Nigeria. Potential to spur industrial development, employment opportunities, and foreign investment (Economic Implications of the West African Gas Pipeline). Disadvantages Restriction in choices of energy for industry in Benin, Togo, and Ghana, and therefore loss of the more efficient option of direct use of gas energy by end users. Electricity transmission line would probably have to run onshore for ease of maintenance, leading to significant landtake and other impacts, e.g., loss of income-earning uses of land developed for transmission line. Potential displacement of people, more extensive than those associated with the gas pipeline, due to the extent of transmission lines onshore. Boom town socioeconomic effects (pollution, disease, inflation) associated with construction workers, comparable to gas pipeline. Potential for negative environmental impacts as described above would exist; severity dependent upon construction location and scale of project. Potential for power loss in cables. More costly, lower welfare gains compared to gas pipeline. Natural gas as a primary fuel or energy source for local (mainly industrial) consumption would not be available, and reliance on electrical power energy sources would continue, possibly limiting economic development.

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Table 3.4-2 Comparative Assessment of Project-Level Alternatives


Project Alternative Natural Gas Fuel Export Alternative: Converting the gas to LNG or CNG and exporting from Nigeria to Benin, Ghana, and Togo Advantages Provides fuel solution for Benin, Ghana, and Togo (Economic Implications of the West African Gas Pipeline). Reduction of associated gas flaring in Nigeria. Potential to spur industrial development, employment opportunities, and foreign investment (Economic Implications of the West African Gas Pipeline). Disadvantages Massive infrastructure and technology investment required for LNG liquefaction, storage and re-gasification facilities and port upgrades. Terminals to receive LNG tankers do not exist in Benin, Ghana, or Togo. Onshore pipeline spurs required for gas transmission from ports to delivery terminals and from delivery terminals to consumer facilities. Consequently onshore impacts associated with the Proposed Project Option not avoided under this option and local offshore impacts could be higher if the terminal is installed offshore. Local environmental impacts likely to be higher with terminal installation compared to pipelines and Regulating/Metering Stations. Tankers are slow, subject to weather-induced delays, and emit greenhouse gases. Road transport inefficient, generating greenhouse gas emissions so benefit of flaring reduction would be greatly attenuated. Similar case, but less so, for rail. Massive infrastructure investments required to upgrade roads or create rail links and develop carrier-vehicle fleets. Tanker related accidents could result in explosions, releases of large quantities of greenhouse gas into atmosphere and other high consequence events, more significant than the gas pipeline. Boom town socioeconomic effects (pollution, disease, inflation) associated with construction workers. Scale of onshore construction much greater than that of the pipeline option; potential for boom town effects therefore greater. Significant energy required to liquefy gas prior to transport and for regasification after delivery. Significant energy efficiency loss compared to the pipeline option. More costly energy, so lower overall economic gains, compared to gas pipeline.

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Table 3.4-2 Comparative Assessment of Project-Level Alternatives


Project Alternative Renewable Fuels Alternative: Meeting electricitygenerating demands in Benin, Ghana, and Togo with renewable resources (hydropower, solar, wind, agro fuels) Advantages Cleaner energy for some options (reduced emissions for solar, wind, hydropower). Sustainable development. Complement power supply expansion progress by managing electricity demand. Decentralization of power supply may increase the speed in which energy reaches domestic consumers (versus manufacturing). Disadvantages Reliability/security issues (de-centralized power generation, demand for technically sophisticated facilities beyond the capability of the host countries to maintain). Technically, not a feasible substitute for centralized, fossilfueled generation capacity expansion in developing countries with rapidly increasing energy demands (World Bank, 1996). Potential for hydro, wind development dependent upon wind, water resources, which are not available or sufficient in all countries. Extensive land take requirements for hydro, solar, or agro fuels options. Potential displacement of people can be a severe negative impact relative to other options. Generally higher energy production costs compared to the proposed Project Option. Massive infrastructure investments required for hydropower. Ongoing flaring from Nigerian oil production would continue to contribute to the production of greenhouse gases.

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The following reasoning was used to identify the proposed pipeline project as the optimal alternative: As may be observed in Table 3.4-3, it is evident that the proposed pipeline project outranks or is equal in performance to the power generation and delivery alternative in every criterion. Similarly, the proposed pipeline project outranks or is equal in performance to the natural gas fuel export alternative in every criterion. The proposed pipeline project is marginally inferior in performance to the No-Project Alternative (which envisages expansion of current oil-based power facilities to meet power demand) in terms of environmental impact of construction, displacement/landtake, sociological/public health impacts, and cost. However, the proposed pipeline project is far superior in terms of greenhouse gas reduction benefits, economic benefits and meeting WAGP objectives. Given that the environmental and social impacts of the proposed alternative are relatively minor, and considering the dominance on the economic benefits and greenhouse gas emissions reduction criteria, the proposed project is considered superior to the No-Project Alternative. It is unclear if the proposed pipeline project is inferior in performance to the renewable fuels alternative in terms of environmental impact of construction, displacement/land-take, and sociological/public health impacts. If the renewable fuels mix were to include an incrementally larger hydroelectric component via new dam construction, it may involve a far higher displacement/land-take and sociological cost component than the proposed alternative. Regardless, the proposed pipeline project is far superior in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction benefits, economic benefits, meeting WAGP objectives, technical feasibility and cost. Given that the environmental and social impacts of the proposed alternative are relatively minor, and considering the overwhelming dominance on the economic benefits, greenhouse gas emissions reduction, cost and technical feasibility criteria, the proposed project is considered superior to the renewable fuels alternative.

3.5

Overall Pipeline Routing Options

WAPCo investigated three Overall Routing Options for feasibility: the Onshore Option, the Offshore Option, and a hybrid Onshore/Offshore Option. These options are illustrated in Figure 3.5-1. The main objective of the initial route selection process was to identify the lowest-cost option that meets the safety requirements of both the general public and pipeline workers while minimizing impacts to the environment and surrounding communities (PLE, 1999). The three options are described in turn in sections 3.5.1 through 3.5.3 and then compared according to evaluation and selection criteria in section 3.5.4.

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Chapter 3

Table 3.4-3 Comparative Evaluation of Project-level Alternatives


Criteria Scores Greenhouse Gas Reduction Benefits --++ Sociological/ Public Health Impact of Construction 0/Effectiveness in Meeting WAGP Objectives --+++ Local and Regional Suitability/ Stakeholder Acceptance + +

Project Alternative No-Project Proposed Pipeline Project Power Generation and Delivery Natural Gas Fuel Export Renewable Fuels Scale: +++ ++ + 0 ---/

Environmental Impact of Construction 0/-

Displacement/ Land Take 0/-

Economic Benefits ++

Technical Feasibility ++ ++

Costs 0/-

++ ++ ---

--0/-

--0/-/--

--0/-/--

+ + --

++ ++ ---

-/-+/0/-

+ + --

------

Considerable positive impact Significant positive impact Marginal positive impact No expected impact Marginal negative impact Significant negative impact Considerable negative impact Indicates Uncertainty Range

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Chapter 3

Figure 3.5-1 Overall Routing Options2

Option 1 Existing Infrastructure and Onshore Route Option 2 Existing Infrastructure and Offshore Route Option 3 Existing Infrastructure and Onshore/Offshore Route (Selected Option)

3.5.1 Onshore Option


The existing Escravos-Lagos Pipeline (ELP) would supply the proposed natural gas pipeline to the connection at Alagbado Tee. The proposed pipeline would then traverse west through Nigeria to the border with Benin. Offtakes would supply gas to the Cotonou (Benin), Lom (Togo), Tema (Ghana), and Takoradi (Ghana) consumer areas3. The proposed pipeline would be approximately 758km long. Compressor stations would be located at Alagbado (Nigeria), west of Cotonou in Benin, and at Tema in Ghana. R&M stations would be located at Alagbado and at offtake delivery sites throughout the pipeline, including locations in Benin, Ghana, and Togo. Potential impacts associated with onshore routing, as identified during preliminary project planning in the West African Gas Pipeline Feasibility Study (PLE, 1999), would be the disruption of areas of high ecological value, habitat destruction, and potential sabotage due to social and ethnic tensions. Since the publication of the Feasibility Study, the potential for

2 3

Source: PLE, 1999.

At the time of the pipeline routing study was carried out, the pipeline route terminated in Effasu, Ghana (as illustrated on Figure 3.5-1), rather than Takoradi, Ghana. Due to commercial and other considerations, the proposed project, as analyzed in this EIA, now terminates in Takoradi, Ghana.

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Chapter 3

negative environmental and socioeconomic impacts associated with onshore pipeline construction and operations have been further considered (please refer to Chapter 6). Similar to the proposed onshore/offshore hybrid option, an onshore pipeline route should maximize the use of the existing ELP pipeline system, thereby minimizing the length of new construction (PLE, 1999).

3.5.2 Offshore Option


The proposed natural gas pipeline would be supplied by the existing ELP at Escravos. The pipeline would originate in the Niger Delta, traverse west for a short distance onshore from the gas processing plant to reach landfall, and then head offshore in a southwesterly direction, eventually turning northwest to follow the Nigerian coastline. As the pipeline traverses westward, offtake spurs would supply consumer areas in Cotonou (Benin), Lom (Togo), Tema (Ghana), and Takoradi (Ghana). The proposed pipeline would be approximately 1,016km long. Compressor stations would be located at Escravos Beach and on an offshore platform near Lagos, both in Nigeria. R&M stations would be located at Escravos Beach and at offtake delivery sites throughout the pipeline in Benin, Ghana, and Togo. Anywhere from 20km to 50km of onshore pipeline upgrades or new installation in the Warri-Escravos area, upstream of the compressor, might also be required. One of the significant potential impacts from offshore pipeline installation is the resuspension of bottom sediments, particularly in areas where sediments could be contaminated (e.g., zones around major cities and harbors). This movement could disturb sediments and cause them to become suspended in the water column. However, the width of the continental shelf allows for the proposed route to be installed a sufficient distance away from nearshore areas, thus minimizing potential disturbance to contaminated sediments that may occur near industrialized areas (PLE, 1999).

3.5.3 Onshore/Offshore Option Selected Overall Routing Option


In this scenario, the pipeline would run onshore in Nigeria before running offshore in the waters of Benin, Ghana, and Togo. The pipeline would be supplied by the existing ELP at Alagbado Tee before running 56km southwesterly to the coast at Lagos Beach in Nigeria. It would then transverse westward offshore for approximately 616km, running parallel to the coasts of Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo. Offtake spurs would supply consumer areas in Cotonou (Benin), Lom (Togo), Tema (Ghana), and Takoradi (Ghana). The offshore section of the pipeline would be approximately 616km long and the onshore sections of the pipeline would total approximately 73km (including the onshore lateral spurs). A compressor station would be located at Lagos Beach in Nigeria. R&M stations would be located at the compressor station and at offtake delivery sites in Benin, Ghana, and Togo. As with the all-offshore pipeline route, specific routing around areas of potentially contaminated sediments would minimize offshore impacts from pipeline resuspension.

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Chapter 3

3.5.4 Comparison and Selection of Proposed Option


From an economic standpoint, the Onshore/Offshore Routing Option emerges as the least costly option and is technically feasible. The additional cost of the Offshore Routing Option vs. the Onshore/Offshore Routing Option ranges between two and eight cents/Million British thermal unit (MMBtu) for three different demand scenarios and the additional unit cost of the Onshore Routing Option vs. the Onshore/Offshore Routing Option is on average 20 cents/MMBtu considering the same three demand scenarios (PLE, 1999). The Onshore/Offshore Routing Option is also preferred over the Onshore Routing Option because an offshore pipeline (for the preferred option, 616km of a total of approximately 689km) results in a lower level of significant impacts such as habitat destruction and displacement of people when compared to onshore pipeline construction activities. The potential for negative environmental and socioeconomic impacts resulting from onshore construction activities will be minimized since the majority of the onshore pipeline in Nigeria makes use of an existing pipeline ROW (see Chapter 4). Of the criteria listed in Section 3.1, the potential for negative environmental and socioeconomic impacts, stakeholder acceptance, and economic costs were considered most important when weighing the overall routing options (PLE, 1999). Overall, the selected option is preferred over the two other options because it has a lower level of anticipated impacts, and is also the least expensive of the three options (Table 3.3-1). Chapter 4 provides detailed routing and design information on this option. Table 3.5-1 Overall Routing Options Critical Factors Critical Factors
Environmental Onshore Terrestrial Habitat

Onshore/Offshore (Selected Option)


Minimal disruption of terrestrial habitat onshore because of minimal onshore corridors, near and/or within existing ROWs. Minimal to moderate: Onshore sections are short but may affect sensitive environments. Moderate potential impact on marine habitat. Impacts localized, mostly short-term.

Onshore
Potential disruption of ecologically significant habitat because pipeline would require over 758km of onshore ROW corridor. Significant

Offshore
Minimal disruption of terrestrial habitats onshore because of minimal onshore corridors, near and/or within existing ROWs. Minimal

Environmental Onshore Other Onshore Impact Environmental Offshore Marine Habitat

Not Applicable

Moderate potential impact on marine habitat, mostly short term and localized. The greater offshore impact than selected option due to greater offshore length.

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Chapter 3

Table 3.5-1 Overall Routing Options Critical Factors Critical Factors


Environmental Offshore Sediment

Onshore/Offshore (Selected Option)


Moderate potential impact resulting from habitat disruption, e.g., benthic smothering. Possible suspension of potentially contaminated sediments during construction. Minimal to moderate. Some resettlement may be required along the short onshore pipeline route sections. Some land take and socioeconomic disruption likely. Moderate to significant. Less than for Onshore due to shortness of onshore sections.

Onshore
Not Applicable

Offshore
Compared to selected option, greater potential for suspension of contaminated sediments during construction, due to greater offshore length. Minimal resettlement of people required because of onshore construction.

Socioeconomic Resettlement

Significant resettlement of people from areas of construction (particularly in Benin, Ghana, and Togo).

Socioeconomic Sabotage

Significant due to great onshore length.

Economic Cost

Least expensive, due largely to easier installation and minimal land acquisition requirements.

Most expensive due to land acquisition needs.

Minimal risk of sabotage for offshore pipeline, potential still exists for onshore portions but reduced due to shortened length. Between Onshore and Onshore/Offshore.

3.6

Conclusion

WAGP provides substantial benefits relative to the other options, including providing a reliable source of energy to Benin, Ghana, and Togo; providing a viable market for Nigerian natural gas produced at oil wells, thus reducing the need to flare this gas; and facilitating regional cooperation and integration of reliable energy services through a large-scale fuel delivery project among the four nations in West Africa. Two other alternatives considered -developing gas-powered electricity generating stations and transmitting the electrical power, and exporting natural gas as LNG -- meet some of these objectives but do not provide comparable benefits. They either represent more substantial environmental and socioeconomic impacts than WAGP, do not provide a timely solution, and/or incur costs beyond the benefits. The renewable fuels alternative does not eliminate the flaring of gas in Nigeria and represents some challenges in terms of reliability, security, and feasibility for all three countries. In addition, it is doubtful that the renewable fuels alternative could provide sufficient power for industrial uses. The No-Project Alternative avoids the environmental and socioeconomic impacts associated with WAGP, but meets none of the project objectives.
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Chapter 3

If no project were selected, then short-term, unsustainable solutions to energy demands could be undertaken that could represent less efficient and more environmentally damaging solutions with fewer net benefits to the four countries. As described in this chapter, both the World Banks draft EFA and this EIA conclude that WAGP is the optimal project alternative. Three options were considered for the pipeline routing: onshore/offshore, onshore, and offshore. The selected option, a combination of onshore and offshore routes, provides the greatest benefits at the lowest level of environmental and socioeconomic impacts and least cost.

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Chapter 4 Project Design Alternatives


4.1 Introduction

Chapter 2 presents a technical description of the Selected Project Alternative. The range of alternatives from which the Selected Project Alternative was chosen is discussed in Chapter 3. This chapter discusses in more detail alternatives related to specific aspects of the design of the Selected Project Alternative (e.g., pipeline routing, construction methods) that the West African Gas Pipeline Company (WAPCo) considered, especially those that WAPCo rejected or (where uncertainty remains about the implementability of the desired alternative) disfavor. Selected alternatives, and those that WAPCo favor pending final determination of their implementability, constitute part of the technical project description and thus are described in Chapter 2. Table 4.1-1 provides an overview of WAPCos alternatives of each design aspect, highlighting WAPCos selected alternative and WAPCos reasons for selection.

4.2

Evaluation Criteria for Alternatives

The basic criteria used by WAPCo when devising, considering and choosing between design alternatives were the following: Overall safety of the public and workers; Environmental impact; Potential impacts to communities (e.g., businesses, transportation, etc.); Acceptance by stakeholders; Best available/practicable technologies; Feasibility of construction, operation, and maintenance; Cost of construction, operation, and maintenance; Future use of natural gas in the West Africa Region; Monitoring requirements; and Institutional requirements. As discussed in the sections below, additional criteria or more specific aspects of the above criteria were used to evaluate different components of the overall West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) design.

Chapter 4

Table 4.1-1 Overview of Alternatives Relating to Design Aspects1


Selected (or Preferred) Alternatives and WAPCos Reason for Selection (or Provisional Selection) West-of-Lagos A (Route approaches north bank of Badagry Creek from a position west of Lagos) o More economic than East-of-Lagos o Better road access than with East-of-Lagos o Location of compressor station better than with West-of-Lagos Routes B or C

Design Aspect Onshore 30 inch (in) Pipeline Routing Options (Section 4.3; Figures 4.3-1, 4.3-2)

Rejected Alternatives and Reasons for Rejection East-of-Lagos (Route approaches north bank of Lagos Lagoon from a position east of Lagos) o Less economic than the West-of-Lagos alternatives o Land east of Lagos is swampy limiting road access West-of-Lagos Route B (Route approaches north bank of Badagry Creek from a position west of Lagos) o Location of compressor station sub-optimal West-of-Lagos Route C o Location of compressor station sub-optimal Benin Alternative 1 (Continuation of West-of-Lagos A, compressor station at Krake) Benin Alternative 2 (Continuation of West-of-Lagos B, compressor station at Krake) Benin alternatives both excluded because, relative to the Nigeria-only onshore alternatives, they involve greater: o Risk management (to protect safety of workers) o Negative impacts to land use and habitats

Design alternatives that primarily involve one or more of the other three countries are discussed in Chapter 4 of the Regional Final Draft EIA Rev. 1.

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Chapter 4

Table 4.1-1 Overview of Alternatives Relating to Design Aspects1


Selected (or Preferred) Alternatives and WAPCos Reason for Selection (or Provisional Selection)

Design Aspect

Sizing of Offshore Pipeline and Midline Compression Facilities (Section 4.5.1)

Offshore Pipeline Burial Depth (Section 4.6.1.1)

Wetland Crossings (Section 4.6.1.2)

Rejected Alternatives and Reasons for Rejection (including outside existing Rights of Way [ROWs]) o Cost 18in diameter pipeline (midline compressor station under mid-case demand scenario) o Lower capacity than 20in diameter pipeline o Midline compressor station required under midcase demand scenario (A midline compressor station would require a supplemental environmental impact assessment [EIA] for impacts beyond what is described in this EIA. However, land-take for a future midline compressor station is accounted for in this EIA.) Pipeline buried or covered in waters shallower than 30 meters (m) o More sediment suspended than with 8m alternative o Trenching required for part of Benin and Togo shore crossings o Insufficient information that additional burial will definitively protect fishing operations, especially in view of high-energy sediment transport and coastal erosion Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) o Higher probability of operational failure than with push-method trenching o Higher costs

20in diameter pipeline (midline compressor station under high-case demand scenario) o Greater capacity than 18in pipeline o Midline compressor station is required only under high-case demand scenario

Pipeline buried or covered in waters shallower than 8m o Less sediment suspension o Lower costs/tariff impact

Push-method trenching for wetlands o Better costbenefit than HDD o Lower negative impacts associated with mobilization for short wetland crossings

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Chapter 4

Table 4.1-1 Overview of Alternatives Relating to Design Aspects1


Selected (or Preferred) Alternatives and WAPCos Reason for Selection (or Provisional Selection) HDD for Badagry Creek o Avoids negative environmental impacts Push-method Trenching for Benin Lagoon o Does not result in significantly worse impacts if performed during dry season o Lower cost than HDD for the same final product Still under consideration o By road from Port of Lagos widening roads where necessary o By water through Badagry Creek to a purpose-built dock 200m from compressor station and then along a purpose-built access road

Design Aspect Lagoon Crossings (Section 4.6.1.3)

Rejected Alternatives and Reasons for Rejection Push-method trenching (Badagry Creek) o Significant negative environmental impacts HDD (Benin Lagoon) o More expensive than push-method trenching without offering relative advantage if crossing undertaken in optimal dry season By water through Badagry Creek to a purpose-built dock within ROW and then along a purpose-built access road o Longer access road (900m) entailing higher negative environmental impacts in wetlands Construction of bypass road around Ajido connecting an existing road to the compressor station site o Likely environmental impacts to wetlands north of Ajido Along existing roads from Port of Cotonou via Badagry o Risk of disruption due to border closures

Transport of Heavy Equipment to Compressor Station (Section 4.6.2)

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Chapter 4

Table 4.1-1 Overview of Alternatives Relating to Design Aspects1


Selected (or Preferred) Alternatives and WAPCos Reason for Selection (or Provisional Selection) Onshore 30in pipeline to be coated at existing plant in Nigeria Other pipeline to be coated at new plant at Tema

Design Aspect Weight-coating Plants (Section 4.6.3.1)

Number of Marshalling Yards in Nigeria (Section 4.6.3.2)

Rejected Alternatives and Reasons for Rejection Installing equipment at existing premises adjacent to Port of Tema o Preferred option but premises no longer available Importing pre-coated concrete pipe o Higher transportation costs associated with importation from outside region o Lower employment and procurement benefits for communities neighboring WAGP None

Concrete Supply for Lagos Beach Compressor Station (Section 4.6.3.3)

Trucking in from off-site plants o Insufficient security of supply o Greater number of traffic movements required Temporary on-site concrete batch plant (least preferred alternative) o Insufficient security of supply o Greatest number of traffic movements required o Negative environmental impacts and waste management issues associated with production at site

One (favored number) o No additional footprint (will be within compressor station construction staging area) o Number should be minimized but at least one likely to be needed Trucking in precast concrete piles and foundations (preferred option) o Greatest security of supply

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Chapter 4

Table 4.1-1 Overview of Alternatives Relating to Design Aspects1


Selected (or Preferred) Alternatives and WAPCos Reason for Selection (or Provisional Selection) Off-site local accommodation preferred, i.e. commuting from home (for local workers) or hotels Provisions to be made for camp facilities for Nigeria onshore ROW and compressor station facilities Treatment with biocide o Prevents pipe corrosion in event of water being left in pipe for a significantly long period o Treatment with H2O2 prior to discharge prevents undesirable effects when water is no longer needed Aboveground o Can easily provide secondary containment o Ease of maintenance and inspection Septic tank system and discharge into soil via suitably prepared drainage field (preferred) o Cost-effective and least associated impacts to environment

Design Aspect Accommodation for Construction Workers (Section 4.6.3.4)

Rejected Alternatives and Reasons for Rejection None

Treatment of Hydrotest Water (Section 4.7.1)

No treatment o Risk of corrosion in event of water being left in pipe for a significant period.

Liquid Storage Tanks (Section 4.8.1)

Sanitary Waste Water Treatment and Disposal (Section 4.8.3)

Underground o Risk of leaks to soil and groundwater Open pits and sumps o Risk of leaks to soil and groundwater Septic tank system and discharge into receiving waters o Impact on surface water Septic tank system and hauling off-site for disposal o Associated environmental and cost impacts

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Chapter 4

Table 4.1-1 Overview of Alternatives Relating to Design Aspects1


Selected (or Preferred) Alternatives and WAPCos Reason for Selection (or Provisional Selection) No oil-water separators o Process areas will be covered, limiting the amount of stormwater contact. Site drainage piping will be such that if stormwater comes into contact with operating equipment it will drain into facility process liquids-handling tanks and handled as a single waste stream o Appropriate grading of the facilities will address non-point source (sheet runoff) Connection to existing power grid for Takoradi regulating and metering (R&M) station. On-site fossil-fuel generators at other facilities with solarpower back up at AlagbadoTee and other R&M stations. Groundwater wells (preferred) o Purchasing and trucking may be used at Tee if drilling a well is not technically feasible

Design Aspect Stormwater Management (Section 4.8.4)

Rejected Alternatives and Reasons for Rejection Separate stormwater collection systems including oil-water separators o Stormwater collection facilities for sheet runoff will not be installed due to low probability of contact with pollutants (and low concentration of pollutant contact)

Power Supply (Section 4.8.5.1)

None

Water Supply (Section 4.8.5.2)

Desalination o Cost

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Chapter 4

4.3

Routing Options from Existing Gas Transmission Network to Coastal Compressor Station

4.3.1 Selection Criteria for Onshore Route from Alagbado Tee to Compressor Station Site
In addition to the evaluation criteria listed in Section 4.2, the following criteria were considered in the selection of specific onshore routing options: Avoidance of area of high population density; Availability of a Right of Way (ROW); Distance/length of pipeline; and Suitability of sites for a compressor station.

4.3.2 Onshore Routing Options within Nigeria


Because the onshore portion of the pipeline in Nigeria traverses approximately 56 kilometers (km) the largest extent of land when compared to the relatively short lateral delivery spurs onshore in Benin, Ghana, and Togo a set of Specific Onshore Routing Options for the onshore section within Nigeria was developed. One option routed the pipeline to the east of Lagos; three routed it to the west. The routes are named: East-of-Lagos; West-of-Lagos Route A; West-of-Lagos Route B; and West-of-Lagos Route C. Under the East-of-Lagos Option, the onshore section of pipeline would approach the north bank of the Lagos Lagoon from a position east of Lagos. The three West-of-Lagos Options, which are shown in Figure 4.3-1, would involve the onshore section of pipeline approaching the western part of the Lagos Lagoon, known as Badagry Creek, from positions west of Lagos. The compressor station, known as the Lagos Beach Compressor Station, would be located at or near the north shore of Badagry Creek under all of these specific routing options. (Locating the compressor station in Benin instead, and thus modifying the overall Onshore/Offshore Routing Option to run the pipeline onshore in both Nigeria and Benin, was also considered. This alternative routing option is discussed in Section 4.3.3.) 4.3.2.1 East-of-Lagos Option Beginning at Egbin Node, the WAGP route would run parallel to the existing pipeline that supplies the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) Egbin Thermal Power Plant, and then eastward to avoid the NEPA Housing Estate. The pipeline would then cross the NEPA transmission lines and the Lagos Lagoon. Next, it would run southward, west of Sangotedo (to avoid heavily developed Badore) and cross the Lagos-Epe Expressway near Ajah Junction. From there it would run to a coastal compressor station before going offshore. Once offshore, the pipeline would avoid an anchor-prohibited area designated by the Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) by veering southeast before proceeding west to run parallel
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to the Nigerian shoreline. The length of the onshore section of WAGP would be 36km in this alternative (WAGP, 2000). 4.3.2.2 West-of-Lagos Route A In the West-of-Lagos Route A Option, WAGP would begin at Alagbado Tee and run parallel to an existing Nigerian Gas Company pipeline to Ewekoro; this section would be contained partially within the ROW of the existing pipeline. WAGP would then cross out of that ROW into a ROW parallel to another existing pipeline, that of Shell Petroleum Development Company and Shell Nigeria Gas Limited (SPDC/SNGL), and run alongside the SPDC/SNGL pipeline until it neared Agbara, where it would then turn southwesterly and proceed towards the coastline. SPDC has agreed to share part of the ROW with WAGP, if required. Near Agbara, the pipeline would avoid the Ogun Property & Investment Corporation industrial and housing estate. After Agbara, the area is rural and not well developed. The length of the onshore section of WAGP would be approximately 56km in this alternative (WAGP, 2000). 4.3.2.3 West-of-Lagos Route B West-of-Lagos Route B would initially follow the route of West-of-Lagos Route A but would veer westward south of the town of Igboloye to avoid the towns of Mosafejo and Ilado. The length of the onshore section of WAGP would be approximately 57km in this alternative (WAGP, 2000). 4.3.2.4 West-of-Lagos Route C West-of-Lagos Route C would initially follow the route of West-of-Lagos Route A, except near Agbara the pipeline would run close to the Ologe Lagoon and would pass through an inhabited area near Agbara. The length of the onshore section of WAGP would be approximately 57km in this alternative (WAGP, 2000). 4.3.2.5 Evaluation of Nigerian Routing Options Cost/benefit analysis of East-of-Lagos and West-of-Lagos Route A indicated that the Westof-Lagos Route A was more economic by US$20.6 million. Cost/benefit analysis of Westof-Lagos Routes B and C was not performed because they were judged by WAPCo to be economically similar to West-of-Lagos Route A, as described in a report by WAPCo on Pipeline Routing, Compressor Station and Metering Station Options (WAGP, 2000). Any of the three West-of-Lagos Options is preferable to the East-of-Lagos Option on the basis of availability of suitable land and access to good roads. The particular disadvantages of the East-of-Lagos Option are that it runs close to a populated area near Badore, and that the area east of Lagos is swampy and therefore road access may be limited. This would prove to be a significant drawback during construction and maintenance of the onshore line (WAGP, 2000). For these reasons, the East-of-Lagos site was excluded. The three West-of-Lagos Options are comparable in terms of most of the evaluation factors. However, the options can be distinguished in terms of the suitability of sites for a compressor

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station. Three potential locations were considered for locating a compressor station along the route for the West-of-Lagos Options. These were: Agbara; East of Iworo; and West of Iworo. After considering safety, land availability, population, ease for access for construction and operation, routine maintenance, and operational and environmental factors, the West of Iworo option was considered the optimum location for the compressor station. Because the West-of-Lagos Route A is the only route that would accommodate (or the route best suited for) this compressor location, Route A was chosen with the compressor station to be located near Ajido.

4.3.3 Extending Pipeline Onshore for Gas Delivery to Benin


After selecting the Onshore/Offshore Route as the Overall Routing Option (Section 3.5), WAPCo considered modifying it to reroute the planned onshore section of pipeline through both Benin and Nigeria and locate the compressor station in Krake, Benin, instead of limiting the onshore section of the pipeline to Nigeria and locating the compressor station near Ajido at Badagry Creek, Nigeria. In this permutation, WAGP would thus move offshore in Benin rather than in Nigeria, and Benin would not be supplied by a spur from the offshore pipeline (WAGP, 2002). The main reason for running the pipeline to Benin onshore would be to consolidate facilities and simplify the overall construction of WAGP. The compressor station facility would be combined with the construction of the R&M station already planned as part of the Onshore/Offshore Overall Routing Option, thus eliminating facilities at Badagry Creek and minimizing the number of construction sites (WAGP, 2002). Two revised options for delivering gas to Benin were thus compared against the original options. Benin Onshore Alternative 1 is a modification of West-of-Lagos Route A (Section 4.3.3.1). Benin Onshore Alternative 2 is a modification of West-of-Lagos Route B (Section 4.4.3.2). 4.3.3.1 Benin Onshore Alternative 1 WAGP would initially run along West-of-Lagos Route A, but then veer roughly westsouthwest near Anos Gas Station to continue onshore to a compressor station located in Krake, Benin (Figure 4.3-2), and then run offshore. This option would lengthen the onshore section of the Onshore/Offshore Overall Routing Option by approximately 34km and shorten the offshore section by 30km (WAGP, 2002). 4.3.3.2 Benin Onshore Alternative 2 WAGP would initially run along West-of-Lagos Route B, but instead of turning away from its initial southwesterly course just after Onimosalasi, would continue onshore in a straight line to a compressor station located in Krake, Benin (Figure 4.3-2), and then run offshore.
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Figure 4.3-2 Benin Onshore Routing Alternatives

Figure 4.3-2

Alternative 2

Alternative 1

Krake Compressor Station

1 centimeter equals 3,000 meters


Prepared By:
Drawing Number: Scale: 1:300,000

Figure 4.3-2 Benin


06-May-04 Drawn By: R.F. Bosley

GIS/RS Team

File: Figure 4.3-2.mxd

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File Location Path: Q:\Projects\Benin\mxd\Figure 4.3-2.mxd

Map Projection: Projection Method: Datum: Ellipsoid: Latitude Origin: Longitude Origin: False Easting: False Northing: Scale Factor:

UTM Zone 31N Transverse Mercator World Geodetic System 1984 WGS 84 0.000000000000000N 3.000000000000000E 500000.0000 0.0000 0.9996

4,000 8,000

16,000

24,000

32,000 Meters

est2efrin2qs2ipeline

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This option would lengthen the onshore section of the Onshore/Offshore Overall Routing Option by approximately 29km and shorten the offshore section by 24km (WAGP, 2002). 4.3.3.3 Evaluation of Benin Onshore Alternatives The advantage of onshore routing to Benin would be the reduction in personnel requirements that could result from the combination of the compressor station facility and the R&M station into a single location in Krake, rather than having a compressor station at Badagry Creek and an R&M station for the Cotonou spur (from the offshore pipeline). However, the complexity of the compressor station design would increase as a result of interstage draw-off to meet demand in Benin. On one hand, this would reduce the need for compression for the entire system downstream of Benin and would improve energy efficiency. On the other hand, this would increase the risk management required to protect the safety of workers. Furthermore, locating the compressor station at Krake rather than Badagry Creek would increase the length of the onshore pipeline and reduce that of the offshore pipeline. As well as requiring a greater land-take, this might have implications for ease of access for construction and maintenance and for potential disruption to habitats. Furthermore, both Onshore Benin Alternatives would require land outside of existing ROWs. Overall costs would be expected to increase by about US$9 million for both Benin Onshore Alternative 1 and Alternative 2. Also, there is an existing employee base in Nigeria with experience in gas compression, regulation, and monitoring. The benefit of operational experience of Nigerian personnel could thus be lost if the compression station is moved to Krake (WAGP, 2000). Therefore, on the basis of ease of operation of the system and consequent safety considerations, minimizing potential environmental impacts, and cost advantage, the option of retaining the proposed compressor station at Badagry Creek, and not extending the onshore section of pipeline into Benin, is preferred.

4.4

Onshore Lateral and R&M Station Alternatives

4.4.1 Onshore Lateral and R&M Station Alternatives in Benin


Onshore lateral and R&M station alternatives in Benin are described in Section 4.4.1 of the Regional and Benin Final Draft EIA.

4.4.2 Onshore Lateral Alternatives in Togo


Onshore lateral and R&M station alternatives in Togo are described in Section 4.4.2 of the Regional and Togo Final Draft EIA.

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Chapter 4

4.5

Design Considerations

4.5.1 Sizing of Offshore Pipeline and Midline Compression Facilities


The alternatives for the diameter of the offshore pipeline were 20in and 18in. The 20in pipeline alternative has been selected as it has a greater capacity than the 18in and requires no midline compression, based on the mid-case gas demand forecast. If the 18in alternative were to have been selected and implemented, then a midline compression facility similar to the Lagos Beach Compressor Station (Section 2.4.3) would have had to be installed at Lom (Section 2.4.5 of Togo Final Draft EIA) just in order to meet the demand for the mid-case gas reserve forecast. This midline compressor station would not have been built until at least 13 years after the beginning of the project. Even with a 20in pipeline, a midline compressor station will be required at Lom should gas demands meet the high-case reserve forecast. Such a compressor station would require a supplemental environmental impact assessment (EIA) to evaluate the associated environmental and social impacts beyond land use and other footprint impacts described in this EIA. (WAPCo is acquiring the land for the future midline compressor station as part of the initial development and will fence off the area pending future demand and the need for compressor station construction.)

4.5.2 Future Compression Facilities at Takoradi


Future compressor station facilities at Takoradi are described in Section 4.5.2 of the Regional and Ghana Final Draft EIA.

4.6

Construction

4.6.1 Pipeline Construction Methods


4.6.1.1 Offshore Lateral Burial As stated in Section 2.4.4.2.1, the pipeline will be buried or covered to avoid exposure at water depths shallower than 8m. This will be done to prevent scouring from high sea currents in the shallow zones. Consistent with pipeline industry practice in the West African region, the pipeline will lie exposed on the existing seabed in waters deeper than 8m. As an alternative, WAPCo considered burying or covering the pipeline in all waters shallower than 30m. Burying pipeline sections shallower than 30m provides the additional benefits of reducing the potential entanglement of trawlers fishing gear and hindering sabotage. These additional benefits were not fully achieved at shallower depths and thus intermediate depths between 8m and 30m were not considered further. Changing the cutoff between exposed and buried pipeline sections from an 8m depth to a 30m depth reduces the total length of exposed pipe. Thus the total stretch of artificial reef that develops through the attraction of sessile organisms to the hard pipeline surface is also reduced. Shortening the length of the reef results in fewer marine communities in the

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surrounding areas. Although having fewer marine communities may be considered a smaller environmental advantage, it would result in a smaller attraction for fishing vessels; therefore, the 30m alternative would pose a lesser risk of entanglement. Consequently, there would be a health and safety advantage for the deeper cutoff between exposed and buried pipeline sections. The 30m alternative would, however, have the disadvantage of suspending more sediment and smothering more benthos because trenching would be required over a longer distance at Tema and Takoradi. Furthermore, trenching would be required for part of the shore crossings at Cotonou and Lom because the distance from the shoreline to a point where the ocean depth of 30m is too great for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) alone. WAPCo rejected the 30m alternative on the basis of the above considerations. Options for protecting the offshore pipeline are discussed further in Chapter 7. 4.6.1.2 Wetland Crossings WAPCo considered HDD as an alternative method to push-method trenching for crossing larger or more sensitive wetland areas and perennially flowing streams. In the case of the wetland areas, HDD would cause less of an impact overall because it would bypass the wetlands. In the case of perennially flowing streams, HDD would be easier to perform. However, WAPCo deemed that those advantages were not enough to warrant the extra cost of HDD or offset the higher probability of operational failure with HDD and so decided to use push-method trenching. 4.6.1.3 Lagoon Crossings WAPCos favored alternative for the lagoon crossing in Nigeria is HDD, as described in Section 2.8.2.2.5, because HDD would avoid impacts to the lagoon by bypassing it. Nonetheless, push-method trenching may have to be used if it is found that the soil conditions are not suitable for HDD. In Nigeria, the possibility exists for the lagoon crossing to be combined with the shore crossing (i.e., HDD from the north shore of the lagoon out to the ocean thus bypassing the barrier island); however, this alternative may prove technically infeasible and a decision is pending until further detailed analyses are completed. 4.6.1.4 Nearshore Trenching and Shore Crossings Nearshore trenching and shore crossing alternatives arise in Ghana and are discussed in Section 4.6.1.4 of the Regional and Ghana Final Draft EIA Rev 1.

4.6.2 Equipment Transport to Compressor Station


The two options under consideration for the transport of heavy equipment to the compressor station site are discussed in Section 2.8.3.1, namely transport:

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By road from the Port of Lagos; and By water through Badagry Creek to a purpose-built dock 200m from the compressor station site and then along a purpose-built access road to the site. WAPCo also considered: Construction of a temporary dock in the lagoon within the ROW (with an associated access road); Construction of a bypass road around Ajido connecting an existing road to the compressor station site; and Transport along existing roads from the Port of Cotonou via Badagry. Construction of a temporary dock by the lagoon within the ROW was rejected because the access road that would be required is (at 900m) much longer than if the dock is located as described in Section 2.8.3.1. Construction of a bypass road around Ajido has been rejected because of the higher associated environmental impacts. The area that would have to be traversed is predominantly freshwater marsh, which serves many ecological functions for the surrounding habitat. Transport along existing roads from the Port in Cotonou via Badagry was rejected because of the risk of disruption due to sudden border closures.

4.6.3 Ancillary Facility Construction


4.6.3.1 Weight Coating Plant(s) The weight coating plant operations are discussed in Section 2.8.7, where the nature of operations, the frequency of transport movements, and the materials management methods are described. Weight-coating operations will be undertaken in both a new plant in Tema and an existing plant in Nigeria. Material management summaries are provided for total production in Section 2.8.7.2. The distribution of operations between the two sites has recently been determined. The 13km of onshore 30in pipe requiring concrete coating will be coated in the existing facilities near the Onne Free Zone in Nigeria so as to reduce transportation impacts. The weight coating of offshore pipe (varying diameters) will all be done in Tema. As stated there, a new concrete weight-coating plant will be built on a 17 hectare (42 acre) industrial site near the port of Tema on land owned by the Free Zone Board. Originally, this was WAPCos second preference: WAPCos originally selected alternative was to install weight-coating equipment in existing industrial premises adjacent to the Port of Tema (owned by the Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority). However, the premises became unavailable thus ruling out that alternative. That alternative was originally WAPCos first choice because it would not have entailed the impacts associated with preparing a new site and constructing a new facility, and would have
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been closer to the port than the new site and thus would have resulted in relatively less vehicle traffic outside of the port zone and fewer required infrastructural upgrades, such as road widening and resurfacing. Furthermore, the preparation of a greenfield site will take approximately one additional month for concrete plant mobilization than the first-choice alternative would have mainly because of soil grading requirements and establishing utilities. WAPCo rejected the alternative of importing pre-coated concrete pipe because of the increased transportation costs of importing bulkier, heavier pipe from outside the region, which would double the shipping cost. Importantly, materials and labor required for concrete coating are very accessible locally, which allows for employment of local personnel and provides local content opportunities and technology transfer. 4.6.3.2 Marshalling Yard(s) As stated in Section 2.8.2.2.3, WAPCos preferred alternative is that there be one marshalling yard in Nigeria, of area 3 hectares (7.4 acres) within the 8.5ha (21 acres) staging area for the compressor station (Section 2.8.3.4). However, discussions with the construction contractor may lead WAPCo to conclude that an extra marshalling yard is necessary. If so, WAPCos preference would be for it to be situated at the midline valve location. In any case, WAPCos approval criteria for marshalling yards stipulate that: The number of marshalling yards will not exceed three in total; No greenfield sites (undisturbed areas) shall be utilized; and Locations with optimally low associated impacts will be favored over alternative sites. 4.6.3.3 Concrete Supply for Compressor Station WAPCos preference is for concrete piles and foundations to be obtained pre-cast off-site. WAPCos second-choice alternative of using off-site concrete batch plants is disfavored as WAPCo deems it to offer insufficient security of supply and increased vehicular traffic outside of the immediate area of the compressor station (assuming that aggregate raw materials and cement material are delivered via barge). WAPCos least-preferred alternative for concrete supply is to operate a temporary concrete batch plant at the site of the compressor station. Section 2.8.3.5 describes the only such plant that WAPCo has determined is required. 4.6.3.4 Construction Camps WAPCo anticipates that it may not be possible to house all workers involved in construction of the compressor station in existing local accommodations so provisions will be made for closed camp facilities in the vicinity of the compressor station, as described in Section 2.8.3.2.

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Similarly, as stated in Section 2.8.2.1, provision will be made for a camp to accommodate construction workers working on the onshore Nigeria segment although WAPCos preference is to use existing local off-site accommodations for workers who do not commute from their own homes locally. No other construction camps are planned, as fewer workers will be required at other construction sites and they will be recruited locally and lodged in local accommodations.

4.7

Commissioning and Start-up

4.7.1 Treatment of Hydrotest Water Prior to Discharge


The alternative of not treating the hydrotest water was considered and rejected because of the risk of corrosion occurring if untreated water were left in the pipe for a significant period. A possible scenario for water being left in the pipe would be a delay in the construction of the offshore pipeline leading to a delay in the discharge of hydrotest water from the onshore mainline. Neutralization prior to discharge will occur at discharge locations in Benin, Ghana and Togo and is described in Section 4.7.1 of the Benin, Ghana and Togo Final Draft EIAs.

4.7.2 Discharge of Hydrotest Water


Treated hydrotest water will be discharged in Benin, Ghana and Togo and is described in Section 4.7.2 of the Benin, Ghana and Togo Final Draft EIAs.

4.8

Project Operations

4.8.1 Liquid Storage Tanks


WAPCo has decided that there should be no buried storage tanks because of the risk of leaks to soil and groundwater resources (e.g., in Lom where there is a shallow aquifer used by local market gardeners). WAPCo has decided to use aboveground tanks, which are easier to maintain and inspect, and for which secondary containment can be provided. Open pits and sumps have been rejected for the same reasons. Lined sumps and pits were considered but rejected due to the greater environmental risks and the higher construction costs compared to tanks, particularly in light of the small liquid volumes expected.

4.8.2 Waste Management


Waste disposal is discussed in Section 2.5 and Chapter 8. One management option, on-site incineration, has been rejected on grounds of potential impacts from atmospheric emissions.

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4.8.3 Sanitary Waste Water Disposal


The general options for sanitary waste water disposal at the Alagbado Tee, Lagos Beach Compressor Station and Control Center as follows: Treatment in a septic tank system and discharge into soil via a suitably prepared drainage field; Treatment in a septic tank system and discharge into receiving waters; and Treatment in a septic tank system and hauling off-site for disposal. WAPCo has not yet finally decided which option(s) to use. The first option is WAPCos preferred option because it has the least associated impacts to the environment and is costeffective. The second option does have an associated impact to surface waters and, in any case, is not feasible at all sites. The third option would have environmental and cost impacts associated with the transport of the waste water along roads. (Sections 2.4.1.2.10 and 2.4.3.2.8)

4.8.4 Stormwater Management


WAPCo considered installing oil-water separators but rejected this alternative as unnecessary on the grounds that process areas where stormwater could come into contact with operating equipment will be covered and any stormwater (or washwater) from this area will drain to the facility liquids-handling tanks (Sections 2.4.1.2.10 and 2.4.3.2.8). Low stormwater volumes collected with industrial process water would then be handled as industrial waste water and disposed off-site. Stormwater collection facilities separate from the facility liquids-handling tanks were also considered, but this design was rejected because the volume of collected stormwater is likely to be low due to the covering of operating equipment.

4.8.5 Utilities
4.8.5.1 Power Supply The Tee and the compressor station will be supplied by fossil-fuel generators. The following alternatives were considered for energy supply to WAPCo facilities: Fossil-fuel use (on-site natural-gas and back-up diesel generators); Connecting to existing power grid; and Off-grid solar power. Each has its own merits but WAPCo judged that only a fossil-fuel generator would provide a secure, sufficient, autonomous power supply.

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The costs of connecting to a local power grid would be low, but WAPCo has judged that this alternative grid supply would not be reliable enough for operational and long-term needs (except at the Takoradi R&M station). Off-grid solar power would provide an autonomous power supply with low environmental impacts but at the Lagos Beach Compressor Station the cost of solar power would be prohibitive due to the size and number of battery storage facilities and size of solar panel equipment. However, solar power will be used as a partial back-up supply at the Alagbado Tee. 4.8.5.2 Water Supply Desalination to meet water needs was considered but rejected on costbenefit grounds for all WAPCo facilities, particularly in light of relatively low volume needs for operations. Instead, as described in Sections 2.4.1.2.10 and 2.4.3.2.6, wells will be sunk to groundwater at all WAPCo facilities (except at the Takoradi R&M station, which will be tied into the existing Volta River Authority water system). There remains a doubt as to whether sinking a well will be feasible at the Tee; should that prove to be the case, water will be purchased locally and trucked in.

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Chapter 5 Existing Situation


Overview
This chapter describes the existing environment and resources as relevant to the EIA. The project study area includes both the onshore and offshore environments in Nigeria that could potentially be impacted by the proposed WAGP project. The offshore section of the proposed pipeline extends about 40km along the coast of Nigeria from Badagry Beach (Figure 5.1-1). The onshore section of the pipeline in Nigeria runs 56km from the Alagbado tie-in point to Badagry Beach (Figure 5.1-2).

Natural Environment
The climate in the area is tropical with alternating wet and dry seasons. Air quality in the rural areas is generally good, while air quality in cities is poor, with elevated concentrations of carbon monoxide, lead, volatile hydrocarbons, ozone, and particulate matter all pollutants associated with transportation sources. Existing concentrations of particulate matter exceed European and World Bank long-term standards in certain samples, indicating that existing air quality may be poor (with respect to particulates) in certain parts of the study area.

Onshore
From the Alagbado Tee in Nigeria, the proposed pipeline Right of Way (ROW) follows an existing natural gas ROW already cleared of natural cover for the first 40km of its route (Alagbado Tee near Itoko to the Agbara Estate area). The ROW passes through a patchwork mosaic of fallow, agricultural, and residential areas with some secondary forest and seasonal wetlands. This pattern is mostly sustained through the uncleared new ROW route to the Lagos Beach Compressor Station, where the ROW then passes though the marsh, Badagry Creek, and the sandy barrier island, and out to sea. Soils near the shoreline tend to be sandy; away from the immediate coast, soils derived from the sedimentary rock are highly weathered, with low organic content, and of low inherent fertility. Soils in swamps/marshy areas tend to be acidic, with high organic content. Soils in the study area are generally free from metals or hydrocarbon contamination. Surface water bodies (both tidal and non-tidal) in the ROW include Badagry Creek, Yewa River, the Ologe Lagoon, and tributaries of the River Owo. The physical and chemical characteristics of the surface water bodies do not indicate the presence of contaminants (although water quality for drinking is relatively poor). In general, water bodies in the study area are characterized by low turbidity. Tidal waters are near neutral, non-tidal waters are slightly acidic, and water from hand-dug wells is acidic. Tidal waters are slightly brackish; non-tidal and hand-dug well waters are relatively fresh. Sediments from the investigated area of Badagry Creek are essentially sandy, ranging from sandy silt (at Topo Island), through clayey sand (at the ROW), to sand eastward of the ROW. Sediments from the non-tidal

Chapter 5

water bodies contain more silt and clay. The wide range of sediment pH (3.4 to 8) measured in the dry season is due to variations in sediment grain size, organic carbon content, and the surrounding ecosystems in the brackish to saltwater environments. Measured coliform bacterial densities suggest that some of the water bodies may not be potable. Plankton community samples indicate that the brackish waters have high productivity. The finfish fauna reflects the mixed nature of the water environment comprising marine, brackish, and freshwater species. Fish communities in habitats connected with marine areas have species that are exclusively onshore, some that are exclusively marine, and others that travel between the two habitats. These habitats are therefore often rather rich in species and in abundance. The onshore habitats in Nigeria contain typical assemblages of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates, as the habitats tend to be both typical and common for the broader area where each is found. Certain habitats, such as mangroves, heavily vegetated wetlands, and secondary forests, support higher biodiversity and more protected species than other habitats. Terrestrial species of concern include pythons, monitor lizards, Nile crocodile, sitatunga, herons, egrets, and hawks.

Offshore
The offshore region is classified as a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) by the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development. The northern portion is thermally unstable and undergoes intensive seasonal upwellings; the southern portion is thermally stable and depends on the nutrient input from land drainage, river flows, and wave turbulence. These characteristics make the area highly productive and rich in fishery resources and biological diversity. Species diversity and abundance of plankton is linked to seasonal variation of the oceanographic regime and the rapid development of plankton has a rippling effect on fish populations. Fish production in the Gulf of Guinea is high and the migration of important fish stocks (e.g., herrings, shads, mackerels, tunas, and jacks) is dependent on upwelling events and the movement of climatic fronts and ocean currents. The rich fishery resource supports artisanal fisheries, local industrial fleets, and large international commercial offshore fishing fleets. Sea turtles nest on the sandy beaches near the shoreline crossing locations. Other marine species of concern include cetaceans (whales), dolphins, and the West African manatee. Physicochemical properties of the water column in the ocean indicate a healthy marine environment. Turbidity is generally low in the offshore, oceanic waters; however, there is a coastal zone of turbid, greenish water, which meets the clearer oceanic water 6km to 8km from the coast. On the seabed, the benthic communities are mature and in equilibrium with local physical conditions indicating little disturbance; biological composition of the benthos is generally homogeneous. Concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons were similar to region-wide averages, indicating little or no contamination.

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Human Environment
The proposed pipeline route onshore is all within the Lagos metropolitan area. As compared to most rural residents in Nigeria, many of the residents in the surveyed communities enjoy relatively high income and access to infrastructure and are relatively cosmopolitan. However, access to water within the immediate pipeline vicinity has been a problem for some communities (the quality of water is poor and often polluted), and most residents surveyed use open pit latrines for sanitation. The Lagos area is more densely populated and experiencing more rapid population growth than other areas in Nigeria. A plurality (43 percent) of residents surveyed are self-employed; other major sources of employment include the public (24 percent) and private sectors (22 percent). Traditional, rural fishing or non-fishing villages of mostly native peoples exist near the Lagos Beach Compressor Station and Badagry Beach. Residents in most of the surveyed communities have access to basic infrastructure, including education and health care facilities. The Yoruba make up the overwhelming majority of the population in the project area. Although the majority of households in the surveyed communities are native to their respective community, there are no indigenous peoples, as defined by World Bank policy, in the pipeline ROW. For the pipeline itself, the actual amount of land taken in any area along the pipeline route is at most a 25 meter-wide strip. Thus, the project would affect relatively few people in any one locality and would in general only affect an isolated portion of a larger village or community. The planned pipeline and associated facilities will contact about 2,500 individual land plots in 27 settlements. About 67,000 people live in the communities along or near the pipeline. A total of 149 structures were within the ROW at the time of the estate survey; 97 of these were residential (28 fully complete, 35 partially complete, 24 only a foundation). Fully complete structures generally are cement block or concrete with metal roofs (aluminum or galvanized iron). Important cultural resources exist in the vicinity of the ROW, including churches, gravesites, praying grounds, shrines, and the homes and palaces of traditional rulers. The planning of the pipeline ROW and the related facilities included consideration of environmental and socioeconomic issues and care was taken to avoid community and population centers and cultural areas. This final plan avoided these resources and the need for major resettlement of people.

5.1

Existing Environment and Resources

This section gives a descriptive overview of the environment around the pipeline Right of Way (ROW) and compressor station starting from the shoreline at Badagry to the tie-in point at Alagbado (Figure 5.1-1). Information reported is based on a combination of literature search, field studies, and laboratory analyses. A First Season Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) was conducted in December 2002, during the dry season, while a wet season EBS was conducted during the wet season in July 2003. Results of fieldwork discussed below come
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Figure 5.1-1 Location of the WAGP Project Within Nigeria from Alagbado Tee to Badagry
242'0"E 360'0"E 318'0"E

636'0"N

Benin

Nigeria

Alagbado Tee

( Porto Novo! ( Lagos!


Badagri Beach

Cotonou
618'0"N

-19

Legend

! (
TYPE

City/Town

Pipeline Station

! !
-55

Compressor Station (Proposed) Gas Terminal Inlet Nigerian ROW WAGP Final Route

10

15
242'0"E

20

Kilometers 25
3 -18
360'0"E

-549
-732

-366

Bathymetric Contour (Meters)


318'0"E

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636'0"N

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from the dry season EBS unless otherwise noted. Details of these two studies can be found in the First Season EBS Report (Appendix 5-A), which documents the dry season results, and the Second Season EBS Report (Appendix 5-B), which documents the wet season results. The EBS reports document in detail the scientific collections and analyses performed for baseline purposes, scientific and regulatory data collection expectations of the host countries, and/or in the event of future liability challenges. Liability challenges could include charges of pollution and or ecological impacts resulting from WAGP construction or operations. Quantitative data are compared, where possible, to relevant reference levels (including regulatory standards) in order to provide the reader with an understanding of the current overall quality of the existing environment and resources. As directed by the legal authorities identified in Chapter 1 (Section 1.3), certain impacts that are relevant to the proposed gas pipeline are identified and assessed in this document (see Chapter 6). The review of existing conditions is in accordance with the laws, regulations, and other guidelines of Nigeria, as well as international guidelines. The Nigerian section of the proposed pipeline ROW includes approximately 56 kilometers (km) onshore (from Badagry Beach to the Alagbado tie-in point). For the environment north of Agbara, the pipeline is sited alongside an existing pipeline. The environmental baseline studies prepared for that pipeline (Shell Nigeria Gas Limited, 2000) were reviewed for descriptive information. The information and data in that report were supplemented by additional studies. The biological setting of the coastal/nearshore part of the proposed ROW is visible in Figure 5.1-2. The pipeline comes out of the waters of the Atlantic and crosses a sandy beach around Badagry, then a barrier island that consists of a sandy beach, used mainly used as a landing point for small fishing crafts by the local villagers, a coconut grove (which is also farmed), and a more intensively farmed strip of land. Just before the lagoon (Badagry Creek), the ROW crosses a narrow strip of marshland colonized by naturally occurring sedges (Cyperus spp.), often harvested by the local population for the purpose of mat making. In addition, some portions of this strip are planted with sugarcane, a flood tolerant crop. From this strip, the ROW enters Badagry Creek and emerges into a strip of marshland and degraded raphia palm area. This strip of land is subjected to inundation for most parts of the year and the raphia palms that grow therein, along with some tall grasses and sedges, are burned annually. The ROW then crosses another strip of bare/cleared coastal savannah used primarily as grazing land for livestock (and usually heavily overgrazed). It is burned each year by the cattle rearers in order to hasten the regrowth of grasses for their livestock. The ROW then enters a raphia-dominated freshwater forest that occurs around Agbara; near here the ROW links to the already existing Shell pipeline. Agricultural practices in the vicinity include permanent crop farming (mostly cola nuts). Hunting is a regular occupation, as several wildlife species occur in the area. The ROW crosses from there into farmlands that are either active or undergoing fallow periods. Typically, such farmlands are either within and around settlements or not too far from them. From the farmlands, the ROW moves into secondary forest, which is occasionally interspersed with farmlands and residential areas. This mosaic

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Figure 5.1-2 Onshore Sampling Locations in Nigeria

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pattern is sustained until the ROW terminates at the tie-in station in Alagbado, with the last 3 km to 5 km under various levels of residential development. Table 5.1-1 provides an estimate of the length in meters (m) and area in hectares (ha) of each habitat/land cover type within the proposed ROW in Nigeria. Table 5.1-1 Land Cover Estimates for Proposed ROW
Habitat/Land Cover Lagoon Bare/Cleared/Farm/Settlement Beach Coconut Grove Forest/Secondary Forest Forested Wetland Grassland Mosaic with Interspersed Wetlands Marsh Mosaic of Forested and Cleared Total Total Length (m) Area (ha) 533 1.3 2,507 6.3 37 0.1 213 0.5 27,328 68.3 8,663 21.7 3,201 8.0 704 1.8 12,813 32.0 56,000 140

5.1.1

Onshore Environment

A number of discrete ecological communities were identified in the dry season EBS within two broad regions: coastal/nearshore and inland/onshore (Table 5.1-2). The descriptions below generally follow this categorization. In addition, affected wetlands were mapped as part of the wet season EBS, and more detailed results can be found in the Second Season EBS Report (Appendix 5-B). Figure 5.1-2 shows the onshore sampling locations. Table 5.1-2 Broad Community Characterizations in the Project Area
Area Coastal/Nearshore Community Characterizations Strandline/Sandy Beach Coconut-Dominated Barrier Island Bare Land/Cleared Land/Farms and Grassland Mosaic Marshy Swamp Raphia Palm-Dominated Freshwater Swamp Forest with Cyperus and Reeds Grassy/Cleared Area and Coastal Savanna Mosaic of Bush Fallow/Farmland/Built Up Area Secondary Forest (patches within other types)

Inland/Onshore

5.1.1.1

Physical Environment

This subsection presents information on the physical environment of the onshore parts of the project location. The environment discussed here covers the onshore stretch of the pipeline, from the tie-in point at Alagbado, Ogun State, to Badagry Beach, Lagos State, in Nigeria.

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5.1.1.1.1

Climate

The climate in the Gulf of Guinea and Central Eastern Atlantic is strongly influenced by Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) weather patterns. Maritime tropical air masses, characterized by warm, humid southwesterly winds and the continental air mass, characterized by hot, dry northeasterly winds, converge in the ITCZ. The alternating wet season and dry season phenomenon is determined by the north-south oscillation of air masses in the ITCZ. Winds from the southwest and south-southwest blow year round with monthly averages between 2 meters per second (m/s) and 4m/s. While there are two main seasons during the course of the year, the annual weather patterns are somewhat more complicated due to a short break in the wet season in August. The typical weather is as follows: Long summer rainy period stretches from April to July and starts with storms and strong, humid southwesterly winds. There is an upwelling event along the shoreline in July; Short dry period occurs in August as rainfall amounts suddenly decline about 75 percent; Short rainy period is associated with decreasing winds and a weak upwelling during October and November. Ocean surface temperatures increase during September, reaching 28 degrees Celsius (C); and Long dry season stretches from December to March and is characterized by persistent Harmattan winds, which derive from anticyclone systems in the north. The mean annual rainfall in the region ranges from 500 millimeters (mm) to 2,000mm. During the wet season, rainfall events can be as much as 140mm per day. Along the coast, the mean annual rainfall ranges between 920mm and 1491mm. As one would expect at near sea level in the equatorial zone, temperatures are high and only vary approximately 8C throughout the year. Maximum temperatures are 32C during the dry season (February, March), and a minimum of 22C often occurs in August. 5.1.1.1.2 Land Use

Land use is discussed below by broad community type (e.g. Table 5.1-1). Since land use is strongly related to land cover, the latter is also described. Additional details on land use can be found in the Socioeconomic Impact Assessment.
Coastal/Nearshore

The coastal region of the study area encompasses mostly the stretch of barrier island that occurs between the Atlantic Ocean and the Badagry Creek. This strip of barrier island varies in width, from 500m to 900m. The characteristics of the vegetative cover are available from

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recent imagery (e.g. Figure 5.1-1) and a land cover map can be found in the appendix to the EBS (Appendix 5-A). The barrier island contains four major land cover types: Strandline/Sandy Beach This land cover type occurs immediately at the edge of the Atlantic Ocean and consists of mostly bare sands inhabited by creeping plants (mainly rhizomatous and stoloniferous1) above the shoreline. The soils are medium to coarse grained and are very deep, mostly exceeding the 1m-mark. The large sizes of the sand grains make the soils relatively immune to wind and water erosion. Coconut Dominated Barrier Island This land cover type occurs immediately beyond the strandline and is very extensive within the study area, especially around the proposed beach crossing at Badagry. The coconuts are quite matured with an average height of 20m. The undergrowth consists of tall grasses with a few scattered shrubs. Settlements consisting of thatched huts occur within this land cover and the spaces between the coconuts are farmed intensively. The major crop grown is cassava. The soils here are sandy but with finer grain size. The grains become finer with distance from the shoreline. Bare Land/Cleared Land/Farms and Grassland Mosaic This land cover category consists of a mixture of cleared land and/or natural clearings and grasslands. The vegetation consists of grasses such as spear grass (Cynodon dactylon and Andropogon gayanus). There are also a few trees like the black plum and young coconut trees. The soils are generally sandy, but very fine, and are deep, loose, and friable. Crops planted in the area include cassava, yams, and maize. The area is seasonally burned. Cassava plots within the scattered young coconut palms and mango trees are common. Marshy Swamps This land cover consists of a narrow belt of marshy area at the fringe of Lagos Lagoon. Extensive mats of the sledge Cyperus and scattered stands of coconut and flood tolerant trees dominate this area. Cyperus is used locally in making mats. The plant is considered to have great economic value by the people in the area. The area is cropped with coconuts, sugarcane, oil palm, and plantain. The area is poorly drained and this, coupled with the massive clayey structure of the soils, subjects the area to inundation, which makes access difficult.
Inland

The inland portion of the site consists of the land cover types described below.

A rhizome is a horizontal plant stem with shoots above and roots below serving as a reproductive structure; a stolon is a horizontal branch from the base of plant that produces new plants from buds at its tips.

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Raphia PalmDominated Freshwater Swamp Forest with Cyperus and Reeds This land cover category is quite extensive around the area. The soils in this area are generally poorly drained, very poorly aerated (due to water-logging), massive in structure, deeply flooded, and contain a high content of organic material. Grassy/Cleared Area and Coastal Savanna This belt is heavily grazed and subjected to annual burning. There are scattered shrubs and trees within the large expanse of grasses. Soils in this habitat are loose, generally noncoherent, and sandy. Mosaic of Bush Fallow/Farmland/Built-up Area Active and fallow farmlands make up this land cover type, which is quite often close to settlements. Cassava and yams form the major crops in the area, although fast growing trees also occur. A few orchard trees such as mango and guava are also planted, especially close to residences. The soils are well-drained sandy loam and friable. 5.1.1.1.3 Cultural Resources

The cultural resources observed on-site during fieldwork for the EBS include burial grounds and ancestral shrines. In all, two ancient cemeteries were observed, one at Aradagun Village and the other at Ajido. However, neither of the two cemeteries is located within a 2km offset of the pipeline ROW. Numerous shrines associated with traditional religion are also found within the proximity of project activities. Section 5.3 provides more detail on cultural resources. 5.1.1.1.4 Geology and Hydrogeology

The geology of the onshore part of the study area is mostly sedimentary, classified as Cretaceous Tertiary and Quaternary sediments (Buchanan and Pugh, 1955). Jones and Hockey (1964) recognized five major geological formations in this area (Table 5.1-3). The oldest sediments in this area were laid down during the transgression of the sea from the south in late Senonian times. Subsequently, the history is one of gradual retreat of the sea accompanied by subsidence, which allowed accumulation of sediments near the present-day coastline in the southwest and southeast. Table 5.1-3 Sedimentary Formations in the Overall Nigeria Onshore Project Area
Geological Formation Alluvium Coastal Plain Sands Ilaro Formation (sands, clays, and shales) Age Recent Pleistocene to Oligocene Upper Eocene Middle Eocene Lower Eocene Paleocene Upper Senonian

Ewekoro Formation (shales and limestones) Abeokuta Formation (sandstones and clays)

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Generally, the Abeokuta Formation is predominantly arenaceous at the base, with considerable thickness of clays and shales of continental to marine origin. It is bounded to the north by the basement complex and merges imperceptibly into the Ewekoro Formation to the south. The Ewekoro Formation consists of fossiliferous paleocene limestone and shales. The shale gives rise to a distinct group of clayey soils, most of which are poorly drained to seasonally swampy. The coastal plain sand is mostly soft, poorly sorted, clayey sands, pebble sands, and sandy clay, and is lithologically indistinguishable from the Ilaro Formation. They all weather into red and brown sandy soils and clayey grits, but are modified by the seasonally fluctuating water table as conditioned by topography (relief). The recent alluvial material overlies the coastal plain sand and Ilaro and Ewekoro Formations, and is mainly a deposit of littoral and lagoonal sediments of the coastal belt and the alluvial sediments of the major rivers. Table 5.1-4 contains results from the dry season EBS Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) survey around the proposed compressor station. The table shows a 5-layered subsurface with resistivity values and thicknesses. There are two water-bearing horizons; the first is encountered from a depth of about 5m to 30m except at locations five and six where this occurs at a depth of about 2m to 4m. The second water-bearing horizon is separated from the first by a dry sand layer varying in thickness from about 4m to 35m. The results indicate that the water table is about 10m below the ground surface. The VES diagrams are presented in Appendix 5-A while the borehole logs are shown in Figure 5.1-3. Based on the VES survey and the observations from three monitoring wells drilled around the compressor station site, groundwater was determined to be flowing in a northeasterly direction. This is depicted in Figure 5.1-4.

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Table 5.1-4 Summary of the Hydrogeophysical Characteristics at the Six VES Stations
VES Location Number of Layers 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Resistivity (Ohm-m) 8248.2 26941.4 2848.7 25892.2 280.8 23572.4 4852.0 4565.7 12646.1 338.9 26010.7 18718.6 1453.5 8747.7 701.1 26649.5 19099.7 3128.6 10223.1 593.6 3811.2 33941.8 2861.2 6214.7 1295.0 10915.7 41428.1 1206.6 75080.6 3145.1 Thickness (m) 0.1 4.8 17.4 12.5 Infinity 4.9 0.1 24.9 20.5 Infinity 1.7 6.3 7.6 34.5 Infinity 1.2 5.3 19.1 24.0 Infinity 0.2 2.0 1.8 20.6 Infinity 0.7 1.4 1.4 4.8 Infinity Depth (m) 0.1 4.9 22.3 34.8 Infinity 4.9 5.0 29.9 50.4 Infinity 1.7 8.0 15.7 50.2 Infinity 1.2 6.5 25.6 49.6 Infinity 0.2 2.2 4.0 24.6 Infinity 0.7 2.1 3.5 8.3 Infinity Comments Topsoil Dry sand Wet sand Dry sand Wet sand Topsoil Dry sand Wet sand Dry sand Wet sand Topsoil Dry sand Wet sand Dry sand Wet sand Topsoil Dry sand Wet sand Dry sand Wet sand Topsoil Mottled clay Wet sand Dry sand Wet sand Topsoil Mottled clay Wet sand Dry sand Wet sand

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Figure 5.1-3 Borehole Lithology


BOREHOLE 1: COORDINATES: 062459N; 0025921E DEPTH TO WATER: 7m LAYER DESCRIPTION THICKNESS (M) DEPTH (M) TOPSOIL 0.1 0.1 DRY SAND 4.8 4.9 WET SAND 17.4 22.3 BOREHOLE 2: COORDINATES: 062500N; 0025920E DEPTH TO WATER: 6m LAYER DESCRIPTION THICKNESS (M) DEPTH (M) TOPSOIL 1.7 1.7 DRY SAND 6.3 8.0 WET SAND 7.6 15.6 BOREHOLE 3: COORDINATES: 062459N; 0025922E DEPTH TO WATER: 8m LAYER DESCRIPTION THICKNESS (M) DEPTH (M) TOPSOIL 0.7 0.7 MOTTLED CLAY 1.4 2.1 WET SAND 1.4 2.1 DRY SAND 4.8 8.3 WET SAND Infinity Infinity

Figure 5.1-4 Direction of Groundwater Flow


BH 2 06o2500N 002o5920E DTW = 6m

BH 3 06o2459N 002o5922E DTW = 8m

BH 1 KEY: General Groundwater Flow Direction BH Borehole DTW Depth to Water 06o2459N 002o5921E DTW =7m

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Results from laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the boreholes indicate approximately neutral pH, trace/non-existent heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Tables 5.1-5 and 5.1-6). Analysis of groundwater for potability occurred in the wet season EBS and these results can be found in Appendix 5-B. Table 5.1-5 Groundwater Trace Metals Concentrations (ppm)*
Manganese Chromium Cadmium

Nickel

Lead

Samples

pH

Copper

Zinc

BH1 BH2 BH3

6.8 7.1 6.9

0.015 0.014 0.012

<0.001 <0.001 <0.001

0.041 0.041 0.051

<0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.024 0.041

<0.001 <0.001 <0.001

0.028 0.059 0.061

0.085 1.063 1.502

* ppm = parts per million.

Table 5.1-6 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content (ppm) of the Groundwater at the Proposed Compressor Station Site
Component Naphthalene 2-Methyl Naphthalene Acenaphthalene Acenaphthene Florene Phenathrene Anthracene Fluoranthene Pyrene Benzo(a)anthracene Crysene Benzo(b)fluoranthrene Benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(k)fluoranthrene Indeno(1,2,3) perylene Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene Benzo(g,h,i) perylene Total ( ppm) BH1 0.000 0.030 0.025 0.000 0.000 0.055 0.068 0.079 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.257 BH2 0.000 0.021 0.017 0.000 0.000 0.073 0.082 0.112 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.306 BH3 0.000 0.019 0.014 0.000 0.000 0.047 0.092 0.107 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.280

The assessment of deeper groundwater hydrology focused on the location of the proposed compressor station. Hydrogeology was not investigated in the rest of the ROW due to the fact that no impacts to groundwater are anticipated because the pipeline will be buried in the upper soil depths, and therefore impacts to deep groundwater hydrology would not be expected over the entire length of the onshore portion of the pipeline. Shallow groundwater

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resources were assessed during the Second Season EBS and the results can be found in Appendix 5-B. 5.1.1.1.5 Soils and Terrain/Topography

Soils in the project area are considered to have developed in the superficial recent alluvium (Thomas, 1959; Hansell, 1965). It was observed that the recent alluvial material deposits were more than 67.2m deep in areas around Pakuro (near Ilaro) and 125m deep in areas around Dahomey (Benin Republic). Therefore, the various underlying sedimentary formations are likely to have very little to no influence on the soils. Marine deposition of sand (Adejuwon, 1974) and the accumulation of lagoonal and continental dead organic matter, along with the sedimentation of materials brought down by rivers and fluvial sorting of the sand ridge materials after emergence, contribute to the production of the recent alluvium, which gives rise to the soils in the area. Moss (1957) also indicated that soils in the area were developed from sandstone, terrace sands, shale, and river alluvium. The soils are slightly acidic in the top horizons (pH range of 4.3 to 6.0) and this acidity increases with soil depth (subsoil pH ranges from 3.5 to 4.8). The exchangeable bases and cation exchange capacity are generally low (Amusan and Ashaye, 1989), varying from 0.34 centimoles of positive charge per kilogram (cmol (+) Kg-1) to 14.82 cmol (+) Kg-1 and 1.14 cmol (+) Kg-1 to 21.06 cmol (+) Kg-1 soil, respectively. The percent aluminum saturation of the soils is high, especially in the subsoil, and this suggests possible mobilization of heavy metals in the subsoil, due mainly to poor drainage, poor aeration, and acidic solum. Soil pH is important because metals buried in certain acidic soils may need to be protected against external corrosion. Soils in the project area tend to be near neutral or slightly acidic at the surface, with increasing acidity at greater depths, and have low total organic matter (TOC) content (see Table 5.1-7c). In contrast, the hydric soils2 in swamps/marshy areas tend to be acidic, with high TOC. In the freshwater forested swamps, soils are often flooded or waterlogged. Soils in the marshy swamps, such as those dominated by sedges (Cyperus spp.), exhibit poor drainage and are muddy. Erosion susceptibility of the swampy soils is low, but the soils can easily be puddled and degraded if worked when wet. In acidic areas (pH less than 6) of poor drainage, metals, such as naturally occurring or exogenous iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al), may be mobilized (i.e., there is a potential for corrosion to occur). Soils of more upland forests and coastal savannas tend to have low organic matter content with neutral to slight acidity, be well drained but have moist sub-soils. Soils in areas that have been repeatedly cleared tend be sandy, loose and well drained. In habitats other than swamps, soil redox values indicate the presence of adequate oxygen important for soil microand macro-organisms and for processes such as decomposition in the soil.

Hydric soils are characterized by excessive moisture and are prone to flooding and saturation during at least the wet season.

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Samples were collected from the various habitat types identified within the study area during the first season field sampling. Based on observations from the field sampling, two major areas were sampled; coastal (nearshore) areas and inland areas.
Coastal Area Soils

This is the land area between the Atlantic Ocean and the Badagry Creek. In width, the land area covered extends from about 500m to 720m. Characteristics of soils for the coastal/nearshore habitat types observed during the dry season EBS are shown in Tables 5.1-7 through 5.1-8. For the coastal transect, three out of the four habitat types present on the barrier island were chosen for sampling. Based on visual observations during the fieldwork, the field team determined that there is likely to be a close similarity between the chemical properties of the soils on the beach and that of the coconut grove. Therefore, samples were not analyzed from the coconut-dominated barrier island. Table 5.1-7a Mean Particle Size Distribution of Soils from the Different Habitats Within the Coastal Area
Sampling Coordinates Latitude (N) 06 23.81 06 23.97 06 24.15 Longitude (E) 002 59.32 002 59.32 002 59.31 Habitat Type VCS Bare beach sand Bare land/ cleared area/ grassland Marshy/Swamp 4 3 1 CS 29 34 5 MS 53 47 11 FS 7 7 11 VFS 0 0 2 TS 93 91 30 Sand Fraction (percent) Soil Separate (percent) Silt 1 2 28 Clay 6 7 42 Sand Sand Clay Texture

VCS = Very coarse sand; CS = coarse sand; MS = medium sand; FS = fine sand; VFS = very fine sand; TS = total sand

Table 5.1-7b Average Chemical Characteristics of Soils in the Different Habitats Within the Coastal Area Dry Season EBS
Sampling Coordinates Latitude (N) Longitude (E) 06 23.81 002 59.32 06 23.97 002 59.32 Habitat Type Bare Beach Sand Bare Land/Cleared Land/ Farms and Grassland Mosaic Marshy/Swamp pH 6.9 6.5 4.9 TOC (percent) 0.47 0.98 37.05 THC (ppm) 12.09 13.12 6.42 Salinity (ppm) ND ND 35.45

06 24.15

002 00.31

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Table 5.1-7c Average Chemical Characteristics of Soils in the Different Habitats Within the Barrier Island (Coastal Area) Wet Season EBS
Sampling Coordinates Latitude (oN) Longitude (oE) 06o 23 50 002o 59 19 o 06 23 57 002o 59 19 o 06 24 04 002o 59 19 o 06 24 09 002o 59 19 Habitat Type Bare Beach Sand Coconut Dominated Barrier Bare land/Cleared Area/Grassland Cyperus dominated marsh pH 6.43 6.34 6.60 5.58 TOC (percent) 0.29 0.62 0.54 29.4

Table 5.1-8 Heavy Metal Concentrations (ppm) of Soils in the Different Habitats Within the Coastal Area
Sampling Coordinates Longitude (E) Latitude (N)

Cadmium

Habitat Type

Manganese

Chromium

Copper

Nickel

Lead

Zinc

06 23.81 06 23.97 06 24.15

002 59.32 002 59.32 002 00.31

Bare Beach Sand Cleared Area/ Bare Land/Grassy Marshy/Swamp

0.04 0.06 0.12

<0.001 <0.001 0.2

6.94 13.8 9.84

<0.001 0.28 6.16

<0.001 0.78 <0.001

<0.001 <0.001 0.34

0.12 0.32 3.72

291.3 338.44 2,020.42

Strandline/ Sandy Beach This bare beach sand is commonly fringed by strand vegetation, typified by prostrate plants with creeping stems. In most places, the deep, medium-grained, loose beach sand is bare with numerous thatched huts dotting the habitat. The beach sand is highly leached and is almost devoid of humified3 organic remains other than the shells of sea organisms brought onto the beach by wave actions. Dry season EBS results found that the average pH of representative samples of the beach sand is 6.9. The near neutral pH is likely due to seaspray because of the proximity of the beach to the ocean. The total organic matter content is low, averaging 0.47 percent, with total hydrocarbon content (THC) of 12.09ppm. Coconut-Dominated Barrier Island This area is a highly homogenous habitat type and is quite extensive in the study area. The habitat is characterized by very loose, medium to fine sand, with tall grasses and few scattered shrub species. In texture, the sandy soils become finer with distance away from the shoreline. This habitat, close to the shoreline, supports tall coconut palms that are more closely spaced (i.e., of high density) compared to the scattered stands of the palms in places farther away from the coastline. In terms of physical characteristics, soils in this habitat are not significantly different from those of the beach sand. As is true for the bare beach sand,

Humus is a brown or black organic substance consisting of partially or wholly decayed vegetable or animal matter that provides nutrients for plants and increases the ability of soil to retain water.

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soils in this habitat are highly porous and well aerated, with very rapid infiltration rate, and low moisture holding capacity. The soils are considered to have medium to high permeability since they are loose, unconsolidated, single-grained, medium sand. Apart from the weakly developed A-horizon or uppermost layer, no other visible genetic horizon was observed, which suggests that they are recently formed soils, or Inceptisols of the USDA Soil Taxonomy (1998), and are Cambisols by the FAO/UNESCO (1996) system of soil classification. On the basis of their particle size distribution (i.e. texture), they are loamy fine sand and coarser. These characteristics, coupled with the high annual rainfall in the area, will group the soils as Dystrudepts (Great Group of Soil Taxonomy) and Humic Psammentic Dystrudepts (Subgroup of Soil Taxonomy) (USDA Soil Taxonomy, 1998). The soils are not prone to water erosion in view of the high infiltration and their high intrinsic permeability. The influence of wind erosion is likely to be minimal because the loose sand grains are medium to coarse, which makes them heavy for transport by wind, since the silt content is low. Virtually all the clay particles have been translocated, i.e. eluviated, by percolating water. The translocation is possibly enhanced by the predominance of medium to coarse sand particles with large pore spaces in a region that has heavy annual precipitation. Bare Land/Cleared Area/Farmland Physically, the soils are deep, loose, friable, fine to medium sand. The physical properties of representative soil samples from within the habitat are shown in Table 5.1-7. As seen in the table, medium (47 percent) to coarse (34 percent) sand fractions predominate. In view of the sandy texture, the soils ability to retain moisture is low, but the soils are well aerated. On the basis of morphological and physical characteristics, the soils are not significantly different from those of the coconut palm-dominated area, and are classified the same. Marshy Swamp This habitat is dominated by Cyperus sp., an aquatic sedge. Due to poor drainage conditions in the area and the difficulty of accessibility, a large portion of this habitat has not been highly altered. Typical particle size distribution of soils within this habitat is shown in Table 5.1-7. From the table, it is observed that soils in this habitat have almost equal amounts of sand (30 percent) and silt (28 percent) and about 42 percent clay. The high content of silt and clay can be due to deposition of materials in suspension brought down by lagoon water in addition to overland flow from the surrounding higher physiographic land area. Texturally, the soils are clayey, very poorly drained, poorly aerated and generally contain partly decomposed and un-decomposed organic materials, possibly occasioned by low rates of decomposition due to high moisture and poor aeration. At the time of the dry season EBS (January 2003), the soils were still waterlogged to swampy. The soils are muddy, massive in structure, and dark gray to black at the surface. The soils in the habitat are characterized with aquic soil moisture regime (i.e., in which the soil is saturated long enough to cause anaerobic conditions), wherein the saturating water
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itself is virtually free of DO (USDA Soil Taxonomy 1998) in all the horizons. The texture is clay, and the soils are slightly sticky, plastic wet, and firm moist. They have hue of 2.5Y or yellower, chroma of 3 or less, and distinct redox colorations. These characteristics will group the soils as Aquents (i.e., recently formed poorly drained soils). In view of the low relief characteristic of the habitat and the presence of sufficient vegetation cover, water erosion is not considered to be severe in the habitat.
Inland Area Soils

Soil characteristics of the generalized habitat community types in the inland region are shown in Tables 5.1-9 through 5.1-11. Table 5.1-9 Mean Particle Size Distribution of Soils from Habitats Within the Inland Area
Sampling Coordinates Latitude (N) 06 25.88 Longitude (E) 002 59.14 Habitat Type VCS Raphia Palm Dominated Freshwater Swamp Forest Grassy/Cleared Area/Bare Land Bush Fallow/ Farmland CS MS FS VFS TS Sand Fraction (percent) Soil Separate (percent) Silt Clay Texture

22

71

Clay

06 25.00 06 28.83

002 59.30 002 00.18

1 1

16 10

43 20

27 29

1 15

88 75

3 8

9 17

Sand Clay

VCS = Very coarse sand; CS = coarse sand; MS = medium sand; FS = fine sand; VFS = very fine sand; TS = total sand

Table 5.1-10a Average Chemical Characteristics of Soils in Habitats Within the Inland Area Dry Season EBS
Sampling Coordinates Latitude (N) Longitude (E) 06 25.88 06 25.00 06 28.83 002 59.14 002 59.30 002 00.18 Habitat Type Raphia Palm Dominated Freshwater Swamp Forest Grassy/Cleared Area/ Bare Land Bush Fallow/ Farmland pH 5.0 6.0 5.9 TOC (percent) 18.36 0.70 2.96 THC (ppm) 9.44 27.26 30.32 Salinity (ppm) 200.88 199.41 94.53

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Table 5.1-10b The Average Chemical Characteristics of Soils in the Different Habitats Within the Inland Area Wet Season EBS
Sampling Coordinates Latitude (oN) Longitude (oE) o 06 25 02 002o 59 19 06o 25 14 06o 25 58 003o 00 27 002o 59 48 Habitat Type Marshland/Bush Fallow Raphia palm dominated freshwater swamp forest Bare land/Cleared Area/Grassland pH 5.41 5.03 6.70 TOC (percent) 0.29 1.77 1.45

Table 5.1-11 Heavy Metal Concentrations (ppm) of Soils in the Different Habitats Within the Coastal Area
Sampling Coordinates Longitude (E) Latitude (N)

Cadmium

Habitat Type

Manganese

Chromium

Copper

Nickel

Lead

Zinc

06 25.88

002 59.14

06 25.00 06 28.83

002 59.30 002 00.18

Raphia Palm Dominated Freshwater Swamp Forest Grassy/Cleared Area/Bare Land Bush Fallow/ Farmland

0.08

0.83

14.09

16.75

0.98

8.27

14.23

5,779.82

0.12 <0.001

0.13 0.04

39.83 12.85

2.19 4.04

1.30 2.4

0.07 <0.001

0.41 1.8

1,682.95 2,503.72

Raphia Palm-Dominated Freshwater Swamp Forest The soils in this swampy habitat are generally poorly drained, very poorly aerated (due to water-logging), massive in structure, contain a high content of partly decomposed to almost undecomposed organic materials, and were all deeply flooded at the time of wet season surveys (January, 2003). Table 5.1-9 shows the particle size distributions and texture of representative soils from the habitat. The soils are clayey in texture with very high content of clay (about 71 percent), and 22 percent silt. There is sufficient vegetative cover and the relief is generally low. Erosion susceptibility of the swampy soils is therefore low, but the soils can easily be compacted, puddle, and degraded if worked when wet. The soils will classify as Aquents. The pH of soils is about 5.0 (strongly acidic) with a high content of total organic carbon (TOC), about 18.36 percent (Table 5.1-10a). The THC and PAHs average about 9.44ppm and 2.27ppm, respectively.

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Grassy/Cleared Area/Bare Land Tall grasses, scattered shrubs and a few trees characterize this habitat. At the time of the dry season EBS, most of the grasses were burned, and cattle had heavily grazed those that were not burned. Soils in this habitat are loose, generally non-coherent, and sandy. Table 5.1-9 shows the particle size distribution of representative soil samples from within the habitat. The soils have about 88 percent sand, dominated by fine (27 percent) and medium (43 percent) sand fractions. Morphologically and physically, the soils are essentially the same as those similarly mapped and characterized within the barrier island area. The soils are classified as Psammentic (sandy) parts of recently/weakly developed soils (Inceptisols). Soils here are moderately acidic with an average pH of 6.0 and generally have low TOC (about 0.70 percent) (Table 5.1-10a). The soils are sandy in texture, well drained, highly porous, with low capacity to retain moisture and a very low TOC. The average THC content of the soils is 27.26ppm, whereas that of the PAHs is considerably lower, ranging from 0.88ppm to 2.63ppm (PAHs not shown on table). Results of the heavy metal analysis are shown in Table 5.1-11. Mosaic of Bush Fallow/Farmland/Built-Up Area This habitat type is generally widespread in the inland area, especially close to big towns along the proposed pipeline ROW. In this habitat, the proposed pipeline route passes sometimes very close to settlements, across tarred and earth roads, farmlands, and fallow plots. Soils in this habitat are typical of upland, well drained, humic brownish to yellowish red, granular to crumbly, slightly sticky, plastic wet, firm, moist, sandy loam surface soils, with distinctly brownish red, sub-angular blocky, mottledfree, friable, moist sub-soils. The absence of mottles and uniform subsoil color up to 100 centimeters (cm) soil depth indicate that the groundwater table is definitely beyond this depth of investigation. Within this depth of the soils, gaseous exchange between the soils and the atmosphere will not be adversely affected by seasonal changes throughout the year. Table 5.1-7 gives the particle size distribution of representative soil samples taken from the habitat. Although the sand content accounts for about 75 percent of the total soil separates, nevertheless, the sand is mainly very fine (15 percent), fine (29 percent), and medium (20 percent) sand fractions. The soils were classified as Ultisols (Amusan and Ashaye, 1989), meaning low base-status4 forest soils. The relief is generally undulating. Morphologically, soils here are highly ferruginized with an average pH of 5.9 and low TOC of 2.96 percent (Table 5.1-10a). The accumulation of iron (in Fe3+ form) in the soils is evidence of good internal drainage and aeration. The average THC content of the soils is 30.32ppm, whereas PAH was below 2.0ppm.

Base status refers to the amount of cations such as Ca2+, Mg2+, and K2+, associated with organic matter and more fertile soils.

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5.1.1.1.6
Water

Distinct Watersheds and Water Quality

Physical Characteristics of Onshore Surface Water. Detailed records of the physical parameters of water measured during the dry season EBS at the investigated stations are presented in Table 5.1-12 and summarized in Table 5.1-13. The surface water bodies (both tidal and non-tidal) were generally brownish in color (as viewed against the general background), ranging from greenish brown through light brown (for Badagry Creek) to dark brown (for Ologe Lagoon and River Owos tributaries). The generally brown coloration of the surface waters can be attributed to their relatively high organic matter content resulting from the decomposition of the dense swamp forest vegetation in the environment. Table 5.1-12a Water Bodies Surveyed in January 2003
Water Samples 1 (LT) 2&3 (LT&HT) 4&5 (LT&HT) 6&7 (LT&HT) 8 (LT) 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Water Body Yewa River Badagry Creek Badagry Creek Ologe River Sea Water Hand-Dug Well Hand-Dug Well Iju River Ore River Iju River Hand-Dug Well Oluwo River Sampling Site Close to Ibaye Village Near Topo Island At Tofa Village At Egan Village At Jegeme At Imeke At Ilogbo At Oko Omi Near Omigbongbo At Osuke At Osuke Oluwo Village Grid Location Latitude Longitude (N) (E) 6 28.16 2 52.09 6 24.46 2 55.86 6 24.55 3 04.33 6 26.16 3 08.54 6 33.84 3 00.12 6 26.11 2 59.34 6 30.06 3 01.90 6 37.54 3 08.68 6 37.58 3 05.17 6 36.08 3 09.50 6 36.36 3 09.55 6 42.66 3 18.16 Alt (m) 18 20 22 23 0 35 32 7 15 19 20 41 Distance to ROW (Km) 15.0 6.0 8.7 14.0 1.2 0.3 0.3 0.6 4.3 3.3 2.7 4.0 Depth (m) 4 6.8 3.3 2.8 0 to 20 3.7 3.7 0.4 5.8 0.3

LT= low tide; HT = high tide

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Table 5.1-12b Physical Characteristics of Water in the Study Area (January 2003)
Depth (m) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 4.0 6.8 6.8 3.3 3.3 2.8 2.8 ca. 10 3.7 9.0 0.4 5.8 0.3 Temperature (C) Air Water 29.4 28.3 31.4 29.6 31.4 29.5 32.0 31.1 32.0 30.1 31.8 30.5 31.8 30.4 30.8 30.0 32.0 29.8 33.8 29.0 29.4 28.4 24.0 25.5 26.0 25.0 26.5 28.0 29.0 28.0 Transparency (m) 0.85 0.54 0.54 0.82 0.82 0.69 0.69 >2 NA NA TB TB TB NA TB Color Dark Brown Light Brown Light Brown Greenish Brown Greenish Brown Dark Brown Dark Brown Light Green Clear Colorless Clear Colorless Dark Brown Brownish Green Dark Brown Clear Colorless Light Green TSS (ppm) 3.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 6.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 1.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 2.0

NA = Not applicable; TB = Transparent to bottom; n = number of samples; ca = approximately

Table 5.1-13 Summary of Physical Characteristics of Water from Water Bodies* Surveyed in the Study Area (January 2003)
Parameter Depth (m) Air Temperature (C) Water Temperature (C) Transparency (m) Color (visual) TSS (ppm) Tidal Rivers (n=8) 4.36 1.65 31.4 0.85 29.9 0.84 0.7 0.12 Brown 6.0 1.69 Non-Tidal Rivers (n=4) 0.35 0.05 27.1 2.22 26.73 1.49 TB Dark Brown 3.0 1.00 Hand Dug Wells (n=3) 6.17 2.18 30.77 3.11 28.93 0.74 NA Clear Colorless 4.33 2.87

NA = Not applicable; TB = Transparent to bottom; n = number of samples * See Table 5.12a for list of water bodies surveyed.

The dark brown coloration of Ologe Lagoon and the non-tidal rivers is probably due to the fact that they are heavily shaded by dense plant cover from which senescent leaves drop directly into the water course. At various stages of decomposition, these dead leaves release by-products such as humic and fluvic acids, which impart such water bodies with characteristic brown coloration. Unlike the surface water sources, the ground water sources in the study area were generally clear and colorless, having filtered through ground overburden into the aquifer.

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Secchi disc transparency is generally less than 1m into the water column. For water bodies less than 1m deep, light visibility extends directly to the water bottom. On average, the Secchi disc transparency for the tidal water bodies was 0.71 0.12m while transparency extends directly to water bottom in the non-tidal water bodies (Table 5.1-13). In general, water bodies in the study area are characterized by low total suspended solids (TSS). The measured values occur in the range of 2ppm to 8ppm with mean values of 6.0 1.7ppm for tidal waters and 4.3 2.9ppm for the subsurface water (hand-dug wells). The diel pattern, as well as the relationship between ambient air temperature and water temperature in the study area, are depicted in Figure 5.1-5 for the three investigated types of water bodies (tidal and non-tidal water bodies and hand dug wells). Information on the sampling locations is shown in Tables 5.1-12 through 5.1-14. Both ambient air and water temperature follow essentially the same diel pattern, which is characterized by a gradual rise through the morning to a peak in the afternoon and thereafter a gradual fall through evening. From mid-morning through early evening, air temperature is usually slightly higher than water temperature. In contrast, from late evening through mid-morning (7pm to 9am) water temperature is slightly higher than air temperature. The difference between air temperature and water temperature is more pronounced for non-tidal waters, followed by hand-dug wells and least in the open tidal water bodies. In general, air temperature exhibits a significant direct correlation with water temperature over the period mid-morning to evening (Figure 5.1-6). Table 5.1-14 Descriptive Statistics of Water Temperature in the Study Area (Morning and Afternoon)
Water Body Time of Day Statistics N Min (C) Max (C) Range (C) Mean (C) s.d. (C) Percent c.v. N Min (C) Max (C) Range (C) Mean (C) s.d. (C) Percent c.v. Tidal Waters 3 26.2 30.5 4.3 28.2 2.1 7.4 5 30.0 31.8 1.8 30.8 0.6 1.9 Non-Tidal Waters 5 25.0 30.0 5.0 26.8 1.8 6.6 9 25.5 30.4 4.9 27.6 1.5 5.3 Hand Dug Wells 4 27.6 29.2 1.6 28.5 0.7 2.4 6 28.0 30.0 2.0 29.1 0.7 2.2

Morning

Afternoon

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Figure 5.1-5 Diurnal Variation in Ambient Air and Tidal Water Temperature in the Project Area
Ambient Air and Tidal Water 35 Temperature (oC) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Time (hrs) Ambient Air Water

Ambient Air and Rivers/S tream


35 Temperature (oC) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 9 10 11 12 13 14 Time (hrs)
Am bient Air and Hand-dug Wells

Ambient Air Water

15 16 17

18

35 30 Temperature oC 25 20 15 10 5 0 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Time (hrs) Water Ambient Air

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Figure 5.1-6 Water Temperature Related to Air Temperature in the Project Area
35

y = 0.4298x + 15.419 R2 = 0.3052 30 Water Temp (oC)

Water Linear (Water)

25

20 20 25 Air Temp (oC) 30 35

Chemical Characteristics of Onshore Surface Water. The data obtained on major ions and salinity parameters (pH, salinity and conductivity) of the investigated water bodies are presented in Tables 5.1-15 and 5.1-16. Water pH varies over a wide range of values (4.63 to 8.14). While the tidal waters are near neutral, (7.22 0.66), the non-tidal waters are moderately acidic (6.42 0.23) and hand dug well waters are acidic (5.73 1.33). The tidal waters are essentially oligohaline brackish in nature while the non-tidal and hand-dug well waters are relatively fresh. Table 5.1-15 Parameters and Major Ions in the Investigated Water Bodies*
pH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7.14 7.27 7.00 7.53 7.31 7.20 7.13 8.14 7.60 4.96 6.06 6.59 6.63 4.63 6.41 Conductivity 251 431 435 1106 1523 329 341 51100 187.5 462.0 27.5 54.4 67.5 212.0 56.3 Salinity (percent) 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.8 0.2 0.2 33.5 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 TDS (ppm) 126 207 210 544 757 156 165 32300 89.9 223.0 12.5 25.5 31.6 101.6 26.5 HCO3 (ppm) 37.82 50.02 50.02 52.46 53.68 23.18 23.18 136.64 13.42 0 7.32 12.2 18.3 0 18.3 SO4 (ppm) 12.5 16.9 16.3 20.0 24.6 18.8 19.2 2772 15.3 12.2 3.9 5.5 5.2 3.1 4.4

* See Table 5.1-12a for a list of water bodies.

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Table 5.1-16 Salinity Parameters and the Major Ions of the Major Water Bodies* in the Project Area
Parameter pH Conductivity (S/cm) Salinity (percent) TDS (ppm) HCO3 (ppm) SO4 (ppm) Ocean (n=1) 8.14 51000 33.5 32200 136.64 2772 Tidal Rivers (n=7) 7.22 0.16 630.6 450.49 0.31 0.23 309.3 224.81 41.48 12.53 18.33 3.45 Non-Tidal Rivers (n=4) 6.42 0.23 51.42 14.69 0.02 0.08 24.03 7.04 14.03 4.61 4.75 0.63 Hand-Dug Wells (n=3) 5.73 1.33 287.2 124.03 0.13 0.047 138.2 60.18 4.47 6.33 10.2 5.18

* See Table 5.1-12a for a list of water bodies; n = number of samples.

Water salinity along Badagry Creek (at both surface and bottom levels) gradually increases towards the direction of the Lagos Harbor. Conversely, it decreases westward in the direction of Yewa River. Salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and conductivity were generally higher at the bottom than at surface water level. The concentrations of DO in water varied from 3.2ppm to 7.0ppm corresponding to 39.5 and 87.0 percent saturation, respectively. On average, the concentration and percent saturation of DO are higher in the tidal waters (66.3 8.8 percent) than non-tidal waters (62.7 16.8 percent) and lowest in well waters (60.9 percent). The concentrations of BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) are generally low, most of them being less than 4.0ppm. On average, BOD5 is highest in the non-tidal waters (5.6 2.6ppm) followed by the tidal waters (1.7 0.9ppm). The relatively high values for the non-tidal rivers may be due to their demand for decomposition of organic matter resulting from dead plant matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values are generally lower than their corresponding BOD5 values, especially for non-tidal and well waters. Inorganic nitrogen occurs mainly as nitratenitrogen (NO3N), then ammonium nitrogen (NH4N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2N), which occurs mainly in traces. Total inorganic nitrogen in the samples occurs in the range of 1.73ppm to 9.34ppm (mean s.d. = 2.0 1.79ppm) comprising 84 1.8 percent NO3N, 14.5 7.7 percent NH4N and 0.7 0.5 percent NO2N (Table 5.1-17). Total phosphate-phosphorus and available phosphate-phosphorus occur in the range of 0.06ppm to 0.13ppm and 0.04ppm to 0.11ppm PO4-P, respectively. Average values are slightly higher in the tidal waters than in the non-tidal and hand-dug well water (Table 5.1-18). During the wet season EBS, overall measurements of NH3 nitrogen and NO3 nitrogen tended to be higher than those of the dry season EBS, while ranges for PO4 phosphorus and SO4 were comparable (Appendices 5-A and 5-B). Tables 5.1-19 and 5.1-20 illustrate the heavy metal results of investigated water bodies in the project area. The physical and chemical characteristics of the water bodies in the study area do not indicate the presence of contaminants (although water quality for drinking is relatively poor).

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Table 5.1-17 Project Area Water Body* Oxygen and Nutrient Compounds by Sample
DO
(ppm)

DO Sat
(percent)

BOD
(ppm)

COD
(ppm)

TOC
(ppm)

NO2N
(ppm)

NO3N
(ppm)

NH4N
(ppm)

T-N
(ppm)

PO4
(ppm Total)

PO4
(ppm Avail.)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

5.2 6.0 5.2 5.8 4.6 4.2 4.2 5.8 4.4 3.6 4.8 7.0 3.2 6.0 4.8

67 79 67 78 61 56 56 77 58.3 47.1 62.3 87.0 39.5 77.4 61.9

3.0 3.2 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.0 1.8 3.6 1.4 0.8 4.2 10.3 4.8 3.0 3.0

58.7 89.8 121.0 58.7 58.7 121.0 121.0 614.1 58.7 27.6 89.8 27.6 58.7 27.6 BDL

60 90 120 60 60 120 120 600 60 30 90 30 60 30 BDL

0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 <0.01 0.01 0.04 0.02 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01

2.51 1.82 1.85 1.88 1.79 3.06 2.05 3.67 2.57 2.80 1.93 1.62 1.62 2.69 1.70

0.39 0.45 0.46 0.50 0.59 0.74 0.74 5.66 0.62 0.32 0.01 0.20 0.11 0.07 0.19

2.92 2.29 2.34 2.41 2.42 3.83 2.79 9.34 3.23 3.15 1.94 1.82 1.73 2.76 1.90

0.13 0.11 0.09 0.13 0.12 0.06 0.05 0.11 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.04 0.09 0.13

0.10 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.04 0.11 0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04

* See Table 5.1-12a for a list of water bodies.

Table 5.1-18 Oxygen and Nutrient Compounds in Major Water Bodies* in the Project Area
Parameter DO (ppm) DO Sat (percent) BOD (ppm) COD (ppm) TOC (ppm) NO2N (ppm) NO3N (ppm) NH4N (ppm) T-N (ppm) PO4P (ppm) PO4P (ppm) Ocean (n=1) 5.8 77 3.6 614.1 600 0.01 3.67 5.66 9.34 0.11 0.11 Tidal Rivers (n=7) 5.03 0.67 66.29 8.78 2.63 0.49 89.8628.84 90.0 27.77 0.03 0.009 2.14 0.44 0.55 0.13 2.71 0.51 0.10 0.03 0.07 0.03 Non-Tidal Rivers (n=4) 4.95 1.35 62.68 16.80 5.60 2.60 58.7 25.39 60.0 24.49 0.033 0.039 1.718 0.127 0.128 0.076 1.85 0.080 0.075 0.034 0.040 0.000 Hand-Dug Wells (n=3) 4.67 0.998 60.93 12.51 1.73 0.93 37.97 14.66 40.0 14.14 0.023 0.012 2.69 0.094 0.337 0.225 3.05 0.21 0.07 0.014 0.04 0.000

* See Table 5.1-12a for a list of water bodies; n = number of samples.

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Table 5.1-19 Descriptive Statistics of Heavy Metal Content of the Investigated Water Bodies*
Parameter (ppm) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Manganese (Mn) Zinc (Zn) Lead (Pb) Copper (Cu) Nickel (Ni) Iron (Fe) n 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Min 0.018 <0.001 <0.07 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.053 0.803 Max 0.023 <0.001 0.211 0.048 0.067 <0.001 0.088 3.105 Descriptive Statistics (ppm) Median Mean s.d 0.0225 0.0215 0.0019 <0.001 <0.001 0.000 0.1075 0.1159 0.0435 <0.001 0.0073 0.0150 <0.001 0.023 0.0291 <0.001 <0.001 0.00 0.071 0.0696 0.0122 1.705 1.633 1.100 Percent c.v. 8.8 0.0 37.6 204.8 126.4 0.0 17.5 67.4

* See Table 5.1-12a for a list of water bodies; n = number of samples.

Table 5.1-20 Heavy Metal Contents of Some Water Bodies* in the Study Area
Water Body River Yewa (LT) Badagry Creek (LT) Badagry Creek (HT) Badagry Creek (LT) Badagry Creek (HT) Ologe Lagoon (S) Ologe Lagoon (B) Sea at Jegeme Imede River Well Water Cd (ppm) 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.022 0.023 0.02 0.018 0.019 0.021 0.023 Cr (ppm) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 Mn (ppm) 0.086 0.111 0.211 0.105 0.117 0.091 0.11 0.07 0.085 0.173 Zn (ppm) <0.001 <0.001 0.015 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.003 0.048 Pb (ppm) <0.001 <0.001 0.067 <0.001 0.043 0.052 0.062 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 Cu (ppm) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 Ni (ppm) 0.053 0.075 0.083 0.08 0.088 0.059 0.069 0.055 0.061 0.073 Fe (ppm) 0.808 2.435 3.105 2.492 2.733 0.975 1.06 0.212 2.349 0.163

* See Table 5.1-12a for a list of water bodies. Sediment

Physical Characteristics of Onshore Sediment. Information on the particle size distribution and textural classification of bottom sediments from some water bodies in the project area is presented in Table 5.1-21. Sediments from the investigated area of Badagry Creek are essentially sandy, ranging from sandy silt (at Topo Island), through clayey sand (at the ROW) to sand eastward of the ROW. The sand is comprised mostly of medium fraction, the contribution of which increases steadily from west to east along the creek. For instance, the contribution of medium sand fraction increased from 5.5 percent at Topo Island (06 24.464N, 002 55.063E) for 35.0 percent at the ROW to 37.7 percent at Tofa Village to 51.3 percent at Ibode/Orufo (06 24.690N; 003 07.693E). The relative contribution of both silt and clay follow an inverse pattern, i.e. decreasing from Topo Island to Ibode/Orufo Village. Sediments from the main sector are essentially silty clay in nature, with little or no sand fraction content.

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Table 5.1-21 Physical Characteristics of Sediments from Water Bodies in the Project Area
Water Body Yewa River Badagry Creek Badagry Creek Badagry Creek Badagry Creek Ologe Lagoon Ologe Lagoon Ologe Lagoon Ologe Lagoon Imede River Imede River Ijile River Sampling site and location Lat (N) Long (E) 06o 28.155 002o 52.091 06 24.464 06 24.326 06o 24.546 06o 24.690 06o 29.283 06o 28.492 06o 28.555 06o 26.897 06 28.907 06o 30.929 06o 27.799
o o o

VCS 0.00 0.59 0.37 0.09 1.20 0.30 0.00 0.00 8.60 1.40 19.70 0.81

Percent Sand Fraction CS MS FS VFS 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.37 7.34 5.34 15.44 0.92 0.00 0.00 15.70 4.95 45.50 4.28 5.52 35.04 37.65 51.29 2.78 0.00 0.00 26.77 12.50 25.35 9.33 17.18 39.35 42.60 20.33 4.62 0.00 0.00 40.56 28.2 1.40 42.30 7.34 3.90 4.32 0.74 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.37 40.05 0.00 14.25

Total 0.00 32.0 86.0 90.0 89.0 9.0 0.00 0.00 92.0 88.0 92.0 14.25

Percent Percent Silt Clay 33.0 67.0 54.0 2.0 2.0 30.0 39.0 22.0 2.0 2.0 7.0 2.0 10.0 14.0 11.0 8.0 9.0 61.0 61.0 78.0 6.0 5.0 6.0 19.0

Texture Silty Clay Sandy Silt Clayey Sand Sand Sand Silty Clay Silty Clay Silty Clay Sand Sand Sand Clayey Sand

002 55.863 002 59.266 003o 04.325 003o 07.693 003o 05.996 003o 05.239 003o 04.484 003o 08.542 003 04.872 003o 03.171 003o 01.618
o o

Sediment from the non-tidal water bodies contains a total sand fraction in the range of 71 to 92 percent. River Imede sediment is comprised predominantly of coarse sand fraction at the upper reach but fine sand fraction at the lower reach, while silt and clay fractions each contribute less than 8 percent to the sediment. Chemical Characteristics of Onshore Sediment. Information on the sediment characteristics of water bodies in the project area is presented in Tables 5.1-22 to 5.1-26. Sediment pH varies over a wide range of 3.42 to 8.15, i.e., from extremely acidic to moderately alkaline, with values in the range of 5.42 to 5.09 (mean s.d = 4.32 0.69). The pH at Ologe Lagoon is extremely acidic to strongly acidic. It is also extremely acidic at Yewa River. At the non-tidal rivers (Imede and Ijile River) values range from moderately acidic to neutral. Along Badagry Creek, values increase steadily from neutral to moderately alkaline east of the ROW. Table 5.1-22 Descriptive Statistics of pH, TOC and THC in Sediments From Water Bodies in the Project Area
Descriptive Statistics of Concentrations Parameters pH TOC (percent) THC (ppm) n 12 12 12 Min 3.42 0.02 0.39 Max 8.15 16.97 68.48 Median 5.80 2.16 24.28 Mean 5.80 5.14 32.46 s.d. 1.48 6.6 22.8 Percent c.v 25.5 128.8 70.3

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Table 5.1-23 Mean Values of Sediment pH, TOC and THC in Water Bodies in the Project Area
Parameters Yewa River Badagry Creek (n=4) 7.45 0.62 1.40 2.38 014.9 12.9 Water Body Ologe Lagoon (n=4) 4.32 0.69 10.51 8.83 33.9 20.8 Imede River (n=2) 5.99 054 1.30 1.8 33.9 26 Ijile River

pH TOC (percent) THC (ppm)

4.49 9.75 68.5

5.99 1.75 58.0

Table 5.1-24 Sediment pH, TOC and THC Wet Season EBS
Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sample ID Wagp/onsed/1 Wagp/onsed/2 Wagp/onsed/3 Wagp/onsed/4 Wagp/onsed/5 Wagp/onsed/6 Wagp/onsed/7 Wagp/onsed/8 Wagp/onsed/9 Wagp/onsed/10 Wagp/onsed/11 Field Code pH 5.76 7.27 6.77 7.73 8.24 3.81 4.17 5.84 5.94 7.44 7.68 TOC (percent) 1.56 1.96 1.56 0.29 0.43 10.14 0.23 0.62 0.23 1.07 0.18 THC (ppm) 24.58 2.62 20.5 39.91 37.71 21.95 23.56 32.25 36.84 21.22 28.67

N2 ST1
N2 ST2 N2 ST3 N2 ST4 N2 ST5 N2 S8 N2 ST11 N2 S26 N2 S31 N2 S37 N2 ST39

Table 5.1-25 Sediment Heavy Metal Concentrations at the Project Area Compared With Other African Environments (ppm)
Parameter (n=12) Cd Cr Mn Zn Pb Cu Ni Fe WAGP Project Area Min 0.0 <0.001 1.34 1.1 <0.001 <0.001 0.44 110.3 Max 0.26 0.36 108.3 16.98 7.28 1.5 5.44 9494.52 Med 0.06 0.001 25.75 6.94 0.001 0.0135 1.07 2122.92 Mean 0.0768 0.0723 30.9667 8.2867 0.9773 0.3993 2.2983 3199.13 s.d. 0.0802 0.1343 29.488 6.112 2.116 0.572 1.899 3024.63 Badagry Creek 4.1 147 178.9 15.0 36380 African waters Inland Range 0.1-1.0 ND ND 2.54-140 7.3-6.3 0.96-4.1 ND 460-69000 Mean 0.37 ND ND 82.5 23.2 26.3 ND ND Coastal Range 2.0-4.1 ND ND 130-448 48-68 10.5-2900 ND 1100-52000 Mean 27.8 ND ND 92 57.8 12.77 ND ND

Note: African waters data from Calamari and Naere (1994) and Okoye et al. (1991).

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Table 5.1-26 Heavy Metal Concentrations in Water Sediments From the Project Area (ppm)
Parameters Yewa River 0.001 0.34 51.68 15.84 0.001 1.5 5.44 9494.52 Badagry Creek 0.0209 0.0281 0.0908 0.1795 57.38 34.06 5.73 5.37 0.2108 0.4195 0.3108 0.6195 1.47 1.614 2826 1605.5 Water Body Ologe Lagoon 0.11 0.0476 0.0405 0.056 17.59 10.58 11.05 7.096 0.5808 1.1595 0.466 0.5237 3.315 1.825 4094.3 12945.6 Imede River 0.07 0.05 0.001 0.0 6.1 4.76 3.06 0.44 0.6405 0.6395 0.001 10.0 0.88 0.0 39.02 143.3 Ijile River 0.26 0.001 7.86 10.38 7.28 0.18 1.24 432.06

Cd Cr Mn Zn Pb Ca Ni Fe

The values of TOC in the sediment samples vary widely from 0.002 to 16.97 percent with an overall mean of 5.14 6.6 percent. The mean values for Yewa River and Ologe Lagoon are much higher than for Badagry Creek and the non-tidal rivers (Table 5.1-23). TOC values decrease steadily from north to south (16.97 to 14.82 to 7.22 to 0.04 percent) along Ologe Lagoon. Similarly, values decrease along Badagry Creek with an increase in salinity from east to west. Sediment total hydrocarbon (THC) also varied over a wide range (0.39ppm to 68.48ppm), with a low mean value of 14.9 12.9ppm in Badagry Creek. Sediment heavy metals content in the study area vary widely (Table 5.1-25). On average, the concentration of these heavy metals is lowest in Imede River (Table 5.1-26). The concentrations of Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr are relatively high in the tidal waters compared to the non-tidal waters. The values of Cd and Pb are higher in the non-tidal waters than the tidal waters. 5.1.1.1.7 Distinct Air Sheds and Air Quality

In Nigeria, sampling activities were carried out around the compressor station in February 2003. Hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide both had an overall mean concentration of 0.0003 parts per million (ppm). The nitrogen dioxide value, which converts to 0.6g/m3, is well below European Union long-term limit value of 200g/m3. Carbon monoxide concentrations had an overall mean value of 0.002ppm. Measured concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP) averaged 30g/m3, which is below World Health Organization (WHO) longterm guidelines for Europe (150g/m3). Average concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were 70g/m3, exceed European Union long-term limit value (50g/m3) (Figure 5.1-7 and Table 5.1-27).

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Figure 5.1-7 Overall Mean Values of Pollutant Gases and Noise Levels Obtained at the Compressor Site Dry Season EBS
100

10

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.0001 THC (ppm) Methane (ppm) CO (ppm) NO2 (ppm) PM10 (mg/m3) TSP (mg/m3) Noise (dB)

Table 5.1-27 Summary Results of Ambient Pollutant Gases and Noise Levels Obtained at the Compressor Site (February 2003)
S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Day Sampling Station AQS1 AQS2 AQS3 AQS1 AQS2 AQS3 AQS1 AQS2 AQS3 AQS1 AQS2 AQS3 AQS1 AQS2 AQS3 THC (ppm) 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Parameters (8-hr mean daily values) PM10 Methane CO NO2 TSP 3 (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (mg/m ) (mg/m3) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.059 0.125 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.017 0.118 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.018 0.050 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.011 0.045 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.014 0.090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.024 0.039 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.005 0.011 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.004 0.013 0.000 0.006 0.001 0.033 0.070 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.080 0.064 0.000 0.005 0.000 0.034 0.068 0.000 0.009 0.001 0.036 0.088 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.041 0.089 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.044 0.083 0.000 0.004 0.001 0.043 0.104 Noise (dB) 27.750 28.000 27.125 27.750 29.750 29.000 29.500 28.250 29.250 29.250 29.250 29.250 28.250 28.625 30.750

In the wet season, non-methane hydrocarbons were recorded at the various locations within the compressor stations ranging from less than 0.001ppm to 0.0045ppm. Methane was recorded in virtually all stations but at a very low concentration of about 0.001ppm mean value. The presence of methane in the atmosphere could be indicative of emissions from decaying vegetation in nearby swamps and wetlands. Carbon monoxide ranged from

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0.014ppm to 0.29ppm, much lower than regulatory limits. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) values ranged from 0.001ppm to 0.002ppm. The wet season concentrations of TSP varied between 220g/m3 and 29,800g/m3, with station mean values of 1,057g/m3 (the maximum value occurred near a main road). Rains are strong atmospheric cleansers and scrub the air of suspended particulates. Measurements taken immediately after rainfall were less than 500g/m3. Nonetheless, all of these measured values exceed the WHO long-term guidelines for Europe (150g/m3). The maximum TSP level was recorded at Station 3 and can be attributed to fugitive contributions from vehicular movements around this point, which is very close (<30m) to the main road leading from the village to Badagry (Table 5.1-28). Table 5.1-28 Summary Results of Ambient Pollutant Gases at the Compressor Site Wet Season EBS
Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Mean Sampling Station AQS 1 AQS 2 AQS 3 AQS 1 AQS 2 AQS 3 AQS 1 AQS 2 AQS 3 AQS 1 AQS 2 AQS 3 AQS 1 AQS 2 AQS 3 THC (ppm) 0.004 0.002 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 Parameters (8-hr mean daily values) Methane CO NO2 Noise TSP (ppm) (ppm) (dB) (mg/m3) (ppm) 0.001 0.21 0.002 28.25 18.12 0.001 0.29 0.002 30.5 18 0.001 0.35 0.002 29.8 29.8 0.001 0.026 0.001 25 8.9 0.001 0.02 0.001 27 11.62 0.001 0.023 0.001 27.62 14.75 0.001 0.014 0.001 28.9 0.63 0.001 0.022 0.001 26.9 0.22 0.001 0.027 0.001 30.5 0.27 0.001 0.02 0.001 25.9 12.37 0.001 0.017 0.001 27.37 18.75 0.001 0.026 0.001 31.25 23.25 0.001 0.013 0.001 26.13 0.66 0.001 0.02 0.001 27.63 0.53 0.001 0.071 0.001 31 0.73 0.001 0.153 0.001 28.25 10.57

5.1.1.1.8

Noise

Noise levels at the compressor station averaged 28.78 decibels (dB) during the dry season EBS (Figure 5.1-7 and Table 5.1-27). During the wet season EBS, the main sources of noise in the area are sea waves breaking on the shore and vehicular movement. Noise levels ranged between 25dB and 31.25dB, with a mean value at 28.25dB. These recorded values are below regulatory limits for 8hr exposure period.

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5.1.1.2 5.1.1.2.1

Biological Environment Vegetation

The pipeline ROW and compressor station site for the WAGP project fall within a number of habitat types which have been described above (see Table 5.1-1). Vegetation in these habitats is described in more detail below. Biomass estimates for the habitats are listed in Table 5.1-29. Table 5.1-29 Biomass Estimates for the Herb Layer in the Different Habitat Types
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Coastal Area Habitats Habitat Type Strandline Farm Grassland/Coastal Savanna Bush Fallow Swamp Forest Secondary Forest Marsh Biomass (g/m2) 48 13 63 5 36 12 250 3 163 4 234 12 136 15

Strandline/Sandy Beach This habitat is located between the extreme high water mark and the coconut groves. Creeping plants (mainly rhizomatous and stoloniferous) above the shoreline characterize the area (Table 5.1-30). The most common species include: dayflower (Commelina erecta var. maritima), Peruvian spikesedge (Kyllinga peruviana), and goats foot vine (Ipomoea pescaprae). The strandline plants are mainly creepers, which are fully exposed to full sunlight. They are scattered in terms of spatial distribution along the shoreline. The biomass of the plants is 48 113g/m2. During the wet season EBS, the commonest species included beach bean (Canavalia maritima), goats foot vine, and cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco).

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Table 5.1-30 Plant Species Composition Within the Strandline Zone Dry Season EBS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Scientific Name Brachiaria sp. Cassytha filiformis Chromolaena odorata Chrysobalanus icaco Cocos nucifera Commelina erecta var. maritime Ipomoea pes-caprae Kyllinga tibialis Manihot esculenta Melanthera scandens Panicum maximum Pennisetum purpureum Blutaparon vermicularis Common Name (perennial grass) Love Vine Siam Weed Cocoplum Coconut Dayflower Goats Foot Vine Sedge Cassava Haemorhage Plant Guinea Grass Elephant Grass Silverhead Habit Creeper Twinner Shrub Shrub Tree Creeper Stoloniferous Creeper Herb Shrub Herb Herb Herb Creeper

Coconut-Dominated Barrier Island The second habitat is the main barrier island area where agricultural activities take place. Extensive groves of coconut occur within this area. A few weeds occur under the canopy of the coconut. The coconut groves have a close canopy and have an average height of about 20m. The coconut tree has a mean density of 400 plants per hectare. Most of the coconut trees were chlorotic (an unhealthy state characterized by a loss of green pigment) at the time of the survey. The biomass value for the herb layer is 36 12g/m2. Bare Ground/Cleared Land/Farms and Grassland Mosaic The third habitat consists of a mosaic of bare ground, cassava farms, and grassland. Young populations of coconut also occur here. The grasses include cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), and gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus). There are also scattered populations of black plum (Vitex doniana). The mosaic of bare ground, cassava farms, and grassland, which occupies the middle part of the barrier island, is dominated by young coconut palms. The canopy height is about 8m. Marshy/Swamp The fourth habitat consists of a narrow belt of marshy area at the fringe of Badagry Creek. This is dominated by extensive mats of jointed flatsedge (also locally called bizzy-bizzy, or Guinea rush; Cyperus articulatus) and scattered stands of coconut and flood-tolerant trees and shrubs. This zone is in turn fringed by aquatic macrophytes such as water hyacinth, smartweed (Polygonum africanum), and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes). A consolidated list of the plants is presented in Table 5.1-31. The canopy of the vegetation is open. The biomass for the herb layer is 136 15g/m2. During the wet season EBS, the biomass for the herb layer was 220 22g/m2.

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Table 5.1-31 Plant Species Composition Within the Marsh Habitat


Scientific Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Cyperus articulatus Eichhornia crassipes Ludwigia repens Machaerium lunatus Paspalum sp. Pistia stratiotes Polygonum africana Saccharum officinarium Typha domingensis

Common Name Bizzy-bizzy Water hyacinth

Water lettuce Smartweed Sugarcane Reed

Habit Rhizomatous sedge Free floating Erect herb Shrub Herb Free floating Emergent Erect grass Emergent macrophyte

Inland Habitats

Four habitat types were observed in the inland areas, which spans from Alagbado to Badagry and continue westward, almost paralleling the barrier island. They are discussed below. Coastal Savanna The coastal savanna occurs in parallel belts that are grazed by cattle and subjected to burning annually. There are scattered shrubs and trees within the large expanse of grasses (Table 5.1-32). The vegetation canopy is open and characterized by isolated emergent trees between extensive grassland. The coastal savanna had recently been burned at the time of the wet season survey, largely killing the herbaceous layer. The process of regeneration had just begun. Herds of cattle were seen grazing within the area during the study. Table 5.1-32 Plant Species Composition in the Coastal Savanna Habitat
1 2 3 4 5 6 Scientific Name Elaeis guineensis Imperata cylindrica Panicum maximum Pennisetum purpureum Vitex doniana Zanthozyllum sp. Common Name Oil palm Spear grasss Guinea grass Elephant grass Black plum Habit Tree Rhizomatous grass Erect grass Erect grass Tree Tree

Raphia Palm-Dominated Freshwater Swamp Forest The swamp forest is dominated by raphia palm (Raphia hookeri), which, in places, forms a more or less homogenous belt. A few flood tolerant plants are associated with the raphia palm (Table 5.1-33). The raphia is also subjected to burning (e.g. near the proposed compressor station), which kills the herbaceous layer. The raphia-palm dominated swamp in some places has also recently been burned. The swamp vegetation has a canopy height of about 20m. Herbaceous species (e.g. water lily, Nymphaea lotus) and seedlings of raphia palm dominate the understory. Raphia palm had a mean population density of 600 plants per

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hectare during the dry season survey and 300 plants per hectare during the wet season survey. The lowest population density of five plants per hectare was recorded for Piptadenistrum sp. The biomass value for the herb layer was 163 4g/m2 during the dry season survey, and 350 12g/m2 during the wet season survey. Table 5.1-33 Plant Species Composition in the Raphia Palm Dominated Swamp Dry Season EBS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Scientific Name Alstonia boonei Anchomanes difformis Anthostema aubryanum Cyrtosperma senegalense Ficus sp. Hallea ciliate Nephrolepis biserrata Nymphaea lotus Scleria pterota Raphia hookeri Common Name Stool wood Habit Tree Erect herb Tree Emergent macrophyte Tree Tree Epiphytic fern Floatingleaved Erect grass Tree

Fig Abura Water lily Razor grass Raphia palm

This habitat is commonly associated with either healthy raphia and or stressed/degraded raphia palms. By degraded, it is meant that the raphia palms were stressed either due to annual bush fire or due to changes in local hydrology. The healthy raphia palms are those showing luxuriant growth with virtually no evidence of physiological stress. Except in a few areas where very few stands of plantain and banana were growing at the fringes of the swamp, this habitat is essentially uncultivable for arable cropping. In a number of places however, tapping of the raphia palms for wine is clearly noticeable. Farm/Bush Fallow Mosaic The farm-bush fallow mosaic consists of scattered plots of farms within a matrix of fallow areas. Cassava is the dominant crop. Fast growing plant species typical of the early stages of secondary succession are common in the fallow areas. These include African corkwood (Musanga cecropioides), camwood (Baphia nitida), and African oil palm (Elaeis guineesis). A comprehensive list of the plants within the farms and fallow areas is presented in Table 5.1-34. The height of the vegetation within the bush fallow was variable. The tallest trees were the preserved economic species with an average height of 20m. The crowns of these trees formed a discontinuous canopy. Grasses, shrubs, forbs, and remnants of agricultural crops such as cassava, occupy the gaps between the trees. The crop plants on the farms, which are dominated by cassava, have an average height of two meters. The highest plant population density (1350 plants per hectare) was recorded for cassava. The growth of some cassava was also affected by competition from weeds. Cassavas that were overtaken by weeds showed symptoms of nutrient deficiency. The biomass of the herb layer within farms is 63.5g/m2 while that of the bush fallow is 250 3g/m2.

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Table 5.1-34 Plant Species Composition in the Farms and Bush Fallows Dry Season EBS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Scientific Name Ageratum conizoides Albizia zygia Alchornea cordifolia Anthonotha macrophylla Baphia nitida Chromolaena odorata Elusine indica Ficus exasperate Imperata cylindrical Manihot esculenta Panicum maximum Pennisetum purpureum Rauwolfia vomitoria Spondias mombin Common Name Goat weed Habit Erect herb Erect herb Tree Tree Erect herb Erect grass Tree Rhizomatous herb Shrub Erect herb Erect herb Tree Tree

Camwood Siam weed Bull grass Sandpaper tree Spear grass Cassava Guinea grass Elephant grass African serpentwood Hog plum

Secondary Forest Secondary forests occur in the area, although none coincided with the transects in this survey. For informational purposes, a description of the habitat is provided here. Soils of this habitat were collected but not analyzed. The floristic composition of the vegetation within this habitat is presented in Table 5.1-35. It consists of an association of many plants organized into strata: trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers. This habitat has a well-developed structure and is rich floristically. It has a nearly complete canopy cover. The tallest trees include silk cotton tree (Bombas buonoposense), and breadfruit (Artocarpus communis), which are about 30m in height. Other species forming the canopy layer are: java plum (Spondias mombin), Anthocleista vogelii, Musanga sp., feverbark (Alstonia boonei), and agboin (Piptadenistrum afrianum). The canopy layer reaches about 20m in height. Plants such as greenbriar (Smilax kraussiana) and other lianas form dense tangles around the trees. Anchomanes difformis, swordfern (Nephrolepis sp.), mangabo (Palisota hirsuta), and bush cane (Costus spectabilis) are found at the herb layer. The presence of oil palm attests to the secondary nature of the forest. The biomass value for the herb layer is 234 12g/m2. Table 5.1-35 Plant Species Composition Within the Secondary Forest Area Dry Season EBS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
June 2004

Scientific Name Anchomanes difformis Costus spectabilis Musanga cecropioides Piptadenistrum africanum Spondias mombin Anthoscleista vogelii Palisota hirsute Nephrolepis biserrata Artocarpus communis

Common Name Bush cane Rain tree Agboin Hog plum Cabbage tree Giant sword fern Breadfruit

Habit Erect herb Erect herb Tree Tree Tree Tree Erect herb Epiphytic fern Tree
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Economically Important Plants

Major plants with economic value are listed in Table 5.1-36, which shows the density of each of these species in the project area. Table 5.1-36 Population Density of the Major Economic Plants Dry Season EBS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Scientific Name Saccharum officinarum Cocos nucifera Elaeis guineensis Hallea ciliate Artocarpus communis Piptadenistrum africanum Manihot esculentum Cola nitida Raphia hookeri Borassus aethiopum Cyperus articulatus Common Name Sugar cane Coconut Oil palm Abura Breadfruit Agboin Cassava Cola nut Wine palm Borassus palm Jointed flatsedge Density (N/ha) 700 50 400 25 17 5 94 10 3 52 1350 120 70 12 600 50 30 8 20 12*

*= Expressed as number per square meter.

5.1.1.2.2

Terrestrial Fauna and Wildlife

As described above, onshore areas of the project location cover a variety of habitat types, and for this reason support a diverse number of species. Along the coastline and into the sea, several wildlife species also occur, but the most important taxa are mammals, birds, and reptiles. Virtually all groups of animals occur within the onshore area, including small arthropods like crabs and insects. Mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians known to be present in the area include those listed in Tables 5.1-37 through 5.1-40. These tables also list the conservation status of each species, according to the IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, now The World Conservation Union). Decree No. 11 refers to the Convention on International Trade and Traffic in Endangered Species (CITES) Endangered Species Decree of 1985. By virtue of this decree, the hunting, capture of, or international trade in animals listed in Schedule I is absolutely forbidden, while trade in animals listed in Schedule II may only be conducted under license from the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

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Table 5.1-37 Mammals in the Vicinity of the Proposed Pipeline ROW Dry Season EBS
Conservation Status Common Name Species Observed During EBSa IUCNb Decree No. 11c Pipeline ROWand Environs

Primates Bosmans Potto Perodicticus potto 2 Endangered Demidovs Galago Galago demidovii 2 Common Mona Monkey Cercopethicus mona 2 Vulnerable Pholidota (Pangolins) Tree Pangolin Manis tricuspis 1 Vulnerable Long-tailed Pangolin Manis tetradactyla 1 Vulnerable Lagomorpha (Hares and Rabbits) Crawshays Hare Lepus crawshayi Common Rodentia (Rodents) Giant Forest Squirrel Protoxerus stangeri Yes Vulnerable Red-legged Sun-squirrel Heliosciurus rufobrachium Common Lord Derbys Flying Anomalurus derbianus Endangered Squirrel Geoffreys Ground Xerus erythropus Yes Squirrel Gambian Giant-pouched Cricetomys gambianus Evidence Common Rat Cane Rat or Grasscutter Thryonomys swinderianus Evidence Common African Brush-tailed Atherurus africanus 1 Common Porcupine Carnivora (Carnivores) Cape Clawless Otter Aonyx capensis 1 Vulnerable African Civet Viverra civetta 2 Vulnerable Two-spotted Palm Civet Nandinia binotata 2 Uncommon Large-spotted Forest Genetta poensis 2 Vulnerable Genet Cusimanse Mongoose Crossarchus obscurus DD 2 Common Gambian Mongoose Mungos gambianus 2 Vulnerable Marsh Mongoose Atilax paludinosus 2 Endangered (Fox) Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) Tree Hyrax (Bush dog) Dendrohyrax dorsalis 2 Common Artiodactyla Bushpig Potamochoerus porcus Very rare Maxwells Duiker Cephalophus maxwelli Evidence 2 Common Bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptus 2 Uncommon Sitatunga Tragelaphus spekei LR 1 Endangered Sirenia (Manatee) West African Manatee Trichechus senegalensis VU Common a Species observed live and free roaming during the EBS are notated with Yes. Others for which there is evidence of occurrence in the area, such as the presence in the form of carcasses for sale in various bushmeat markets, are notated with Evidence. b IUCN categories include: CR (critically endangered), EN (endangered), vulnerable (VU), and data deficient (DD); see Section 5.1.2.2.7 for more detail. c Schedule I: hunting, capture, or trade is absolutely forbidden (see text). Schedule II: trade is allowed only under special licence (see text).

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Table 5.1-38 Birds Seen or Heard in the Vicinity of the Proposed Pipeline ROWa
Common Name Species Conservation Status Pipeline ROW and IUCNb Decree No. 11c Environs

Ardeidae (Herons and Egrets) Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Grey Heron Ardea cinerea Accipitridae (Vultures, Hawks, Kites, Eagles, etc.) Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus Shikra Accipiter badius Lizard Buzzard Kaupifalco monogrammicus Black Kite Milvus migrans Falconidae (Kestrels, falcons) Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus Grey Kestrel Falco ardosiaceus Phasianidae (Francolins & Guinea Fowls) Double-spurred Francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus Burhinidae (Thick-knees or Stone Curlews) Senegal Thick-knee Burhinus senegalensis Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves) Red-eyed Dove Streptopelia semitorquata Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis Vinaceous Dove Streptopelia vinacea Red-billed Wood Dove Turtur afer Tambourine Dove Turtur tympanistria African Green Pigeon Treron calva Cuculidae (Cuckoos and Coucals) Senegal Coucal Centropus senegalensis Alcedinidae (Kingfishers) Woodland Kingfisher Halcyon senegalensis Grey-headed Kingfisher Halcyon leucocephala Shining-blue Kingfisher Alcedo quadribrachys Malachite Kingfisher Corythornis cristata Pied Kingfisher Ceryl rudis Meropidae (Bee-eaters) White-throated Bee-eater Merops albicollis Little Bee-eater Merops pusillus Bucerotidae (Hornbills) African Pied Hornbill Tockus fasciatus Capitonidae (Barbets) Speckled Tinkerbird Pogoniulus scolopaceus Hirundinidae (Swallows) Ethiopian Swallow Hirundo aethiopicus Motacillidae (Wagtails, Pipits, Longclaws) African Pied Wagtail Motacilla aguimp Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls) Common Garden Bulbul Pycnonotus barbetus Sylviidae (Warblers) Grey-backed Camaroptera Camaroptera brevicaudata

2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

Uncommon Common Common Common Common Abundant Common Common Common Uncommon Common Common Uncommon Common Common Uncommon Common Common Uncommon Uncommon Common Uncommon Uncommon Rare Common Common Common Rare Common Common

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Table 5.1-38 Birds Seen or Heard in the Vicinity of the Proposed Pipeline ROWa
Common Name Species Conservation Status Pipeline ROW and IUCNb Decree No. 11c Environs

Nectariniidae (Sunbirds) Olive-bellied Sunbird Nectarinia chloropygia Common Collared Sunbird Anthreptis collaris Common Corvidae (Crows, Magpies, etc) Pied Crow Corvus alba Common Passeridae (Sparrows) Grey-headed Sparrow Passer griseus Common Ploceidae (Weavers) Village Weaver Ploceus cucullatus Common Estrildidae (Finches, Waxbills, Mannikins) Bronze Mannikin Lonchura cucullata Abundant Red-billed Fire-Finch Lagonosticta senegala Uncommon Viduidae (Whydahs, Indigo Birds) Pintailed Whydah Vidua macroura Uncommon a All birds listed in this table were seen either during the dry season EBS, the wet season EBS or both. b IUCN categories include: CR (critically endangered), EN (endangered), vulnerable (VU), and data deficient (DD); see Section 5.1.2.2.7 for more detail. c Schedule I: hunting, capture, or trade is absolutely forbidden (see text). Schedule II: trade is allowed only under special licence (see text).

Table 5.1-39 Reptiles Reported to Occur in the Vicinity of the Proposed Pipeline ROWa
Common Name Crocodylidae (Crocodiles) Nile Crocodile Short-snouted Crocodile (Alligator) Pelomedusidae (Swamp terrapins) West African Mud Turtle Testudinidae (Tortoises) Forest Hingeback Tortoise Homes Hingeback Tortoise Bells Hingeback Tortoise Varanidae (Monitor Lizards) Nile Monitor Lizard Boidae (Pythons) Royal Python African Rock Python Elapidae (Cobras and Mambas) Spitting Cobra Black Cobra Species Conservation Status Pipeline ROW Decree IUCN and Environs No. 11c
b

Crocodylus niloticus Osteolaemus tetraspis Pelusios castaneus Kinixys erosa Kinixys homeana Kinixys belliana Varanus niloticus Python regius Python sebae Naja nigricollis Naja melanoleuca

VU

1 1

Common Common Uncommon Common Uncommon Common

DD

1 1 1

Common Uncommon Uncommon Common Common

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Table 5.1-39 Reptiles Reported to Occur in the Vicinity of the Proposed Pipeline ROWa
Common Name Species Conservation Status Decree Pipeline ROW IUCN No. 11c and Environs
b

Viperidae (Vipers) Night Adder Causus maculates Common a The Nile crocodile and Nile monitor were observed from a distance, not within the ROW, but definitely with a 5km radius of it. They are generally believed to be abundant in the area and some baby crocodiles are kept captive in homesteads, but are eventually eaten when they attain the right size. b IUCN categories include: CR (critically endangered), EN (endangered), vulnerable (VU), and data deficient (DD); see Section 5.1.2.2.7 for more detail. c Schedule I: hunting, capture, or trade is absolutely forbidden (see text). Schedule II: trade is allowed only under special licence (see text).

Table 5.1-40 Amphibians Recorded in the Vicinity of the Proposed Pipeline ROWa
Common Name Hyperolidae (Treefrogs) Afrixalus dorsalis Hyperolius fusciventris Hyperolius guttulatus Hyperolius concolor Ranidae (Frogs) Ptychadena taenioscelis Ptychadena oxyrhinchus Ptychadena aequiplicata Aubria subsigilata Phrynobactrachus albolabris Dicroglossus occipitalis Common Common Common Common Common Common Common Common Common Common Common Common Common Species Conservation Status Decree Pipeline ROW IUCN No. 11 and Environs

Bullfrog Bufonidae (Toads) Common Toad Bufo regularis Forest Toad Bufo maculatus Pipidae (Clawed Toads) Xenopus tropicalis
a

All amphibians listed were observed during the field work.

IUCN categories include: CR (critically endangered), EN (endangered), vulnerable (VU), and data deficient (DD); see Section 5.1.2.2.7 for more detail.
c

Schedule I: hunting, capture, or trade is absolutely forbidden (see text). Schedule II: trade is allowed only under special licence (see text).

Hunters have stated that the bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) has not been seen in the area for a long time. However, the manatee (Trichechus senegalensis) has been sighted frequently in the Badagry Creek and its tributaries.

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Thirty-eight bird species were observed during the dry season EBS (Table 5.1-38), while a total of 53 species belonging to 31 families were seen or heard in the study area during the wet season EBS (Appendices 5-A and 5-B). Twenty-eight of these species were recorded in both seasons, which indicates that they are resident. The reptilian fauna of the project area is made up of crocodiles, turtles, tortoises, snakes, and lizards (Table 5.1-39). Sea turtles that nest annually on the sandy shores of Badagry and nearby Takwa Bay include the green (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), and the loggerhead (Caretta caretta). Marine turtles are well known to the populace, who admitted hunting them for food and collecting their eggs when they come ashore to breed between August and December (see Section 5.1.2.2.4 below). Based on reports by the indigenes, the reptilian fauna of the area consists of crocodiles, turtles, land tortoises, snakes, and lizards. Several species of snakes were reported in the area. These include the black cobra (Naja melaneuca), spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis), night adder (Causus maculatus), Gabon viper (Bitis gabonica), and the African python (Python sebae). The monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus), the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus), and the dwarf (or short-snouted) crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) are hunted for meat (it was noted however that some people consider the monitor lizard a taboo).
Economic Significance of Wildlife

Animals are hunted both for food and for sale. Apart from consumption as food, certain parts of wild animals are also used in folk medicine. Some animals are kept as pets (e.g. baby crocodiles, doves, turtles), but these are invariably consumed as soon as they attain maturity. 5.1.1.2.3 Soil Organisms

Previous studies of the soil of coastal areas in Nigeria have shown that soil microarthropod densities are extremely low in sandy soils and freshwater swamps when compared with mineral soils in areas where the vegetation is heterogeneous and the clay content of the soil is low (Imevbore et al., 1993; Odeyemi et al. 1994). This implies that such soils are more suitable for agriculture than sandy and swampy soils. These arable soils occur in patches in the coastal areas, and are as suitable for agriculture as soils in the hinterland. The results of the dry season EBS microbial analysis of the soil samples from the inland are shown in Table 5.1-41. Total heterotrophic bacterial count are observed to range on the order of 105 colony forming units per gram (cfu/g) to 106cfu/g, while fungal densities range on the order of 102cfu/g to 103cfu/g. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial count of the soils varied on the order of 103cfu/g to 104cfu/g, while their fungal counterpart are observed to vary between 0cfu/g and 70cfu/g. The sulfate-reducing bacterial populations are generally low and ranged between 0 cells/g and 103 cells/g.

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Table 5.1-41 Average Dry Season Microbial Densities of Soil Samples from Part of the Project Area*
Total Hydrocarbon Sulphate Total Hydrocarbon Heterotrophic Degrading Reducing Heterotrophic Degrading Sample Code Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria Fungi Fungi (cfu/g) (cfu/g) (cells/g) (cfu/g) (cfu/g) PT2A 7.8 105 8.3 104 102 3.7 102 08 5 3 PT2B 2.0 10 4.0 10 0 4.0 102 0 6 4 2 3 PT2C 1.0 10 4.3 10 10 6.2 10 21 PT2D 4.8 105 5.2 104 101 1.6 103 42 PT4A 1.2 106 2.3 104 0 2.1 103 23 5 3 3 PT4B 3.3 10 3.8 10 0 2.6 10 70 PT4C 4.0 106 5.1 104 101 4.0 103 40 6 3 2 3 PT4D 2.3 10 2.9 10 10 2.4 10 40 PT5A 8.7 105 7.3 103 102 4.6 102 08 PT5B 1.6 106 3.6 104 103 5.0 102 50 5 4 2 PT5C 7.1 10 1.1 10 0 7.0 10 42 PT5D 1.3 106 3.5 104 0 2.0 102 46 PT6A 7.0 105 6.7 103 0 1.5 103 20 5 4 2 PT6B 4.6 10 5.4 10 0 3.0 10 0 PT6C 1.4 105 4.1 103 0 7.0 102 0 PT6D 4.8 105 4.4 103 101 7.0 103 30 *See Figure 5.1-2 for sampling onshore locations.

Fifteen bacteria and 11 fungi species were identified from the soil samples. The bacterial isolates include: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus polymyxa, Streptomyces spp., Aeromonas spp., Arthrobacter spp., Sarcinia spp., Proteus mirabilis, Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteum, Desulfotomaculum spp., Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescence and Flavobacterium spp. The fungal isolates include the following: Microsporium audovinii, Microsporium gypseum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium spp., Trichoderma spp., Daldenia spp., Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Penicillium notatum, and Rhodotorula spp. The results of the dry season microbial analysis of the soil samples from a beach transect are as shown in Table 5.1-42. Total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged between 1.6 106cfu/g and 2.8 106cfu/g, while fungal densities were lower, on the order 102cfu/g to 103cfu/g. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria count of the soils varied on the order 102cfu/g to 104cfu/g while fungal densities varied between 0cfu/g and 25cfu/g. The sulfate reducing bacterial populations in this locality were generally very low and ranged between 0 cells/g and 101 cells/g.

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Table 5.1-42 Average Microbial Densities of Soil Samples from A Beach Transect of WAGP EIA Project (Dry Season)*
Total Hydrocarbon Sulfate Total Hydrocarbon Heterotrophic Degrading Reducing Heterotrophic Degrading Sample Code Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria Fungi Fungi (cfu/g) (cfu/g) (cells/g) (cfu/g) (cfu/g) T1S1 2.8 106 4.5 102 0 1.5 103 25 6 2 T1S2 1.6 10 3.2 10 0 3.4 103 20 6 4 1 2 T1S3 2.8 10 4.4 10 10 3.0 10 0 *See Figure 5.1-2 for sampling onshore locations.

Thirteen bacteria and 12 fungi species were identified from the soil/sediment samples, and these include the following bacteria: Desulfuomaculum spp., Arthrobacter spp., Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas pseudomallei, Streptomyces spp., Aeromonas spp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus polymyxa, and Flavobacterium spp. The fungi species include Rhodotorula spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium spp., Trichoderma spp., Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Microsporium gypseum, Cunninghamella spp., Botrytis spp., Microsporium audovinii, Neurospora spp., and Pullularia spp. During the wet season EBS, the total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged on the order of 107cfu/g to 108cfu/g. Fungal densities were lower, in the range of 105cfu/g. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial count of the soils varied on the order of 104cfu/g to 106cfu/g, while their fungal counterpart were observed to vary between 0cfu/g and 6.5 105cfu/g. The sulfate reducing bacterial populations were generally low and ranged between 0 cells/g and 103 cells/g (Appendix 5-B). The most abundant taxonomic group of soil microarthropod in the study area is Acarina, ticks and mites. This extremely diverse group, which is represented by more than fifty genera in the southwestern region of Nigeria (Badejo, 1999) is poorly represented in the area investigated (Table 5.1-43). This is not unexpected because during the dry season soil microarthropods are normally not very abundant (Badejo, 1990).

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Table 5.1-43 Mean Numbers of Soil Microarthropods Extracted from the Soil in Different Habitat Types (Mean Based on Four Sampling Units)
Microarthropod Group Acarina Mesoplophora sp. Mixacarus sp. Bicyrthermannia nigeriana Epilohmania sp. Nothrus lasebikani Carabodes sp. Muliercula inexpectata Scheloribates mochlosimilaris Galumnella sonpona Pergalumna sp. Teleiolides sp. Belbidae Liacaridae Polyaspidae Parasitidae Symphylla Pseudoscorpionida Chilopoda (Centipedes) Collembola (Springtails) Isoptera (Termites) Homoptera Coleoptera (Beetles) Formicoidea (Ants) Grass Near Beach 0 0 9 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 Coconut & Raphia Near Beach 0 5 9 14 1 0 1 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 8 2 1 Re-Growth Forest Near Beach 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 Cassava/ Forest Mosaic (Ewupe) 0 0 4 0 0 0 10 45 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 7 3 0 Cassava Farm (Onipanu) 5 0 7 0 0 0 40 25 3 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 3 17 Raphia Swamp (Igbesa) 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 3 0

The most abundant acarine species are Scheloribates mochlosimilaris and Galumnella sonpona. These pterogasterine mites have been observed to be the most abundant in forest and cultivated soils of other locations in the southwestern zone of Nigeria. They were abundant at Ewupe and Onipanu where the vegetation is close to the original undisturbed forest conditions. Their low densities at locations near the beach suggests that sparse vegetation is not conducive for the growth of their populations. Although the populations of other microrathropod groups are too low to permit detailed discussion of them, the presence of Collembola at the Raphia swamp in Igbesa suggests that this and other groups of detritivorous microarthropods will be extracted from the soil during the wet season sampling. The seasonality of soil microarthropods has been extensively discussed by Belfield (1956) and Butcher et al. (1971). Acarina were also the most abundant taxonomic group of soil microarthropods during the wet season. In all, 21 groups of arthropods were observedin the area include: Acarina, Araneida, Schizopeltida, Isopoda, Diplura, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleptera larva. All of these groups were recorded from the Rhapia dominated site. In general, the freshwater swamp habitat supported the highest microarthropod populations while the sandy beach supported the lowest population. Using the microarthopod population densities recorded in the area (2,833/m2 to 4,000/m2) as an index, it could be inferred that the soils in the area may not be agriculturally viable. In productive soils of the western region of Nigeria, densities of

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soil mites (Acarina) alone reach a peak of about 80,000 per m2 in the wet season (Badejo and Lasebikan, 1988; Badejo, 1990, Badejo, 1999) (Appendix 5-B). 5.1.1.2.4 Hydrobiology and Fisheries

Like water quality, most of the available information on the aquatic biological resources of the Nigerian coastal lagoons is from the Badagry Creek. The macrobenthic fauna are composed primarily of mollusks (primarily bivalves and gastropods), crustaceans (most of which are important shellfish), and polychaete annelids. The fish fauna comprise about 30 species, dominated by catfishes, clupeids, and cichlids. In a survey of the fish fauna of the Owo River system, Arawomo (1991) recorded about 18 species belonging to 12 families. The family Cichlidae seemed to dominate both qualitatively and quantitatively. Shrimps were also found in abundance. In the 1990s, the lagoons and creeks in the study area were notorious for the occurrence of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. It was believed that the weed found its way into Nigerian waters via the Port Novo Creek (Benin Republic) through the Badagry Creek, from where it spread into the riverine areas of Lagos. Although no longer a threat, water hyacinth still occurs in the area together with a wide range of other floating and rooted macrophytes. Most of them belong to the plant families of Azollaceae, Lemnaceae, Araceae, Lentibulariaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Euphobia. Olaniyan (1975) has provided some information on the plankton fauna and flora of the Badagry Creek system, including the abundance of the dominant species. A number of the species are common both to the lagoon and the nearby open sea. The chief among these are the copepods, which seem to be able to tolerate a wide range of salinity. Phytoplankton flora consists mainly of diatom species of Chaetoceros, Biddulphia, and Surirella. Nwankwo (1990a) recorded 48 diatom species from Badagry Creek and the adjacent sea. The dinoflagellates were dominated by species of Ceratium and Peridinium (Nwankwo, 1990b). Fishing is a major occupation of the local people of the WAGP project area in Nigeria. It also holds an attraction for a number of non-indigenes that have migrated to the area from the hinterland. There is evidence from oral interviews that some of the existing communities in the area originally started off or were founded as fishing settlements. However, fishing still exists largely at an artisanal level in the area, subsistence mostly by the local fisherfolks using traditional facilities and gears. The major facility required is a boat, usually a dug-out canoe, which can be propelled by paddling. This is the common in the non-tidal rivers. Canoes with outboard engines occur more in the tidal water bodies, notably Badagry Creek, Ologe Lagoon and the lower reach of Owo River, where water is deep enough for their use. Both men and women, and to some extent children, are involved in fishing. A wide range of fishing gear is employed in the study area. The most common are nets (gill nets, lift nets, and cast nets), traps (usually made into baskets), and hooks on line. Although finfish is the main target of exploitation, shellfish are also obtainable. The latter include crabs, prawns, shrimps, and mollusks (notably gastropods and bivalves and cephalopods). The finfish fauna reflects the mixed nature of the water environment comprising marine, brackish, and freshwater species. A list of some fish species identified in the study area is presented in Table 5.1-44.

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Table 5.1-44 Distribution of the Recorded Fish Species in the Study Area
Species Bagrus bayad Bagrus sp. Chrysicthys auratus Tilapia guineensis Tilapia sp. Oreochromis niloticus Hemichromis fasciatus Clarias sp. Pellonula sp. Ilisha africana Sardinella aurita Gymnarchus niloticus Malapterurs electricus Synodontis spp. Liza spp. Mugil sp. Periophthalnus papillio Pseudolithus sp. Sphyraena sp. Ephippion sp. Hespetus odeo Family Bagridae Bagridae Bagridae Cichlidae Cichlidae Cichlidae Cichlidae Claridae Clupeidae Clupeidae Clupeidae Gymnarchidae Malapteruridae Mochocidae Mugilidae Mugilidae Periophthalidae Scianidae Sphyraenidae Tetraodontidae Hespetinidae Occurrence Tidal Waters Non-Tidal Waters + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Microbial analysis of water samples from the study area reveals the presence of appreciable quantities of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi. Also, the distribution of hydrocarbon degraders, coliform bacteria, and sulfate reducing bacteria is observed to vary extensively, as shown in Table 5.1-45. Total heterotrophic bacterial count is observed to range in the order of 102cfu/mL and 104cfu/mL. Total fungal densities are generally lower than that of bacteria, and range between 20cfu/mL and of 102cfu/mL. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria counts vary from 1.0 102cfu/mL to 2.4 104cfu/mL, while fungal counts vary between 0cfu/mL and 70cfu/mL. Sulfate reducing bacteria was absent in most of the sample locations, but where present, vary between 0 cells/mL and 102 cells/mL. Coliform bacterial densities suggest that all the water samples are not potable as counts in the range of 5.8 cells/100mL and 1760 cells/100mL were observed. In two cases (WS13s and WS14, both approximately 6km east of Igbessa), the indicator of fecal contamination, Escherichia coli, was observed. Bacterial isolates identified in this location include: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus luteum, Serratia marcescens, Desulfurvibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Alcaligenes feacalis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus subtilis. The fungal species isolated include: Microsporium audininii, Cephalosporium spp., Cunnighamella spp., Pullularia pullularis, Cladosporium spp., Penicillium camenberti, Alternaria spp., Rhizopus oryzae, Fusarium spp., Penicillium italicum, and Rhodotorula spp.

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Table 5.1-45 Average Microbial Densities of Water Samples from WAGP EIA Project*
Sample Code WS1 WS2S WS2B WS3S WS3B WS11S WS11B WS26 WS29 WS31 WS33 WS34 WS36
Keys:

TBC (cfu/mL) 6.0 103 1.1 104 2.4 104 2.4 102 2.0 102 3.2 104 3.2 102 2.8 104 2.2 104 2.6 104 1.7 104 3.7 104 1.5 104

HDB SRB (cfu/mL) (cells/mL) 2.0 103 0 3 8.3 10 0 6.9 103 102 1.1 102 0 2 1.2 10 102 1.1 104 102 2 1.2 10 102 1.8 104 102 4 2.2 10 0 6.6 103 0 3 8.5 10 102 4 1.7 10 0 3 5.7 10 0

THF (cfu/mL) 1.5 102 90 3.3 102 1.2 102 1.2 102 4.0 102 1.0 102 3.2 102 20 1.6 102 20 1.2 102 1.4 102

HDF Coliform (cfu/mL) (cells/100mL) 25 736 10 24 43 68.8 23 24 44 24 55 62.4 24 148.8 54 14.6 0 84.8 32 240 07 336 44 36.8 13 57.6

Presence of E. coli suggestive of possibility of fecal contamination. THB - Total heterotrophic bacteria; HDB - Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria; SRB Sulfate reducing bacteria; THF Total heterotrophic fungi; HDF Hydrocarbon degrading fungi.

*See Figure 5.1-2 for sampling onshore locations.

The standing crop of primary producers (mainly phytoplankton) in the study area was assessed by the biomass of primary photosynthetic pigments in the investigated surface water bodies. Highlights of the results obtained are presented in Table 5.1-46. On the whole, total chlorophyll content varies over a narrow range of 1.15g/L to 20.68g/L, averaging 8.63 6.33g/L. The mean chlorophyll crop comprises chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and chlorophyll-c in the ratio of 3:3:4, respectively. On average, the phaeophytin crop is 3.95 5.36 g/L or about 46 percent mean total chlorophyll crop. This suggests that most of the observed chlorophyll crop occurred in live form (i.e., undecomposed). Table 5.1-46 Concentrations of Photosynthetic Pigments in the Investigated Water Bodies*
Statistics n Min Max Range Median Mean s.d. Percent c.v Chlorophyll-a 10 0.65 8.70 8.70 2.05 2.49 2.26 92 Chlorophyll-b 9 0.19 8.06 8.00 2.80 2.64 2.57 97 Chlorophyll-c 5 1.09 10.40 10.40 0.00 3.49 4.45 128 Total Chlorophyll 10 1.15 20.69 20.68 8.89 8.63 6.33 73 Phaeophytin 6 2.03 15.38 15.38 2.03 3.95 5.36 136

* See Table 5.1-12a for a list of water bodies.

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Table 5.1-47 shows that the non-tidal water bodies are richer in mean total chlorophyll content (mean s.d = 15.5 3.62g/L) than the tidal water bodies (4.70 3.62g/L). Also, the low tide water regime is much richer, both in chlorophyll-a and total chlorophyll content, than high tide water based on measurements from Badagry Creek. Based on the mean concentrations of chlorophyll-a of the different water bodies in the area (2.49 2.26g/L), the trophic status of the investigated water bodies can be classified as mesotrophic (i.e. moderately nutrient rich) following the classification of McColl (1972). The much richer levels of chlorophyll-c in the non-tidal waters (9.34 0.79g/L) compared to the tidal water (0.16 0.38g/L) as well as in high tide waters (0.55 0.55g/L) compared to low tide waters (<0.1 0.1g/L) suggest that algae of the divisions Chrysophyta (i.e. golden algae) and Phaeophyta (brown algae) are the dominant primary producers in those richer water bodies. Similarly, the preponderance of chlorophyll-b in non-tidal waters and low-tide tidal water suggest that Chlorophyta (i.e. green) algae are the dominant primary producers in those waters. Table 5.1-47 Variation in Photosynthetic Pigments in Relation to Tide Regime in the Study Area
Parameter (g/L) Chlorophyll-a Chlorophyll-b Chlorophyll-c Total Chlorophyll Phaeophytin Tidal Water 2.33 2.73 2.31 2.76 0.16 0.38 4.70 3.62 3.08 5.20 Tidal Regime Non-Tidal Water Low Tide 2.95 0.82 5.44 3.26 3.22 2.09 4.13 3.94 9.34 0.79 0.00 0.00 15.50 3.62 9.56 0.67 5.47 5.31 7.69 7.69 High Tide 1.35 0.70 3.45 0.65 0.55 0.55 5.34 0.60 1.66 1.66

The tentative analysis of the plankton communities indicates that the phytoplankton flora is dominated by diatoms (Chrysophyta), green-grass algae (Chlorophyta), and dinoflagellates (Pyrrophyta). Also recorded are members of the blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) and the brown algae (Phaetophyta) in that order of decreasing taxa richness and abundance. The diatoms comprise mostly centric members (Class Centrales) of which the species of the genera Melosira, Coscinodiscus, Chaetoceros, and Bidduphia are the most common. Among the pennate diatoms (Penales) Surrirella, Asterinella, and Navicula spp. are the most common. Most dinoflagellates are members of the two genera Peridinium and Ceratium, while Microcystis and Anabaena are the most common blue-green algae. The green algae are mostly Chloroacaea members, with a few desmids also occurring. The zooplankton fauna comprise rotifers and copepod crustaceans. Whereas copepods predominate in the tidal waters, the rotifers and cladocerans tend to predominate in the nontidal freshwater bodies. Members of the family Brachionidae and Lecanidae dominate the rotifers. Other represented families are Trichocercidae, Synchaetedae, Asplanchnidae, and Testudinellidae, in decreasing order of importance. Perhaps because of the generally low-lying and swampy nature of the study area, the surface water bodies are vegetated by a wide range of aquatic macrophytes. The occurrence and distribution of these plants are indicated in Table 5.1-48. The flora are comprised mostly of floating and submerged forms in the open water, while rooted forms predominate along the

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shoreline and littoral zones. In the tidal waters, especially on the Badagry Creek and Ologe Lagoon, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is by far the most common floating weed. On those waters, it forms extensive mats incorporating other weeds, mostly Ceratophyllum, Nymphia (Nymphaeaceae) Salvinia nymphellula, and Azolla africana. These mats are frequently visited by a wide range of waterfowl and serve as a rich source of macroinvertebrate fauna. The occurrence of the invasive water hyacinth is greatly reduced outside the tidal waters, occurring only occasionally at the lower reach of the River Owo. Rooted vegetation, most of which stretches into the watercourse from the shoreline, predominates in the non-tidal water bodies. Notable among these are: Commelina spp., Luduwiga spp. (Onagraceae), Ipomea aquatica (Convoluvulaceae), and the fern, Nephrolepsis sp. (Thelypteridaceae). Table 5.1-48 The Occurrence of Aquatic Macrophytes in the Study Area
Taxa Species Pistia stratiotes Azolla African Ipomea aquatica Eichhornia crassipes Lewna spp. Ceratophylum demersun Nymphia lotus Commelina spp. Ludwigia sp. Nephrolepsis spp. Salvinia nymphellula Family Araceae Azollaceae Convoluvulaceae Eichhorniaceae Lamnaceae Yewa River + + Water Bodies in the Study Area Badagry Ologe Owo Ore Iju Creek Lagoon River River River + + + + + + + + + + + + + Imede River + + + +

Nymphaeaceae Nymphaeaceae Onagraceae Onagraceae Thelypteridaceae Salviniaceae

+ + + -

+ + + +

+ + -

+ + + + + -

+ + + + + +

+ + + +

+ + + + +

Sediment samples from the area are rich in different microbial communities as shown in Table 5.1-49. Average total heterotrophic bacterial counts range between 2.7 105cfu/g and 2.8 106cfu/g. Average total fungal densities vary from 3.0 102cfu/g to 3.6 103cfu/g. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial populations range between 1.1 104cfu/g and 1.2 106cfu/g, while fungal populations range from 0cfu/g to 3.1 103cfu/g. The sulfate reducing bacteria population varies from 0cfu/g to 103cfu/g. The bacteria species isolated from the sediment include: Proteus vulgaris, Desulfuvibrio spp., Pseudomonas pseudomallei, Sarcinia spp., Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Arthrobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteum, Streptomyces spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas spp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus polymyxa, and Flavobacterium spp. The isolated fungal species include: Daldenia spp., Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium spp., Trichoderma spp., Rhodotorula spp., Aspergillus flavus, Botrytis spp., Scopulariospsis brevicaulis, Pullularia spp., Microsporium gypseum, Cunninghamella spp., Penicillium notatum, Rhodotorula spp., Neurospora spp., and Microsporium audovinii.

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Table 5.1-49 Average Microbial Densities of Sediment Samples*


Total Hydrocarbon Heterotrophic Degrading Sample Code Bacteria Bacteria (cfu/g) (cfu/g) 6 SE1 1.8 10 1.5 105 SE2-TO 1.1 106 1.1 104 6 SE3-ROW 2.110 1.2 106 5 SE4 8.8 10 6.5 105 SE5 1.1 106 6.3 104 6 SE6 2.8 10 4.4 104 6 SE8 1.1 10 5.3 105 SE9 1.5 106 7.9 103 5 SE10 6.9 10 1.5 105 SE11 1.3 106 7.7 103 6 SE16 1.2 10 2.3 104 5 SE21 4.9 10 1.1 105 SE23 1.6 106 4.8 104 5 SE24 3.5 10 3.5 104 5 SE31 2.8 10 7.9 103 SE33 6.5 105 1.3 105 5 SE34 5.3 10 4.7 104 5 SE36 2.7 10 6.5 104 SE37 6.2 105 3.6 104 Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (cells/g) 103 103 101 0 0 0 103 102 101 103 102 102 0 0 0 102 102 103 0 Total Hydrocarbon Heterotrophic Degrading Fungi Fungi (cfu/g) (cfu/g) 2.0 103 1.2 102 1.7 103 41 8.0 102 32 3 1.1 10 1.4 102 1.3 103 50 1.4 103 33 2 3.0 10 12 6.0 102 35 3.0 102 21 3 1.9 10 2.1 102 2 9.0 10 52 1.8 102 23 2 5.0 10 15 3.6 103 3.1 102 1.0 103 47 4.0 102 24 4.0 102 0 2 6.0 10 15 1.1 103 1.7 102

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

*See Figure 5.1-2 for sampling onshore locations.

The macrobenthic fauna are composed primarily of mollusks (mainly bivalves and gastropods), crustaceans (most of which are important shellfish), and polychaete annelids. A total of 496 specimens of macroinvertebrate animals belonging to 20 species were observed in the 20 sediment samples analyzed. A summary of the occurrence is given in Table 5.1-50. Three groups of organisms, namely mollusks, dipteran larvae, and oligochaete worms, form the bulk of the fauna, accounting for 56.5, 23.6 and 18.8 percent, respectively. The remaining fauna is comprised of polychaetes, decapods, and neuroptera species. The mollusks, particularly Egeria paradoxa (bivalve) and Pachymelania aurita (gastropod), occur in significantly large numbers in the stations located along Badagry Creek (S2, S3, S4, S5) and Yewa River (S1) respectively. In contrast, larvae and oligochaete worms observed are more abundant in the slow-running forest streams of the study area. The chironomids are more abundant at some stations, while Tubifex tubifex, an oligochaete worm and the oligochaete Nais communis also occur in large numbers. The oligochaetes and chironomidae (which are among the well known organic pollution-tolerant macrobenthic fauna) form the bulk of the macrobenthic fauna in the slow running forest streams in the study area.

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Table 5.1-50 Occurrence of Amphibian Tadpoles and Macroinvertebrate Animals Associated with Aquatic Macrophytes in the Selected Onshore Water Bodies
Badagry Creek Water bodies in the study area Ologe Owo Imede Iju Lagoon River River River + + Ore River Oruku River -

Taxon Amphibia - tadpoles Annelida (Oligochaeta) Branchiodrilus sp. Chaetogaster diastrophus Nais communis Tubifex tubifex Annelida (Hirudinea) Glossiphonia sp. Helobdella punotata Haemopsis marmorata Crustacea (Amphipoda) Gamarus fasciatus Crustacea (Decapoda) Potamalpheops monody Crustacea (Isopoda) Ligia gracilipes Insecta (Coleoptera) Copelatus sp. Hydrocanthus sp. Hydrophilus sp. Hydroporus sp. Philhydrus sp. Insecta (Diptera) Chaoborus sp. Chironomus fractilobus Chironomus transvaalesis Clinatanypus maculates Corynoneura sp. Cricotopus sp. Insecta (Ephemeroptera) Adenophlebiodes sp. Baetis sp. Cloeon cylindroculum Pseudocloeon sp. Insecta (Hemptera) Lothocerus sp. Pelocoris femoratus Insecta (Anisoptera) Cordulid Erythemis sp. Ophiogomphus sp. Oxygaster curtisii Plathemis sp.

+ + + + + + + + -

+ + + + + + + + -

+ + + + + + + + + + +

+ + + + + + -

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + -

+ + + -

+ + + + -

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Table 5.1-50 Occurrence of Amphibian Tadpoles and Macroinvertebrate Animals Associated with Aquatic Macrophytes in the Selected Onshore Water Bodies
Badagry Creek Water bodies in the study area Ologe Owo Imede Iju Lagoon River River River Ore River Oruku River

Taxon Insecta (Zygoptera) Coenagrion scitulum Lestes dryas Mollusca (Bivalvia) Psidium pirothi Mollusca (Gastropoda) Hydrobia sp. Lanistes libycus Potamopygus ciliatus Species Number

+ 10

+ + 10

+ 13

+ 8

+ 18

+ = Present

- = Absent

Calculation of diversity indices includes a number of measures or indices. Species richness is the total number of species found in an environment or sample. Margalefs diversity index incorporates species composition and total number of individuals in its computation (i.e., D = (S-1)/log N), and is more commonly used in diversity analysis. Pielou's evenness index is a measure of equitability, that is, a measure of how evenly the individuals are distributed among the different species. Shannon Diversity Index (H) is measuring the order/disorder in a particular system. This order is characterized by the number of individuals found for each species/category in the sample. The number of sediment species per station ranged from one to seven. Species diversity was generally low, while the Margalefs index of species richness (D) ranged from 0.00 to 2.06, and the Shannon Diversity Index varied between 0.00 and 1.55. The evenness index also ranged between 0 and 0.96. The macrobenthic sediment fauna of non-tidal waters was less abundant, but, by far, more diverse than those of tidal water bodies (Table 5.1-51). With regard to taxa number (S), species richness, and the Shannon Diversity Index the non-tidal water bodies were, on average, at least twice as diverse as the tidal waters (Table 5.1-52).

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Table 5.1-51 Summary of Species Richness, Abundance, Diversity, and Distribution of the Major Groups of Macrobenthic Fauna in the Project Area Sediment
Major Groups Annelida Oligochaeta Polychaeta Decapoda Diptera Mollusca Bivalvia Gastropoda Neuroptera Abundance(N) Diversity I. II. Taxa number (S) Species Richness (D) 20 3 2 2 1 3 5 3 3 2 2 5 3 5 5 4 3 4 5 1 7 1.373 4 1 1 45 53 51 58 65 8 35 1 10 5 5 6 3 27 4 35 13 6 5 18 7 53 51 58 65 0 0 3 0 2 0 4 1 1 79 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 236 44 2 496 47.58 8.87 0.40 6 1 1 6 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 0 0 23 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 33 5 0 1 7 3 0 0 3 2 0 0 3 0 0 1 17 5 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 54 0 0 25 93 2 2 117 18.75 0.40 0.40 23.59 WAGP EIA Onshore Sampling Stations S S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S15 S16 S23 S24 S29 S33 S36 S37 TOTAL Percent

0.525 0.252 0.254 0.000 0.479 1.737 1.243 1.243 0.558 0.910 1.214 1.443 1.125 1.559 1.674 1.243 1.038 2.056

III. Shannon Diversity Index (H) IV. Evenness Index (E)

0.641 0.094 0.097 0.000 0.266 1.471 0.950 1.055 0.637 0.637 1.390 1.040 0.897 1.327 1.330 1.055 0.926 1.550 0.000 1.317 0.583 0.135 0.139 0.242 0.914 0.865 0.960 0.918 0.918 0.864 0.946 0.558 0.824 0.959 0.960 0.668 0.963 0.677

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Table 5.1-52 Diversity of Macro-Invertebrate Sediment Fauna of the Investigated Water Bodies in Relation to Tidal Regime
Diversity Index Abundance Taxa number (S) Species Richness (D) Shannon Diversity Index (H) Evenness Index (E) Min 3 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 Max 65 3 1.24 3 0.95 0 0.96 0 Tidal Waters Median Mean 48 2 0.502 0.637 0.413 35.8 2.25 0.528 0.415 0.480 Percent c.v. 24.67 69 0.66 0.369 0.323 0.371 29 70 78 77 s.d. Min 1 1 1.038 0.000 0.558 Max 79 7 2.05 6 1.89 7 0.96 3 Non-tidal waters Median Mean 8.5 4.5 1.308 1.186 0.889 17.5 4.17 1.309 1.077 0.774 Percent c.v. 20.95 120 1.46 0.483 0.371 0.269 35 37 34 35 s.d.

As expected, the benthic communities in the sediment and those associated with the aquatic macrophytes in the aquatic system in the study area are admixtures of fresh and brackish water species. The well known brackish water forms include the errant polychaete, Neanthes limnicola, mollusks, Pachymelania aurita, Potamopyqus ciliatus, Egeria paradoxa, Iphigenia rostrata, Mytillus perna, and Tellina senegambiensis, while the freshwater forms include the developing stages of most insecta, the oligochaete worms, and freshwater mollusks. In the sediment, fauna was, on the average, low in abundance. However, in the roots of aquatic plants, there was a large variety and abundance of different stages of insects, leeches and other invertebrates, thus providing a very conducive habitat for detritivorous and omnivorous fish to thrive if other environmental conditions are right. The whole array of common and rare benthic fauna on the roots of the aquatic weeds and the sediment provides an economic and practical utility for supporting fish culture practices.

5.1.2

Offshore Environment
Physical Environment Climate

5.1.2.1 5.1.2.1.1

The offshore climate is similar to that discussed for the onshore environment in Section 5.1.1.1. 5.1.2.1.2 Bathymetry and Coastal Geology

The project area from Nigeria to Ghana covers the western part of the Gulf of Guinea shelf, which is part of the narrow protrusion of the Equatorial Atlantic shelf. The Gulf is generally regarded as tectonically passive, though earth tremors recorded recently in Nigeria may suggest some crustal instability. There are two minor continental shelves off the coast of Nigeria. The first shelf runs from the coast to a depth of 30m. The second shelf ranges in depth between 30m and 100m, and then drops off to the continental slope. The sediment types within the inner and middle continental shelf consist of more than 75 percent terrigenous sediments, detrital sands with an
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admixture of carbonate on most of the outer shelf and upper slope, and glauconite-rich sediments with mixtures of biogenic carbonate in the outer part of the shelf and upper slope. 5.1.2.1.3 Currents and Tidal Patterns

The Guinea Current (GC) is the dominant circulation feature in the Gulf of Guinea. It is fed by the North Equatorial Counter Current off the Liberian coast, and flows eastward along the coastlines of Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo. The concave topography of the Gulf of Guinea causes the GC to jackknife back towards the west as the South Equatorial Current. Seasonal upwelling occurs from June to late September along the coast. The upwelling weakens in September. Coastal configuration is generally west to east. Generally, the waves approaching the coastline of the Gulf of Guinea are produced by the south-southwesterly winds, which are most pronounced during the rainy months of May to July. These winds produce southwesterly swells. The waves break obliquely on the western barrier coast, thereby generating west-to-east longshore currents. The currents sweep sediments along the west coast. Velocities of longshore current as estimated by Allen (1964) ranged from 0.22m/s to 1.0 /s. Waves usually break at oblique angles to the shore at angles ranging from 10 to 30 and open mostly to the east. The tides are also from the southwest and are predominantly semi-diurnal with two inequalities. The west-east littoral drift is interrupted along its way at many locations by the construction of harbor-protecting structures at Lagos, which have altered the natural littoral drift cell patterns. The Lagos moles, which consist of the west and east moles built between 1908 and 1912 to stop the silting of the Commodore Channel (the main entrance to the Lagos seaports), have drastically reduced the amount of sediment available for transport to the downdrift side. At Badagry, the littoral drift starts to slow down, decreasing to about 750,000 cubic meters per year (m3/yr) of sand due to the clockwise rotation (8) off the coast. Much of these littoral sediments do not get past the Lagos moles. NEDECO (1961) estimated that the Lagos moles trap 500,000m3/yr of sand. Echweiber and Ibe (1986) calculated longshore transport of sand in the Lagos area to be 700,000m3/yr. FoworaRenardet Association (1981) estimated littoral drift of 1.5 million m3/yr off the Lagos area. 5.1.2.1.4 Marine Traffic Patterns

Preliminary information on marine traffic in the area indicates that a wide range of vessels ply the route including small fishing boats, which are either paddle or outboard engine driven, to much larger ocean vessels going to and from the Lagos Harbor. Most of the small fishing vessels operate in the waters only in the daytime (6:00 am to 6:00 pm) and return back to land as the sun is setting. Larger vessels, such as fish trawlers and cargo vessels, on the other hand, generally have no restrictions on their passage. Marine vessels that were sighted during the wet season EBS were documented to provide further data on traffic patterns and resource uses.

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5.1.2.1.5

Water Quality and Water Column Characteristics

Turbidity is generally low in the offshore, oceanic waters of the offshore pipeline ROW, except for a slight contribution from floating planktonic organisms. However, there is a coastal zone of turbid, greenish water, which meets the clearer oceanic water six to eight km from the coast. The lagoon water discharged through the Lagos Harbor mouth forms a second sharply defined water mass, which lies south and east of the GC and away from the project area. This lagoon brackish water has the same salinity as the harbor water. The typical pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) measured at Victoria Beach and the Lagos Harbor shows daily fluctuations that are rapid and complex. The surface waters are basically warm with temperatures greater than 24C and are not replaced by surface waters from any other source. These waters lie within the Eastern Tropical Zone (ETZ), which extends from Cotonou in the Republic of Benin to Cape Lopez in Gabon (Longhurst, 1964). The overall pattern shows a clearly defined mean maximum temperature of 29C in April and a mean minimum temperature of 25C in August. Depending on variability within the year, there may be a second maximum in the October/November period and a second minimum in January. There is a regular temperature decline from April/May to September each year, when daily SST cycles at Victoria Beach in Lagos range from 1C to 1.5C per month. This reaches a minimum in September and has been ascribed to overall cooling of the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Guinea during this period of the year. Water column profiles of temperature, turbidity, chlorophyll-a, DO, pH, oxidation reduction potential, and specific conductivity were taken during the dry season EBS at 50 offshore sampling stations in the study area from Nigeria to Ghana. Data collected during this effort are provided in the dry season EBS Report, attached as Appendix 5-A. A brief description of the data is provided below. Temperature profiles taken in Fall 2002 also showed a thermally stratified water column. Surface temperatures of the photic zone were similar throughout the proposed pipeline ROW area, on average 27.8C. Surface waters are generally expected to be cooling in the late fall months relative to late summer when surface waters have reached the annual maximum. The minimum temperature on the pipeline route was 16.3C (off Togo, bottom 65m), while the maximum was 28.8C (off Nigeria, near surface, 5m). Many deeper water sites exhibited numerous distinctly stratified thermoclines, while shallow, nearshore sites demonstrated a distinct primary thermocline with a linear temperature gradient to the bottom, indicating mixing of stratified layers already present. A strong density gradient in the euphotic zone, limiting the vertical exchange of nutrients between surface and deep waters, is likely to exist under these conditions during fall and winter months. Turbidity, as measured in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), was used to determine the relative ambient concentration of suspended particulate matter in the water column. In general, turbidity values were comparable throughout the proposed pipeline ROW area (both trunkline and lateral) with a slight elevation in upper surface water during the start of the down cast and a decrease in values down to the thermocline, stabilizing toward the bottom.

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The general trend in turbidity was low readings (3NTU to 5NTU range), with minor changes and low standard deviations. Chlorophyll-a concentrations ranged from 0.0g/L to 62.8g/L throughout the water column. Relatively higher concentrations were measured above the thermocline throughout most of the sampling area. A typical series of observations was 36.8g/L at the surface, decreasing by half to 18g/L at 1.5m depth; then readings drop after the thermocline at 15m to a stable 0.7g/L and continue to be stable at that range to the final depth around 27m. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations throughout the proposed pipeline route ranged from 0.0 to 91.6 percent saturation. The highest DO profiles observed in surface waters were close to supersaturated concentrations, with a concentration of 91.6 percent. Supersaturated conditions typically occur in shallow productive areas, along the pipeline lateral since oxygen is a by-product of phytoplankton photosynthesis and the physical mixing effects of wave action at the surface interface. DO values generally decreased below the thermocline. DO declined steadily with depth reaching lower concentrations around 2 to10 percent in the deeper waters (>53m). This decline is likely due to the consumption of oxygen by fauna and bacteria and from the lack of mixing between oxygen-rich surface waters and depleted subsurface waters. Water column profiles of pH were uniform throughout the sampling area. A slight but insignificant decrease in pH was observed below the thermocline and the lowest pHs were observed at the deepwater stations. Increased pH values were found at the primary thermocline of many stations. The lowest pH value was 7.69 (depth 72m in Nigeria) and the highest pH value was 8.87 (depth 2m in Ghana). The overall average pH of all stations was 8.4 with a standard deviation of 0.1. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP) tended to decrease from the upper surface water after the primary thermocline to the deepest points at the stations in shallow water. As station depths increased to deeper water (>53m) several sites demonstrated an increase in ORP values (sometimes higher than surface water levels). The stations exhibiting this characteristic ORP profile appear to coincide with nearby steep drops in depth. Review of the metals, nutrients, alkalinity, and COD results of the discrete water samples indicates little above anticipated background concentrations in seawater (Figures 5.1-8 through 5.1-10). Variations from individual sample measurements are within the normal range of expected values and represent expected method variability.

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Figure 5.1-8 Offshore Stations Surface Water Metal Concentrations for Nigeria
12000.00

10000.00

8000.00 Concentration

6000.00

Calcium (ppm) Potassium (ppm) Magnesium (ppm) Sodium (ppm)

4000.00

2000.00

0.00
at 01 N0 1c w at 02 N 02 cw at 01 N0 2c w at 02 N 03 cw at 01 N0 3c w at 02 N 04 cw N0 at 01 4c w at 01 (D N ) 04 cw N0 at 02 4c w at 02 (D ) N 05 cw at 01 N0 5c w at 02 N 06 cw at 01 N0 6c w at 02

N0 1c w

Sample Number

Figure 5.1-9 Offshore Stations Surface Water Nutrient Concentrations for Nigeria
1.4

1.2

Concentration

0.8 Ammonia Nitrogen (mg/L) Total Nitrogen (mg/L) Total Phosporous (mg/L) 0.6

0.4

0.2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sample

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Figure 5.1-10 Offshore Stations Surface Water Alkalinity and COD Concentrations for Nigeria
160

140

120

100 Concentration

80

Alkalinity (ppm) COD (mg/L)

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sample ID

5.1.2.1.6

Sediment Quality and Sediment Characterization

Sediment data collected from the offshore environment during the dry season EBS are presented in this section. Characterization data from the Sediment Profile Image (SPI) study is presented below and the entire SPI Study Report can be found in Appendix 5-C. Because of engineering considerations, the proposed route of the pipeline offshore Nigeria was modified during the period when baseline data were being acquired in the field. This required recollection and reanalysis of some sediment samples along the new route and these data were integrated into the assessment of the environment. Review of all of the physical, chemical, and biological data indicates a generally homogeneous environment in the offshore project area that is defined mainly by bottom depth. This allows the use of the acquired data in the assessment and description of the environment.
Chemical Characterization

Hydrocarbons The dry season EBS analyzed hydrocarbons at each of the offshore stations for total hydrocarbons (THC), selected aliphatic hydrocarbons, and selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) constituents. Low levels of hydrocarbons, measured as THC, were observed throughout the entire offshore area from Nigeria to Ghana with elevated concentrations in a select few localized areas but none offshore of Nigeria. Nigeria concentrations ranged from 10.6ppm to 21.1ppm with a mean THC concentration of 14.0ppm (comparable to the region-wide average of 24.38ppm). No relatively elevated concentrations (defined as greater than the region-wide mean plus standard error, or 38.07ppm) were detected along the proposed offshore ROW in Nigeria.
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For aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., Figure 5.1-11), levels were detected offshore Nigeria within the range of expected values based on the region-wide average (region-wide average of 5.80ppm compared to an offshore Nigeria average of 5.73ppm). Distribution of the targeted saturated hydrocarbons can be used to provide information about the type of source. Concentrations were plotted and evaluated to determine whether patterns could be observed. Although the pattern detected was not completely consistent across these five locations, all indicated aliphatic hydrocarbons were focused in the heavy fuel oil range, from tetradecane (n-C14) through triacontane (n-C30). The fact that heavier saturated hydrocarbons (i.e., hexatriacontane, n-C36) were not detected in these five locations implies that the hydrocarbon source is primarily petroleum and not due to naturally occurring (biogenic) sources. Location N04C represents the highest concentration of total aliphatic hydrocarbons of offshore Nigeria sampling locations. Figure 5.1-11 Distribution of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons for Nigeria Station N04C
Analyte Histogram Profile 2.5 Concentration (mg/kg) 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
N on an e D ec an e D od ec an Te e tra de ca H ne ex ad ec an O e ct ad ec an N e on ad ec an e Ei co sa ne D oc os an Te e tra co sa ne H ex ac os an O e ct ac os an Tr e ia co H nt ex an at e ria co nt an e

Com pounds

For the PAH fraction, targeted individual PAHs, and total PAHs (i.e., the sum of the targeted concentrations) were detected at low levels. Primarily detected were lower molecular weight PAHs (naphthalene through benzo(a)anthracene). Relatively elevated concentrations (defined as greater than the region-wide mean plus standard error, or 7.44ppm) were not detected in the Nigeria sampling locations. On average the detected PAHs in Nigeria locations were lower then the region-wide average (average total PAHs for Nigeria was 2.94ppm compared to the region-wide average total PAH of 5.1ppm). Of the individual analytes detected only Anthracene was detected at higher levels than the region-wide mean (detected at an average of 1.40ppm compared to the region-wide average of 0.820ppm) (Figure 5.1-12). The concentrations detected remain likely negligible.

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Figure 5.1-12 Comparison of Mean PAHs Across Nigeria Sampling Locations


Com parison of Nigeria Mean PAHs to Region-Wide Mean PAHs 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0
2N M a et hy pht l N ha le a Ac ph ne en tha ap le ne Ac hth en yl e ap ne ht he F l ne Ph uor e n en e a An thre ne th Fl rac uo en e ra nt Be he nz ne o( a) Py r en an th e Be ra nz ce o( ne C h b) flu rys en or Be Be ant e n z n zo hre o n ( In (k) a)p e de fl u y n o or ren D a e ( ib e n 1,2 nthr en zo ,3) e ( Be a,h per n z )a yle nt n o( g, hra e h, i) c en pe e ry To len e ta lP AH s

Region-Wide Average

Nigeria Average

Heavy Metals and Other Elements Concentrations of 11 elements were measured and analyzed for the offshore sampling stations along the proposed pipeline route. Concentrations of all metals, except Pb, were similar to average continental crust concentrations (Wedepohl, 1995). Mercury and zinc appeared to be slightly elevated over levels reported for average global continental crust (0.04ppm, and 65ppb, respectively). However, the results of analyzing quality control samples indicated a high bias for these values. Physicochemical Properties Sediment samples were analyzed for a variety of physicochemical properties to establish baseline conditions. At the time of sample collection (i.e., aboard the survey vessel), measurements of sediment pH, temperature, redox potential, and electric conductivity were taken. The samples were analyzed again for pH and electrical conductivity in a fixed laboratory. In addition, sediment samples were analyzed for exchangeable acidity, sulfate, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and cations (Na, K, Ca, and Mg). A summary of the results is provided in Table 5.1-53.

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Table 5.1-53 Summary of Offshore Sediment Physicochemical Measurements for All Countries
Parameter Mean Minimum Mean Parameter Mean Minimum Mean pH 8.25 7.60 8.70 Total-N (percent) 0.14 0.03 0.52 EC (S/cm) 16.38 7.79 42.40 Na (mEq/100g) 28.45 0.90 87.64 Exch. Acid (mEq/100g) 0.38 0.10 0.80 K (mEq/100g) 1.75 0.09 5.12 SO42(ppm) 1051.64 175.11 4038.71 Ca (mEq/100g) 7.33 1.87 16.54 Total P (ppm) 130.24 3.97 1304.69 Mg (mEq/100g) 9.58 0.71 27.01

S = microSiemens MEq = milliequivalents Physical Characterization

The bulk properties of the sediments were analyzed for TOC and grain size. These physical parameters influence the chemical distribution and benthic community structure of the sediment and are important for the interpretation of data. Sediment samples were primarily sand with over half of the samples were comprised of greater than 70 percent sand. Another large percentage of samples was comprised of sand mixed with clay. Distributions of sediment types over the study area varied, as would be expected considering the large area evaluated. Additional sediment physical characterization from the SPI data is discussed later in this section. Total organic carbon concentrations ranged from 0.08 to 5.09 percent and averaged 1.09 percent. More than 90 percent of the samples had a moderate TOC concentration (less than 3 percent). Sediment Profile Imagery As part of offshore survey, an SPI survey was conducted to provide a rapid assessment of sediment features such as sediment grain size, depth of the redox potential discontinuity (RPD), and biological community type. The results of the analysis were used to assist in decisions concerning number and location for grab sampling stations. In addition, the analysis provides additional physical, chemical, and biological data that is presented here. During the survey, team scientists made visual assessments. The results from the rapid field assessment are presented in Table 5.1-54.

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Table 5.1-54 Rapid Field Assessment of Sediment, Nigeria Stations


Station N6 Position C S N C S N C S N C E W C E W C E W Description Silt clay, Stage 3 Silt clay, Stage 3 Silt clay, Stage 3 Silt clay, Stage 1 on 3 Silt clay, Stage 1 on 3 Silt clay, Stage 1 on 3 Silt clay, Stage 3 Silt clay, Stage 3 Silt clay, Stage 3 Silt clay, Stage 3 Silt clay, higher sand content, Stage 3 Silt clay, Stage 1 on 3, fine-grained, deep bioturbators Sandy mud, Stage 3 Silt clay, Stage 3, sand in upper fraction, healthy bottom Silt clay, Stage 3, little bit of sand at surface Low penetration, sand Mud with sand surface layer, Stage 3 Silt clay, Stage 3

N5

N4

N3

N2

N1

One representative image from each location was selected for complete image analysis. The results from this comprehensive analysis provide the basis for the spatial characterization of the sediments and benthic habitat presented below. Sediment Grain Size and Bottom Kinetic Gradients The sediments throughout the entire offshore pipeline ROW area surveyed ranged from finegrained silt-clays, (representing low-energy, depositional environments) to coarse sand or granules on rippled bottoms or with shell lag deposits at the sediment-water interface (representing high-energy, sediment transport zones). Water depths throughout the area surveyed ranged from approximately 14m to 77m. While there were a few exceptions, most fine-grained stations occurred at depths exceeding 37m. However, in this nearshore, relatively shallow and generally high-energy regime parallel to the coast, sediment type is more a function of kinetic gradients resulting from a combination of bottom currents, shoreline slope, and transport patterns rather than water depth. Sandy and/or hard cobble/ancient coral bottoms were found throughout the entire depth range sampled and were probably more a factor of geographic location in relation to longshore transport and wave energy profiles in the nearshore zone. Regional patterns of bottom kinetic gradients indicate that as one moves in toward shore along the perpendicular transects sampled in each of the countries (two transects in Ghana, one each in Togo, Benin, and Nigeria), the sediments along all five show evidence of either active or aperiodic sediment transport. All of the stations sampled along these five shoreward transects have either sandy sediments or hard, cobble bottom reflecting the relatively high energy regimes in these areas.

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5.1.2.1.7

Bottom Hazards and Areas of Existing Pollution

The entire pipeline length was examined with sidescan sonar, to 500m on either side, for bottom characteristics including bottom hazards. Where significant bottom hazards were detected, the pipeline location was shifted around the obstacle. No shipwrecks or other bottom hazards were identified along the proposed pipeline route off shore Nigeria during the geophysical or environmental surveys. The potential threat of pollution in the marine environment is mainly from industrial, agricultural, and domestic sources. There is evidence of heavy metal concentrations, as well as increasing effects of DDT, aldrin, heptachlor, and tributylin in the coastal waters of Ghana (Ihenyen, 1998; Biney, 1986; Joiris et al., 1997; Nyarko and Evans, 1997). In addition, the relatively recent increase in human population levels in the coastal areas, has been accompanied by fecal and nutrient-pollution of the marine environment (e.g., Afoakwa et al., 1988; Wiafe and Quist, 2002). 5.1.2.2 5.1.2.2.1 Biological Environment Plankton

Microalgae or phytoplankton, grouped as diatoms, dinoflagellates, and coccolithophores, are microscopic and range between 30m and 60m in size. Their occurrence is limited to the euphotic zone of the pelagic environment. Species diversity and abundance is linked to seasonal variation of the oceanographic regime; namely, high diversity and low abundance during thermal stratification, and low diversity but high abundance during upwelling periods (Wiafe, 2002). The explosive development of these plankton groups in the offshore and inshore locations have a rippling effect on the development of the fishery of the nearshore and adjoining coastal water bodies as this large production is made available to the fishery of the nearshore habitats. The dry season EBS investigated abundance and diversity of plankton in the offshore environment. Twenty-five plankton samples were collected from the upper 20m to 30m column of the sea, and the zooplankton species identified were predominantly epipelagic. It has been observed that a thermocline exists between 30m and 40m of the water column in the project area during this season (Bainbridge, 1972). This serves as a barrier to the zooplankton during vertical migration. In all, 69 taxa (mostly species) of phytoplankton and 52 taxa of zooplankton were identified. The phytoplankton community was dominated by Chaetoceros spp. while Penilia avirostris dominated the zooplankton, which may have been a result of planktonic responses to seasonality of the hydrographic regime (e.g., Wiafe, 2002). Among the phytoplankton species identified in the samples was Dinophysis acuta, which is a harmful microalga with the potential to cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in bloom condition. At concentrations above 500x103 cells/m3, Dinophysis acuta is considered as being in bloom condition (Anderson et al., 2001). For the samples analysed, peak abundance of Dinophysis spp. did not exceed 10x103 cells/m3 at any station, and is not currently harmful to the fisheries. Off Nigeria, the highest and lowest abundance of phytoplankton were recorded off Stations N03 and N01, respectively (Figure 5.1-13).
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Figure 5.1-13 Distribution of Total Phytoplankton Abundance at Sampling Stations Off Nigeria

400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 N01PHY N02PHY N03PHY N04PHY

With regard to the zooplankton, the highest and lowest abundance were recorded off stations N02 and N01, respectively (Figure 5.1-14). Figure 5.1-14 Distribution of Total Zooplankton Abundance at Sampling Stations Off Nigeria

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 N01ZOO N02ZOO N03ZOO N04ZOO

Wet Season EBS Plankton Sampling Results

In the overall wet season EBS, a total of 63 phytoplankton, 63 zooplankton (oblique tow), and 65 zooplankton (vertical haul) taxa were identified in the samples. The phytoplankton community was dominated by Chaetoceros spp., while Penilia avirostris, Temora stylifera, and Para-Clausocalanus5 spp. dominated the zooplankton community. The density of
5

Para-Clausocalanus is a combined name for Paracalanus and Clausocalanus. The two genera cannot be separated using a dissecting microscope.

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zooplankton obtained by oblique and vertical tows was higher in the latter. P. avirostris ranked highest, in terms of abundance, in the oblique tow but was second highest in the vertical haul. This species is mostly epipelagic (Bainbridge, 1972), and the oblique tow, by its design, samples the upper water column. Phytoplankton species diversity was highest off Ghana (Stations G01 and G02) whilst in the case of zooplankton, Benin recorded the highest diversity. Pooling the sample data together, Ghana exhibited the highest diversity in species with respect to phytoplankton and zooplankton. Benin showed the highest diversity with respect to zooplankton (Figure 5.115). It is necessary to note, however, that all stations off Benin were never less than 25m in depth, which may have contributed to the high diversity recorded off Benin. Figure 5.1-15 Distribution of Species Richness (S) by Country - Wet Season EBS
50 45 Species richness (S) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Ghana Phytoplankton Togo Benin Nigeria

Zooplankton (oblique)

Zooplankton (vertical)

Whereas phytoplankton abundance was highest off Station G02, zooplankton abundance (vertical and step oblique) were highest off Station G01 in the wet season EBS. By pooling data together for all stations, total abundance of zooplankton collected by vertical haul was relatively higher than that collected by step oblique. This could be attributed to the effect of diel vertical migration in zooplankton distribution (i.e. zooplankton move to greater depths with rising of the sun and returns to the upper layers during dusk).
Wet Season EBS Primary Productivity Sampling Results

Primary production is linked to the amount of inorganic carbon assimilated by phytoplankton via the process of photosynthesis in a given volume of water or an area over a given time period. Typically, productivity in offshore ecosystems range from 10mg C/m3day to 100mg C/m3day in terms of volume, or from 75mg C/m2day to 1,000mg C/m2day in terms of area. Thus, the values obtained for the project area (i.e. 4,305mg C/m2day to 5,956mg C/m2day) indicate a system of high productivity. This is not surprising since the coastal ecosystem of

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the project area undergoes seasonal upwelling that commences in July. It should be noted that the samples were collected in July and thus marked the period for the commencement of the upwelling. The wet season EBS results of primary productivity for Nigeria are shown in Table 5.1-55. Table 5.1-55 Results of Primary Productivity Recorded at Stations Offshore Nigeria in July, 2003
Country Station ND01 ND02 ND03 ND04 (mgC/m2day) 3341.1 4454.8 5290.1 4733.2 Country Mean Productivity Standard Error (mgC/m2day) 4455 410

Nigeria

5.1.2.2.2

Benthic Organisms

The benthic macrofauna within inshore habitats have been described by Bassindale, (1961), Buchanan (1957), Edmunds (1978), and Evans et al. (1993). The organisms include polychaetes, arthropods, mollusks, bryozoans, and echinoderms. Edmunds (1978) has recorded 68 taxonomic families of mollusks. Some species appear to be declining in abundance (e.g., Cymbium spp., a gastropod; and Panulirus spp., the spiny lobster), while others have disappeared altogether (e.g., Astropecten spp., a sea star). Offshore benthic organisms have been described by Buchanan (1957; 1958). They include a range of polychaete worms, ribbon worms, amphipods, bivalves, gastropods, and decapod crustaceans.
Dry Season EBS Benthic Results

Across all stations sampled during the dry season EBS (62 benthic samples representing 50 offshore locations were analyzed from Nigeria to Ghana), 1,264 individual organisms were identified. Most, approximately 220, were polychaete and crustacean species. Other species include ophiuroids, bivalves, gastropods, sipunculids, and oligochaetes. See the First Season EBS Report (Appendix 5-A) for a complete list of species observed. The number of species and the diversity indices calculated per station for the main pipeline route and the laterals are presented in Figures 5.1-16 through 5.1.19. Stations are arranged from west to east along the main pipeline route; and from south to north (generally corresponding to a trend of deeper water to shallower water) on the laterals. In the Nigerian waters, 33 taxonomic groups were identified, made up of 25 polychaete species, seven crustacean species and four species classified as others. Three stations were sampled along the main pipeline route and four stations were sampled along the lateral. The diversity indices calculated included species richness (d), Pielous evenness (J), and the Shannon Diversity Index. Species richness (as per Margalef) is a measure of the number of species present, taking into account the number of individuals present. Pielou's evenness index is a measure of equitability; a measure of how evenly the individuals are distributed

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among the different species. These are useful quantitative tools for establishing baseline conditions of community properties. Main Pipeline Route Figures 5.1-16 and 5.1-17 show the number of species and the diversity indices estimated for the stations off the main pipeline route. The main pipeline route off Nigeria ranges in depth from 50m to 80m. No clear spatial distribution pattern was observed for the number of species. Station N05-C showed the highest total species and polychaete counts while Station N04-C showed the least counts. Benthic macrofauna grouped under others was absent in samples from both Stations N04-C and N06-C. Polychaete species were dominant in all the stations sampled. Figure 5.1-16 Benthic Macrofauna Distribution on Main Pipeline Route in Nigeria

60 Number of Species 50 40 30 20 10 0 N04-C N05-C Station Total Species Polychaeta Crustacea Others N06-C

Figure 5.1-17

10 Diversity index 8 6 4 2 0 N04-C N05-C Station Margalef's richness (d) Pielou's evenness (J') Shannon-Wiener index (H') N06-C

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Offshore Benthic Macrofauna Diversity Index Distribution on Main Pipeline Route in Nigeria The diversity index also showed a trend similar to the species diversity. Species evenness (J), however, was fairly constant across the stations along the main pipeline route. Lateral Route The species counts for the stations sampled on the lateral were similar (Figure 5.1-18) but low, compared with the other stations. The dominant species observed belong to the polychaetes. No crustacean species were recorded at Station N01-C and no species classified under the others group were recorded at any of the stations along the lateral off Nigeria. The diversity index distribution (Figure 5.1-19) for the lateral indicates that Station NO3-C had the highest diversity and species richness compared to the other stations. Figure 5.1-18 Benthic Macrofauna Distribution Along the Nigeria Lateral

60 Number of Species 50 40 30 20 10 0 N03-C N04-C Station Total Species Polychaeta Crustacea Others N02-C N01-C

100 80 60 40 20 0 Depth (m)

Figure 5.1-19 Offshore Benthic Macrofauna Diversity Index Along the Nigeria Lateral

12 10 Diversity index 8 6 4 2 0 N03-C Margalef's richness (d) N04-C N02-C N01-C Shannon-Wiener index (H') Station Pielou's evenness (J')

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For the dry season EBS, polychaetes were the dominant organisms of benthic infauna. Polychaetes occur in two basic forms, errant and sedentary types, based on habits. Errant types are generally mobile predators with jaws for catching prey. Sedentary types are tube dwellers and generally are detritivores or filter feeders. A total of 625 individual polychaetes belonging to 38 families were recorded in the offshore waters. Of this number, a total of 237 individuals (38 percent of the polychaetes) belonging to 14 families were errant polychaetes, while the sedentary polychaetes included 388 individuals (62 percent of the polychaetes by number) comprising 24 families. Polychaete families with counts exceeding 20 individuals were classified as dominant. Based on this classification, the dominant families among the errrants were the Eunicidae, Nephtyidae, and the Glyceridae, and comprised 72 percent of the entire errant forms. Among the sedentary types, the dominant forms included the Maldanidae, Spionidae, Orbinidae, Cirratulidae, Lumbrinereidae, Onuphidae, Capitellidae, and Ampharetidae. They constituted 62 percent of the sedentary forms. The relative occurrence of the dominant errant and sedentary polychaetes are presented in Figures 5.1-20 and 5.1-21. Figures 5.1-22 and 5.1-23 also show the hierarchical dominant errant and sedentary families for the entire offshore study area. Figure 5.1-20 Occurrence of Dominant Sedentary Polychaetes Across Countries

100 Percent occurrence 80 60 40 20 0 Ghana Togo Country Maldanidae Lumbrinereidae Spionidae Onuphidae Orbinidae Capitellidae Cirratulidae Ampharetidae Benin Nigeria

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Figure 5.1-21 Occurrence of Dominant Errant Polychaetes Across Countries

100 Percent occurrence 80 60 40 20 0 Ghana Togo Eunicidae Benin Country Nephtyidae Glyceridae Nigeria

Figure 5.1-22 Occurrence of Dominant Sedentary Polychaetes for the Entire Offshore Study Area

Percent occurrence

20

0 Lumbrinereidae Ampharetidae Orbinidae Maldanidae Cirratulidae Capitellidae Onuphidae Spionidae

Family

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Figure 5.1-23 Occurrence of Dominant Errant Polychaetes for the Entire Offshore Study Area

100 80 Percent occurrence 60 40 20 0 Eunicidae Nephtyidae Family Glyceridae

Wet Season EBS Benthic Results

During the wet season EBS, in which 75 benthic samples were analyzed, a total of 3,663 individual organisms were identified throughout the WAGP study area. These include polychaetes, crustaceans, mollusks, and species grouped as others, a category that included such organisms as echinoderms, oligochaetes, and sipunculids. Overall, polychaetes were the most dominant taxonomic group, contributing 65.3 percent, followed by the crustaceans (18.9 percent) and an others category, which contributed 12.7 percent. Mollusks were the least abundant group, constituting 3.1 percent. One hundred and sixteen taxa were identified off Nigeria. These comprised 79 polychaete species, 22 crustacean species, three molluscan species and 12 species classified as others. Six stations were sampled on a diagonal, which extended from the subtidal to deeper waters. Main Pipeline Route Figures 5.1-24 and 5.1-25 show the number of species and the diversity indices, respectively, estimated for the stations off the main pipeline route. The main pipeline route of the Nigeria diagonal ranges in depth from 50m to 80m. No clear spatial distribution pattern was observed for the number of species enumerated. Station 2ND04-C showed the highest total species and polychaete counts while Station 2ND06-C, the deepest station, showed the least counts. Benthic macrofauna grouped under others were absent in samples from stations 2ND01-C and 2ND06-C. Polychaete species were dominant in all the stations sampled. The diversity index showed similar trends.

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Figure 5.1-24 Offshore Benthic Macrofauna Distribution Along the Diagonal of Nigeria Wet Season EBS
60 50 70 Number of species 40 30 40 20 10 10 0 2ND03-C 2ND01-C 2ND04-C 2ND05-C 2N D06-C 2ND02-C Station Total number of species Mollusca Polychaeta Others Crustacea Depth 0 D 30 20 60 50
Depth (m)

90 80

Figure 5.1-25 Offshore Benthic Macrofauna Diversity index Distribution Along the Nigeria Diagonal Wet Season EBS

70 60 50 Number of species 40 30 20 10 0 2G19-C R1 2G19-C R2 2G06 -C R1 2G06-C R2 2T03-C R1 2T03-C R2 2B01-C R1 2B01-C R2

STATION

Total number of species

Polychaeta

Crustacea

Mollusca

Others

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Benthic Sampling Replication In addition to standard sampling, replicate benthic sampling and analyses were performed again at four randomly chosen stations in the wet season EBS to assess the overall repeatability of results. Figures 5.1-26 and 5.1-27 show the number of species and the diversity indices estimated for the stations with repeated testing (R1 and R2 indicate the two replicates per station) along the main pipeline across the countries. Figure 5.1-26 Abundance and Distribution of Major Macrobenthic Fauna Group at Replicate Stations

12 D ive rs ity in d e 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 N 01 -C 2 N 0 2 -C 2 N0 3 -C 2 N D 0 4 -C 2 N05 -C 2 ND 0 6 -C S T AT IO N M a rg a le f's sp ec ie s richne s s S ha nno n d ive rsity

Figure 5.1-27 Distribution of Diversity at Replicate Stations

14 Diversity index 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2G19- 2G19- 2G06 2G06- 2T03- 2T03- 2B01 - 2B01C R1 C R2 -C R1 C R2 C R1 C R2 C R1 C R2 STATION Margalef's species richness
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Two stations, 2G06-C and 2B01-C, were shown using multivariate techniques to have a very high repeatability. The highest similarity in station replicate was recorded at Station 2B01-C, which exhibited a Bray-Curtis similarity of 99 percent. The stations with lower similarity scores were 2G19-C and 2T03-C, with Bray-Curtis similarity of 91 percent, which is still appreciably high. The results of this replication suggest that the results of the survey are highly repeatable and can be used to evaluate the benthic community. 5.1.2.2.3 Fisheries

The resources in the equatorial zones are heterogeneous in size and variety of fish species. For example, a single haul from a trawl net may contain 25 to 30 species of fish of different sizes and age range. Tobor (1965 and 1968) recorded as many as 71 families of fishes, comprising 157 species in the Nigerian inshore waters. The rich fishery resources are supported by a number of factors. The upwelling phenomenon brings cool, nutrient rich waters from the sea bottom to the surface, thus supporting abundant primary production and rich fish resources. The continental shelf, ranging from 27km to 83km wide off Nigeria, also supports an abundance of fish. A third factor is the distribution of the trade winds in the tropical region. Heavy rainfall in the tropics results in loads of rich organic debris brought downstream by large rivers flowing into the Atlantic Ocean that support rich fisheries resources off the coast of West Africa. Small pelagic fish species that inhabit coastal areas are highly diverse. Four species have the highest economic value: round sardine (Sardinella aurita), herring (S. maderensis), anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). Other species caught in smaller quantities include West African sardine (Ilisha Africana), big-eye grunt (Brachydeuterus auritus), and several small carangids. The resource is exploited using various types of netting (e.g., encircling nets and beach seines). This pelagic group is made up of mainly tunas, yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (T. obesus), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and black skijack (Euthynnus alleterratus). Other large pelagic species of commercial importance include sailfish (Istiophorus albicans), swordfish (Xiphias glaudius), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), and white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus). Exploitation is either industrial or artisanal, using pole and line, purse seine, and gillnets. The most important coastal demersal fish species belong to the families Sparidae, Haemulidae, Mulldae, Sciaeneidae, Lutjanidae, and Serranidae. They are distributed on soft trawlable grounds (Scieneidae and Sparidae) and rocky grounds (Lithophiae). Both artisanal and industrial trawlers exploit this resource using hand line and set nets. Canoe fisheries for demersals are seasonal, and alternate with the fishery for small pelagics when they are available. Fishing for demersals takes place on the continental shelf and can be divided into three zones: Trawlable grounds extend from shallow ground up to a depth of 75m. From 15m to 75m depths, this area covers 18,500km2;
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Hard bottom extends between 75m and the continental slope, and is exploited mainly by fixed gear; and Shallow rocky coastal grounds around Cape Three Points in Ghana. Crustaceans of primary commercial importance are pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), caramote prawn (P. kerathurus), deepwater rose shrimp (Parapeneus longirostis), and P. atlantica. The juveniles of these species are caught in the estuaries, mangroves, and on the beach with beach seines during the upwelling season. In nearshore areas, the older peneids are caught by inshore trawlers. With regard to lobsters, the three species of high commercial value are Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), green spiny lobster (P. regius), and slipper lobster (Scyllares herklotsii). These are captured with bottom nets set by small canoes on rocky grounds. The dry season EBS investigated the species composition, catch rates (kg/haul), and numbers of individual species by stations for Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Nigeria. The catch rates in Nigeria and elsewhere varied with depth. In general, the catch rate increased with increasing depth (15m to 45m), followed by a decrease at greater depths (50m to 54m). Thus, the most productive area occurred around the 45m depth contour. It must be noted, however, that the highest catch rate was related to high catch of jellyfish, which contributed over 50 percent of the total catch at the corresponding station. Figure 5.1-28 is a graphical representation of the catch rate by stations for Nigeria, while Figure 5.1-29 shows that for the laterals. Figure 5.1-28 Catch Rates Along Pipeline in Nigeria

Catch Rate (kg/haul)

100 80 60 40 20 0
2m (3 1 T0 ) 3m (6 2 T0 ) 5m (1 3 T0 ) 0m (6 4 T0 )

Station (with depth in meters)

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Figure 5.1-29 Catch Rates at Indicated Depth Ranges Along the Laterals

30 Catch Rate (kg/haul) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Takoradi Tema Togo Laterals 0-20 21-40 41-50 Benin Nigeria

A total of 55 species belonging to 36 families were recorded in Nigerian waters during the survey. There were ten crustaceans, one mollusk, one invertebrate, and 43 finfishes. The most abundant species recorded were piper gurnard (Trigla lyra; 0.78kg/haul), longneck croaker (Pseudotolithus typus; 0.32kg/haul), lesser African threadfin (Galeoides decadactylus; 0.25kg/haul), blue crab (Portunus validus; 0.25 kg/haul), brown ray (Raja miraletus; 0.15kg/haul), gladiator swim crab (Callinectes pallidus; 0.15kg/haul), and Guinea flathead (Grammophites gruveli; 0.14kg/haul). The Shannon Diversity Index on the laterals in each country and along the main pipeline are presented in Figure 5.1-30. The figure shows that species diversity was highest off the Nigeria lateral followed by the Tema the lateral. Species diversity was lowest along the Benin and Takoradi laterals. The crustaceans in Nigerian waters consisted of mainly true crabs and shrimps, while mollusks were represented by cuttlefish. Common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), Guinea flathead (Grammophites gruveli), channel flounder (Syacuim micrurum), piper gunard (Trigla lyra) and big-eye grunt occurred at almost all the stations.

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Figure 5.1-30 Shannon Diversity Index of Fisheries Species Along the Laterals and Main Pipeline

4 Diversity Index 3 2 1 0
a eri Nig nin Be To go ma Te i e rad Lin ko a ain T M

5.1.2.2.4

Wet Season EBS Fisheries Sampling Results

In total, 124 fish and invertebrate species from 71 families were represented in the wet season EBS trawl sampling. Eight fish species dominated the catches in terms of numbers and frequency of occurrence in the hauls. When ranked by catch rate in the whole region, streaked gunard (Chelidonichthys lastoviza) emerged the most abundant and Guinean comber (Serranus accraensis) the least abundant of the eight species. The species composition varied among the four countries with the highest number of species recorded in Ghanaian waters. The number of species also varied among laterals with the highest number observed on the Tema lateral. However, the Shannon Diversity Index was highest off Lagos (Figure 5.1-31). Five out of the eight dominant fish species found in the entire region, common cuttlefish, channel founder, Guinea flathead, streaked gunard and West African goatfish (Pseudupeneus prayensis) were present in the hauls made off Ghana and three each off Togo, Benin, and Nigeria. Generally, the catch rates, hence abundance of the demersal species, were highest on the laterals off Ghana (Tema and Takoradi), followed by Togo (Lome), Nigeria (Lagos), and Benin (Cotonou). For each lateral, catch rates varied with depth. The highest catch rate off Lagos was recorded in the inshore waters (21m to 40m; Figure 5.1-32). Mean catch rates also correlated with depth with the highest values recorded in deep waters off Ghana, Togo, and Nigeria (whereas in Benin the catch rates were highest in inshore waters). Differences in the distribution and abundance of demersal species may also be due to factors including the amount of organic mud in the bottom deposits, the occurrence of isolated patches of rocky

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bottom, the occurrence of estuarine condition associated with lagoons and rivers, and the nature of oceanic water masses lying over the continental shelf (Longhurst and Pauly, 1987). As these factors varied from area to area, so did the species compositions, catch rates, and diversity of species. Off Nigeria, a total of 60 species belonging to 41 families were recorded. There were 7 crustacean, five mollusk, five other invertebrate, and 43 fish species. The species were dominated by Angola dentex (Dentex angolensis; 1.95kg/haul), big-eye grunt (1.00kg/haul), common cuttlefish (0.80kg/haul), Congo dentex (Dentex congoensis; 0.68kg/haul), pandora (Pagellus bellottii; 0.52kg/haul), Guinea flathead (0.52kg/haul), and Guinea comber (0.42kg/haul). The differences observed in species composition among stations are expected and may be attributed, among other things, to depth and nature of the seabed at the stations (Williams, 1968; Koranteng, 2001; Mensah & Quaatey, 2002). The following species occurred at almost all the stations on the mainline: streaked gunard, common cuttlefish, African loligo (Alloteuthis Africana), West African goatfish, Guinea flathead, channel flounder, and sea stars (Astropecten sp). The values of the Shannon Diversity Index are presented in Figure 5.1-31. The figure shows that species diversity was highest off Lagos followed by Tema and the lowest was off Takoradi and Cotonou. The dominant species recorded along the Nigerian lateral and along the entire mainline route, together with the catch rates, are presented in Table 5.1-56. Figure 5.1-31 Shannon Diversity Index Values Wet Season EBS

3.2

2.8

2.4

2 Lagos Cotonou Lome Tema Takoradi Main Line

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Figure 5.1-32 Catch Rates by Depth Range on the Laterals Wet Season EBS
50 45 Catch Rate (kg/haul) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Takoradi 0-20 21-40 41-70 Tema Lome Laterals Cotonou Lagos

Table 5.1-56 Dominant Species Recorded at the Laterals and Along the Main Pipeline Route with Catch Rates Wet Season EBS
Lateral Species Dentex angolensis Dentex congoensis Chelidonichthys lastoviza Galeoides decadactylus Brotula barbata Squatina oculata Sepia officinalis Chelidonichthys lastoviza Squatina oculata Sepia officinalis Syacium micrurum Pseudupeneus prayensis Grammoplites gruveli Serranus accraensis Catch rate (kg/haul) 2.6 0.9 0.53 0.53 0.5 0.47 0.44 1.21 1.12 0.95 0.95 0.84 0.72 0.61

Lagos

Main Pipeline Route

The catch rates (kg/haul) by station for Nigeria are presented in Figure 5.1-33. Figure 5.1-34 gives the catch rates along the main pipeline route.

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Figure 5.1-33 Catch Rates at Stations off Nigeria Wet Season EBS
50 45 Catch Rate (kg/haul) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 T02 (15 m) T04 (50 m) Stations T01 (66 m) T03 (98 m)

Figure 5.1-34 Catch Rates at Stations Along Main WAGP Pipeline Route Wet Season EBS
50 45 Catch Rate (kg/haul) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 T04 T05 T09 T10 T14 T15 Stations T19 T20 T21 T24 T26

5.1.2.2.5

Marine Birds, Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibians

The aquatic birds of the Gulf of Guinea comprise two distinct groups: creek birds (waterfowl, waders, and fish-eating birds) and oceanic birds that are rarely seen near the seashore (shearwaters, storm petrels, tropicbirds, frigatebirds, gannets, and boobies). These oceanic birds do not appear to be as abundant in the Gulf as the coastal species. For instance, records dating back to the 1960s reveal only limited sightings of a few species (Elgood et al., 1994).

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During the dry season EBS fisheries survey, the survey crew recorded several sightings of black terns (Chlidonias niger) and royal terns (Sterna maxima) as illustrated in Figures 5.1-35 and 5.1-36. (Note: the photographs shown are representative of the species and were not taken during the survey.) During the wet season EBS, the survey crew recorded several sightings of black terns (Chlidonias niger) (Figure 5.1-35), royal terns (Sterna maxima) (Figure 5.1-36), common terns (Sterna hirundo), and a few sandwich terns (Sterna sandvicensis). The black terns were recorded mainly at offshore locations close to estuaries and/or lagoons (e.g. 2G02, Keta lagoon; 2G03, Volta estuary; and 2G13, Korle Lagoon; all in Ghana). These species leave the onshore areas to feed at sea during the afternoon. Figure 5.1-35 Black Tern

Figure 5.1-36 Royal Tern

The marine mammals of the Nigerian coastal and offshore waters include mainly the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis), found in the creeks and estuaries. Dolphins are present and whales have been reported. See Figures 5.1-37 and 5.1-38 for representative photographs of the species (not taken by survey personnel). Table 5.1-57 lists other marine mammal sightings during the dry season EBS.

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Figure 5.1-37 Humpback Whale

Figure 5.1-38 Humpback Whale Breaching

Table 5.1-57 Marine Mammal Sightings During the October 2002 Geophysical Survey
Date 22 October 2002 23 October 2002 28 October 2002 Number of Individuals 2 1 2 Species Unidentified Whale Unidentified Whale Unidentified Whale

In addition to the four species of cetaceans inventoried in the dry season, Brydes whale (Balaenoptera edeni), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), and common dolphin (Delphnis capensis), the wet season EBS resulted in the addition of the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates). Of these two new species, the pan-tropical spotted dolphin was accidentally captured in fishermen's nets on June 6, 2003.

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The Gulf of Guinea serves as an important migration route, feeding ground, and nesting site for marine turtles. Six species have been identified: the loggerhead (Caretta caretta); the olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), the Kemps ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), and the leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) (Armah et al., 1997a). All six species of sea turtles have Nigerian and international protection status (see Table 5.1-59 below in Species and Habitats of Conservation Concern). Notwithstanding, populations have decreased due to poaching and habitat destruction. Sea turtles nest on sandy beaches, in the spray zone and grassy areas beyond the high tide mark, and since they always return to the same area to nest, it is important that such beaches are protected from human activities. The young turtles hatch from eggs from their nests in the sand, endeavor to reach the water, and begin to swim away into the sea. In Nigeria, sandy beaches constitute most of the coastline and much of it could serve as prime turtle nesting sites. The nesting period stretches from July to December, with a peak in November (Armah et al., 1997b). The young turtles begin to appear in the sea in April. Green turtles have been reported to nest in Nigeria (Fretey, 2001). The gravid female turtles lay their eggs in burrow-nests along the sandy beaches during a particular period of the year, usually starting in the month of August. As mentioned above in the fauna section, green turtles, olive ridley, hawksbill, and loggerhead nest annually on the sandy shores of Badagry and nearby Takwa Bay. Table 5.1-58 summarizes the occurrence (primarily nesting) of sea turtles in the study area. Additional background on these species may be found in published literature (Fretey, 2001). (Biogeography and Conservation of Marine Turtles of the Atlantic Coast of Africa. UNEP/CMS Secretariat.) Marine turtles nest on sandy beaches above the high tide mark. Table 5.1-58 State of Knowledge of Sea Turtle Presence in the Project Area and Environs
Common Name Loggerhead Green Leatherback Hawksbill Kemps Ridley Olive Ridley Species Caretta caretta Chelonia mydas Dermochelys coriacea Eretmochelys imbricata Lepidochelys kempii Lepidochelys olivacea Status Nests in ROW May nest in ROW Commonly nests in ROW Nests in ROW Found in the region Commonly nests in ROW

No marine reptiles were observed during the dry season EBS, though the survey work did not occur during the time of year (August through November) in which sea turtles are generally present in this region. No marine turtles were observed in the wet season offshore survey. The onshore wet season EBS included a survey of sea turtle occurrence (location and timing) in the project area in Nigeria for use in development of mitigation measures for construction and operation activities. Daily and overnight surveillance was conducted on the site and covered a beach stretch of about 500m on either side of the ROW. This was done to search for signs or tracks left behind on the beach sands by adult turtles coming to lay eggs and/or the hatchlings going out to the sea. Oral interview of the inhabitants was also conducted as

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to the occurrence of turtles in the area. Pictures of the various turtle species were shown to the fishermen to help in the identification of turtles species that occur in the area. The search on the Ajido Beach, around the WAGP ROW confirmed the fact that turtles visit the Ajido Beach and nest there. Two empty shells of the olive ridley were seen. Oral interviews conducted indicated that four to five species of sea turtles nest at the beach at different times of the year. Pictures were used to aid villagers in identifying species. The species are: olive ridley, leatherback, loggerhead, and hawksbill). The first two species are very common during their season. The reported occurrence of a fifth species, green turtle, at the beach is doubtful. The catch rate of turtles is high at Ajido; an individual fisherman can catch between five to ten sea turtles per night while the least number is between one to two turtles per night. 5.1.2.2.6 Species and Habitats of Conservation Concern

As mentioned above in the onshore section, several conventions and treaties as well as organizations exist to aid the protection of species of conservation concern. Some of these include the African Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, the Berne Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species, and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN; today, the World Conservation Union). There are no designated habitats of special concern in the project area. A number of species in the region have international conservation status. Some of these protected animals have been observed in the study area (see Tables 5.1-37 through 5.1-40). The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which deals only with organisms involved in international trade, lists species of concern into three categories, Appendices I through III, with Appendix I species being the most imperiled by trade. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Reserve (IUCN; today, the World Conservation Union) evaluates the endangerment of taxa (regardless of trade), placing species of concern into three categories on its so-called Red List, starting with the most imperiled: critically endangered (CR), endangered (EN), and vulnerable (VU). The Nigerian version of CITES, Endangered Species (Control of International Trade and Traffic) Decree No. 11 of 1985, also has two schedules. Hunting, capture of, or trade of those species listed in Schedule I is absolutely prohibited. Table 5.1-59 lists the species observed in the project area that have conservation status under IUCN, CITES, and/or Nigerian Decree No. 11. Most terrestrial species were observed in the the baseline surveys. Most marine fish on this list were obtained from IUCN information, while most marine mammals were obtained from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS).6 Sea turtle information is discussed in the section above. According to the CITES database, two species of coral, northern star coral (Astrangia poculata) and an oculinid coral (Schizoculina fissipara), occur in Ghana. They are presumably listed due to their harvesting for the

http://seamap.env.duke.edu/

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aquarium trade. Both of these species can occur throughout the coast of Central West Africa and are restricted to rocky shores and jetty pilings. While none of the surveys encountered any coral in the project area, if these species do occur in the project area, they would be limited to the relatively shallow (less than 35m deep), rocky areas. Based on the IUCN Red List, four of the mammal species that are known to occur in the area are endangered or threatened. These include Bosmans potto, Demidovs galago, Mona monkey, and the sitatunga (water deer). Of these four, the first three are primates and tend to be arboreal (tree-dwelling) in nature. Although none of them were observed on-site during the fieldwork, either within the ROW or within a 5km-radius, it is known, both from literature (cf. Hapold 1973; Booth 1960) and interactions with locals that they occur in the area. The Bosmans potto and the galago are nocturnal animals and are typically not observable in the daytime. The Mona monkey, though diurnal, because of its relative vulnerability and reduced number, has retreated deep into the forests and is therefore hardly seen near human influence. Table 5.1-59 Officially Protected Species Known to Occur in the Project Area
Scientific Name Common Name IUCN Red List CITE Status Status I & II I ll I II & III II II Nigerian Status

TERRESTRIAL REPTILES Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus Long-snouted crocodile Crododylus cataphractus Hinged tortoise Kinixys homeana Short-snouted crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis Royal python Python regis Rock python Python sebae Nile monitor Varanus niloticus MARINE REPTILES Loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta Green sea turtle Chelonia mydas Leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Kemp's ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys kempii Olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea TERRESTRIAL BIRDS Shikra Accipiter badius Goliath heron Ardea goliath Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis Little egret Egretta garzetta Black-shouldered kite Elanus caeruleus Grey kestrel Falco ardosiaceus Common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus

VU & DD DD VU

1 1 1 1

EN EN CR CR CR EN

I I I

II III III III II II II

1 2 1

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Table 5.1-59 Officially Protected Species Known to Occur in the Project Area
Scientific Name Common Name IUCN Red List CITE Status Status II III II III II III LR LR II II LR II VU 2 2 1 2 2 LR II II DD II III 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 Nigerian Status 1 1

Kaupifalco monogrammicus Lizard buzzard Bronze manikin Lonchura cucullata Black kite Milvus migrans Village weaver Ploceus cucculatus African harrier hawk Polyborides typus Red-billed wood dove Turtur afer MARINE BIRDS Damara tern Sterna balaenarum Damara tern Sterna balaenarum TERRESTRIAL MAMMALS Cape clawless otter Aonyx capensis Brush-tailed porcupine Atherurus africanus Marsh mongoose Atilax paludinosus Maxwell's duiker Cephalophus maxwelli Mona monkey Cercopithecus mona Colobus vellerosus W. black and white colobus Cusimanse mongoose Crossarchus obscurus Tree hyrax Dendrohyrax dorsalis Serval Felis serval Demidov's galago Galago demidovii Large-spotted forest genet Genetta poensis Buffon's kob Kobus kob Long-tailed pangolin Manis tetradactyla Tree pangolin Manis tricuspis Gambian mongoose Mungos gambianus Two-spotted palm civet Nandinia binotata Bosman's potto Perodicticus potto Sitatunga Tragelaphus spekei African civet Viverra civetta MARINE MAMMALS Blue whale Balaenoptera musculus Pygmy killer whale Feresa attenuata Globicephala macrorhynchus Short-finned pilot whale Dwarf sperm whale Kogia simus Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei Blainville's beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris Killer whale Orcinus orca Sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens Sousa teuszii
Atlantic humpbacked dolphin

1 2 2

II

LR

EN DD LR II DD DD LR VU

II II

DD

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Table 5.1-59 Officially Protected Species Known to Occur in the Project Area
Scientific Name Stenella attenuata Stenella clymene Steno bredanensis Steno frontalis Steno longirostris Trichechus senegalensis Tursiops truncates MARINE FISH Aetobatus narinari Carcharhinus amboinesis Carcharhinus brevpinna Carcharhinus leucas Carcharhinus limbatus Carcharhinus longimanus Carcharhinus plumbeus Carcharias taurus Carcharodon carcharias Centroscymnus coelolepis Dalatias licha Epinephelus itajara Epinephelus marginatus Galeocerdo cuvier Heptranchias perlo Hexanchus griseus Hippocampus algiricus Isurus oxyrinchus Leptocharias smithii Mycteroperca rubra Prionace glauca Pristis pectinata Pristis pristis Raja clavata Rhincodon typus Rynchops flavirostris Squalus mitsukurii Thunnus obesus Urogymnus ukpam Xiphias gladius Common Name
Pan-tropical spotted dolphin

IUCN Red List CITE Status Status LR DD DD DD LR VU DD DD DD LR LR LR LR LR VU VU NT DD CR LR LR NT LR DD LR LR DD LR EN CR LR VU LR DD VU EN DD II II

Nigerian Status

Atlantic spinner dolphin Rough-toothed dolphin Atlantic spotted dolphin Long-beaked dolphin West african manatee Bottlenose dolphin Spotted eagle ray Java shark Spinner shark Bull shark Blacktip shark Oceanic whitetip shark Sandbar shark Grey nurse shark Great white shark Portuguese dogfish Kitefin shark Goliath grouper Dusky grouper Tiger shark One-finned shark Bluntnose sixgill shark West african seahorse Shortfin mako Barbeled houndshark Mottled grouper Blue shark Smalltooth sawfish Common sawfish Thornback skate Whale shark African skimmer Green-eye spurdog Bigeye tuna Pincushion r ay Swordfish

II

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Several species considered to be sensitive either because they face threat of imminent extinction or are vulnerable (i.e. could become endangered in the near future if nothing was done to remove the threat) according to the IUCN Red List (1994, 2002) and the Federal Governments Endangered Species Act (1985), are found in the area. These include Bosmans Potto, Demidovs galago, western black-and-white colobus, mona monkey, brushtailed porcupine, tree pangolin, Cape clawless otter, the serval, manatee, sitatunga, Buffons kob, genets, mongooses, all herons, egrets, pelicans, hawks, eagles, falcons, all three species of crocodile, all marine turtles, and the African python. The pangolins are equally threatened mostly because of their inability to move fast and thus escape human predators as well as the special liking that the people have for the flesh, which makes them hunt the pangolins more intensively. Probably the more vulnerable species is the ground-dwelling long-tailed pangolin, which cannot hide in the safety of trees. Even though they attempt to protect themselves by curling up and their prehensile tails are powerful weapons for holding and possibly strangling would-be predators, this is no barrier to human predators. The rodents are much more successful because of their high fecundity and short gestation periods. They typically give birth to between six and 12 young ones at a time. The Giant forest squirrel, though quite common in the area and actually seen jumping from branch to branch on trees, is quite vulnerable, since they are quite attractive to humans and other predators. They are killed by the dozens on a daily basis and sold on the roadsides. The flying squirrel was not observed throughout fieldwork. All of the carnivores known to occur in the project area were not seen during the fieldwork, probably because of their mostly nocturnal nature and/or because of their predatory skills, which enable them to remain completely hidden among dense foliage. They are susceptible to hunters and are quite attractive both for meat as well as for their products. For instance, skins are very attractive for ornamental purposes, while parts such as the heart are used for making traditional potions and charms. The bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus), which once used to occur quite close to human dwelling has retreated deep into the forests and is only successfully hunted once in a while. The sitatunga has been so decimated by both wild and human predators that the few remaining are not easily seen, especially given that they are normally very shy animals. Their main saving grace has been their ability to reproduce rapidly. The crocodiles, though labelled as endangered are quite common in the area. They typically inhabit the swamps and waters of the area. In spite of persistent and heavy hunting and predation by humans, they are still quite successful here. One or two crocodiles were observed to quickly slide into the water at the approach of the field team, making it impossible to take pictures of them. However, young crocodiles were seen in some homesteads existing in captivity. This is a clear confirmation of their existence and relative abundance in the area. Equally abundant in the area is the Nile monitor lizard, which is much smaller in size than the crocodiles. They are regularly hunted too and are quite often caught in traps. A few were observed from a distance around the project site during fieldwork.

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The pythons are rather restricted in occurrence to the forest zones around Agbara. They are known to occur in fairly sizeable populations, but their populations are gradually being decimated. They are hunted and killed for meat, their skins, and for medicine and other traditional activities. Even though they are reported to occur in some parts that are close to the ROW, the fact that they are nocturnal made it difficult to observe them during the dry season EBS fieldwork.

5.1.3

Ecologically Sensitive Areas

No protected areas were documented in the field.

5.2
5.2.1

Existing Socioeconomic Situation


Introduction on Data Sources and SIA Methodology

The socioeconomic impact assessment in Nigeria is based on a detailed examination of the existing social and economic situation in the twenty-seven surveyed communities near the proposed WAGP project ROW. The assessment utilizes primary and secondary data sources to obtain information about the demographics, health, employment, income, education, infrastructure, and sources of energy among the surveyed communities. Primary data were collected through the use of household and community surveys. Secondary sources, including a variety of existing country literature and data sources, were used to supplement the survey information. International secondary sources included the World Bank, the United Nations, and the CIA World Factbook. These secondary sources provided the best available socioeconomic data, which allowed for consistency and comparisons across countries. Whenever possible, however, the results of the household and community surveys form the primary basis for the analysis. The study focuses on the area in and around the proposed WAGP ROW, including the Alagbado Tee site, the pipeline ROW, compressor station site, onshore pipeline ROW from the compressor station to the offshore pipeline shore crossing, and areas to be occupied by ancillary facilities. The household survey was carried out in 27 communities in or adjacent to this footprint. Most of the surveyed communities are categorized as rural, nonfishing communities. Four of the surveyed communities, Ajido, Imeke, Iworo, and Tori-Lovi are situated by or near Badagry Creek, and fishing constitutes a source of livelihood for at least some residents. Itoki and Igbesa are in Ifo and Otta Local Government Areas (LGAs), respectively, and classified as semi urban. Both household and community surveys were carried out in each of the 27 communities. The survey is considered representative of the pipeline corridor as a whole. 5.2.1.1 Household Survey

The household survey was conducted over a period of seven days by 27 teams. Depending on the size of the settlement, each team was comprised of between one and five surveyors. Each questionnaire took between 30 and 60 minutes to complete depending on the level of cooperation of the respondents. Some respondents were initially unwilling to participate in the survey, although the majority cooperated readily with the surveyors.

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The questions in the household survey focused on: Household description; Sources and levels of household income; Spending patterns; Existing economic activities; Access to healthcare facilities and their utilization; Access to education and education levels; and Energy needs and fuel use. An estimated 67,421 people live in the 27 surveyed communities in or adjacent to the proposed pipeline ROW (ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003). This population comprises approximately 13,482 households, of which a random sample of 510 households was drawn for the household survey. In each of the 27 villages, at least ten households were surveyed. Considerably more households were surveyed in the larger communities. Based on these figures, the team sampled a statistically significant number of households in each of the subpopulations as well as in the overall population. The conclusions and assessments of the existing situation reflect the interpretation of results from the survey households and individuals in the surveyed communities. A sufficiently large number of households and individuals were surveyed so that the survey results are likely, with a 95 percent confidence level, to reflect that of the population of the survey area as a whole. This statistical confidence is due to the randomness of the sample selection, which attempted to ensure that no bias was introduced, as well as to the relatively large numbers of households and individuals surveyed. 5.2.1.2 Community Survey

Community surveys were conducted in each of the 27 communities in or adjacent to the project ROW. A diverse group of community members was invited to participate in the activity. The groups generally consisted of between five and ten people, who were of diverse gender, age, and social status. At the community meetings, the survey team explained the purpose of the meeting and asked if residents would be willing to answer questions about existing conditions in the community, and about the potential impacts of the pipeline project on the community. Although a questionnaire was used as a guide by the team, questions were open-ended rather than as multiple choices, which allowed community members to provide free responses. In contrast to the household surveys, which focused on household level data, the community surveys had a broader scope of inquiry and gathered key consensus information about aspects of the community, such as infrastructure and microeconomic trends. The questions in the community survey covered the following areas: Community infrastructure, including markets, transportation, communications, education, and health care facilities; Social and cultural institutions; Gender issues; Economic and social trends (past five years); and

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Input on possible mitigation measures. Upon completion of the household and community survey enumeration, the local team entered the data into a database. Non-parametric and parametric analyses of the datasets were performed using SPSS and SAS. The output of the analysis is presented in the text and tables of this chapter. It should be noted that percentages from the survey were calculated among the total number of responses, including responses that were invalid. As a result some of the tables may not total to 100 percent because the invalid responses are not displayed. These invalid responses do not change the overall results. In addition, percentages from the survey were rounded to the nearest 0.1. As a result of the rounding, some of the tables may not total 100 percent. For the tables that do not total 100 percent as a result of rounding, the difference does not change the overall results. 5.2.1.3 Secondary Sources

Beyond the primary household and community survey data, additional information was obtained from existing regional data sources, including the National Population Census Figure of 1991, the Annual Abstract of Statistics of the Federal Office of Statistics (FOS), and Lagos State Statistical Record. This report is also based on a review of existing data collected by the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER) and some national level data collected from multilateral sources such as the World Bank, the United Nations, and the African Development Bank. This information provides additional socioeconomic context for the survey area.

5.2.2

Background and Geographic Detail

The proposed pipeline route will start at the Alagbado Tee, near the town of Itoki, and continue 57km to its terminus at the Lagos Beach Compressor Station near Ajido. The initial 40km of this route parallels an existing pipeline ROW owned and maintained by Shell Nigeria Gas Limited (SNGL). There are a number of small villages and areas of agricultural production along this initial 40km section that will be affected by the proposed ROW. Approximately 22 percent of the pipeline ROW is expected to pass through swamps or wetland areas. The proposed pipeline will also cross roads, streams, and rivers. A compressor station will be located at the terminus of the onshore pipeline at Badagry Beach. Due to the need for a large volume of concrete for the construction of this compressor station, a concrete batching plant will also be installed at the compressor station site for use during the compressor station construction phase. The permanent compressor station footprint, and the adjacent, temporary construction area and concrete batching facility will be located on land that is currently cultivated for crops. The proposed pipeline routing, facility siting, and surveyed communities are all in the Lagos metropolitan area, in the western region of Nigeria (Figure 5.2-1).7 Administratively, the communities in and around the proposed ROW fall into two states: Ogun and Lagos. Ogun

States in Nigeria are grouped into six geopolitical zones based on linguistic affinity, contiguity, and cultural affiliations. The project area is in the southwest zone. The terms western and southwestern region are
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Figure 5.2-1 Communities Map for Onshore Pipeline Route, Nigeria

often used interchangeably to describe this region of Nigeria. The broad term western region is used in this section to refer to the region that encompasses Lagos, Ogun, Osun, Ondo, and Oyo States.

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State borders Lagos State directly to the north and east. Some suburban communities in the area share borders with both Ogun and Lagos States. Ogun State contains the longest length of the proposed pipeline ROW, and of the 27 surveyed communities 18 are in Ogun. The communities in Ogun State are in two LGAs, Ado-Odo Otta and Ifo. The remaining nine surveyed communities are in Lagos State. All of these are in the Badagry LGA (see Table 5.2-1). Regardless of state-level jurisdictions, all of the surveyed communities are considered to be within the Lagos metropolitan region. Table 5.2-1 Administrative Distribution of Communities Along the Pipeline ROW
No. of Communities 9 16 2 State Lagos Ogun Ogun LGA Badagry Ado-Odo Otta Ifo

Table 5.2-2 lists the individual communities surveyed, by state in which they are located. Table 5.2-2 State Location of Surveyed Communities
S/N Community State
1 Itoki 2 Ijoko Ota 3 Alade 4 Owode Ijako 5 Ijoko Ilemode 6 Ajibode 7 Ewupe 8 Igberen 9 Egusi Ogun 10 Igboloye 11 Arobieye 12 Abiola 13 Itori 14 Oko-omi 15 Ore Akunde 16 Araromi 17 Ilogbo 18 Igbesa 19 Ilogbo-Eremi 20 Araromi-Ale 21 Iworo 22 Aradagun Lagos 23 Ajido 24 Agemowo 25 Imeke 26 Tori-Lovi 27 Agunmo Note: S/N = Survey Number Source: Nigeria Population Commission (NPC, 1991)

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As a result of the location of the surveyed communities within the Lagos metropolitan region, there is a high level of interaction between the communities and Lagos, which is the most populous city in Nigeria. These interactions and interchange of people, goods, and services, as well as information, have resulted in a high level of awareness within the surveyed communities not only about local issues, but also about regional and national issues. The surveys revealed that community members are very knowledgeable about the history of similar projects in other parts of Nigeria and the effects of these projects on nearby communities, are very conscious of their rights, and have clear expectations of WAPCo in terms of how WAGP effects are managed in their communities. Additionally, as a result of the proximity to Lagos, many of the residents in the surveyed communities are considerably more cosmopolitan than other rural communities and residents in Nigeria. This can be linked to the significant number of non-indigenes in many of the surveyed communities. The heterogeneous population in the surveyed communities is typical of the conditions in many other major metropolitan areas, where general levels of development also tend to be higher than in rural settlements. The surveyed communities enjoy higher average income levels and access to better infrastructure than many communities throughout Nigeria. Nevertheless, infrastructure and general development levels remain basic, and are perceived as such by the members of the communities.

5.2.3

Macroeconomic Overview

Dominated by the oil and gas sector, Nigerias economic base is not well diversified. Although gross domestic product (GDP) actually declined by 0.9 percent in 2002, over the period from 1995 through 2002, Nigeria has achieved a modest average rate of growth of 2.5 percent. Income per capita also grew over the same time period, albeit with a distribution that favors upper income groups. Industry value-added comprises the largest percent of GDP (41.8 percent), followed by agriculture value-added (35.9 percent), and services value-added (22.3 percent). The agriculture sector makes up the largest portion of non-oil GDP, and is particularly important for domestic sales and consumption. At 14.8 percent and 12.8 percent respectively, saving and investment rates in Nigeria are low relative to the rest of Africa. Coupled with a relatively high average annual inflation rate (15.6 percent) these rates do not provide a particularly strong stimulus to economic growth. However, Nigeria is currently undergoing an aggressive privatization plan, which is expected to modernize the countrys infrastructure, improve efficiency, attract more foreign investment in non-oil sectors, and increase growth of the countrys exports in the long-term. Moreover, at US$230 per capita, Nigerias external debt, while high relative to the countrys average income, is significantly below the nearly US$360 for Africa as a whole (African Development Indicators, 2004; CIA World Factbook, 2002).

5.2.4

Population and Demographics National, Regional, and Local


Population

5.2.4.1

Nigerias population totaled almost 130 million people in 2001, with a projected population growth rate of 2.3 percent. The nations rural population has a slightly lower rate of 1.04

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percent. In 2001, 44.9 percent of the population resided in urban areas; between 2000 and 2005, this proportion is expected to increase by 4.43 percent (World Bank, Country Data Profile, 2002). Population density in the western region of Nigeria is higher than the national average of 139 persons per km2 in 1997. Lagos State, the countrys most commercial and industrial area, has the highest population density among states in the western region, greater than 400 persons per km2. Ogun State has the lowest population density, between 100 to 200 persons per km2 (Shell).8 Table 5.2-3 shows the population densities of the five LGAs in and around the proposed pipeline ROW. Table 5.2-3 Population Density in Relevant LGAs in Lagos and Ogun States
LGA Ado Odo/Ota* Ifo* Alimosho Badagry* Ifako/Ijaye Ojo State Ogun Ogun Lagos Lagos Lagos Lagos LGA Headquarter Ota Ifo Ikotun Badagry Ifako Ojo Number of Households 59,305 55,878 98,305 27,819 92,204 53,129 Total Population 234,647 215,055 430,890 119,267 328,397 213,837 Population Density (km2) 107 --2,327 270 12,340 1,352

Source: The Nigeria Congress Online. * LGAs of surveyed communities.

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Nigeria Maps, retrieved online in 2003 from http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/swlwpnr/reports/y_sf/Nigeria/e_maps.htm#map2

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Table 5.2-4 lists the populations of the communities surveyed. Table 5.2-4 Population Counts of Surveyed Communities and Population, 1996 and 2000
S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Community Itoki Ijoko Ota Alade Owode Ijako Ijoko Ilemode Ajibode Ewupe Igberen Egusi Igboloye Arobieye Abiola Itori Oko-omi Ore Akunde Araromi Ilogbo Igbesa Ilogbo-Eremi Araromi-Ale Iworo Aradagun Ajido Agemowo Imeke Tori-Lovi Agunmo Population 1996 353 9,378 3,286 595 106 508 391 N/A N/A N/A 136 247 5,200 349 342 496 1,569 15,047 4,522 1,648 2,968 484 4,073 1,611 1,267 N/A N/A 2003 420 11,159 3,910 708 126 604 465 N/A N/A N/A 161 293 6,188 405 406 590 1,863 17,905 5,381 1,961 3,531 575 4,846 1,917 1507 N/A N/A

Note: S/N = Survey Number; N/A = not available Source: Nigeria Population Commission (NPC, 1991).

5.2.4.2

Demographics

The population in the surveyed communities is made up largely of relatively young individuals and married households. The heads of households in the surveyed communities have a mean age of 44 years. Most of them are married (71 percent), while 16 percent are single and 7 percent are widowed. In terms of gender, the LGAs where the surveyed communities are located have an almost even distribution of men and women. The population is 51 percent male and 49 percent female in Badagry LGA, 50 percent male and 50 percent female in Ado-Odo-Ota LGA, and 51 percent male and 49 percent female in Ifo LGA. These figures closely mirror the national level ratio of 50.03 percent male and 49.97

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percent female (ICF Housing and Community Survey, 2003; World Bank Country Data Profile, 2002; CIA World Factbook, 2002). Migration into the western region, particularly the Lagos metropolitan area, is common because the Lagos-Ota-Badagry axis is the leading industrial and commercial region of Nigeria. Due also to an extensive transportation infrastructure that connects the area with various communities in the southern region, the Lagos metropolitan area is very attractive to migrants and jobs seekers. Migration into this region has impacted the communities surrounding the pipeline, as people are increasingly using the areas as bases for commuting to urban areas for commerce and work. Although the majority of households in the surveyed communities are native to their respective community, there are no indigenous people, as defined by World Bank policy, in the pipeline ROW. Furthermore, the number of nonindigenes in many of the surveyed communities is relatively significant as indicated in Table 5.2-5. Migrants are typically from other communities in the southern region of the country. Table 5.2-5 Migratory Status of Households in Surveyed Communities
Migratory Status A different community in the southern region of the country The north of the country Another country Nonimmigrant (from the community in which currently residing) Percent of Households 39.5 percent 2.3 percent 0.8 percent 57.0 percent

Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003

5.2.5

Ethnic and Cultural Background


Ethnic Groups

5.2.5.1

The Yoruba are the second largest ethnic group in Nigeria, comprising approximately 21 percent of the nations population (CIA World Factbook, 2002) and traditionally residing in the western region. The proposed pipeline will pass through sections of Nigeria where the Yorubas are the majority ethnic group. Some non-Yoruba ethnic groups are also present but are in the minority. An estimated 77 percent of the households in the surveyed area belong to the Yoruba ethnic group, while 13 percent are Eegun, and 3 percent are Awori. The Eeguns and Aworis are culturally close to the Yorubas and are sometimes regarded as sub-ethnic groups of the Yorubas. Not only are most of the households Yoruba, the Yoruba language is the most widely spoken one in the surveyed communities, even among some of the minority ethnic groups. The ethnic and language composition suggests that the surveyed communities are quite homogenous from an ethnic standpoint and not heavily influenced by external cultures (Table 5.2-6).

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Table 5.2-6 Ethnic groups in the Surveyed Communities


Language Yoruba Eegun Awori Others Percent Ethnic Group 77.2 13.7 3.0 5.3 Language Spoken Growing up 78.5 12.9 3.0 5.3 Language Spoken at Home 79.2 12.2 2.8 5.8

Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

5.2.5.2

Household Characteristics and Structure

The household structure of the Yoruba parallels the patriarchal leadership structure of most Nigerian ethnic groups. Men are typically the head of Nigerian households, heading approximately 73 percent of the households in the surveyed communities. The three different types of male-headed household structures are traditional (one husband and one spouse), polygamous, and single male (male with no spouse, including widowers and males that have never been married). Traditionally, the male is responsible for all the major household decisions. The surveyed communities also included some female-headed households. Household sizes vary from region to region, and between male-headed to female-headed households. In addition to immediate family members, households also frequently include extended family and house helpers. Based on data collected between 1985 and 1990, Nigerias average household size was 5.4 persons (United Nations STATS, 2003). There is no significant difference between rural and urban households, as the size of the households are more influenced by traditional and cultural considerations. However, female-headed households are typically smaller (FOS, 1998). The household size in the surveyed area also varies considerably depending on factors such as the age of the head of households and whether the household is traditional, polygamous, or headed by a single adult. The average household size in the surveyed communities is five members, and ranges up to as large as ten or more individuals. 5.2.5.3 Leadership Structure and Governance

Although the traditional political and social systems vary in different parts of the Yoruba regions, each town usually has a leader (Oba), who achieves his position in one of three ways: inheritance, participation in title associations, or personal selection by an Oba already in power. A council of chiefs usually assists the Oba in his decisions. Title associations, such as the ogboni, also play an important role in assigning and balancing power within the cities (University of Iowa, Department of History, March 1999). For example in Ajido, the Oba of Ajido, the high chiefs, other chiefs, and other members of the cabinet all participate in governance of the town. The town also has a security unit knows as Switan, which is responsible for upholding the law (ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003).

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Supplementing the traditional governance structures are other civil society institutions that participate in some actions of governance. The situation in Igbesa is a good example of the mix of traditional and contemporary institutions. In addition to the leadership of Oba Samuel Olusola Banuso, the Onigbesa of Igbesa, community members indicated that the governance structure also includes: community elders led by Pa Jimoh Akanni Odunsi, the Igbesa Community Association led by Prince A.O. Fagbemi, a Youth Association led by Bisi Eneafe, and the Women Association. In addition, Igbesa has four quarters and each of the quarters has a development association. The community holds bi-annual development activity called malete (ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003). Youth groups are prominent in many of the communities. Their main objective is to mobilize the youths within and outside their communities to participate in the development process of their communities. Youth groups contribute labor for communal activities and funds for development projects. They are also expected to use their positions to lobby policy makers and industry heads to establish community development and infrastructure projects. In terms of conflict resolution and redress, for the most part, people in the western region depend on the court of law to resolve disputes. A significant number of people also use traditional councils. Other forms of governance include the meeting of parties and use of an independent arbitrator (NISER, 2002). 5.2.5.4 Religious and Cultural Groups

The majority of Nigerians are either Muslim (50 percent) or Christian (40 percent), with a small minority (10 percent) practicing indigenous/traditional religions. (CIA World Factbook, 2002). Both Islam and Christianity are practiced in the surveyed communities. This is consistent with religious affiliation in the western region as a whole, where there is a harmonious co-existence between the two dominant faiths. Some traditional worship such as the traditional Yoruba religion also takes place in the surveyed communities. In the cases where the traditional religious beliefs are not formally practiced, they are often amalgamated with Islam or Christianity, or practiced on social and cultural levels.

5.2.6

Historical and Cultural Resources

Historical and cultural resources that were identified during the survey as being located within the ROW include: six churches, 16 gravesites, three praying grounds, and 60 shrines (Estate Survey, 2003). In addition, the surveyed area includes the homes and palaces of traditional rulers, as well as a shrine located approximately 50m from the proposed compression station site near Ajido (ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003). The homes and palaces range from simple to elaborate depending on the position of the associated leader in the Yoruba political hierarchy. Traditional shrines in the area are maintained for historical and cultural purposes. They do not serve a religious purpose because most of the population adheres to Christian or Muslim beliefs.

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5.2.7

Infrastructure and Quality of Life

Due to their nearness to urban centers, residents in most of the surveyed communities have access to basic infrastructure, including education and health care facilities. The following subsections describe key components of infrastructure available to the surveyed communities. 5.2.7.1 Transportation

Nigeria has an extensive but poorly maintained road system, linking the large towns and cities with surrounding rural areas across the country. The roads are the major means of transportation in the area and are generally passable all year round. The state of the countrys rail services is poor, resulting from many years of neglect and failure. The main commercial ports in the western region are the Lagos Apapa and Lagos Tin-can Island ports, located in the Lagos metropolitan area. As indicated in the map below (Figure 5.2-2), the proposed pipeline will cross a number of tracks, roads, and rivers used for transportation purposes. Some of the rivers that will be crossed include the Imede, Ogbe, Ore, and Owo Rivers. The proposed pipeline ROW will also cross three major highways: Otta-Akute, Otta-Idi-Iroko, and Lagos-Badagry highways. There is dense traffic on the Otta-Idi-Iroko and Lagos-Badagry routes since they link Nigeria to the neighboring Benin Republic. In all, the ROW will cross 32 roads, including 11 larger highways that will be crossed using thrust boring and 21 smaller roads that will be crossed using trenching. The use of thrust boring technology will minimize impacts on roads where this method is used. The residents of the surveyed communities are very mobile. There is a lot of foot traffic in the surveyed communities because the journey to work and other activities is largely by trekking. There are also a number of public transport operators that provide train, taxi, and bus services between settlements in and adjacent to the proposed pipeline ROW and the major urban centers of Lagos, Ota, and Badagry. Motorcycle is another major means of transportation within the area. There is some water transport in the Ajido area, which is the only river-oriented community along the proposed pipeline route. About 27 percent of the schoolchildren in the surveyed communities cross the proposed pipeline route on their way to and from school. Members of 52 percent of the households cross the proposed pipeline route in order to fetch fuel wood. Other activities that would necessitate crossing the pipeline route include commuting to work (56.7 percent) and receiving health care (56.9 percent). 5.2.7.2 Telecommunications

Nigerias fixed telephone lines are generally regarded as inadequate (CIA World Factbook, 2002). Compared to urban residents, rural residents must travel longer distances to access a telephone facility (NISER, 2002). Despite a growing number of urban residents using mobile phones, the majority of people in urban and rural areas in the western region do not have access to telephone facilities in their communities. Generally, public phones are not available in the surveyed communities. However, there are some communities where many residents use private phones.
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Figure 5.2-2 West African Gas Pipeline Equipment/Material Delivery Route

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5.2.7.3

Housing and Other Building Structures

As in other rural areas of Nigeria, there is a mix of traditional and modern house types in the surveyed communities. However, in most of these communities the modern house types, which have concrete walls and aluminum/corrugated iron-sheet roofs, predominate (WAGP Population Density Survey, 2003). 5.2.7.4 Community Amenities, Facilities, and Social Services

The limited community amenities, facilities, and social services available in the surveyed communities include community center/town halls, entertainment halls, market places, and football fields. Less than half of the communities have a community center/town hall and only about 10 percent have entertainment halls. There are football fields in about two-thirds of the communities, which are owned by educational institutions and are available for community use. Additionally, one noteworthy tourist attraction is the Whispering Palm Resort, which is located in Iworo, several kilometers from the ROW. Traditional, open-air markets are very important amenities for shopping and socializing. Both daily/permanent and periodic markets exist in the area. Thirty-three percent of the surveyed communities have daily/permanent markets, whereas 67 percent have periodic markets. Some of these periodic markets operate all year round (21 percent), whereas others operate only during the dry season (23 percent) or the wet season (23 percent). These markets sell both agricultural and manufactured goods. In most of the periodic markets, agricultural goods predominate. Most households purchase their subsistence goods at the markets. Higher order goods are purchased from nearby towns especially Lagos, Badagry, and Otta. 5.2.7.5 Security Environment and Violent Crimes

Generally, there are no violent crimes in the surveyed communities. However, incidence of violent crime is greater in the nearby urban towns of Lagos and Otta.

5.2.8

Education

Nigeria has an extensive primary, secondary, and tertiary educational system. Universal Basic Education, which was launched in 1999, is an ongoing initiative that promots free and compulsory education for public, primary and middle/junior secondary schools. There is an average of one primary school in each of the surveyed communities, whereas only eight surveyed communities have secondary schools (both junior and senior). There are no tertiary institutions in the surveyed communities. About 40 percent of the total household members in the surveyed communities are currently attending different educational institutions, with higher enrollment rates among males compared to females. The highest educational attainment for the largest number of the adult population is secondary school and above. Less than 20 percent of the adult population in these communities has no education, an estimated 30 percent has primary education only, 32 percent has secondary education, and about 15 percent have tertiary education.

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Although Yoruba is the primary language spoken at home in the surveyed communities, English is the countrys official language and the language of educational instruction. The literacy rate is quite high in the surveyed communities, with approximately 86 percent of the population aged 15 and older being able to read and write in English. At the national level, the literacy rate is generally lower among women than men.

5.2.9

Land Tenure and Residential Ownership

The land tenure system in Nigeria varies by ethnic group, community, and state. Generally it is more communal in northern Nigerian states and more individual/private and family based in the southwestern and southeastern parts of the country.In the surveyed communities, land tenure takes on the latter form. However, traditional authorities have some supervisory and distribution roles. The community meetings carried out during the survey support this view. For instance at Ajido, it was explained that land is passed to children from their fathers (although women in the community can also inherit land). However, if someone wants to sell a parcel of land, the consent of the Oba of the town must be obtained before the transaction is carried out. In Igbesa, it was also pointed out that the communitys land tenure system is customary in which families own land. Each family has a chief as the Head who holds supervisory authority on the family land on behalf of other members of the family. Finally, in Itoki, both private ownership and supervisory control by traditional institutions are also evident. Here it was noted that migrants from various places, such as Abeokuta and Ota, have purchased land from the indigenes; and while the Baale has control over some land, individuals who bought their land have control over the land they own. The following findings from the household survey on ownership of land around dwellings are consistent with the observations above, and further substantiate the notion that individual ownership is the most common form of land ownership (Table 5.2-7). Table 5.2-7 Land and/or Water Ownership Around Dwellings in Surveyed Communities
Ownership Owner Member of Household Landlord owned (tenant pays rent, pays in kind, or has free use) Community Public/Government Others Does Not Know/Information Not Available Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003. Percent 41.2 26.4 16.4 2.2 1.9 11.6

In terms of household ownership, the survey shows that owning property is more common than renting in the surveyed communities, a finding that is consistent with many other rural areas. As Table 5.2-8 indicates, owners in the surveyed communities constitute about 51 percent of the population, while renters constitute almost 30 percent. This high level of
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ownership may be due to the prevalence of traditional practices in these areas, which, as a matter of custom, allocate land to individual families in order for them to build on. Renting is more widespread in the urbanized areas of Nigeria, where the traditional, family-based structure is less common and available land is scarce. In the surveyed communities, the average number of rooms per dwelling is about five and roughly 47 percent of the dwellings are shared (ICF household and Community Survey, 2003). Table 5.2-8 Ownership Status of Residences in Surveyed Communities
Status Owner Renter Occupier Not paying Rent Receiving Housing as Part of Job Others Percent of Households 50.8 29.6 17.9 0.3 1.5

Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

It should be noted that land ownership in Nigeria is officially regulated by the Land Use Act of 1990 and that land owners do not necessarily own land in the Western sense. The law vests ownership of all land within a state (except those belonging to the Federal Government) in the Governor of the state who holds land in trust for the people. The Governor is responsible for allocating for residential, commercial, and agricultural purposes in accordance with the law. Land located in rural areas is under the control of local government authorities (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2003).

5.2.10 Land and Water Use


Sixty-four percent of Nigerias total surface area is used for agriculture, and land use around dwellings is mostly devoted to different types of agricultural production as well as small businesses. The average farm in the western region is 0.8ha (UN Food and Agriculture Organization, 2002). Table 5.2-9 shows that 86.4 percent of the land around dwellings in the surveyed communities is devoted to agriculture, primarily for subsistence purposes, while only 36 percent is devoted to small businesses and others. As already indicated, fishing is not widely practiced in the area, and is a significant means of livelihood only in four of the surveyed villages (Ajido, Imeke, Iworo and Tori-Lovi). Only about 27 percent of the households in all the communities combined are engaged in fishing. In Ajido, subsistence fishing and smallscale commercial fishing are practiced (ICF Household and Community Surveys, 2003).

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Table 5.2-9 Land Use Around Dwellings in Surveyed Communities


Land Use Subsistence Farming Commercial Farming Small Business Others Percent of Households 56.1 30.3 17.7 18.3

Note: Uses are not mutually exclusive; household may use multiple land for multiple purposes. Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

5.2.11 Energy Consumption


The primary sources of the western regions household and industrial energy consumption are electricity, natural gas/LPG, and fuel wood. Most households are connected to the electric utility grid, with higher percentages in urban than rural areas. However, due to the volatility and uncertainty in Nigeria Energy and Power Authority (NEPA) supply, power/electricity generators are common fixtures in households, especially among urban residents. Some 91.7 percent of urban residents own generators, compared to 78.9 percent of rural residents (NISER, 2002). In the surveyed communities the sources of energy include electricity, fuel wood/charcoal, and natural gas/LPG and petroleum products (kerosene). Table 5.2-10 sets out the main sources of energy, their affordability (i.e., whether households feel they can afford them) and reliability (i.e. availability all year round). For most of the households, fuel wood/charcoal and petroleum products are the most affordable and reliable sources. Table 5.2-10 Affordability and Reliability of Energy Sources in Surveyed Communities
Source of Energy Electricity Fuel wood Natural gas/LPG Petroleum Products Percent of Households that Deem the Energy Source: Affordable Reliable 25 9.3 34.3 32.7 1.6 0.8 38.9 57.0

Source: ICF Household and Community Surveys, 2003.

Different sources of energy are used for different domestic purposes in households, as Table 5.2-11 indicates. For cooking, fuel wood/charcoal is the most widely used source (76 percent), followed by petroleum products (56 percent). Electricity is not extensively used for cooking. Petroleum products and electricity are the most commonly used for lighting, with natural gas/LPG only being used by 11 percent of households. Finally, electricity is by far

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the most important source of energy for cooling (97 percent). The only other source of energy used for this purpose is petroleum products, accounting for 18 percent. Table 5.2-11 Distribution of Energy Sources by Domestic Use in Surveyed Communities
Source Petroleum Products (kerosene) Freely collected Fuel wood Electricity Natural gas/LPG Purchased Fuel wood Charcoal Cooking 55.9 40.3 29.7 29.6 19.0 16.3 Lighting 52.4 51.2 11.2 10.7 10.5 Cooling 18.2 96.8 -

Note: Uses and sources are not mutually exclusive; households may use multiple uses of energy. Source: ICF Household and Community Surveys, 2003.

Although the pipeline project is designed to deliver energy to Benin, Togo, and Ghana, it will not provide energy to the region in Nigeria.

5.2.12 Microeconomic Situation


The economy in the surveyed communities is largely based on farming, trade and commerce, and professional services. The proximity of most of the communities to the major commercial and industrial area in Nigeria also contributes to their economy. Although there is widespread poverty, the situation is better than in many other rural areas of Nigeria. Per capita income in the surveyed communities is higher than the national average, and many of the households own many modern consumer goods. However, household budgets are increasingly constrained by rising local prices, particularly of basic and high priority subsistence items. 5.2.12.1.1 Labor Force and Employment Activities

Approximately 75 percent of the population in the surveyed communities aged 14 and older is currently working, which is higher than the national labor force participation rate of 39.6 percent for individuals aged 15 to 64. Of those who are working, crop farming is the dominant occupation in the surveyed area, followed by trading/commerce and professional services. These three activities jointly account for more than half of the occupational types (Table 5.2-12). Unlike the rest of the broader southwestern region, fishing is not very important in the surveyed communities overall, with only about 4 percent of people of working age engaged in this activity. Although agriculture is an important activity, most workers in the surveyed communities are engaged in the services sector (43.9 percent). The services sector is often linked to the processing and trade of farm products. The household survey does not provide information regarding child labor in the surveyed communities. There is sufficient evidence at the national level, however, to suggest that children are probably economically active in the communities adjacent to the project site. The World Bank estimated that 24 percent of the children aged ten to 14 were part of the nations labor force (World Bank EDSTATS, 2002).
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Table 5.2-12 Employment Distribution by Occupation in the Surveyed Communities (population aged 14 and over)
Occupation Crop farming Trade/Commerce Professional Services Administrative/Managerial Fishing Delivery Services Clothing/Tailoring Taxi/Bus driver Delivery Services Animal farming Worker/Laborer Engineering Carpentry/Furniture Mechanic/Automotive Health Care Professional Construction/Mason Manufacturing Others Does Not Know/ Not Available Percent of Population 26.7 14.0 12.1 6.0 3.8 3.2 2.9 2.5 3.1 2.2 2.2 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.4 6.5 9.1

Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003

Self-employment is the largest single employment category (43.2 percent) of those who are currently working (aged 14 and older), with the public sector accounting for the second largest source of employment (23.6 percent). This high level of self-employment is common in Nigeria, since people tend to prefer it to working in the public service sector or for another person. In addition, self-employment is perceived as being more lucrative than other types of employment (Table 5.2-13). Table 5.2-13 Employment Distribution by Type of Employer in the Surveyed Communities (population aged 14 and older)
Employer Self Public Private Military Others Does Not Know/ Not Available Percent 43.2 23.6 22.3 1.8 2.6 6.5

Source: ICF Household and Community Surveys, 2003.

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5.2.12.1.2

Agriculture and Fishing

Agriculture, hunting, forestry, and fishing contributed an estimated 32 percent of the national GDP in Nigeria in 1998. According to World Bank estimates, agricultural GDP increased at an annual rate of 2.9 percent in 1990 to 1998 (NigeriaBusinessInfo.com, 2001). The principal cash crops are cocoa, rubber, and oil palm. Staple foods include rice, maize, taro, yams, cassava, sorghum, and millet. Timber production, the raising of livestock (principally goats, sheep, cattle, and poultry), and small-scale fisheries are also important (NigeriaBusinessInfo.Com, 2001). The major agricultural activities in the western region are crop farming, horticulture, and livestock rearing. The major crops grown by most households along the pipeline ROW include cassava, maize, plantain, yams, and to some extent cocoa, coconut tree, and palm tree. The most common livestock are cattle, goats, and chickens (NISER, 2002).
Crop Farming

An estimated 27 percent of the population in the surveyed communities in and around the proposed ROW is engaged in crop farming. There is agricultural production in the cleared areas along the first 36km of the proposed pipeline route, adjacent to the existing SNGL ROW. The main crops cultivated in the area are the same as those found in southwestern Nigeria, and they are grown for both subsistence and small-scale commercial purposes. Table 5.2-14 indicates that cassava is the most common crop (57 percent) closely followed by maize (56 percent). Other important crops are plantain (31 percent), yam (28 percent), cocoyam (26 percent), and oil palm (23 percent). Among 66 households reporting, annual income from crop farming averaged 14,500 Naira (N) (range from N2,000 to N618,000). Table 5.2-14 Crop Production Among Survey Communities
Crops Beans Cassava Cocoa Cocoyam Ground nuts Maize Palm oil Plantain Potatoes Yam Percent of Farming Households Cultivating 14.4 57.3 7.0 26.4 6.8 55.7 22.5 30.9 5.0 28.0

Note: Sources not mutually exclusive; households may cultivate multiple crops. Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

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Animal Farming

Livestock farming is not very important in the surveyed area, and only employs 2.2 percent of the working population. For those who are engaged in this activity, chicken is the most important livestock kept (67.6 percent). The most common animals kept are goats (44 percent), pigs (19 percent) and sheep (15.8 percent). Cattle rearing does not feature prominently in the area (8.1 percent) (Table 5.2-15). Among 26 households responding, annual income from animal farming averaged N14,000 (range from N5,000 to N360,000). Table 5.2-15 Livestock Rearing in Surveyed Communities
Livestock Cattle Chicken & Poultry Ducks Goats Pigs Rabbits Sheep Others Note: Percent of Livestock Raising Households 8.1 67.6 17.8 4.0 19.1 6.8 15.8 59.1 Mean No. Owned 20 20 11 8 8 3 8 4

Sources not mutually exclusive; households may rear multiple livestock.

Source: ICF Household and Community Surveys, 2003. Fishing

There is substantial fish production in Nigeria that consists of local, small-scale subsistence activity and takes place along the coastal waters and inland fresh waterways (NigeriaBusinessInfo.com, 2000-2001). There are also commercial fishing activities in the Niger Delta and offshore Lagos. However, since local producers are unable to meet the high demands for fish consumption, approximately 50 percent of all of the fish consumed in Nigeria are imported (NigeriaBusinessInfo.com, 2000-2001). For the limited fishing that takes place in the survey area, specifically in Ajido, Imeke, Aworo, and Toriluvi, the activity is very rudimentary in terms of the methods that are used (Table 5.2-16). These include the use of throw-nets (32 percent), hook lines (24 percent), and net-traps (18 percent). The vessels used for fishing are mostly artisanal/canoe (69 percent) and locally built trawlers (10.3 percent). Fishing is conducted all year-round, and the size of the catch is usually larger during the dry season. Most fishing is done by men, although women participate in fishing when it involves the use of hook lines, net trap, and hand lines. The processing and selling of fish is almost exclusively undertaken by women. Among 21 households responding, annual income from fishing averaged N19,000 (range from N1,000 to N300,000).

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Table 5.2-16 Fishing Methods Within Surveyed Communities


Method Throw Nets Hook Lines Net Traps Trawling Parallel to Shore Trawling Perpendicular to Shore Hand Lines Seine Nets Does Not Know/Information Not Available Percent of Fishermen 31.5 23.6 18.0 5.6 4.5 3.3 2.3 12.4

Source: ICF Household and Community Surveys, 2003

5.2.12.1.3

Trade

Trade and commerce are important economic activities for a sizeable percent of the working population in the surveyed communities. Petty trading is the most significant type and entails the selling of mostly lower value goods. Both men and women participate in the stationary type of petty trading, while women predominate in itinerant petty trading. 5.2.12.1.4 Industry Mining and Manufacturing

Nigerias main industries are associated with production of crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, and steel (CIA World Factbook, 2002). The majority of the western region residents engaged in small-scale industry are in food processing. A sizeable percent of the community also works in metal fabrication and weaving (textiles). Mining represents a very minor industrial activity in the region (NISER, 2002). Although the nearby Lagos-Ota-Badagry axis is the leading industrial region and commercial cluster of Nigeria, modern industry and manufacturing are not a major source of employment for the inhabitants of the surveyed communities. As Table 5.2-12 shows, less than 1 percent of the population works in the manufacturing sector. 5.2.12.1.5 Government

The surveyed communities straddle two states and three LGAs. The government employs an estimated 24 percent of the working population in the surveyed communities. Some of these include young adults who are participating in the countrys mandatory civil service.

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5.2.12.2 Household Income and Expenditures 5.2.12.2.1 Household Income

Nigeria has a relatively high level of income inequality, and household income levels vary greatly across regions. Based on cumulative family income figures from 1996 to 1997, Nigeria had a Gini index of 50.6, indicating an uneven distribution of wealth (CIA World Factbook, 2002). Household income in the surveyed communities is indicative of this income disparity, ranging from under N100,000 per annum to over N3 million per annum (these figures referred to the aggregate income earned by all income earners in individual households). The number of income earners in the surveyed communities ranges from one per household to over six per household as shown in Table 5.2-17. However, the majority of the households (67.4 percent) are dependent on one or two income earners. Table 5.2-17 Income Earners per Household in Surveyed Communities
Income Earners 1 2 3 4 5 7 9 Percent of Households 29.7 38.7 24.1 4.7 0.9 0.9 0.9

Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

The average annual income per capita for residents in the surveyed communities is N162,229, which is considerably higher than the national average of about N40,000 (the comparison is roughly US$1,300 vs. US$300).9 The higher income levels in the surveyed communities are understandable given the fact that income levels are much higher in the Lagos metropolitan region than the rest of the country (though it should be noted that the Lagos region also has a relatively higher cost of living).10 Table 5.2-18 presents the household income profile in the surveyed communities. The bulk of households income (59.3 percent) is under N200,000 per annum. Note that the income figures in the following table refer to the aggregate income earned by all income earners in individual households.

This is based on the Official Exchange Rate in 2002, which was approximately N120/US$. In the surveyed communities, a total of 459 income earners in 204 households were sampled.

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Table 5.2-18 Household Annual Income Distribution in Surveyed Communities


Income Group < N100,000 N100,000 200,000 N200,001 300,000 N300,001 400,000 N400,001 500,000 >N500,000 Percent of Total Households 33.3 26.0 12.3 4.4 3.9 Total Income Earned N2,777,968 N7,103,000 N6,399,000 N3,244,000 N3,726,000 N51,213,000

20.1

Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

5.2.12.2.2

Household Expenditures and Consumption

In 1996, average per capita real monthly expenditures nationwide totaled N1,380.80, an increase from N932.08 in 1985. However, the increase in real monthly per capita expenditures was largely accounted for by upper income groups of the population. The poorest 30 percent decreased their monthly per capita expenditures in the period. Femaleheaded households tend to have higher per capita expenditures than male households. A recent survey by the FOS found that approximately 71 percent of all expenditures by the average Nigerian household is for food, with larger shares among the bottom deciles and lower shares among the upper deciles (FOS, 1998). In 1998, the average national private (including individual, household, and non-governmental organizations) consumption per capita11 consisted of 52 percent for food, 14 percent for bread and cereals, 5 percent for clothing and footwear, 15 percent for fuel and power,12 5 percent for health care, 8 percent for education, 3 percent for transport and communications, and 13 percent for other13 consumption (World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2000). In the surveyed communities, expenditure patterns conform broadly to national level data, in that food is the largest single expenditure item. As Table 5.2-19 indicates, food accounts for 20.4 percent of monthly household expenditure in the surveyed communities, which is almost double that of the second most important household expenditure item, education (10.7 percent). Some essential services are not in the top brackets of household monthly expenditures, such as healthcare, which accounts for only 3.5 percent (perhaps because many people self-medicate), as well as energy (4.5 percent) and transportation (4.5 percent).

11 12

Calculated using the purchasing power parity method; otherwise known as international dollars equivalent.

Fuel and power exclude energy used for transport (rarely reported to be more than 1 percent of total consumption in low- and middle-income economies). Other consumption covers gross rent (including repair and maintenance charges); beverages and tobacco; non durable household goods, household services, recreational services, services (including meals) supplied by hotels and restaurants, and purchases of carryout food; and consumer durables, such as household appliances, furniture, floor coverings, recreational equipment, and watches and jewelry.
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The breakdown of household expenditures (Table 5.2-19) is consistent with qualitative information on household spending priorities expressed by heads of households. Food was listed by heads of households as the most important spending priority, while entertainment was considered the least important priority in the surveyed communities. Table 5.2-19 Distribution of Household Expenditures in Surveyed Communities
Expenditure Category Food Education Small Business Expenses Shelter/Accommodation Household Maintenance Remittances Clothing Gardening/Fishing Energy Transportation Household goods Health Care Social/Cultural Obligation Water Travels (other than day to day) Taxes Paid to Government Entertainment Others Average Amount (N/month) 11,585 6,049 4,222 3,819 3,819 3,323 3,179 3,135 2,531 2,526 2,136 1,958 1,899 1,690 1,555 1,507 1,238 1,000 Percent of Total Income Expenditure 20.4 10.7 7.5 6.7 6.7 5.9 5.6 5.5 4.5 4.5 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.2 1.8

Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

The relatively higher income in the Lagos area compared to the nation as a whole is reflected in the items purchased and owned by households surveyed (Table 5.2-20). For instance, about 46 percent of the households surveyed own refrigerators/ice-boxes, while 25 percent own cars. For radio ownership, the figure is 90 percent while television ownership is 69 percent. These are much higher than the national averages, which are 6.8 percent for television and 20 percent for radio (World Bank Development Indicators, 2001).

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Table 5.2-20 Ownership of Household Items in Surveyed Communities


Items Radio Television Refrigerator/Icebox Bicycle Car Percent of Households 90.1 69.4 46.3 34.7 25.0

Note: Sources not mutually exclusive; households may own multiple items. Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003

A survey conducted by the FOS indicated that the poverty rate in Nigeria increased from 43 percent to 56 percent between 1985 and 1996.14 At 50.5 percent, the incidence of poverty in the western region is below the national average. Among the western region states, Osun State has the highest poverty rate, at 60.1 percent, followed by Ondo (59.6 percent), Ogun (55.0 percent), Lagos (37.2 percent), and Oyo (35.0 percent). There was a higher incidence of poverty in rural areas than in urban areas and female-headed households tend to have a lower incidence of poverty than male-headed households (FOS, 1998). 5.2.12.2.3 Local Prices

Between 2001 and 2002, the national inflation rate was 15.6 percent (African Development Indicators, 2004). Generally speaking, in the surveyed communities prices of most consumables have increased over the last year. The prices of staple food items exemplify this trend. For instance, on average, a bag of rice that sold for about N3000 in 2002 is more than N4000 now. The respective prices for a standard measure (kongo) of beans are N80 and N110. In the case of a standard measure of Gari (cassava flour), the respective prices are N50 and N80 (ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003).

5.3

Existing Public Health Situation

This section describes the public health situation in the surveyed communities in and along the proposed pipeline ROW in Lagos and Ogun States. The information presented is based on the ICF household and community surveys and secondary sources as mentioned in Section 5.2. The information focuses on the health infrastructure for water, sanitation, and health care facilities. This section also discusses the incidences of illness and the diets in the surveyed communities. As a comparative point of reference for some of the existing conditions in the survey region, the following discussion also draws on national and regional level data.

The FOS (1998) disaggregated a sampling of Nigerias population into deciles using real per capita expenditure as a proxy for standard of living and the indicator/measurement for defining poverty.

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5.3.1

Health Infrastructure
Water

5.3.1.1

In 2000, 78 percent of the urban population and 49 percent of the rural population in Nigeria had access to improved15 drinking water (UN STATS, 2003). In Lagos State in the western region, the major sources of drinking water are private and public taps, wells with pumps, wells without pumps, and surface water (NISER, 2002). In 1995, 80 percent of the population in Lagos State had access to safe drinking water, compared to the 50 percent national average at the time (UNICEF, 1995; FOS, 1995). However, access to water within the immediate proposed pipeline vicinity has been a problem for some communities and the quality of water is poor and often polluted. Communities at Sango and Ota have a pipe borne water supply, but most other communities and villages along the proposed pipeline rely on hand dug wells. In 1999, the Ilogbo and Igbesa community boreholes were not functioning and other villages around the proposed pipeline had to buy water from neighboring boreholes. A number of the villages rely on local stream for their water supply; these include the Ogbe, Patoro, Ajobo, Molegum, Ishara, and Itori streams (Shell Nigeria Gas Limited, 1999).16 The following tables set out the sources of water in the surveyed communities. The most important sources are wells (with and without pumps), private piped/tap water, surface water, and vendor (public piped/tap). However, wells are by far the most important sources. Table 5.3-1 Reliance of Surveyed Households on Water Source Type
Sources Well without Pump Well with Pump Private Piped/Tap Surface Water Vendor Public Piped/Tap Free Public Pipe/Tap Bottled Water Others Use (Percent Households) 75.2 63.7 51.8 45.6 41.5 18.0 11.6 17.3

Note: Sources not mutually exclusive; Households use multiple water sources. Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

15

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20L per person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling (World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report).

The proposed WAGP pipeline will share the same route as the SNGL for approximately 36km, from the Alagbado Tee to the Agbara estate.

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The proximity of wells to most respondents in the surveyed communities accounts for their frequent use as a source of water. As Table 5.3-2 indicates, 83 percent of surveyed households have direct access to wells (either with or without pumps) and 70 percent have access within 100m of their residences. Surface water sources are generally far from most respondents as less than 25 percent have these sources either directly by their residence or within 100m. Table 5.3-2 Proximity of Surveyed Households to Most Frequently Used Water Supply Sources
Sources Well without Pump Well with Pump Private Piped/Tap Surface Water Vendor Public Piped/Tap Direct to Residence (Percent) Households 36.8 46.1 45.1 4.8 10.3 <100m (Percent Households) 41.7 28.4 17.7 18.1 34.5

Note: The above data may not add up to 100 percent because each survey question was asked separately. The data displayed is the percent of respondents who relied on each source type. Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

5.3.1.2

Sanitation

Sanitation is generally of better quality in urban than in rural areas. In 2000, 66 percent of the urban population and 45 percent of the rural population had access to improved17 sanitation facilities (UN STATS, 2003). In 1995, 52.6 percent of urban households had access to a flush toilet and 44.1 percent used a pit toilet. Since 1985, the number of rural households with flush toilets has decreased from 18.7 percent to 1.7 percent, while the number of pit toilets has increased from 30.1 percent to 69.0 percent (FOS, 1998). According to the Shell Nigeria Gas Limited (SNGL) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) surveys in 1999, the sanitation conditions in the areas around 40km of the proposed WAGP route are poor, with most communities using open pit latrines. Along the entire WAGP ROW, as Table 5.3-3 indicates, open pit latrines remain the most commonly used method for human waste disposal. A much smaller proportion of households have access to hand flush toilets (Table 5.3-3).

Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate excreta disposal facilities (private or shared, but not public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. (World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, 2000).

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Table 5.3-3 Sanitation: Household Human Waste Disposal Methods in Surveyed Communities
Type Pit Hand Flush Others Use (Percent Households) 58.4 24.0 17.4

Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

Concerning non-human waste disposal, unofficial dumps are the most important means of waste disposal in the surveyed communities, closely followed by burning of waste. As Table 5.3-4 indicates, there is very limited collection of garbage by government agencies. Table 5.3-4 Sanitation: Household Non-human Waste Disposal Methods in Surveyed Communities
System Unofficial Dump Burning Compost Official/Formal Dump Government Collection Other Does not know/information not available Refused to answer Use (Percent Households) 44.8 39.6 5.6 4.9 3.3 0.5 1.0 0.3

Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003.

5.3.1.3

Health Facilities and Personnel

In Lagos and Ogun States, health care is provided by clinics, hospitals (including maternity homes/wards), pharmacies and drug stores and, to a lesser extent, by priests, herbalists, and spiritualists (which tend to be more prevalent in rural areas). In Lagos State, most people have access to health care facilities within five miles or less of their place of residence (NISER, 2002). In the surveyed communities in both Lagos and Ogun states, health care facilities include hospitals, clinics, pharmacy shops, religious centers and herbalists homes. However, as the Table 5.3-5 indicates, self-medication is widely practiced and second only to hospitals in terms of frequency of use. As expected, the most widely consulted health personnel are orthodox medical doctors. The use of herbal homes and herbalists is not as widespread as one might expect of rural communities. This is probably a consequence of the proximity of the Lagos metropolis, which is characterized by higher levels of development, the presence of non-indigenes, and less of a reliance on traditional practices. Similarly, the use of religious healers and centers in the surveyed communities is not widespread and orthodox western type health care facilities are the most widely patronized in the area. On average, about 18 percent of the surveyed households will have to cross the proposed pipeline ROW in order to access the various health care facilities.

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Table 5.3-5 Household Health Care Utilization by Type of Provider and Facility
Provider/Source Medical Doctor Self Medication Pharmacist Religious Leader Herbalists Nurse Patronization (Percent Households) 78.1 75.8 45.1 26.9 21.3 1.5 Major Health Facility Patronized* (Percent Households) Hospital (68.9) Respondents House (58.6) Pharmacy Shops (32.8) Religious Center (19.2) Herbalist Home (10.4) Clinic (38.1)

* The figures in parentheses refer to highest proportion of respondents who patronize the respective personnel in column 1 at the corresponding facility in column 3. Note: Sources not mutually exclusive; households may use multiple providers. Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003

5.3.2

Health Indicators

The general health situation in Lagos State is typical of the situation in the Lagos metropolitan region. In Lagos State, the general health conditions are better in most cases than the national average, with a doctor/patient ratio of 1:160; a maternal mortality rate of eight per 1,000; an infant mortality rate of approximately 85 per 1,000; and a life expectancy of 52 years.18 5.3.2.1 Incidence of Illness and Disease

As Table 5.3-6 indicates, malaria (93.4 percent) is the most prevalent ailment in the surveyed communities, followed by stomach aches (67.5 percent), skin disease (41.1 percent) and diarrhea (28.7 percent). These findings are consistent with the SNGL Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) conducted in May 1999, which reported that of the 400 individuals surveyed, malaria was the most common ailment, followed by dysentery/diarrhea, stomach ache, cough, pneumonia, skin diseases, sores, malnutrition, eye infections, and mental disorders (Shell Nigeria Gas Limited, 1999). The most common reported illnesses in the Igbesa Health District, which covers part of the proposed pipeline route, are malaria (70.8 percent of cases), diarrhea (9.0 percent), and pneumonia (3.2 percent) (Ado-Odo-Ota Local Government Health Department, 1999).

18

These facts are contained in page 95 of the report of the second Lagos State Economic Summit 2001.

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Table 5.3-6 Incidence of Illness and Disease in Surveyed Households, 2002


Illness/Disease Malaria Stomach Ache Skin Disease Diarrhea STDS Bilhazia HIV/AIDS Incidence (Percent Households) 93.4 67.5 41.1 28.7 2.0 1.3 1.0

Note: Respondents indicated multiple incidences; data reflects the percentage of households in the survey communities in which any member suffered from the ailment. Source: ICF Household and Community Survey, 2003

The number of children immunized in Nigeria varies greatly by state. The children in Lagos State had the highest immunization rate (83 percent) in the country in 1995 (UNICEF, 1995; FOS, 1995). HIV/AIDS is an increasing health, social, and economic concern. In 1999, the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was estimated at 2.7 million and the number of HIV/AIDS deaths was 250,000. As the above table indicates, HIV/AIDS has the lowest rate of incidence amongst the ailments reported by surveyed households. However, there may be underreporting due to the sensitive nature of the question, the stigma associated with the disease, and lack of awareness. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Nigeria is 5.8 percent (African Development Indicators, 2004). This prevalence rate might be a reflection of the highly urbanized nature of Lagos State.

5.3.3

Food and Nutrition

The most commonly consumed food items in the surveyed communities are cassava (garri), pounded yam, yam flour, cocoyam, maize and maize products, plantain and plantain products, vegetables, beans and bean products, as well as some meat and fish in small quantities. The high cost of meat and fish means that most people only consume limited quantities. This diet of high carbohydrate intake and low protein consumption has implications for nutrition. In 1990, 36 percent of the children in urban areas and 46 percent in rural areas in Nigeria were malnourished (FOS, 1998).

5.4
5.4.1

Existing Safety Situation


Overview

This section addresses the existing institutions, infrastructure, and capacity relating to health and safety, security, and emergency response in the vicinity of the proposed WAGP project sites in Nigeria. The information in this section was obtained from the heads and

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representatives of the concerned organizations and provided to ICF via WAPCo External Affairs. Included in this assessment are federal and state institutions in charge of health, fire outbreak and emergency response. In the area of health, institutions included are the federal and state tertiary health organizations, otherwise known as centers of excellence, as well as secondary health organizations, known as general hospitals or federal medical centers. The agencies in charge of fire fighting are the Federal Government and the state governments, with authority being highly decentralized. The National Emergency Management Agency is responsible for disaster management.

5.4.2

Institutions Responsible for Health Care Delivery

In Nigeria, healthcare matters appear in the concurrent legislative list, meaning that both the Federal Government and the 36 State Governments make and implement laws on health. The Federal Government owns and operates three categories of health institutions nationwide. These are classified as the primary, the secondary and the tertiary institutions. State governments also operate primary, secondary, and tertiary health institutions within their respective domains. Federal and state tertiary health organizations, otherwise known as centers of excellence, comprise a number of teaching and specialist hospitals scattered across the nation. They generally handle cases referred from the secondary health centers. The Federal tertiary hospitals in the Lagos area include the University of Lagos Teaching Hospital (LUTH), located at Idi-Araba; the Federal Orthopedic Hospital at Igbobi; the Federal Eye Centre at Onikan; and the Federal Radiography Centre at Yaba. These hospitals are generally well staffed and better equipped than the lower-level health centers or the tertiary institutions run by the state governments and private individuals. The Lagos State Government runs a tertiary health institution, a teaching hospital attached to the state-owned University. All institutions mentioned above are located within 100km of the proposed WAGP compression station site at Ajido. These institutions can be reached by road within one and a half hours, although the usually heavy Lagos traffic may increase travel time. 5.4.2.1 Secondary Health Institutions

As stated above, both Federal and state governments operate a network of secondary health institutions across the country. These are called General Hospitals or Federal Medical Centers. There is a General Hospital in Sango Ota, at the beginning of WAGP pipeline and another one in Badagry, at the other end of the pipeline. Both are accessible to the project, located less than 10km from any portion of the pipeline. Many of the General Hospitals are well equipped, with qualified staff and supplies. However, most of the qualified personnel in these institutions also own or work in nearby private hospitals and divide their attention between patients in their personal clinics and those they treat in the government centers. The doctors frequently cite inadequate funding from the government, and frequently resort to

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strike actions to press their demands for better funding and improved conditions of service. These circumstances can result in unexpected delays in health care delivery. 5.4.2.2 Primary Health Centers

There are several hundred primary health centers across the nation. Some of them are owned by the Federal and local governments, but most are owned by the states. They are often under equipped and understaffed by nurses and auxiliary health attendants. Some primary health centers are open to patients on selected days of the week. There are primary health centers in Igbesa, Agbara, Tori-Lovi, Ajido, and in many of the other major villages along the WAGP corridor. However, these centers do not have the capacity to provide adequate medical assistance related to major incidents such as disasters.

5.4.3

Institutions Responsible for Fire Fighting

Fire fighting is a shared responsibility between the Federal Government and the 36 State Governments. Fire fighting institutions in Nigeria are highly decentralized. But there are serious public concerns about their effectiveness. Fire incidents are quite common in all parts of the country, especially during the dry season, and the fire service performance is considered low in handling major fire outbreak anywhere in the country. The low level of performance is often the result of obsolete and poorly maintained equipment. For example, in some cases, the fire vehicles are not tested periodically, and when a fire outbreak occurs the firemen discover that their vehicles do not start, or have no water in their tanks. The Chief Fire Officer frequently states in the mass media that the service is not receiving adequate attention from the government in the form of funding, training, and equipment supply. One result of the unreliable state of the public fire fighting infrastructure is that many companies choose to set up their own fire fighting outfits, which in turn may be used for community purposes. Brief descriptions of the two levels of Nigerias fire fighting system are provided below. 5.4.3.1 Federal Fire Service

This is an arm of the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing. The Service has its headquarters in Abuja and branches in all the 36 state capitals. 5.4.3.2 State Fire Departments

Each of the 36 state governments has a fire department attached to its Ministry of Works. Although the state fire departments are supposed to have a branch in each of their LGAs, totaling 774 branches in the entire country, this is not the case. The branches are restricted to a few of the major cities in each state. There is a Federal Fire Service office at Ojuelegba area of Lagos Mainland, about 100km from the proposed compression station at Ajido. There is a branch of the Ogun state fire
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department in Ota and a Lagos state government fire station in Badagry, about 15km from Ajido.

5.4.4

Institutions Responsible for Disaster Management

The main institution responsible for disaster management in Nigeria is the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), an arm of the Presidency, with headquarters at the Federal Secretariat Complex, Garki, Abuja. NEMA was established under Decree No 48 of September 8, 1976, as amended by subsequent Act of Parliament, and its functions are: Collection of emergency relief supplies from local as well as foreign sources and from international and non-governmental agencies; Distribution of such supplies in any area of Nigeria affected by natural or other disasters; Receipt of financial and technical aid from the appropriate federal ministries for disbursement to the affected areas; Determination of the priority of all emergency relief operations in any part of the federation; and Coordination of the activities of all voluntary institutions engaged in emergency relief operation in all part of the federation. NEMAs organization and membership consists of the Minister of Social Development as Chairman and the Director of Social Development as Secretary. Representatives of the Ministries of Health, Agriculture, Communications, Information, Internal Affairs, Transport and Works, and Housing are members of NEMA. Other members are the representatives of the Nigerian Red Cross, Nigerian Armed Forces, and the Nigeria Police Force. With the exception of the Director of Social Development, the Minister of Social Development appoints all members of the agency. Similar to some of the other health and safety institutions in the country, the effectiveness of this agency has also been low. Management and response time are the main challenges facing the agency. The agency has been plagued with allegations of improper management. The Agency was also criticized for taking too long to respond in times of emergency. For instance, NEMA response time for victims of the January 27, 2002 bomb blast in Lagos was four days.

5.5

Stakeholder Consultations

To date, WAPCo and the WAGP Project team have conducted over 400 consultations in the all four WAGP countries. Many of the earlier consultations were focused on building awareness of the project and educating stakeholders about natural gas and natural gas pipelines. Stakeholders provided their input on EIA-related concerns, issues and on other matters outside the scope of this EIA as presented below in Table 5.5-1.

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Table 5.5-1 WAGP Stakeholder Consultation Summary All WAGP Countries


No. of Consultations Where Issue Category Was Raised EIA Related Issues Awareness/Education 149 Land Acquisition/Compensation 116 EIA 79 Community Development 52 Safety 34 Community Reactions 34 Land Acquisition/RAP 32 EIA-Fishing Impacts 15 Implementation Employment 5 Implementation Contractors 2 Non-EIA Related Issues Advocacy 69 Gas Market 36 IPA/Regulatory 20 Permitting/FEED (Technical) 15 IPA /TREATY- Ratification 13 Other 11 WAPCo Formation 10 Tariff/Cost/etc 10 Permitting General 7 Issue Category

Note that for these and subsequent tables, not all WAGP consultations have been documented or captured for analysis, although clearly the issues and concerns raised in these informal meetings follow the same trends as raised in this EIA. More specifically in Nigeria, the issues and concerns followed similar trends (Table 5.5-2).

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Table 5.5-2 WAGP Stakeholder Consultation Summary Nigeria


No. of Consultations Where Issue is Raised EIA Related Issues Awareness/Education 12 Land Acquisition Compensation 23 EIA 12 Community Development 4 Safety 9 Community Reaction 6 Implementation Contractors 1 Implementation Employment 3 Non-EIA Related Issues Advocacy 6 Gas Market 1 IPA /TREATY Ratification 1 IPA/Regulatory 1 Other 1 Permitting/FEED (Technical) 2 Issue Category

For Nigeria, in terms of the types of stakeholders engaged, Table 5.5-3 below provides a summary of Stakeholder Group and Number of consultations as follows: Table 5.5-3 WAGP Consultation Summary by Country and Individual Stakeholder
Stakeholder Group Stakeholder Name Ajido Community Baale of Ewupe Community Baale of Owode Community Badagry Community Baoole of Imeke Communities along ROW Igbessa Community Ijoko/Itoki Community Iworo Arojomo Community Lagos Community Ore-Akinde Community Otta Community Tori-Lovi Community Federal House of Representatives Ado-Odo Local Government Department of Petroleum Resources FMPR Government Officials Lagos State Fire Service Manufactures Association of Nigeria (MAN) No. of Consultations 2 1 1 3 1 1 3 6 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2

Communities

Govt. Parliaments Govt. Agencies (Ministries, Local Govt., etc.) Trade & Industry Leaders

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Appendix 5-D provides a summary table of individual consultations as well as minutes and notes from a number of the consultations.

5.6

Oversight and Monitoring Agencies

Table 5.6-1 identifies government agencies in Nigeria responsible for different aspects of environmental and socioeconomic management and oversight. Table 5.6-1 Government Agencies and Responsibilities for Regulatory Oversight in Nigeria
Jurisdiction/Oversight Pipeline Permitting and Licensing (including Licensing, Design Review, Installation) Environmental Impact Assessment (Approval, Monitoring) Hazardous Waste Management Solid Waste Management (Household and Non-hazardous Wastes) Clean-up Standards Air Quality Water Quality Effluent Discharge Permits (Offshore, Onshore, Sanitary, Stormwater) Endangered Species Protection (including IUCN, CITES, etc.) Marine Fisheries Freshwater Fisheries Wetlands Protection Marine Mammal Protection Turtle Protection Inland Waterways, Rivers and Stream Crossings Port Authorities Marine Safety and Vessel Inspection MARPOL Compliance Archeological and Cultural Resources Labor Relations Public Health Public Safety Occupational Safety Agency Department of Petroleum Resources Federal Ministry of Environment Department of Petroleum Resources Federal Ministry of Environment Department of Petroleum Resources Federal Ministry of Environment Department of Petroleum Resources Local Government Federal Ministry of Environment Department of Petroleum Resources Federal Ministry of Environment Department of Petroleum Resources Federal Ministry of Environment Department of Petroleum Resources Federal Ministry of Environment Department of Petroleum Resources Federal Ministry of Environment Department of Petroleum Resources TBD TBD Federal Ministry of Environment Department of Petroleum Resources TBD TBD National Inland Waterway Authority Nigerian Port Authority Minister of Transport Nigeria Navy Nigeria Navy TBD TBD TBD TBD Department of Petroleum Resources Ministry of Labour

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Table 5.6-1 Government Agencies and Responsibilities for Regulatory Oversight in Nigeria
Jurisdiction/Oversight Traffic Control Hazardous Materials Management Emergency Response Fire Emergency Response Medical Emergency Response Oil Spill Emergency Response Disaster Management Land Acquisition Building Permits Public and Urban Planning (Zoning) Public Lands Administration Agricultural Protection Authority Forestry Resources Tourism Agency TBD Department of Petroleum Resources NAFDAC Federal Fire Service State Fire Departments TBD Federal Ministry of Environment Department of Petroleum Resources National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD

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Overview
The West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) project as proposed in Nigeria has the potential to create a number of beneficial impacts, a few direct negative impacts that can be mitigated to low levels, some risks associated with emergency and upset conditions, and some secondary and cumulative impacts.

Beneficial Impacts
WAGP will have a number of significant positive impacts in Nigeria that provide a clear justification for the project and in certain respects offset some of the negative impacts. These include environmental and socioeconomic benefits during the construction as well as the operation and maintenance periods, and those associated with WAGPs Community Development Program. Environmental benefits result from the beneficial use of currently flared associated gas from upstream gas supplied to WAGP, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and resulting in global climate change benefits. Localized improvements in air quality are also expected to be noteworthy. The majority of beneficial impacts associated with WAGP are socioeconomic effects. The provision of a market and a financial return for natural gas currently being wasted will provide an infusion of funds into Nigeria. Because a portion of the returns on the sale of this gas is expected to remain in Nigeria, these will have positive economic impacts. Additionally, taxes paid by WAPCo to Nigeria will help strengthen the national economy and support economic development. Total tax benefits received by Nigeria over the lifetime of the project are expected to be in the range of US$76 million to US$95 million (WAGP, 2004). More economic benefits both direct and indirect will be generated through Nigerias participation in the pipeline project and return on equity investments and transportation tariffs. To involve and benefit local communities, WAPCo has made a commitment to purchase 15 percent of all goods and services required during construction from local businesses. This local content value for onshore construction procurement in Nigeria is estimated at US$39.6 million. Employment income perhaps the largest contribution to socioeconomic benefits at the local level will be generated in many surrounding communities as local jobs are created both temporarily during construction and permanently throughout the operation and maintenance of the project. Workers from surrounding communities will be hired by contractors for several aspects of construction. In general, increased employment levels are expected to boost personal income and strengthen the local economy. Moreover, payments for local contract work will be substantial, generating direct, indirect, and induced benefits for the surrounding communities.

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Lastly, Community Development and Health and Safety Benefits will occur through WAGPs planned Community Development Program and improved infrastructure. This program will target education and healthcare support during the construction period. Participatory needs assessments have identified future opportunities in terms of income generation and capacity building that can be incorporated into later year operations.

Direct Negative Impacts


Direct negative impacts associated with the WAGP project include potential onshore and potential offshore impacts to the environment, socioeconomic conditions, and health and safety of workers and members of the general public. All of these potential impacts have been assessed for all remaining options and uncertainties associated with certain project details in order to envelop all the different ways the project may go. Onshore Environmental Impacts Fifty-four different activities were evaluated in detail across five categories of potential environmental impacts: land use; habitat and biological resources; soils, topography, and geology; water resources and hydrology; and air. Of the 270 impact possibilities that were assessed, 173 (64 percent) were determined to be of negligible concern and 74 (27 percent) were evaluated as being of low or moderate severity because they are short-term in duration, reversible, localized in area affected, and/or unlikely to occur given planned management practices. Many possible high severity impacts have been entirely avoided through the alternatives review and selection process, described in Chapter 4. However, some environmental impacts are inevitable with a project of this nature and scale. The most significant potential environmental impacts are associated with three activities in the site preparation and construction phase in Nigeria: Construction activities associated with installing the pipeline, particularly clearing and trenching; The potential impacts associated with traditional trenching methods to install the pipeline across Badagry Creek and across the barrier island if horizontal directional drilling (HDD) methods, the preferred option, fails for any reason (unlikely); and The option of transporting the heavy equipment needed to construct the Lagos Beach compressor station via barge up Badagry Creek, which would require building new infrastructure (new dock and short access road) and dredging a small portion of the creek (the roadway transport option would result in a different set of less severe potential impacts). As explained in this chapter, the potential environmental impacts of greatest concern involve conversion of farmland to pipeline right of way (ROW) for the project duration and perhaps longer; disturbance of habitats and changes to hydrology as a result of trenching to install the pipeline in wetlands areas; changes in habitats, soils/sediments and topography, and hydrology associated with the barging option for heavy equipment delivery to the compressor

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station construction site; and negative effects on habitats resulting from trenching across Badagry Creek and the barrier island (if HDD is unsuccessful). Even these impacts, however, would be localized and not expected to significantly degrade any unique or especially sensitive natural resources. For example: The entire onshore portion of the pipeline in Nigeria, from the Alagbado Tee connection to Badagry Beach, would be 56 kilometers (km) (35 miles) long. With a maximum width of 25 meters (m) (82 feet), the pipeline ROW would occupy a total footprint of 140 hectares (ha) (346 acres). However, only 20km with a corresponding area of 50ha would be on land that is not currently occupied by or adjacent to an existing pipeline ROW. The pipeline ROW would traverse a total of 31ha (76 acres) of wetland. The ROW across the barrier island would occupy a footprint of 1ha (2.5 acres). If the compressor station construction equipment is transported through Badagry Creek, dredging and construction would disturb an estimated 1.8ha (4.5 acres). During the course of this assessment, as activities of high concern were identified, alreadyproposed mitigation and monitoring measures were strengthened (e.g., WAPCo Turtle Impact Monitoring and Mitigation Plan for Construction and Maintenance Operations), or entirely new measures developed (e.g., WAGP Storm Water Management Plan, Air Emissions Management Procedure, Spill Prevention and Control Procedure, and Procedure for Preventing Salt Water Intrusion into Fresh Water Lagoons and Creeks). Implementation of these measures will minimize, and in some cases prevent, potential significant adverse impacts identified in this assessment. See Chapter 7 for additional details regarding these mitigation measures. Onshore Socioeconomic and Health and Safety Impacts The WAGP project is expected to result in the following categories of negative socioeconomic impacts: transportation and other infrastructure; social and cultural conditions; access to goods and services; means of livelihood; and public/worker health and safety. These impacts are evaluated and assessed in detail, with most impacts considered to be of low to moderate severity and occurring during the construction phase. There are no anticipated socioeconomic impacts of high severity associated with the project in Nigeria. The influx of workers and equipment for the Alagbado Tee, 30 inch (in) onshore mainline, and compressor station construction will increase the pressure on existing infrastructure systems, particularly transportation. Pipeline construction will require 20 truck trips per day, and the Tee and compressor station construction will each require a total of 50 to 100 truck trips. There are various mitigation measures planned by WAGP that will ameliorate impacts on transportation infrastructure, such as delivery of material during off peak time frames and avoidance of congested roads. In terms of social and cultural conditions, the influx of construction workers at the mainline, Tee, and compressor station sites has the potential to result in negative impacts such as short term changes in gender ratios and differential incomes for surrounding communities. An
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additional impact on social and cultural conditions stems from the disturbance of physical cultural resources; six churches, 16 gravesites, three praying grounds, and 60 shrines have been identified within the ROW. In addition, 37 built and 43 partially built residences will be displaced. Impacts on displaced resources will be mitigated through the framework of the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP). There is also the potential for disruption of community access to goods and services as the influx of construction workers places strains on services and results in price inflation, and as the increased construction traffic impedes access. The workers concentrated in a smaller area at the compressor station, in particular, may result in moderate impacts on the availability of goods and services. Means of livelihood are expected to be moderately impacted by the influx of construction workers, by construction traffic (particularly if transportation of compressor station equipment occurs on existing roads), and by road/pathway obstruction, all of which have the potential to disrupt economic activity in communities. The clearing and removal of structures is also expected to displace economic activity long term (other than livestock grazing) on land within the ROW, Tee, compressor station, and construction camps (if built), though the RAP is expected to fully mitigate the majority of losses associated with such land acquisition. If trenching takes place in wetland areas and Badagry Creek, impacts to fisheries and loss of economic activity may occur. The termination of construction (and possibly operation jobs) may also cause moderate economic dislocation, both from job losses and the removal of markets for goods and services. A key potential impact on public and worker health and safety is the increase in accident and illness rates associated with the transportation of equipment. Mitigation measures include driver training and avoidance of congested roads. The influx of construction workers could also result in increased incidence of life-threatening or incurable illnesses such as HIV/AIDS. Impacts will be ameliorated by targeted mitigation measures such as HIV/AIDS awareness programs for workers and worker camp (and if needed housing camp) management measures. Accident rates for workers are also expected to be elevated due to higher exposure of occupational risk during construction activities, particularly from earthmoving equipment; however, these are mitigated through overt environmental, safety, and health management system requirements of the EPC contractors. Offshore Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Impacts The offshore portion of the project in Nigeria begins at the Lagos Beach compressor station, where gas transmission will occur via an offshore 20in (50.8 centimeters (cm)) pipeline. The pipeline route will run generally southwest from Badagry Beach for 40km (25 miles) to the edge of the Nigerian territorial waters. None of the activities associated with the offshore pipeline is expected to result in high severity environmental, socioeconomic, or health and safety impacts. Activities of most concern occur during the site preparation and construction phase and include the passive installation of the pipeline in water that is greater than 8m deep (i.e., the pipeline will be laid on the sea floor in waters this deep), the movement of barges and vessels near the shoreline

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and ports, pipeline burial in less than 8m water depth (if necessary), and shore crossing implemented via jet trenching (which is not a preferred alternative and will be used only if HDD proves unfeasible). Filling the onshore and offshore pipeline with water from Badagry Creek during start-up operations and the subsequent discharge of the first fill of the onshore pipeline back into the creek is also a potential concern, although no chemicals are expected to be introduced to the first fill water, which will also be filtered prior to discharge. These offshore activities could potentially affect benthic habitats, water quality and resources, and means of livelihood of coastal peoples. Overall, 15 offshore activities over the life of the project were analyzed for Nigeria across 11 different potentially affected media. Of these 165 media and activity combinations, 138 activities (84 percent) were found to have no impacts, 17 (10 percent) low severity impacts, and 10 (6 percent) moderate severity impacts. None of the proposed offshore activities are expected to cause high severity impacts.

Emergency and Upset Conditions


Emergency and upset conditions may, in a low probability, high consequence worst case scenario, lead to events with a significant potential for impact to human and environmental receptors. The most significant possible events are: Controlled gas release: Blowdowns and other controlled gas releases may occur at the Alagbado Tee, the midline manual venting facility, and the Lagos Beach compressor station. Because controlled blowdowns are expected to be very infrequent and will be conducted at rates that will ensure effective dispersion (or combustion in the case of non-routine flaring at the compressor station), the impacts to environmental receptors and to the health and safety of workers and the general public are expected to be minor, if any. Uncontrolled gas release: Uncontrolled gas releases may occur anywhere along the pipeline due to a rupture, or at WAGP facilities due to a rupture of piping or poor maintenance. The WAGP pipeline and facilities have been designed with safeguards to prevent uncontrolled releases and with mitigation measures to minimize their impacts, should they occur. Fire: The potential sources of fires include the uncontrolled release of gas or the ingress of air into piping containing gas. Since the WAGP facilities have been designed to avoid fire hazards, the likelihood of a fire occurring is considered low to very low. The significance of any resulting impacts would vary with the size and duration of a fire, if one occurs. Worst-case conditions could involve significant impacts to some workers, but are unlikely to extend to members of the general public, because the proposed facilities are all isolated from population centers. Explosion: The likelihood of an explosion arising from the buried (or submerged), corrosion-protected pipeline is very low. Also, equipment in the facilities will be spark-proof in areas where the risk of explosion is significant in order to minimize the likelihood of explosion. Nevertheless, in the unlikely event of a large explosion,

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public health and safety would be of highest concern at the compressor station, given its proximity to residential and industrial buildings. There also could be a variety of socioeconomic effects from an explosion. WAPCo has conducted studies to maximize the safety of the WAGP pipeline and facilities and is developing an emergency-response strategy and system safeguards.

Secondary and Cumulative Impacts


In addition to the primary, direct impacts, there are various indirect consequences that may occur. These indirect impacts may occur in areas beyond the immediate influence of the WAGP Project, at an undetermined time in the future, or as a result of complex pathways (second- or third-level impacts). Secondary impacts affect the same qualities identified for direct impacts (e.g., land use, water quality, livelihood). Many secondary effects were not considered to be significant. Several identified secondary impacts attributable to the proposed WAGP project include the following: in the onshore environment, increased access to hunting grounds and timber stands due to ROW maintenance, potential for incremental changes in ecology due to solid waste generation, changes in wetlands vegetation, and decrease in groundwater quality; and in the offshore environment, the potential for a localized increase in fisheries production. Cumulative impacts are the incremental effects of proposed development activities evaluated in tandem with pre-existing or additional proposed development activities. They may be considered distinct from direct (primary) and indirect (secondary) impacts from the proposed project in that cumulative impact may occur when a receptor is already impacted by existing sources and/or from other separate, planned sources. Nigeria has few existing industrial development projects that are currently additive to any direct WAGP project impacts. Therefore, few cumulative impacts have been identified; the ones described in this report consist of the following: short term increased marine traffic, strain on waste management infrastructure (more so during construction rather than operations), longer term upstream development impacts (particularly to meet expected increases in gas demand in Benin, Ghana and Togo), and increased water and road transport.

6.1

Introduction

This chapter assesses potential impacts of the West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) project. The methodology used for this assessment was designed to ensure a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of all potential positive and negative effects associated with the project. A main goal of the assessment is to identify where impact mitigation is needed so that appropriate control measures (Chapter 7) and monitoring programs (Chapter 8) could be developed to minimize adverse effects. Where different options remain under consideration for a given activity in the project, impacts have been assessed for all options to inform the decision-making. The impact assessment methodology to be used for this project consists of five major steps:

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Chapter 6

Step 1: Identification and description of project activities and their interaction with environmental media; Step 2: Comprehensive preliminary identification of potential impacts; Step 3: Screening, or comparative assessment of impact importance; identification of impacts that are likely to be significant (i.e., identification of focus areas for further study) through application of a basic set of impact significance criteria to the preliminary information available about each impact; Step 4: Detailed assessment of the identified focus area impacts through modeling and other impact quantification/characterization techniques; quantification of impacts to the extent possible and rigorous qualitative characterization of impacts that can not be quantified; and Step 5: Final assessment of the severity levels of impacts through application of the results of the rigorous quantitative and qualitative characterization of impacts developed in Step 4 to a set of objective impact severity criteria; identification of impacts warranting mitigation. These steps are presented in flow chart form in Figure 6.1-1. The summary results of Steps 1 through 3 are presented in Tables 6.3-1 and 6.3-2. The results of the impact severity assessment in Steps 4 and 5 are found in Tables 6.6-1 and 6.7-1 below. Figure 6.1-1 Impact Assessment Methodology

Identify Activities & Media

Step 1

Impact Identification/Screening Process

Identify Project Impacts

Step 2

Identify Focus Areas

Step 3

Conduct Modeling and Quantitative Analyses

Step 4

Impact Severity Assessment Identify Severity Level

Apply Additional Mitigation Measures When Applicable (Results in Chapter 7)

Step 5

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Chapter 6

Section 6.2, Project Activities and Affected Media, briefly describes the WAGP project activities that could potentially result in impacts to the surrounding environment. This represents Step 1 in the impact assessment process. These activities are described in more detail in Chapter 2, Technical Project Description, but are summarized here to clarify the basis for subsequent impact identification and assessment steps. Section 6.3, Comprehensive Impacts Identification/Screening, outlines the process used to comprehensively identify potential impacts associated with the WAGP project (Step 2). This section also describes the process used to screen these impacts and identify the most important impacts, or focus areas for further assessment (Step 3). Tables 6.3-1 and 6.3-2 present the results of this impact screening step. Section 6.4 describes the impact severity assessment methodology used in this EIA. A simplified set of the impact significance criteria listed in this section (i.e., areal extent, likelihood/duration of occurrence, and magnitude of the impact) were applied in Step 3 in order to screen impacts and select the focus areas for further analysis. The full impact severity assessment methodology described in Section 6.4 was applied in Step 5 to rank the importance of each impact. In addition to describing the significance and likelihood criteria that are integral to the severity assessment, Section 6.4 also explains the steps taken to expand the impacts discussion for presentation in the Final Draft EIA. Section 6.5, Beneficial Impacts, describes project-wide and Nigeria-specific positive impacts. Sections 6.6 and 6.7 (Onshore and Offshore Impacts) present qualitative, and where available, quantitative descriptions of each of the potential direct negative impacts identified in Section 6.3 after application of Steps 4 and 5. Sections 6.6 and 6.7 are organized according to phases of the project, from siting and construction through start-up, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning. Potential impacts from emergency situations or upsets are discussed separately in Section 6.8, and potential secondary and cumulative impacts are discussed qualitatively in Section 6.9.

6.2
6.2.1

Project Activities and Affected Media


Project Activities

Table 6.2-1 provides the basic outline of project activities that have been defined using information available from the Front End Engineering Design (FEED) process. To further focus the analysis, each of the general project activities listed below was broken down into more specific activities, as described in Chapter 2 (e.g., pipeline construction in upland areas includes such specific activities as the influx of workers, clearing of vegetation, transportation of materials and equipment to the site). These activities appear in the impact severity summary tables (Tables 6.6-1 and 6.7-1) in this chapter.

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Table 6.2-1 General On- and Offshore Project Activities


Project Phase General Project Activity ONSHORE Pipeline construction in upland areas Pipeline construction in wetland areas Pipeline construction in lagoons Pipeline construction across barrier islands, beach, and nearshore areas Construction camp/temporary on-site facility development Connection to Tee at Alagbado and related construction Compressor station construction at Badagry Beach (including concrete batching facility and heavy equipment delivery via access roads and/or Badagry Creek/Lagos Lagoon pier construction) Regulating and metering (R&M) station construction (outside of Nigeria) Pipe cement coating operation (in Ghana and/or Nigeria) Onshore pipeline testing Compressor station, R&M stations, and Alagbado Tee Connection Compressor station, R&M stations, and Alagbado Tee Connection Onshore Pipeline Decommissioning of facilities Abandonment of onshore pipeline OFFSHORE Site preparation and construction in offshore areas (> 8 meters (m) water depth) Site preparation and construction of nearshore areas (< 8m water depth) On and offshore pipeline testing Pigging activities Decommissioning of main trunk and laterals

Site Preparation and Construction

Start-up

Operations and Maintenance Decommissioning and Abandonment

Site Preparation and Construction

Operations and Maintenance Decommissioning and Abandonment

6.2.2

Affected Media

The WAGP project may potentially result in impacts on the environment, socioeconomic conditions, and/or health and safety. Table 6.2-2 lists the specific media within each of these impact categories included within the screening step of the impact assessment. The comprehensive impact identification process described in Section 6.3 was used to evaluate the potential impacts of each of the project activities listed above on the specific media listed below, in order to initially screen the severity of potential project impacts.

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Table 6.2-2 Initial Screening List of Affected Media


Impact Category Specific Medium Land Use Habitat and Biological Resources Topography, Geology, and Soils Water Resources Air Quality Noise and Vibration Solid and Hazardous Waste Energy Resources Transportation Cultural Resources Socioeconomics Health and Safetya

Environmental

Socioeconomic Health and Safety


a

Both project personnel and the public.

This list was later updated and revised to reflect results from the screening process and to better distinguish between project activities (e.g., hazardous waste generation and noise created by earthmoving equipment) and impact receptors within a specific medium. The revised affected media are listed in Table 6.2-3 and are addressed in the full impact assessment in Sections 6.5 through 6.9. Table 6.2-3 Post Screening List of Affected Media
Impact Category Specific Medium Land Use Habitat and Biological Resources Topography, Geology, and Soils Water Resources and Hydrology Air Quality Transportation and Infrastructure Cultural and Social Conditions Access to Goods and Services Means of Livelihood Public Health, Safety, and Security Worker Health, Safety, and Security

Environmental

Socioeconomic

Health and Safety

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6.3
6.3.1

Comprehensive Impacts Identification/Screening


Overview

This section describes the steps used for preliminary identification of potential impacts based on available information, and the screening of these impacts to identify those that warrant more detailed analysis. This initial process assisted project proponents by identifying those impacts that may warrant mitigation measures that could be incorporated into the project design during detailed engineering design, or those potential impacts that may affect project implementation or siting. The preliminary identification and screening of impacts were carried out during FEED and preliminary EIA stages consistent with the following: Detailed screening conducted for a Preliminary Impact Assessment Report in Nigeria (DPR EGAS, 2002); Project screening, as described in the Ghana EIA Procedures (Ghana EPA, 1999); Requirements of the United States National Environmental Policy Act1 Environmental Assessment; and World Banks initial environmental assessment process (World Bank, 1993).

6.3.2

Impact Identification Process

Initial, comprehensive impact identification was conducted for the WAGP project using a modified Leopold matrix (Leopold, 1971). The matrix arrays project activities against environmental media, and supports a methodical, comprehensive, and objective identification of the impacts that each project activity may have on each environmental, socioeconomic, and health and safety medium. All potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the WAGP project were initially identified through this approach. The matrix used for this process is presented in Tables 6.3-1 and 6.3-2. The main factors used in determining whether an impact may occur at each intersection between a project activity and a specific environmental medium include: Literature reviews; Discussion with project proponent health, safety, and environment advisors; Consultations with local experts; Experience from similar projects worldwide; and Professional judgment.

42 U.S.C. 4321- 4347. Nigeria Final Draft EIA Rev 1 6-11

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6.3.3

Impact Screening/Identification of Focus Areas

Following the comprehensive identification of potential impacts, the identified impacts were screened to distinguish between impacts likely to be negligible or insignificant, and those that warrant more detailed analysis. This screening process was carried out through comparison of the preliminary information available about each impact to a basic set of impact significance criteria (defined below). Through this process, the most significant potential impacts of the project were identified as focus areas for further analysis. Sources of information about each potential impact used in the screening step while qualitatively ranking the importance of the identified impacts included: Overlaying project components on maps of existing conditions to identify potential impact areas and environmental media and features that could be affected; Preliminary field investigation results (e.g. environmental and socioeconomic baseline surveys); Consultation with country and regional experts and residents; Experience from similar projects worldwide; Detailed discussion with design and construction contractors (FEED); Review of published and unpublished documents providing guidance on performing impact analysis for industrial development activities. This includes sources such as: o o o o o The World Bank Environmental Assessment Sourcebook; The EIA provisions of applicable laws and regulations in Nigeria; Applicable international accords; Authoritative texts on performing EIAs (e.g., Canter, 1996); Literature regarding environmental conditions in Nigeria and in the Gulf of Guinea; and

Professional judgment. Impacts that were not screened out as being insignificant in Step 3 were designated as focus areas for additional analysis in subsequent stages of the EIA (i.e., in Steps 4 and 5). As more quantitative and qualitative information became available regarding each impact, the severity of each impact was assessed through application of the impact severity assessment methodology described in Section 6.4 (Step 5). Quantitative information developed about each impact was compared to quantitative indicators included in the impact significance criteria, and detailed, specific information regarding impact likelihood was also compared to the likelihood criteria. This resulted in an assessment of the severity of each impact, and supports conclusions regarding the acceptability of impacts and the need for mitigation measures.

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It should be noted that potential impacts were assessed taking into account the mitigation measures that are part of the project design specifications (as presented in Chapter 2, Technical Project Description, and further identified in Chapter 7, Mitigating and Ameliorating Measures). These mitigation measures were assumed to be implemented as part of the WAGP project. Where no mitigation measures were specified in the project design specifications, impacts were assessed assuming no mitigation measures are applied. As the final severity of impacts was assessed in the EIA process (i.e., Step 5) some impacts were determined to be sufficiently severe to warrant further mitigation. Additional mitigation measures that were identified through the impact assessment process (and were not in the initial project design) are described in Chapter 7. Wherever additional mitigation measures are identified, the impacts were reassessed (i.e., Steps 4 and 5 were carried out again with respect to that impact) to provide a post-mitigation impact assessment. The results of post-mitigation assessments are presented in Chapter 7.

6.3.4

Impact Screening Results

Tables 6.3-1 and 6.3-2 (Screening Results: Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Impact Focus Areas) present the results of Step 3, i.e., the identified focus areas by project phase (e.g., Site Preparation and Construction), project activity (e.g., pipeline construction in wetlands), and affected media (e.g., Air Quality). The tables summarize the identified focus areas at the time of screening (February through March 2003) and were presented in the Preliminary Draft EIA. Focus areas are indicated by either an R (regional), for issues that apply to all four countries, or by an X for issues specific to Nigeria. If the row associated with a particular activity is blank, the impacts from that activity were initially considered to be negligible, or of lower significance and screened out of further consideration. However, as more project design specifications were developed, specific activities further defined, and impact receptors more clearly separated from activities, some potential impacts (not screening results) had to be re-introduced and evaluated as part of the full impact assessment presented in Sections 6.5 through 6.7. The potential impacts associated with each focus area are qualitatively, and where possible quantitatively described and evaluated in the corresponding text under Section 6.5, Beneficial Impacts, Section 6.6 for potential negative onshore impacts, and under Section 6.7 for negative offshore impacts.

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Table 6.3-1 Screening Results: Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Focus Areas (March 2003)
Habitats and Biological Resources Topography, Geology, and Soils Solid and Hazardous Waste Noise and Vibration

Cultural Resources

Energy Resources

PROJECT-WIDE Site Preparation and Construction


Social reinvestment Construction camp development/occupation (for pipeline and onshore facilities construction) Technology transfer and capacity building Temporary employment opportunities
R

Air Quality

General Activity

Specific Activity Description


Land Use

Operations and Maintenance


General operation of pipeline and distribution of natural gas Use of natural gas as an alternative, lower cost energy source
R R R R

ONSHORE Site Preparation and Construction


Pipeline construction in upland areas Clearing of vegetation, removal of structures, leveling (including access roads) Pipeline installation at 1 meter depth (including trenching and covering) Option 1: Horizontal directional drilling Option 2: Trenching Option 1: Horizontal directional drilling Option 2: Trenching of lagoon bed (including dredging of channel into lagoon for access by barges)
X X X X X X X X X X X R

Pipeline construction in wetland areas Pipeline construction in lagoons

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Water Resources

Socioeconomics

Transportation

Chapter 6

Table 6.3-1 Screening Results: Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Focus Areas (March 2003)
Habitats and Biological Resources Topography, Geology, and Soils Solid and Hazardous Waste Noise and Vibration

Cultural Resources

Energy Resources

Site Preparation and Construction


Pipeline construction across barrier islands, beach, and nearshore areas Construction camp development/occupation (for pipeline and onshore facilities construction) Compressor station construction at Badagry Beach (including access roads and concrete batching facility) Option 1: Horizontal directional drilling Option 2: Trenching Land leveling and infrastructure development Camp operation Land take (mainly in wetland) and site preparation Concrete batching facility Provision of aggregate and fill Transport of equipment to site Option 1: by road (including widening of existing roads) Transport of equipment to site Option 2: by barge (including dredging of barge canal) Compressor station construction Land take Land clearing and preparation Transport of R&M equipment to sites
R R R R X

Air Quality

General Activity

Specific Activity Description


Land Use

X X X X X X X X X X

R&M stations construction

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Water Resources

Socioeconomics

Transportation

Chapter 6

Table 6.3-1 Screening Results: Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Focus Areas (March 2003)
Habitats and Biological Resources Topography, Geology, and Soils Solid and Hazardous Waste Noise and Vibration

Cultural Resources

Energy Resources

Start-up
Compressor station and R&M stations Liquid waste generation (including high volumes of water from hydrotesting testing of pipelines) Gas venting/flaring Filter waste and other solid and hazardous waste generation Gas venting
R R R R R

Pipeline Tee connection at Alagbado

Air Quality

General Activity

Specific Activity Description


Land Use

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Water Resources

Socioeconomics

Transportation

Chapter 6

Table 6.3-1 Screening Results: Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Focus Areas (March 2003)
Habitats and Biological Resources Topography, Geology, and Soils Solid and Hazardous Waste Noise and Vibration

Cultural Resources

Energy Resources

Operations and Maintenance


Compressor station and R&M stations Solid and hazardous waste management (maintenance lubes, oils, chemicals, dehydrating liquid and filter wastes and refuse) Stormwater runoff from impermeable surfaces Sewage disposal Provision of fresh water requirements Venting/flaring Air emissions from mobile sources, backup generators, compressor Air emissions and steam condensate emissions from glycol dehydrator Pigging wastes Fuel transport, transfer and storage Compressor and R&M operation Gas venting Scrubber liquid wastes Gas venting on 57-km pipeline reach in Nigeria Right of Way (ROW) maintenance Pipeline at 1 meter depth
X

X X X X

Pipeline Tee Connection at Alagbado Onshore Pipeline

Air Quality

General Activity

Specific Activity Description


Land Use

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X R

Water Resources

Socioeconomics

Transportation

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Table 6.3-2 Screening Results: Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health and Safety Impact Focus Areas (March 2003)
Habitats and Biological Resources Solid and Hazardous Waste Noise and Vibration Topography, Geology, and Soils Cultural Resources Energy Resources Health and Safety 6-18

Water Resources

OFFSHORE Site Preparation and Construction


Site preparation Trenching and covering of positioned pipe in nearshore shallow areas (between 8m and 30m depth) Positioning and repositioning of barge anchors Positioning of pipe Presence of barges in Gulf waters Materials/supplies/personnel shuttling between barges and shore Sewage/runoff/liquid waste disposal Air emissions from barge equipment Solid and hazardous waste management (maintenance lubes, oils, chemicals, wastes and refuse) Potential pipeline breach
R R R R R R R R

Pipe laying

General barge operation

Air Quality

Land Use

General Activity

Specific Activity Description

Operations and Maintenance


Potential pipeline damage due to anchor drag, other navigational activities or corrosion failure Pipeline patrol and inspection

Regular deployment of inspection boats

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Transportation

Chapter 6

6.4

Impact Severity Assessment Methodology

Various impact assessment guidelines and methodologies have been developed to date, and new ones are continually emerging. As clearly stated by Canter (1996), there is no universal methodology that can be applied to all project types in all environmental settings. The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP, 1996) also emphasizes the need to use tools from existing methodologies that best suit the specific project situation. These sources of information and professional experience provide a backdrop on which to apply the following impact severity assessment methodology. This methodology is based on two sets of criteria (significance and likelihood) that form the basis of the Severity Matrix (Section 6.4.3). The following sections describe the components of the impact assessment methodology in detail.

6.4.1

Significance Criteria

To objectively review those issues warranting consideration as potential impacts (previously identified as focus areas) and to determine the likely significance of those impacts when compared to baseline conditions, the general significance criteria shown in Table 6.4-1 were developed. This EIA uses the significance criteria to evaluate impacts, which enables systematic identification and focus on those resources most likely to be impacted by the proposed pipeline project. Significance criteria were established to systematically determine whether potential impacts would likely be positive, or negative. Negative impacts were further classified as major, moderate, minor, or negligible. Those issues determined to be inconsequential or not applicable after mitigation were eliminated from or screened out from further consideration and are indicated as such in the discussions under Sections 6.6 and 6.7. This impact severity assessment takes into account three main categories of significance criteria: temporal factors, areal extent, and magnitude of the impact. The components to each of these primary criteria are described below (i.e., temporal factors include duration, frequency, and reversibility). In addition to the three main significance criteria, supplementary factors were considered as part of the overall impacts severity assessment: sensitivity of the receptor, indirect or secondary influences, and cumulative effects. 6.4.1.1 Temporal Factors

An assessment of certain temporal factors associated with potential impacts is presented as part of the significance criteria listed in Table 6.4-1. The relative significance level (e.g., minor, moderate) described under each affected category (e.g., environment, socioeconomic) is a combined assessment of the duration of the impact, the impact reversibility, and the frequency of the impact. Duration is defined as the time that is estimated for a population or resource to return to baseline (pre-project) conditions. The duration is calculated from the time the impact begins, which may coincide with the start of the activity that causes the impact. The duration of an impact may be characterized as follows:

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Significance Level Major Moderate Minor Negligible

Description Long-term impact, recovery not expected to occur within five years Moderate-term impact, recovery time between six months and five years Short-term impact, recovery time within six months Impact or recovery is very short term or immediate

Characterization of the duration of an impact as major, moderate, or minor includes consideration of the degree of reversibility of the impact.2 Impacts for which the duration is classified as major, as defined above, would be long-term impacts. Frequency is defined as the number of times an impact is expected to occur over the life of the project. The frequency3 of an impact may be characterized as follows:
Significance Level Major Moderate Minor Negligible Description Continuous impact, impact will occur continuously throughout the life of the project Intermittent impact, impact will occur intermittently over the life of the project Rarely occurring impact, impact will occur a very limited number of times Very rarely occurring impact, less than twice in a period of one year

6.4.1.2

Areal Extent

Areal extent refers to the location of an impact in terms of the amount of area affected, i.e. localized versus widespread. In this EIA, impacts are considered localized if they are likely to occur only within 100m of the impact source, which is generally pipeline or construction equipment. The extent may be quantified in units of area affected (e.g., square kilometers). The areal extent of an impact is characterized in general terms as follows:
Significance Level Major Moderate Minor Negligible Description Impact to the national, regional, or global environment (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions) Impact to the general vicinity of the project site or study area Impact limited to the immediate vicinity of the project activity Impact limited to a very small part of the activity area and is within the project ROW

Degree of reversibility refers to whether or not an adverse or negative impact is reversible or irreversible over a certain period of time (five years). 3 Note that frequency of the impact is the number of repetitions within a unit of time (i.e., the life of the project); the likelihood (discussed in Section 6.4.2) is the probability of the impact occurring. June 2004 Nigeria Final Draft EIA Rev 1 6-20

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6.4.1.3

Magnitude

The magnitude of an impact is partially quantifiable in terms of the percent of resource affected and by the relative concentration at receptor points. Percent of resource affected is defined as the quantitative intensity of the impact, and can be measured as the percentage of a resource or a population within the study area that may be affected by an impact. The definitions of major, moderate, minor, and negligible with respect to magnitude may vary depending upon the specific receptor. The magnitude of an impact is characterized as follows for this EIA:
Significance Level Major Description Large amount of the resource or population is affected An easily observable and measurable effect Moderate amount of the resource or population is affected Generally measurable and observable effect Small amount of the resource or population is affected A low magnitude impact may be within the range of normal variation of background conditions The amount of resource or population affected is unnoticeable or immeasurably small

Moderate

Minor

Negligible

Concentration at receptor points may also be defined with respect to quantitative or semiquantitative criteria, if available and applicable (e.g., noise level in units of decibels, or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3) of an air pollutant, measured at a particular location). The identified quantitative criteria (benchmarks) would align with standard best industry standards (e.g., for noise impacts, noise exposure limits as set by international standards for worker health and safety), and/or established national standards in the project country. The concentration factor, when quantifiable, may be characterized as follows:
Significance Level Major Description Exceeds the quantitative or semi-quantitative benchmark At or near the quantitative or semi-quantitative benchmark Periodically and briefly exceeds this benchmark although generally within the benchmark Generally only a fraction of (e.g., less than 75 percent) the quantitative or semi-quantitative benchmark Impact not detected or at background conditions, or well below (e.g., less than 10 percent of) the quantitative or semi-quantitative benchmark

Moderate

Minor

Negligible

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6.4.1.4

Additional Factors

The following additional factors were considered while conducting the severity assessment: sensitivity of the receptor, indirect or secondary influence, and cumulative effects. Definitions of each additional factor are provided below. Sensitivity of the receptor refers to economic, social, and/or environmental/ecological importance of the receptor, including reliance on the receptor by people for sustenance, livelihood, or economic activity, and to the importance of direct impacts to persons associated with the resource. Impacts that directly affect people or vital natural resources are deemed to be more important than impacts that indirectly affect people or vital resources. The sensitivity of the receptor criterion also refers to potential impacts to Environmentally Sensitive Areas and impacts to species, including loss of endangered species, effects of introduction of invasive species, and similar environmental/ecological impacts. Indirect or secondary influence of a primary impact is considered as an additional factor when assessing the significance level of a potential impact. The direct impact of an activity is assessed by applying the three primary criteria described above. An indirect or secondary influence are those reasonably foreseeable effects that are expected to be caused by the proposed action but occur later in time or are removed in distance, such as influences on adjacent or upstream/downstream areas. Therefore, the secondary nature of the impact is taken into account when evaluating the temporal factors, areal extent, and magnitude of the potential impact. Cumulative effects are those that result from the incremental consequences of an action when added to other past and reasonably foreseeable future actions. The cumulative effects of a particular project activity must be considered when assessing the overall significance level of that impact. These factors were not assigned specific significance values but were considered to allow for a realistic impact assessment in cases when the primary significance rankings did not provide for a complete accounting of all external influences. When the overall impact severity was adjusted to reflect the influence of one or more of these additional factors, a discussion is provided explaining the adjustment. In most cases, the additional factors did not change the impact severity level and therefore are not specifically mentioned in Sections 6.6 and 6.7. However, secondary and cumulative effects anticipated for the project are important considerations in their own right and are discussed separately in Section 6.9. 6.4.1.5 Significance Levels and Criteria

Table 6.4-1 is arranged to show the general media category across the rows of the table (i.e., Physicochemical Environment, Biological Environment, Socioeconomic Environment, and Health and Safety). Each significance level category is indicated by a gray separator row, beginning with negligible, then describing minor, moderate, and major negative significance. Each major significance level includes a short discussion of the specific criteria outlined above.

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Table 6.4-1 Negative Impact Significance Levels and Criteria


Significance Criteria Temporal Physicochemical Environment Very temporary effect, even less significant than periodic stress by nature. The duration of the effect is likely to be naturally reversible within a short period of time (less than one week). The frequency of the impact is extremely low (less than two times/year). The impact to the land, air, and water is localized, existing only within the pipeline ROW or facility boundary. Little or no change in physical environment, barely measurable above background conditions (less than five percent change from background). Concentration at receptor points is well below (e.g., no more than ten percent of) identified industry benchmark levels or established national standards. Biological Environment Negligible (negative) The duration of the effect is likely to be naturally reversible within a short period of time (less than one week). The frequency of the impact is extremely low (less than two times/year). Socioeconomic Environment Health and Safety (Personnel and Public)

No discernable health Temporary influence (impact discernable for less effects for any period of time. than one week). The effects are completely reversible and of extremely low frequency (less than two times/year). Localized, isolated change in socioeconomic conditions or commercial activities; not affecting persons other than project personnel. Unlikely to have any measurable impact. No discernable health effects in any area.

Areal

Some impact localized on a community or organismal level, but not distinguishable from natural background perturbation. Little or no change in biodiversity, habitat availability, or community structure and function in comparison to background levels.

Magnitude

No discernable health effects to any part of the population.

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Chapter 6

Table 6.4-1 Negative Impact Significance Levels and Criteria


Significance Criteria Temporal Physicochemical Environment Measurable change lasting only a few days to a few months before recovery, with no observable residual effects. The duration of the impact is likely to be totally reversible, naturally or by intervention within six months and have a moderate frequency of impact (from twice to five times/year). Biological Environment Minor (negative) Short-term (less than a few months) local change of species or population abundance or distribution, habitat availability, or community structure and function. The duration of the effect is likely to be totally reversible, naturally or by intervention within six months and have a moderate frequency of impact (from twice to five times/year). Socioeconomic Environment For single events, duration is one week to six months, with no observable residual effects outside of the duration of impact. Effects are reversible over time. For recurrent events, duration of each impact is brief (less than two weeks) with no observable residual effects outside of the duration of impact. Frequency of impact is moderate (from twice to five times/year). Localized relatively isolated change in socioeconomic conditions or commercial activities affecting population immediately adjacent to the project boundaries. Health and Safety (Personnel and Public) For single events, duration is one week to six months, with no observable residual effects outside of the duration of impact. Effects are reversible over time. For recurrent events, duration of each impact is brief (less than two weeks) with no observable residual effects outside of the duration of impact. Frequency of impact is moderate (from twice to five times/year). Impact is localized to project personnel and local population living within 100m of ROW facility boundary

Areal

Localizeda, relatively isolated change in physicochemical environment. Impact consequence is realized within 100m of ROW or facility boundary.

Local change of species or population abundance or distribution, habitat availability, or community structure and function within 100m of ROW or facility boundary.

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Table 6.4-1 Negative Impact Significance Levels and Criteria


Significance Physicochemical Criteria Environment Magnitude Some measurable change to the affected environment, up to 10 percent increase/decrease over background conditions when applicable (i.e., some factors do not have associated existing background levels). Concentration at receptor points is generally well within (e.g., no more than 75 percent of) identified industry benchmark levels or established national standards. Temporal The duration of the effect is more than six months but less than five years and reversible within that period of time. Frequency of impact may occur from five to ten times per year. Biological Environment No impact at species, population, or community level but health of individual organisms is negatively impacted, including where organisms avoid project area as habitat. Socioeconomic Environment Some measurable change in socioeconomic conditions, livelihood, living conditions, or social structure, likely to result in only minor hardships for a small minority of the populations of the affected communities. Effects can be largely overcome with existing individual or community resources. Health and Safety (Personnel and Public) Minor injury or illness affecting a small portion of the affected population (<15 percent) with some cases of very brief lost time from work (one to two days) Injuries or illness requiring minor physicians care such as outpatient services.

Moderate (negative) The duration of the effect is more than six months but less than five years and reversible within that period of time. Frequency of impact may occur from five to ten times per year.

For single events, duration of the effect is more than six months but less than five years, and fully reversible after that period of time. For recurrent events, duration of each event is no more than a month, impacts are reversible after each event, and frequency of impact is from five to eight times per year.

For single events, duration of the effect is more than six months but less than five years, and fully reversible after that period of time. For recurrent events, duration of each event is no more than a month, and frequency of impact is from five to eight times per year.

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Table 6.4-1 Negative Impact Significance Levels and Criteria


Significance Physicochemical Criteria Environment Areal Localizeda, relatively isolated change in physicochemical environment. Impact consequence is realized up to 500m from ROW or facility boundary. Magnitude Local modification of considerable severity in atmospheric, surface, or subsurface conditions. Significant measurable change from baseline conditions (10 to 20 percent change from baseline). Concentration at receptor points is at, near, or periodically exceeds identified industry benchmark levels or established national standards. Biological Environment Local to widespread change in habitat availability or quality, likely to modify abundance or distribution of species. Impact consequence is realized up to 500m from ROW or facility boundary. Impact evident at community or population level, significant change in population density (e.g., decline in fish species abundance), habitat quality, etc. Socioeconomic Environment Impacts affecting not only project personnel but also surrounding population, local communities/public up to 500m from ROW or facility boundary. Pronounced change in socioeconomic conditions, livelihood, living conditions, or social structure, likely to result in significant hardships or reduction in living standards for a significant portion (but less than half) of the affected community population. Impacts too severe to be overcome or ameliorated with existing individual or community resources. Health and Safety (Personnel and Public) Impacts affecting not only project personnel but also surrounding population (public) up to 500m from ROW or facility boundary.

Injury or illness affecting less than half of the affected population to a greater or lesser degree, with a few cases requiring hospitalization and/or resulting in long-term disability.

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Table 6.4-1 Negative Impact Significance Levels and Criteria


Significance Criteria Temporal Physicochemical Environment Biological Environment Socioeconomic Environment The effect is long-term or likely to last more than five years, or is not reversible. For recurrent events, duration of each event is greater than a month, impact frequency is high (more than eight times/year) and impact durations may overlap. Widespread (possibly even beyond study area communities). Health and Safety (Personnel and Public) Effects are of long-term duration (more than five years) or permanent, i.e., not reversible. For recurrent events, duration of each event is greater than a month, impact frequency is high (more than eight times/year) and impact durations may overlap. Impacts affecting not only project personnel but also surrounding population (public) more than 500m from ROW or facility boundary; may cause regional effects.

Major (negative) Long-term (greater than five The duration of the effect is years). Modification will persist long-term (greater than five beyond the duration of the project years) or is not reversible or is not reversible. Frequency of (permanent). Frequency of the impact may occur more than ten the impact may occur more than ten times/year. times/year.

Areal

Widespread modification of considerable severity in atmospheric, surface, or subsurface conditions. Areal extent of impact consequence is realized beyond 500m of ROW or facility boundary.

Widespread change in habitat availability or quality, which would likely modify natural abundance or distribution of species beyond 500m of ROW or facility boundary.

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Table 6.4-1 Negative Impact Significance Levels and Criteria


Significance Physicochemical Criteria Environment Magnitude Modification of considerable severity in atmospheric, surface, or subsurface conditions. Significant, measurable change from baseline conditions (more than 20 percent change from baseline when applicable). Concentration at receptor points exceeds identified industry benchmark levels or established national standards.
a

Biological Environment Impact to affect organisms at or above the ecosystem level.

Socioeconomic Environment Very pronounced change in socioeconomic conditions, livelihood, living conditions, or social structure, likely to affect the majority of people in the affected communities and result in serious hardships, reduction in living standards, or impoverishment. Impacts overwhelm the ability of individuals or communities to recover or overcome.

Health and Safety (Personnel and Public) Impacts affect a large portion or even the majority of the affected population to a greater or lesser degree, with some cases of permanently disabling injury/illness; chronic and irreversible health impacts that may shorten life expectancy, or immediate fatalities.

Physico-chemical and Biological Impacts are considered localized if they are likely to occur only within 100m of the impact source (pipeline or construction equipment).

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Positive impacts are not ranked in terms of significance levels for this severity assessment. If an impact is deemed to be positive, rather than neutral or negative for any of the general media types, it is given a positive label and is described qualitatively and where possible quantitatively in the impacts discussion in Section 6.5.

6.4.2

Likelihood Criteria

To obtain a measure of the severity associated with each potential negative impact, the likelihood criteria shown in Table 6.4-2 were developed. These likelihood criteria were applied to all potential negative impacts to determine whether they can be prevented, mitigated, or are unavoidable. The likelihood of the impact occurring, not the activity occurring, is evaluated here. The severity of an impact is defined by its significance (or consequence) and its likelihood of occurrence. For example, a moderate impact that has a high likelihood of occurrence would be more severe than a major impact with a very low likelihood of occurrence. Table 6.4-2 Likelihood Criteria
Likelihood Level Very Low Definition Impact has less than 1 or 2 percent likelihood of occurring; impact unknown to have previously resulted in similar circumstances in the industry. Impact highly unlikely, given the controls in place (e.g., between 2 to 20 percent likelihood of occurring, impact has been known to result, but only very rarely, in similar circumstances). Impact could occur infrequently during normal operations, but given a breakdown of the safeguards and controls (i.e. lack of maintenance for a protecting device) it could occur more readily (e.g., between 20 to 70 percent likelihood of occurring, impact has been known to result in many similar circumstances, but does not result routinely). Given the controls in place, the impact is likely to occur during normal operations (e.g., over 70 percent likelihood of occurring, impact has been known to result routinely, though not necessarily in all similar circumstances).

Low

Medium

High

6.4.3

Severity Matrix and Conclusions

The Severity Matrix presented in Figure 6.4-3 is constructed by placing the likelihood ranking on the y-axis and the impact significance ranking on the x-axis. Assigning a significance ranking and a likelihood ranking to each impact allows for semi-quantitative evaluation of the severity of the impact.

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Figure 6.4-3 Severity Matrix High Likelihood Medium Low Very Low
Beneficial Impact Low Severity Moderate Severity High Severity

Positive

Negligible

Minor

Moderate

Major

Impact Significance

The overall severity of an impact is defined by the magnitude of its consequence (significance) (Table 6.4-1) and its likelihood of occurrence (Table 6.4-2). Using an indication of severity (significance and likelihood) to comparatively assess and evaluate impacts enables this EIA to systematically identify and focus on those resources most likely to be at risk as a result of the proposed WAGP project. The overall impact severity level is indicated by the position on the impact severity matrix. For example, impacts placed within the red boxes have a high likelihood of occurrence and serious consequence; thus they have a high severity rating. These high-severity impacts become high priority issues for further evaluation or management action. Similarly, impacts in the yellow category are moderate impacts, with a medium priority. Impacts in the green boxes are low and are given lowest priority. Impacts identified by the white boxes indicate positive or beneficial impacts. The criteria and severity matrix set forth in this section are widely applicable to all the types of events and impacts identified. As noted above, impact severity was assessed assuming the execution of project design mitigation measures and best management practices. When potential impacts were initially judged to be high or moderate even with the implementation of planned mitigation measures, additional measures were recommended to reduce the anticipated impacts to lower levels (see Chapters 7 and 8). Therefore, a high-severity rating for a given impact in this chapter does not mean that the project will definitely cause that high impact, but rather the impact is potentially high and warranted additional mitigation as described in subsequent chapters.

6.4.4

Application of the Severity Assessment Methodology

In the screening stage (Step 3), project information was compared in a qualitative manner to a basic set of impact significance criteria (i.e., areal extent, likelihood/duration of occurrence,

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and magnitude of the impact) in order to distinguish negligible or unimportant impacts from those that are important enough to warrant more detailed analysis. The process of predicting and assessing the severity of impacts was therefore initially qualitative (Step 3), but as the focus of the assessment is narrowed to the more important impacts, increasingly rigorous, quantitative techniques were applied. In Step 5, comprehensive qualitative and quantitative information available about each impact was used, and the impact severity assessment methodology was applied comprehensively to each impact, leading to an objective, supportable conclusion regarding the severity of each impact. This in turn supported further conclusions as to the acceptability of the impact, and the need for additional mitigation measures. During Step 4 as much data as possible were collected or developed to characterize each impact with respect to each significance criteria (temporal, areal, and magnitude). Data collection focused on: project location, habitat mapping, environmental, household, and socioeconomic baseline survey results, transportation/political maps, satellite imagery, vegetation mapping, engineering data, and project design reviews. Each potential impact was quantified to the greatest extent possible, and the significance criteria were applied. When appropriate, pollutant pathways, potential for transport through environmental media, and dispersion and retention rates were evaluated. Modeling was conducted for some media (e.g., air quality). Once the potential impact was assigned a significance value (negligible, minor, moderate, or major), the likelihood of the impact occurring was assessed using available data such as engineering calculations of probability of occurrence, reported industry rates, hazard assessment modeling, and best professional judgment. The following table has been completed for each onshore and offshore activity according to the impact significance and likelihood criteria presented above. The significance level of the temporal, areal, and magnitude criteria were assessed individually as negligible, minor, moderate, or major. The average of these scores then gave the overall impact significance. Likelihood was given a value of very low, low, medium, or high. Theses two values were then matched to the corresponding overall impact severity in the matrix presented above, to give a severity level of low, moderate, or high. The resulting impact severity label and color is shown in the box on the far right, as in the example below.
Impact Significance Likelihood Temporal Areal Magnitude Moderate Negligible Minor Low Minor

Low Severity

Impacts determined to be beneficial have not been assessed in the same way for each of the significance criteria and are presented separately in Section 6.5. The combination of data, impact prediction tools, historical information from previous projects, best professional judgment, and the severity ranking matrix provided a comprehensive, objective, scientific assessment approach. Best professional judgment was
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used in tandem with quantitative tools such as computer modeling. Impact assessment is a tool to be used for environmental planning and decision-making to assist project proponents in focusing resources on the impacts with the potential to cause the largest negative impacts. For this Final Draft EIA, the results of Step 5 (impact severity ranking) are presented in Tables 6.6-1 and 6.7-1 by project phase and activity. The methodology outlined in Sections 6.1 through 6.4 is an iterative process and was applied on a preliminary basis and after Engineering, Procurement, and Construction tenders were received. This methodology would be repeated as part of WAPCos Change Management Process if the project scope or significant project implementation activities change.

6.4.5

Uncertainties

As discussed throughout Chapter 2 and summarized in particular in Section 2.8, WAPCo is still considering options for some of the WAGP project details. In many of these cases, preferred options have been selected, but WAPCo recognizes that the preferred option may not be able to be implemented for various reasons. For example, the preferred option is to utilize environmentally advantageous horizontal directional drilling (HDD) pipeline construction methods across barrier islands to offshore, but those methods may not prove viable given the specific conditions in the field, and the project may have to resort to trenching. In other cases, there are remaining uncertainties about particular aspects of the project, without any preferred options at this time. All project uncertainties that still exist as of this writing will be the subject of further investigation, and final decisions will be confirmed within six months to nine months of the final investment decision. This EIA evaluated the potential impacts of all project alternatives in order to envelop all the different ways the project may go with respect to remaining uncertainties. Table 6.4-4 recaps these uncertainties in Nigeria and summarizes how they were accounted for in the impact assessment. All of those options that were found to potentially cause a high-, moderate, or low-severity negative impact are described in detail in Sections 6.6 and 6.7 of this report, while being clearly labeled as a remaining uncertainty (i.e., those impacts would in fact not occur if an alternate approach is selected).

6.5

Beneficial Impacts

WAGP will have a number of significant positive impacts in Nigeria that provide a clear justification for the project and in certain respects offset some of the negative impacts. Significant positive impacts include: Environmental Benefits o The use of currently wasted (i.e., flared) natural gas as an energy source will significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in global climate change benefits. Localized improvements in air quality will be achieved through the reduction of flared and vented gas in Nigeria.

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Table 6.4-4 How Uncertainties are Addressed in the Impact Assessment


Accommodation for Construction Workforce Alagbado Tee (Nigeria) Not yet known how many locals will be Added demand for lodging will result in benefits in the form of employed and therefore how much lodging increased revenue for local hotels, rental houses, etc. If space will be needed. demand exceeds available capacity, a construction camp may be needed, with a variety of negative impacts of moderate severity. See Sections 6.5.2.1 and 6.6.1.6 through 6.6.1.11 in this report, as well as Sections 6.5.2.1 and 6.6.1.6 through 6.6.1.10 in the regional EIA. Sinking a well to groundwater (preferred); or Considered a low-severity impact in either case. Groundwater Bringing in by tanker truck. would not be used unless prior site investigations confirmed that the proposed withdrawals could be made without significant impacts to available water resources. See Section 6.6.1.4 in this report and in the regional EIA. Either option would be subject to an accepted waste Discharge into soil via drainage field management plan and controlled so that any impacts are of (preferred); or moderate or low severity. See Sections 6.6.1.4 in this report Discharge into nearby receiving waters; or and in the regional EIA. Hauling off-site for disposal. Onshore Mainline (Nigeria) Construction of the compressor station and associated staging Preferred option is one temporary marshalling area may cause high-severity impacts to land use, soils, and yard within the 8.5ha (21 acres) temporary topography, and thus would require mitigation. See Sections staging area; 6.6.1.1 and 6.6.1.3 in this report and in the regional EIA. An additional marshalling yard may be considered at the midline compressor valve location, or elsewhere. Added demand for lodging will result in benefits in the form of Not yet known how many locals will be increased revenue for local hotels, rental houses, etc. If employed. Off-site accommodation (homes or demand exceeds available capacity and a construction camp is hotels) preferred but may be a need for a camp. A camp, if built, would be adjacent to the ROW needed, it would cause a variety of negative impacts of moderate severity. See Sections 6.5.2.1 and 6.6.1.6 through and have a personnel requirement of up to 50 6.6.1.11 in this report, as well as Sections 6.5.2.1 and 6.6.1.6 people. through 6.6.1.10 in the regional EIA.

Water Supply Alternatives

Sanitary Waste Water Disposal Alternatives

Number of Marshalling Yards/Staging Areas

Accommodation for Construction Workforce

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Table 6.4-4 How Uncertainties are Addressed in the Impact Assessment


Construction Water Supply Water will be hauled in by truck, but the source is to be determined. Hauling water in by truck from an acceptable source should not cause any impacts of concern. See Section 6.6.1.4 in this report and in the regional EIA. Lagos Beach Compressor Station (Nigeria) Prefer to use existing roads without widening; Preferred option would have low impact on traffic. Widening or the road may add minor resettlement impacts. Dredging a Widen existing road (if necessary) from channel in Badagry Creek and building a dock and access road Badagry to Ajido; or would potentially cause high-severity impacts to habitats and Dredge channel in Badagry Creek, dock and biological resources as well as topography and soils. These access road built on-site; or impacts, and the impacts caused by a crane and spuds, would Barge-mounted crane with spuds and smaller require mitigation. See Sections 6.6.1.2 and 6.6.1.3 of this onshore unloading facility. report and the regional EIA. Added demand for lodging will result in benefits in the form of Prefer to rent houses, estate lodging, etc.; or increased revenue for local hotels, rental houses, etc. A Rent rooms in local hotels; or construction camp will create a variety of negative impacts, but If needed after the above two options, build a it should not be so large as to cause impacts of high severity. closed camp for non-local workers. See Sections 6.5.2.1 and 6.6.1.6 through 6.6.1.11 in this report, as well as Sections 6.5.2.1 and 6.6.1.6 through 6.6.1.10 in the regional EIA. Purchased from local sources, to be No significant new impacts are anticipated, regardless of which determined. local supplier is selected. See Section 6.6.1.3 in this report and in the regional EIA. On-site temporary batch plant or off-site plants. Neither option is expected to cause high-severity impacts. An on-site temporary batch plant would take up space within an 8.5ha staging and laydown area already proposed near the compressor station. See Section 6.6.1.1 in this report and in the regional EIA. Purchased from local sources, to be No significant new impacts are anticipated, regardless of which determined. local supplier is selected. See Section 6.6.1.3 in this report and in the regional EIA.

Means of Access (especially for heavy equipment during construction)

Accommodation for Construction Workforce

Source of Aggregate for Foundation Backfill Source of Concrete

Source of Sand for Concrete for Temporary Concrete Plant

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Table 6.4-4 How Uncertainties are Addressed in the Impact Assessment


Sanitary Waste Water Disposal Alternatives Discharge into nearby receiving waters; or Discharge into soil via drainage field; or Hauling off-site for disposal. Either option would be subject to an accepted waste management plan and controlled so that any impacts are of moderate or low severity. See Sections 6.6.1.4 in this report and in the regional EIA. Shore Crossing (Nigeria) Although HDD is environmentally preferred to trenching, both One-stretch HDD from compressor station of these HDD options may still cause high-severity land use directly out to ocean; or impacts because the pipeline ROW must be kept cleared. See Two-stretch HDD from the barrier island to the compressor station and from the barrier island Section 6.6.1.1 in this report and in the regional EIA. to offshore Onshore Laterals and R&M Stations Sinking a well to groundwater (preferred); or Considered a low-severity impact in either case. Groundwater Bringing in by tanker truck. would not be used unless prior site investigations confirmed that the proposed withdrawals could be made without significant impacts to available resources. See Section 6.6.1.4 in this report and in the regional EIA. Either option would be subject to an accepted waste Discharge into soil via drainage field management plan and controlled so that any impacts are of (preferred); or moderate or low severity. See Sections 6.6.1.4 in this report Discharge into nearby receiving waters (Benin and in the regional EIA. and GhanaTakoradi only); or Hauling off-site for disposal.

Nigeria Shore Crossing

Water Supply Alternatives

Sanitary Waste Water Disposal Alternatives

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Socioeconomic Benefits o The provision of a market and a financial return for natural gas currently being wasted will provide an infusion of funds into Nigeria, where a portion of the returns on the sale of this gas is expected to remain. This will have positive economic impacts in Nigeria. Taxes paid by WAPCo to Nigeria will help strengthen the national economy and support economic development. Total tax benefits received by Nigeria over the lifetime of the project are expected in the range of US$76 million to US$95 million (WAGP, 2004). Direct and indirect economic benefits will be generated for Nigeria from its participation in the pipeline and return on equity investments and transportation tariffs. Employment income will be generated in the surrounding communities, as local jobs are created both temporarily during construction and permanently throughout the operation and maintenance of WAGP. In Nigeria, three crews of 100 to 150 workers will be needed for onshore mainline construction, and 300 to 450 workers will be required to construct the compressor station. WAGP has a goal of hiring 50 percent of the onshore and weight coating construction labor from surrounding communities in the region, with the majority of unskilled labor from surrounding communities. It is expected that many of compressor station workers will be recruited from areas in Nigeria. In addition, weight coating activities will support 60 new, temporary workers at an existing facility in Nigeria. Increased employment levels will boost personal income and strengthen the local economy. A commitment by WAPCo to purchase at least 15 percent of all goods and services required during construction (local content as currently defined in the International Project Agreement) from local businesses in surrounding communities of the four countries will contribute to regional growth and economic development. The local content value for onshore construction procurement in Nigeria is estimated at US$39.6 million. This represents 32.9 percent of the total project capital cost for onshore construction. Payments for contract work in Nigeria, Benin, Ghana and Togo (including both labor and local goods/services procurement) during the operation period are estimated to approach US$20 million, and will generate substantial direct, indirect, and induced benefits for the surrounding communities. Improved transportation infrastructure will result if and where WAGP upgrades existing transportation infrastructure in Nigeria, particularly for transportation of heavy equipment. This improved infrastructure will support economic benefits through reduced travel times and transportation costs savings.

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Community Development/Health and Safety Benefits o WAGPs Community Development Program will target education and healthcare support during the construction period. P