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Calculation of Low-frequency Magnetic Field Distribution of a Transformer Station in Stationary State

Alija Muharemovic1, Vlado Madzarevic2, Hidajet Salkic3, Irfan Turkovic 1, Nerdina Mehinovic2
________________________________________________________________________ Abstract - This paper describes one way of assessment of exposure level to electromagnetic
fields of secondary electronic equipment or personnel in or close to high-voltage facilities. Assessment of fulfilling criteria regarding allowable values of magnetic flux, according regulations, was gained by numerical calculation and experimental measurement, considering geometrical configuration of high-voltage facility elements. Correct identification of electromagnetic disturbances of transmission lines has for a result optimal geometrical disposition of electronic equipment inside a high-voltage facility. Comparing a calculation results and results of experimental measuring on particular example of high-voltage facility, can lead to a conclusion that expensive measuring can be avoided, through standardization of a mathematical model and through numerical calculation of low-frequency magnetic field distribution even in conditions of the most complex geometry. Having in mind a number of locations where interaction between high-voltage facility and electronic equipment and personnel exists, a clear intention of authors, for reducing expenses of recording interaction level, is visible.

Keywords: Low-frequency Magnetic Field, Numerical Calculation of Magnetic Field, Electronic


Equipment, Line Current

__________________________________________________________________
List of Symbols

I. Introduction
Power production systems, systems of transmission and distribution of electrical energy, as unavoidable parts of modern life, are becoming more and more complex, that way standards, that regulate their operation, are becoming more demanding. Along with growing demands for transmission of electrical energy, an interest for phenomena of electromagnetic compatibility in high-voltage facilities is growing, especially in power transformer stations as sub-systems that are containing primary high-voltage equipment and secondary electronic equipment (equipment for surveillance, control, protection, measuring, etc.). Aspect of interference calculation between primary power equipment of electrical high-voltage facilities, which is usually a basic source of electromagnetic disturbances, and secondary low-voltage systems or humans, on which functionality or health a presence of disturbances is influencing, in transient as well as in stationary conditions, will be a subject of this paper. In order to ensure valid and reliable functioning of secondary systems or to preserve a human health, it is necessary to identify and quantify potential causes as well as transmission lines of disturbances, and to determine measures that should be conducted in order to reduce the influence of disturbances on functionality and security of secondary systems elements, on border level of electromagnetic field allowed by regulations. Calculation and experimental measuring of low-

: Magnetic permeability (H/m) : Current-length element (A/m) i dl

Ul Uf

1 and 2 : Angles between normal distance

: Distance of the field point T from the current-length element (m) : Magnetic flux density : Line voltage : Phase voltage

of point T from wire and lines, that connects point T and the ends of wire B x ,i (t ) : Component of magnetic flux density on x-axis i-segment B y ,i (t ) : Component of magnetic flux density on y-axis of i-segment B z ,i (t ) : Component of magnetic flux density on z-axis of i-segment T : Period f : Frequency i : Unit vector in -axis direction of cylindrical system i : Conductor current

frequency electromagnetic field (Extra Low FrequencyELF) in stationary regime of transformer station, placed in urban areas, are obligatory for purposes of defining a level of electric and magnetic field in locations where electronic equipment is placed and where humans are stationed temporarily or permanently. Magnetic field in some point of space inside a transformer station is rotating vector which head illustrates ellipse for one period of a current in conductors of primary current circuit. Elliptic polarization is formed cause of voltage and current phase shift in phases of multi-phase system. Depending of geometry and currents in conductors, elliptic polarization can vary from liner to circular. Same consideration applies for electric field. Generally, all three orthogonal components of field need to be measured and resulting field need to be calculated.

Finally, for a magnetic flux density of a flat finite length streamline, it can be written: i (3) (sin 2 sin 1 ) B = i 4R b) Magnetic flux density in each space point can be calculated also by superposition of contribution of each near wire through which a current flows. Each near wire can be approximated by appropriate number of flat streamline segments. A number of segments for wire discretization mainly depend of its geometry. A space position of segments, their currents and phase angles are representing the input data for calculation of magnetic flux density in desirable points of space.

II. Mathematical model of calculation of low-frequency magnetic field of transformer station


Calculation of magnetic flux density distribution in and around a transformer station can be carried out by a procedure based on usage of: a) relation for magnetic flux density of flat finite length streamline (a line current), b) law of superposition. a) Element of flat streamline with length shown on Fig. 1, creates in arbitrary point of space T magnetic flux density, that is by Biot-Savart law equal to: i d l r , (1) dB= 3 4

Fig. 1. Flat finite length streamline

d l = e dl

Knowing cosines of angles can lead to determining of each component of magnetic flux density in time domain. Total amount of magnetic flux density vectors, created by currents of n segments, is gained by addition of contributions of all segments:

n n n B (t ) = B x , i (t ) + B y , i (t ) + Bz , i (t ) i =1 i =1 i =1

(4)
where are : B x ,i (t ), B y ,i (t ), Bz ,i (t ) components of magnetic flux density from i segment. Calculation results of stationary sinus variant lowfrequency magnetic fields are used for analyses of permanent exposure of human body. On these frequencies electromagnetic field in vicinity of transformer stations is quasi-static. It possesses conservative component of electric field caused by charges and vertiginous component of electromagnetic field caused by currents. For presentation of the magnetic field, effective value of magnetic flux density is used :
Bef = 1 T
T

where are: magnetic permeability (H/m) , i dl - current length element (Am) , r - distance of the field point T from the current length element (m) . It is necessary to emphasize that there is a rotation symmetry which causes a determination of magnetic flux density in cylindrical coordination system. According to Fig. 1, after integrating through a whole length of finite streamline, it follows:

B=

i 2 d B = i cos d 4R
1 1

(2)

( B x (t ) + B y (t ) + B z (t ) )
2 2 2 0

(5)

- DATA ENTRY
Fig. 2. Communication of calculation units

III. Modeling of transformer station elements


Calculation of low-frequency magnetic field strength is conducted by utilization of computer software EFC400LF, comprised of units: data entry and presentation of calculation results, numerical calculation of magnetic field, linking of units through input and output files (Fig. 2). Complex geometry of transformer station elements demands three-dimensional calculation. Calculation of electric and magnetic fields in points far from sources (charge and current) is performed by thin-wire approximation and by representing the wires with onedimensional lines with neglecting the insulators, cause their influence on the electric field is of local character. While calculating the conservative electric field, wires on known potentials are used. In calculation earth is considered as wire on zero potential, and its influence is modeled by mirroring technique. Also, in calculation, vertiginous components of electromagnetic field are modeled as linear isotropic half-space in free space with knowledge of currents in wires. For each conductor following parameters are specified: start coordinates (segment beginning) - Xp,Yp,Zp, end coordinates (segment and) - Xk,Yk,Zk, line or phase voltage - Ul, Uf (depending from setting in dialogue Options-Technical-Power T.L.), current, phase angle, frequency, conductor geometry: conductor shape, conductor radius, conductor length, distance between conductors, conductor height, soil resistivity, permeability... Software package EFC-400LF allows representation of medium-voltage and low-voltage switchgear blocks as well as power transformers by boxes connected with cable links which form constructive unit of transformer station. Application of computer software EFC-400LF for calculation of magnetic fields is shown on the example of standard compact transformer station 10(20)/0,4 (kV), 630 (kVA). Associated medium-voltage ' distribution block is modeled with current load of I m =36,4 (A) along with nominal voltage of transformer secondary side of 0,4 (kV) and maximum current load

of I m =909 (A). Load of 909 (A) is rare, but calculations are conducted for worst possible scenario, for security reasons. It comes out that maximum current load of low-voltage transformer side is equally distributed on 4 terminals by 227 (A). Two-dimensional and three-dimensional display of facility disposition in software EFC-400LF is given on Fig. 3, having in mind that a difference between a model and a reality depends on a subdivision of conductors on finite number of segments. For particular example conductors in facility were discretized on 635 segments of a resolution dx=dy=dz=0,1(m). EFC-400LF is capable of solving a set of differential equations for matrix with 16000x16000 elements (Method: LU-decomposition or conjunction gradient). Each conductor can be approximated with 16000 segments.For our example a matrix with 261x261 elements is used, which gives a values of electric and magnetic field in 68121 points. These points present a flat plain of total surface of 169(m2), with resolution of (division) dx=dy=dz=0,05(m) and matrix that has 261x101 elements, apropos 26361 points of total surface of 65(m2). For simulation of visual display of gained magnetic flux density results, programs Runal.B in software package Matlab is written as well as subprogram Crtajgraf.B for opening, loading and displaying a file with results of magnetic flux calculations. Calculation of magnetic field distribution is conducted with following: In XY plain of a transformer station in intervals ( m) x 8( m) 5 and (m) y 8(m) on height z=2,75(m) 5 above ground level. It is a surface on distance of 0,2 (m) from roof plate of a transformer station;

''

In

( m) x 8( m) and 0 z 5( m) on 5

XZ plain of a transformer station in intervals

surface shifted for y=-0,2(m), i.e. 0,2( m ) from longitudinal south side of a transformer station, and for y=2,1(m) from longitudinal north side of a transformer station; In YZ plain of a transformer station in intervals 5( m) y 8( m) and 0 z 5( m) on surface shifted for x=-0,2(m) (apropos 0,2(m) from wing east side of a transformer station), apropos for x=3,1(m) from wing west side of a transformer station. According to standards for protection from electromagnetic field in domain of occupational exposure and domain of increased sensitivity, limitation values of electromagnetic fields have to be carefully observed in area 5,0(m) from the source for transformer station and in area 1,0(m) from the source for cables. Since the distribution transformer stations are closed electrical facilities and therefore the space accessible to humans is limited by walls, metal fences and screens, the strength of electric field strives to zero and therefore

the aim is on maintaining the limitation value of magnetic flux density.

0 z 5(m ), value of magnetic flux density is in ) range from density is in range from

Fig. 3. 3D and 2D display of facility disposition in software EFC-400LF

Results of magnetic flux density distribution can be given with two-dimensional and three-dimensional presentation (Figures 4,5,6,7 and 8). From Fig. 4 it can be seen that values of magnetic flux density on height of 2,75(m) above ground surface or 0,2(m) above upper edge of a transformer station, in intervals of ( m x 8( m and (m y 8(m 5 ) ) 5 ) ) are in range from 0,414(T) to 18,111(T). On a distance of 0,2(m) from south longitudinal side of a transformer station (y=-0,2(m)) Fig. 5, for observed 5 ) ) XZ plain ( (m x 8(m , 0 z 5(m) ), value of magnetic flux density is in range from 14,051(T) to 10,686(T) for z=0,50-1,75(m), opposite from low-voltage switchgear block. Opposite from medium-voltage distribution switchgear block value is 8,111(T), apropos from 10,095(T) to 12,539(T) for z=1,00-1,50(m) opposite from power transformer. The largest values of electrical field are in range from 0,180(kV/m) to 0,186(kV/m) for z=1,50-1,75(m) opposite from power transformer. On a distance of 0,2(m) from longitudinal north side of a transformer station (y=2,10(m)) Fig. 6, for observed XZ plain ( 5m x 8m , 0 z 5m ), value of magnetic flux density is in range from 101,102T to 145,202T for z=1,00m opposite from low-voltage distribution switchgear block, from 51,521(T) to 80,082(T) for z=1,00-1,75(m) opposite from mediumvoltage distribution switchgear block, apropos from 35,197(T) to 74,145(T) opposite from power transformer. On a distance of 0,2(m) from wing west side of a transformer station (x=-0,2(m)) Fig. 7, for 5 ) ) observed YZplain( (m y 8(m , 0 z 5(m) ), value of magnetic flux density is in range from 96,238(T) to 131,326(T) for z=0,20,5(m), opposite from low-voltage switchgear block, while at increase z=1,00-1,75(m) falls down to 54,843(T). On a distance of 0,2(m) from wing east side of a transformer station (x=3,10(m)) Fig. 8, for 5 ) ) observed YZ plain ( (m y 8(m ,

40,194(T) to 68,846(T) for z=0,2-1,0(m), opposite from medium-voltage distribution switchgear block and connecting medium-voltage distribution network cables, while at increase z=1,00-2,00(m) toward buses falls down to 27,954(T). Calculated values of magnetic flux density outside a transformer station are not satisfying referent values of directives ICNIRP, European union recommendation 1999/519/EC and European union directive 2004/40/EC about a protection from electromagnetic field in domain of increased sensitivity (Bmax=100(T)), at certain points on distances of 0,2(m) and less from low-voltage distribution switchgear block, so an optimization of low-voltage distribution switchgear block operation is necessary. Covering a low-voltage block with metal plates of aluminum, thickness of 3(mm) (Fig. 9), allows safe labor of personnel. At that case, for calculation on distance of 0,2(m) from wing west side of a transformer station (x=-0,20(m)), for observed YZ plain ( (m y 8(m , 0 z 5(m) ), 5 ) ) value of magnetic flux density is in range from 20(T) to 35(T) for z=0,2-0,5(m) opposite from low- voltage distribution switchgear block, while at increase z=1,00-1,75(m) falls down to 14(T). Calculated values of magnetic flux density at all others points outside a transformer station satisfy border values for occupational exposure domain (Bmax=500 (T)) and are lower than maximum allowable values for increased sensitivity domain (Bmax=100 (T)).

IV. Conclusion
Original scientific contribution of conducted research represents determination of three-dimension (3D) distribution of low-frequency magnetic field, apropos interactive operation of high-voltage units and

equipment of the transformer station in conditions of its complex geometry as well as the influence of electromagnetic field in domain of occupational exposure or increased sensitivity domain. Obtained three-dimensional (3D) mathematical models are representing very complex functional dependence of electric field distribution, as a base for objectified physical measurements in order to create optimal versions for solving electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in existing and new power facilities. From the economic point of view, such way of calculation can reduce the requirements for expensive experimental measurements and substation reparations, indicating that complex theoretical researches are resulting in appropriate constructive solutions. Introduced mathematical models, calculations, measuring and three-dimensional visual distribution of magnetic field, are representing the real assumption for researching of interaction between electromagnetic fields and human body on macroscopic and static level, revealing optimization criteria in aim to create a new technological solutions and methods for designing. The research results are important from scientific point of view, as well as, a possibility for practical implementation.

Fig. 4. Continual distribution of magnetic flux density at XY plain (z=2,75m)

Fig. 5. Continual distribution of magnetic flux density at XZ plain (y=-0,20m)

Fig. 6. Continual distribution of magnetic flux density at XZ plain (y=-2.10m)

Fig. 7. Continual distribution of magnetic flux density at YZ plain (x=-0,20m)

Fig. 8. Continual distribution of magnetic flux density at YZ plain (x=3,10m)

Fig. 9. Continual distribution of magnetic flux density at YZ pain (x=-0,2m), with covering of low-voltage switchgear block

V. References
[1] I.Kapetanovic, V. Madzarevic, A. Muharemovic, H.Salkic, Exposure to Low Frequency Magnetic Fields of a Transformer Station, IJESSE -International Journal of Electrical Systems Science and Engineering, pp. 120-128, ISSN 2070-3953, Volume 1, Number 2, 2008. V.Madzarevic, A.Nuhanovic, A.Muharemovic, H.Salkic, Numerical calculation of magnetic dissipation in power transformers, Boundary Elements XXVII: Incorporating Electrical Engineering and Electromagnetics, WIT Transactions on Modelling and Simulation p.p. 673-683, ISNN 1743-355X, Vol 39, 2005. Z. Stih, S. Berberovic, I. Kapetanovic, Numerical analysis of low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure, 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Istanbul, 2003. H.Salkic, V.Madzarevic, I.Kapetanovic, A.Muharemovic, Numerical calculation of magnetic dissipation and forces on coil in power transformers, CIRED 2005, 6-9 June 2005, Turin, Italy H.Salkic, V.Madzarevic, E.Hukic, Calculation and Measuring of Low-frequency Electric Field Distribution of 10(20)/0,4 kV, 630 kVA Transformer Station, 43rdinternational universities power engineering conference (UPEC2008) University of Padova, and the Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Cassino September 1-4, 2008. Padova, Italy H.Salkic, V.Madzarevic, A. Muharemovic, E.Hukic, Numerical Solving and Experimental Measuring of Low frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Aspect of Exposure to Non- ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation, The 14th International Symposium on Energy, Informatics and Cybernetics: ISAS 2008. WMSCI 2008, ISBN-10: 1-934272-32-9 (Vol II), may 2008. Orlando, Florida, USA D. Poljak, Human exposure to non-ionizing radiation, Zagreb: Kigen ltd., 2006. V. Madzarevic, A. Nuhanovic, A. Muharemovic, H. Salkic, Numerical calculation of magnetic dissipation and power tranformers, Boundary Elements XXVII: Incorporating Electrical Engineering and Electromagnetics, WIT Transactions on Modelling and Simulation, pp.673-683. ISNN 1743-355X, Vol. 39, 2005. V. Madzarevic, H. Salkic, N. Mehinovic, E. Hukic, Calculation And Measuring Of Lowfrequency Magnetic Field Of 10(20)/0,4 kV Transformer Station, XVIII International

conference on Electrical Machines Vilamoura, Portugal 6-9 semptember 2008. [10] EFC-400 Simulation Software- Narda Safety Test Solutions and Partner FGEU Wandel&GoltermannGmbH&Co,.Elektronische Metechnik Postfach 1262, 72795 Eningen, Allemagne S. Kraljevic, D. Poljak, V. Dori, A simplified method for the assessment of ELF magnetic fields from three-phase power lines, Boundary Elements XXVII Southampon, UK, Boston, USA: WIT Press, Computational Mechanics Inc, 2005. D. Poljak, Electromagnetic Modelling of Wire Antenna Structures, WIT Press, SouthamptonBoston 2002. S. H. Myung, B. Y. Lee, J. K. Park, Three Dimensional Electric Field Analysis of Substation Using Nonuniform Optimal Charge Simulation, 9 International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, Graz Austria August 1995. B.Y. Lee, J.K. Park, S. H. Myung, S. W. Min, E. S. Kim, An Effective Modelling Method to Analyze Electric Field around Transmission Lines and Substations Using Generalized Finite Line CHarge, IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 1143-1150, July 1997. D. Poljak, C.A Brebbia, Boundary Elements for Electrical Engineers, WIT Press, SouthamptonBoston, 2005. Z.Haznadar , .eljko , Electromagnetic Field, Waves and Numerical Methods, Amsterdam, Berlin, Oxford, Tokyo, Washington, D.C. : IOS Press, 2000 (monography). ENV 50166-1, Human electromagnetic fields-Low 10kHz),Cenelec exposure to frequency(1Hz-

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Authors information
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne bb, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, alija.muharemovic@etf.unsa.ba
2 1

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Tuzla, Franjevacka 2, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, vlado.madzarevic@untz.ba
3

[9]

PE Elektroprivreda BiH, ED Tuzla, Rudarska 38, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, h.salkic@elektroprivreda.ba

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne bb, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, irfan.turkovic@etf.unsa.ba
2

electromagnetic compatibility. From 1994 she has been working at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Tuzla.

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Tuzla, Franjevacka 2, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, nerdina,mehinovic@untz.ba
Alija Muharemovic was born in Visegrad (Bosnia and Herzegovina) on 12th of May, 1951. He received a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering, M.S. degree and Ph.D. degree from University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina), in 1974, 1981 and 1989, respectively.

His topics of interest are cathodic protection, electrical measurements, electrical installations and safety measures, and EMC in power systems. From 1989 he has been working at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Sarajevo.

Vlado Madzarevic was born in Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) on 09th of September, 1953. He received a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering and M.S. degree from University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina), in 1976, 1987 respectively, and Ph.D. degree from University of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 1998. His topics of interest are electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic forces and electromagnetic compatibility. From 1977 he has been working at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Tuzla. Hidajet Salki was born in Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) on 09th of April, 1963. Currently employed at PE Elektroprivreda BiH He is also an external associate at University of Tuzla, Faculty of electrical engineering. His field of work: mathematical modeling and numerical solution of electric and magnetic fields in systems for power production, transmission and distribution. Transient phenomena and electromagnetic compatibility in power systems and biological effects of electric and magnetic fields. Irfan Turkovic was born in Konjic (Bosnia and Herzegovina) on August 07, 1962. He received a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering and M.S. degree from University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina), in 1986, 2003, respectively. From 1986 to present he works as a senior assistant at The University of Sarajevo Faculty of Electrical Enginnering. His topics of interest are Cathodic protection, Electrical measurements, Safety in low voltage network and EMC in Power Systems. Nerdina Mehinovic was born in Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) on 06th of July, 1967. She received a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering, M.S. degree and Ph.D. degree from University of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina), in 1991, 2000 and 2006, respectively. Her topics of interest are electrical machines, microelectromechanical systems, and