A SHORT ITZA MAYA VOCABULARY

compiled by ERIK BOOT

June 1995
(converted to PDF: July 2003)

Introduction The following preliminary vocabulary is based on a recent study by Andrew Hofling entitled “Itzá Maya Texts with a critical grammatical overview”, published in 1991 by Utah Press. Itzá Maya, as Hofling points out (1991: 1), is a member of the Yucatecan branch of the Mayan language family. It is however a dying language; when his study went to press, less than a hundred older adults still did speak the language. Recently I was informed only a dozen or so still did use the Itzá language on a daily base. Throughout Hofling’s study the practical orthography proposed by the Guatemalan Academy of Mayan Languages, adopted by the Guatemalan government, is employed. This practical orthography is followed in this dictionary too. The phonemic inventory and the values of the alphabet employed are indicated in the following two charts, adapted from Hofling (1991: 7). Consonants found only in Spanish loanwords are in parentheses: (1)
labial Stops voiceless glottalized voiced Affricates voiceless glottalized Fricatives voiceless voiced Liquid Vibrants Nasals Semivowels (f) (v) l (r, rr) m w n (ñ) y p p’ b’ dental t t’ (d) tz tz’ s ch ch’ x h

consonants
alveolar palatal velar k k’ (g) glottal ’

(2)
front High Mid Low i ii

vowels
central ä e ee a aa o oo back u uu

The alphabetical order adapted for this dictionary is: ’ a b ch ch’ e h i k k’ l m n o p p’ r s t t’ tz tz’ u V w x y

2

Wordclass abbreviations developed for this dictionary are: adj. adv. agn. art. int. name n.cl. num. ord. part. pre. prep. pron. refl.pron. rel.noun sub. suf. v. morphemic boundary marker adjective adverb agentive article clause-initial interrogative expression personal name numeral classifier absolute numeral ordinal numeral participle prefix prepositional prefix pronoun reflexive pronoun relational noun substantive (noun) suffix verbal root

In this dictionary each entry is followed by its translation into English and the abbreviation HO (Hofling) plus a number, in general indicating the first occurrence (page number) of the entry under consideration. Generally verbs are entered and translated through their basic roots. Examples might be entered to indicate usage of the specific entry or partial conjugation of verbal roots. No indication of transitivity or intransitivity of these verbs is included. Subentries are entered beginning with » for examples of use, or with »» for synonyms; other subentries might be found beginning with . These indicate alternative spellings (allomorphs), mostly due to specific phonological processes, of the original entry. Only sporadically examples will be presented for these alternatives. A selection of Itzá words has another subentry marked by #, which is followed by the Yucatec Maya equivalent. Most Itzá words which do have these subentries have obtained a specific phonemic change (e.g. loss of glottalization of beginning or end consonant; phonemic change of vowel). These entries are followed by the abbreviation CO (Cordemex) and its consecutive (page) number. In a few exceptional cases I also provide some possible reconstructions on which the present Itzá entry might have been based. These glosses are preceded by *. Spanish loanwords are indicated through the added (S). This dictionary contains 656 main entries and 304 additional explanatory subentries. Reference Hofling, Charles A. 1991 Itzá Maya Texts, witha Grammatical Overview. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-359-4

3

a
a-, /pron. a-...-e’ex, /pron. a-, /pron. »aw-ätan a-...-e’ex, /pron. a-ti’a’al, /pron. a’-, /pre. »tulakal t-a’-b’eh-eh »a’-b’a’ax »a’-lah »a’-lo’ -a’al a’-b’a’ax, /sub. »a-b’a’ax-tak ah (1), /pre. ah (2), /pre. »ah kax »in-wäh k’ax »u-yäh kax ah b’oo’, /sub. ah chiinche, /sub. ah ch’om, /sub. ah kax, /sub. »kax, /sub. »in-wäh kax »u-yäh kax ah koh, /sub. ah say, /sub. ah ton, /agn. »ah ton i u-ch’up-al-eh ah tz’on, /agn. ah waay, /agn. ah wach, /agn. -ah (1), /suf. -ah (2), /suf. ak, /sub. #ak’, /sub. -ak, /suf. akan, /sub. aktun, /sub. ak’, /sub. you (second person singular [ergative] dependent pronoun) (Set A) HO 18 you (second person plural [ergative] dependent pronoun) (Set A) HO 18 your (second person singular possessive pronoun) (Set A) HO 18 your wife HO 08 your (second person plural possessive pronoun) (Set A) HO 18 your (independent possessive pronoun) HO 21 the, that (determiner) HO 13 all along the road HO 13 what HO 45 this HO 21 that HO 21 HO 09 thing HO 45 things HO 156 masculine agentive prefix HO 09 masculine noun classifier HO 09 chicken HO 09 my chicken HO 09 his chicken HO 09 lion-like beast HO 186 insect, bug HO 317 buzzard HO 309 rooster HO 10 chicken HO 09 my rooster HO 09 his rooster HO 09 lion HO 11 ant HO 285 male HO 217 the male and the female HO 217 hunter HO 42 sorcerer HO 187 Mexican HO 10 distal marker (completive aspect) HO 28 distal patient marker HO 30 tongue HO 60 tongue CO 07 irrealis suffix HO 29 roar HO 11 cave HO 45 vine HO 77
4

ak’ä’, /sub. »chumuk ak’ä’ #ak’ab ’al, /adj. »u-’al-il ’a’l, /v. al (1), /sub. al (2), /adj. -al, /suf. alaambreh (S), /sub. alka’, /v. alkä’ an, /v. -a’an, /suf. aseeteh (S), /sub. asuukar (S), /sub. aasta (S), /prep. awat (1), /sub. awat (2), /v. ayin, /sub.

night mid night night heavy the weight say young, child heavy medio passive/agentless passive participle marker wire chase, run help past participle marker oil sugar till, untill shout roar alligator

HO 55 HO 63 CO 07 HO 13 HO 17 HO 09 HO 73 HO 13 HO 36 HO 191 HO 123 HO 129 HO 80 HO 36 HO 184 HO 206 HO 70 HO 103 HO 124 HO 131

ä
’äk, /v. ’ätan, /sub. -äknal, /rel.noun »y-äknal »»-uknal, /rel.noun »»-et, /rel.noun #iknal puddle wife with with him with with with HO 70 HO 08 HO 170 HO 170 HO 132 HO 165 CO 265

b
-b’-, /suf. b’a-lah, /pref. b’a-he-lah b’ah, /refl.pron. »u-b’ah-i’ih »ki-b’ah b’ak, /sub. b’aak’, /sub. »t-u-b’aak’ passive marker now (temporal prefix) self itself ourselves bone perimeter around
5

HO 08 HO 24 HO 157 HO 17 HO 17 HO 116 HO 16 HO 25 HO 25

#bak’, /v. b’al, /sub. b’a’alche’, /sub. b’alum, /sub. #balam b’aat, /sub. b’a’te’ (1), /sub. b’a’te’ (2), /v. »ka’ kap-ih ti b’a’te »tun-b’a’te b’a’ax, /int. »a’-b’a’ax b’ay, /adv. »b’ay-lo’, /adv. b’äh, /v. b’äk’, /sub. »tulakal t-u-b’äk’-el #bak’ b’eh, /sub. b’el, /v. b’en, /sub. »t-in-b’en-il-eh b’et, /v. -b’il, /suf. »b’om-b’il »han-b’il »kin-s-äb’il »k’ax-b’il b’ikin, /int. b’in (1), /v. b’in (2), /adv. b’ix, /int. b’oo’, /sub. b’oh, /v. b’oh-hutz’, /v. b’oolsah (S), /sub. b’om, /v. -b’onb’o’on, /int. b’oteeya (S), /sub. b’ooyo, /sub. b’ox, /adj. b’u’ul, /sub. b’ut’, /v.

revolve, embrace CO 29 brother-in-law HO 16 animal HO 12 jaguar HO 16 jaguar CO 32 ax HO 108 paddle HO 125 paddle HO 124 then he began to paddle HO 124 he was paddling HO 124 what HO 40 what (the thing that) HO 45 like HO 44 like, it is thus HO 24 insert HO 109 meat HO 35 all over his/her body HO 171 meat CO 29 road HO 13 go HO 302 path HO 38 on my path HO 155 make, do HO 15 passive participle marker HO 36 painted HO 36 eaten HO 36 killed HO 36 tied HO 36 when HO 40 go HO 08 they say HO 24 how HO 40 beast HO 187 hit HO 109 hit (a-)part (noun incorporating verb) HO 109 sack HO 229 paint HO 36 HO 228 how much HO 40 bottle HO 73 bun, roll HO 205 black HO 112 bean HO 39 insert HO 108

6

ch
cha’, /sub. chach, /v. chaach, /adv. »hun chaach u-yal che’ chaak, /sub. »ah chaak-ih-ha’-oo’-eh »u-hum chaak-eh chan, /adj. chan-b’el, /adv. cha’an, /v. chawak, /adj. »u-chawak-il chäk, /v. #chak chämach, /sub. che’, /sub. chem, /sub. chema’, /v. chen, /adv. chi’, /sub. »chi’ a’-ha’-eh »t-u-chi’ a’-noh ha’ he’-lo’ yan-eh chich, /adj. »chichich, /adj. chik, /adv. chiikleh (S), /sub. »»cha’, /sub. chik’in, /sub. chil, /v. -chichokoh, /adj. choko chok-wil, /sub. chok’, /v. chul, /v. chuk, /v. chu’um, /v. chumuk, /prep. chun (1), /sub. chun (2), /v. chicle chew handful a handful of branches thunder the thunderstorms the sound of thunder small slowly watch, see long its length cook cook elder, old man tree canoe spy only edge edge of the water at the edge of that big lake there hard very hard clear, visible chicle chicle west lie hot fever put in, insert drip, drain reach, complete, take begin mid, middle base, trunk begin HO 249 HO 117 HO 110 HO 110 HO 45 HO 203 HO 45 HO 307 HO 307 HO 44 HO 16 HO 84 HO 12 CO 77 HO 33 HO 11 HO 15 HO 65 HO 26 HO 15 HO 123 HO 131 HO 09 HO 09 HO 87 HO 17 HO 249 HO 196 HO 36 HO 63 HO 08 HO 08 HO 164 HO 109 HO 90 HO 119 HO 200 HO 22 HO 87 HO 81

ch’
ch’a’, /v. take
7

HO 93

-ch’aach’aach’, /v. ch’an, /v. ch’äk, /v. ch’eeh, /sub. ch’e’em, /sub. »t-a’-ch’e’em-eh ch’i’, /v. ch’ib’, /sub. »u-ch’ib’-il a’-xa’an-eh ch’iich’, /sub. ch’iil, /v. ch’ihch’o’, /sub. ch’ot, /v. ch’uch’, /adv. ch’ul, /v. ch’up, /sust. »ah ton i u-ch’up-al-eh »u-xib’-il i u-ch’up-al ch’uy, /v.

clear heal cut wedge cave in the cave take stalk the stalk of the thatch bird grow mouse entwine mute soak female, woman the male and the female the male and the female hang

HO 156 HO 200 HO 240 HO 10 HO 108 HO 128 HO 129 HO 25 HO 216 HO 216 HO 39 HO 74 HO 250 HO 171 HO 217 HO 163 HO 291 HO 11 HO 217 HO 217 HO 156

e
-e’, /suf. -eh -e ek’, /adj. ek’ hooch’e’en, /sub. el (1), /sub. el (2), /v. em, /v. -es-, /suf. -s-et, /rel.noun »et-meyah -et-el, /rel.noun »aw-et-el »y-et-el »ki-wet-el »»-äknal, /rel.noun »»-uknal, /rel.noun ’et’ok, /sub. »t-u-yet’ok-eh dark darkness edge burn descend causative marker with co-worker with with you with, and with us with with companion, friend to his companion topic marker HO 08 HO 08 HO 08 HO 67 HO 67 HO 231 HO 37 HO 117 HO 302 HO 32 HO 165 HO 154 HO 13 HO 17 HO 17 HO 17 HO 170 HO 132 HO 12 HO 12

8

h
ha’, /sub. »chi’ a’-ha’-eh »noh ha’ »tan-u-b’et-ik ha’-eh hab’on (S), /sub. haab’, /sub. hach, /adv. hah, /adj. »-u-hah-il-e hak’, /v. halk’ä, /adv. haal, /sub. »t-u-haal a’-ha’ haal -ha’, /sub. han, /v. han-al, /sub. hanil, /adv. ha’as, /sub. hat, /v. hatzka’, /adv. »sam-ih hatzka’ *hatz-kab #hatzkab haw (1), /v. haw (2), /v. hay, /adj. he-b’ix, /adv. he’-la’, /adv. he’-loh, /adv. he’-lo heb, /v. heb’, /v. he(k)’, /v. hil, /v. hil-che’, /sub. hob’on, /adj. hoch’, /v. hok’, /v. hol, /sub. »u-hol a’-nah-eh »u-hol a’-aktun-eh holo’och, /sub. ho’leh, /adv. hool, /sub. »»nok’, /sub. water, lake at the edge of the water big lake that it was raining soap year very true its truth frighten, surprise free shore on the shore of the lake lakeshore eat food clear plantain break early a while ago, in the morning [separate-earth (metaphorical)] early, in de morning end, finish disappear sharp just as, so this, these that clear open open throw fence hollow harvest leave hole, door, entrance, mouth the door of the house the mouth of the cave (corn) cob yesterday bag bag
9

HO 14 HO 123 HO 15 HO 15 HO 245 HO 80 HO 10 HO 157 HO 157 HO 62 HO 299 HO 16 HO 16 HO 71 HO 09 HO 72 HO 204 HO 213 HO 37 HO 24 HO 24 CO 183 HO 71 HO 67 HO 231 HO 44 HO 15 HO 15 HO 15 HO 95 HO 16 HO 108 HO 17 HO 306 HO 38 HO 198 HO 15 HO 08 HO 16 HO 148 HO 209 HO 16 HO 103 HO 123

ho’ol, /sub. »pol, /sub. hom-, /pre. ho’m, /v. -ho’omhop’, /v. hotz’, /v. hu’um, /sub. huch’, /v. huhum, /adv. »huhum p’eel hun, /num. »-a-hun-al-eh »hun tuul winik hum »hum p’e k’in hum (1), /sub. hum (2), /v. humb’uy, /sub. »humb’uy chun-che’-eh hup, /v. hutz’, /sub. »b’oh-hutz’

head head terminative aspect finish begin take out, leave book grind each some one alone one man a/one day sound sound height the height of the tree put, insert part hit apart

HO 50 HO 13 HO 25 HO 25 HO 194 HO 104 HO 109 HO 81 HO 34 HO 248 HO 303 HO 08 HO 164 HO 08 HO 11 HO 11 HO 44 HO 11 HO 204 HO 204 HO 33 HO 109 HO 109

i
’ich, /sub. »a-wich »u-yich ich (1), /prep. »ich-il, /prep. ich (2), /sub. icham, /sub. ichki(l), /v. ih, /rel.noun i ii -i’ih, /part. »mia, b’el in-ka’a ti wen-el-i’ih -ik, /suf. ik’, /sub. ik’al, /adj. ’il, /v. -il, /suf. »u-nah-il eye your eyes his eyes, face inside, within within fruit husband bathe and there (clause-final participle that marks locative scope) I think maybe I’ll sleep there proximal patient marker wind rich see possessive suffix his house
10

HO 20 HO 147 HO 118 HO 10 HO 33 HO 42 HO 166 HO 89 HO 42 HO 12 HO 25 HO 21 HO 23 HO 08 HO 196 HO 223 HO 08 HO 08 HO 08

-ih -i in-, /pron. in-, /pron. »in-wätan imin-ti’a’al, /pron. it, /sub. itz, /sub. itz’in, /sub. ix, /pre. ix ch’up, /sub. ix nok’ol, /sub. ix k’ok’och, /sub. ix lu’, /name ix tabay, /name ix tz’it, /sub. ixi’im, /sub. »kuxu’ ixi’im

HO 08 HO 08 I (first person singular [ergative] dependent pronoun) (Set A) my (first person possessive pronoun) (Set A) my wife mine (independent possessive pronoun) rump resin younger brother feminine agentive prefix woman worm young corn ear fish (certain species) long-haired female demon tamale corn tender corn HO 08 HO 08 HO 08 HO 08 HO 21 HO 16 HO 14 HO 114 HO 11 HO 11 HO 11 HO 205 HO 222 HO 63 HO 205 HO 13 HO 206

k
k-, /pref. ka’ (1), /sub. »ka’ sas-ah-ih ka’-eh »sam-ih hatzka’ -kä #kab ka’ (2), /num. »ka’-b’eh ka’ (3), /adv. kab’, /sub. kah, /sub. »t-u-kah-ih -kaal- (*-kah-al) ka’ah, /v. »u ka’ah -ka’a kak, /v. »u-kak-t-oo’ a’-muknal-eh kal (1), /sub. »lele’kal kal (2), /v. incompletive aspect HO 25 world HO 103 then it dawned (lit. then cleared world) HO 103 a while ago, in the morning HO 24 HO 61 world, town, or region CO 277 two HO 24 two days (ago) HO 73 then, when (clause-initial temporal discourse marker) HO 24 honey HO 266 town HO 10 in the town of... HO 199 HO 12 go HO 16 he is going HO 16 HO 71 dig HO 174 to dig out the tomb HO 174 neck HO 89 headfirst HO 89 get drunk HO 63
11

-käl»hach kälkaal, /sub. kamut (S), /sub. kan (1), /sub. kan (2), /prep. ka’nal, /adv. »u-ka’nal-il kap, /v. kaarro (S), /sub. kax, /sub. »ah kax, /sub. ka’ax, /adv. käh, /v. käm, /num. #kan kän, (1), /num. kän (2), /v. #kan kän (3), /adj. »känkän, /adj. känän, /v. #kanan käx(än), /v. käy, /v. #k’ay keeh, /sub. »a’-noh keeh ke’el (1), /adj. ke’el (2), /v. ket, /rel.noun »et, /rel.noun ki-, /pron. »ki-b’ah »ki-wet-el ki-...-e’ex, /pron. -ki, suf. ki’, /adj. ki’mak-’ol, /sub. kib’, /sub. kien sa’ (S), /int. kil, /int. kim, /v. -kin-kin, /suf. koch, /adj.

very drunk country sweet potato snake with, to high, above the top of... begin car chicken rooster although live four four four learn learn, converse red very red guard guard seek sing sing deer the big deer cold chill together together our (first person plural exclusive independent pronoun) (Set A) ourselves (reflexive) with us (relational) our (first person plural inclusive independent pronoun) (Set A) adjectival suffix good fiesta (lit. good-person-spirit) wax, candle who knows (¿quién sabe?) when die causative suffix (after root u or o) wide
12

HO 63 HO 63 HO 200 HO 308 HO 217 HO 23 HO 23 HO 292 HO 18 HO 241 HO 09 HO 10 HO 24 HO 20 HO 227 CO 291 HO 269 HO 09 CO 291 HO 09 HO 09 HO 24 CO 293 HO 50 HO 10 CO 391 HO 10 HO 48 HO 164 HO 164 HO 167 HO 165 HO 18 HO 18 HO 17 HO 18 HO 13 HO 20 HO 79 HO 245 HO 40 HO 25 HO 24 HO 32 HO 32 HO 129

koh (1), /sub. koh (2), /sub. ko(’)oh, /adj. kokolche’, /v. kol, /sub. »u-laak’ kol »t-a’-yax-kol-oo’ koloh-che’, /sub. #kolom-che’ ko’lel, /sub. komo (S), /adv. kosiina (S), /sub. kot, /sub. krus (S), /sub. kuch (1), /sub. kuch (2), /v. kuch (3), /adv. kuuch, /sub. -kuul, /n.cl. »hun kuul nah »hun kuul tunich kuum, /sub. kum kun (1), /v. kun (2), /v. -kun, /suf. kutz, /sub. kux, /v. kuxu’, /adj. »»mum, /adj.

tooth grain expensive trample milpa another milpa to the first milpas (house) post “a play with sticks” (Landa) lady as kitchen fence cross load, cargo load, haul, carry before place numeral classifier one house one stone pot

HO 50 HO 205 HO 256 HO 130 HO 10 HO 95 HO 14 HO 77 CO 334 HO 37 HO 68 HO 156 HO 306 HO 189 HO 225 HO 12 HO 307 HO 57 HO 45 HO 45 HO 176 HO 42 HO 184 remain HO 171 conjure (?) HO 86 causative suffix (after root a, e, or i) HO 32 turkey HO 41 (re)live HO 49 tender HO 197 tender HO 12

k’
k’a’ ol, /v. -k’a’ool k’ab’ (1), /sub. k’ab’ (2), /sub. »u-yaal u-k’ab’ k’ab’a, /sub. k’ab’eet, /v. k’ab’naab’, /sub. k’ah, /v. -k’aal (*k’ah-al) k’ähk’aak’, /sub. #k’ak’ k’a’am, /adj. know arm hand the fingers (of the hand) name need sea remember fire fire strong
13

HO 92 HO 95 HO 105 HO 16 HO 16 HO 81 HO 79 HO 179 HO 148 HO 173 HO 153 HO 44 CO 365 HO 284

k’aan (1), /sub. k’aan (2), /sub. k’as (1), /sub. k’as (2), /adv. k’a’t, /v. k’ax. /v. k’aax, /sub. »ok-ih ich k’aax-eh »u-yum-il k’aax k’äl (1), /v. #k’al k’äl (2), /adj. k’äm, /v. #k’am k’ämb’äl, /sub. k’än, /adj. k’ekan, /sub. k’ek’en, /sub. k’ew-el, /v. k’eyem, /sub. k’i’ix, /sub. #k’ix k’ik’, /sub. k’ilka’, /sub. k’in (1), /sub. »ok-ih k’in-eh »ya tan-u-yok-ol k’in k’in (2), /sub. »a’-k’in-oo’ he’-la’-eh »hum p’e k’in »ka’ p’e k’in »yax k’in k’o’, /sub. »ch’iil-k’o’, /v. k’och, /v. k’oh, /adj. k’oxol, /sub. k’u, /sub. »k’u-nah k’ub’, /v. k’ub’en, /v. k’uch, /sub. k’uum, /sub. k’uxu, /adj.

cord hammock weakness bad ask, want tie forest (it) entered into the forest the lord of the forest enclose enclose drunk receive, want receive pheasant yellow honey from black bees pig hide atole barb spine blood sweat sun sun set (lit. sets sun) the sun was already setting day these days a/one day two days first day tassel tassel (lit. grow tassel) arrive sick mosquito god church, god-house deliver recommend thread squash, calabash tender

HO 229 HO 23 HO 89 HO 13 HO 08 HO 36 HO 17 HO 138 HO 17 HO 308 CO 368 HO 36 HO 80 HO 371 HO 115 HO 207 HO 271 HO 206 HO 120 HO 195 HO 191 CO 405 HO 90 HO 89 HO 55 HO 90 HO 55 HO 11 HO 70 HO 11 HO 47 HO 83 HO 204 HO 204 HO 27 HO 11 HO 10 HO 254 HO 254 HO 67 HO 36 HO 189 HO 203 HO 13

14

l
-l-, /suf. -la, /suffix »a’-la a’-lah lah, /adv. »b’a-lah lah-, /pref. lak, /sub. laak’, /sub. »t-u-laak’ k’in-il-eh »u-laak’ lak’in, /sub. layti’, /pron. ti’ih, /pron. layti’-oo’, /pron. ti’ih-oo’, /pron. läk, /v. letz’, /v. lik’ (1), /v. lik’ (2), /v. »»känän -lo’, /suf. »a’-lo’, /adv. »te’-lo’, /adv. te’-loh, /adv. lok, /v. lox, /v. lub’, /v. luub’, /sub. #lub luch, /sub. luk’ (1), /sub. luk’ (2), /v. lu’um, /sub. positional suffix proximal marker this already, completely now all (clay) plate other (on) the next day another, next east he (third person singular independent pronoun) they (third person plural independent pronoun) pull off lick rise guard guard distal marker that there boil hit fall league common league calabash cup mud remove earth HO 21 HO 21 HO 21 HO 21 HO 37 HO 24 HO 37 HO 13 HO 42 HO 103 HO 42 HO 196 HO 19 HO 19 HO 19 HO 19 HO 121 HO 105 HO 56 HO 180 HO 24 HO 21 HO 21 HO 21 HO 21 HO 184 HO 37 HO 11 HO 114 CO 463 HO 265 HO 69 HO 120 HO 36

m
-m-, /suf. ma’, /adv. ma’-...-in, /adv. ma-...-i’ih perfective suffix no no HO 30 HO 36 HO 24 HO 41

15

ma’ lo’, /adv. »ma’lo’ u-k’in-il ma’ ta’ax, /adj. ma tan-, /pre. mak, /sub. »mix mak »mak-oo’ maak makan, /sub. man, /v. maarso (S), /sub. maskab’, /sub. max, /adv. may, /sub. »u-may-tak a’-keeh-eh mäch, /v. mäkäl, /sub. män, /v. -man-mäm»hun tuul meek’ u-chun mehen, /adj. mek’, /v. meek’, /adv. »hun tuul meek’ u-chun men, /v. -memmees (S), /sub. -mesme’ex, /sub. #me’ex meyah (1), /sub. meyah (2), /sub. mia, /adv. miismo, /sub. mix, /adv. »mix b’a’al »mix tu’ux mo’ok, /sub. »u-mo’ok u-yaal u-k’ab mo’nok, /adj. *ma’nuk mol, /v. moliino (S), /sub. motz, /sub. muchiilah (S), /sub. »»hool, /sub. »»nok’, /sub.

HO 15 HO 50 HO 118 HO 10 HO 14 HO 77 HO 76 HO 59 granary HO 208 pass HO 37 March HO 79 machete HO 39 who HO 40 hoof HO 12 the hooves of the deer HO 157 grap, hold HO 30 caladium HO 308 buy HO 08 HO 09 HO 08 the trunk is an armful HO 104 small HO 12 hug, embrace HO 149 armful HO 104 its trunk is an armful HO 104 do, make HO 33 HO 224 month HO 46 HO 79 whiskers HO 105 beard HO 522 work HO 13 work HO 14 I think HO 25 same HO 46 no, neither, nor, not even HO 41 anything HO 41 anywhere HO 41 knot, knuckle HO 111 the knuckles of the fingers of the hand HO 111 small HO 82 small (lit. not-great) collect HO 18 mill HO 206 root HO 86 bag HO 229 bag HO 103 bag HO 123
16

good, well a good day never already (durative prefix) person no one... people

much’, /v. muk, /v. muknal, /sub. muk’, /sub. muk’yah, /v. muul, /sub. mum, /adj. mu’um #mun, /adj. »»kuxu’, /adj. mutz’, /v.

mound, pile up bury tomb, grave strength control mound tender tender tender close, shut (eyes)

HO 52 HO 17 HO 95 HO 88 HO 123 HO 285 HO 12 HO 284 CO 541 HO 197 HO 146

n
na’, /sub. naach, /prep. nah, /sub. »ix lä’ nah »noh nah nak, /v. nak’, /v. nat’, /v. na’at, /sub. natz’, /prep. »natz’ haal kah näk, /v. näk’, /sub. »t-u-näk’ a’-witz-oo’-eh näl, /sub. »kuxu-näl neh, /sub. ni’, /sub. »t-u-ni’ a’-witz-eh »u-ni’ a’-che’-eh nich’, /v. noh, /adj. »noh ha’, /adj.+sub. »noh kah, /adj.+sub. nohoch, /adj. »a’-nohoch winik-eh »u-nohoch-il nohol, /sub. nok’ (1), /sub. nok’ (2), /sub. »hool, /sub. noolah, /sub. mother far house old house town hall (lit. big house) tire climb, rise pinch idea, thought close, near near the edge of twon sit stomach, belly at the foot of the hills corn ear tender corn ear nose tip, top at the top of the hill the top of the tree bare big lake (lit. big water) city (lit. big town) great the great man the chief (lit. the big one) south clothing bag bag grandmother
17

HO 42 HO 113 HO 08 HO 313 HO 23 HO 57 HO 20 HO 109 HO 39 HO 104 HO 107 HO 105 HO 71 HO 71 HO 197 HO 197 HO 105 HO 36 HO 97 HO 36 HO 50 HO 13 HO 15 HO 179 HO 12 HO 12 HO 17 HO 196 HO 224 HO 123 HO 103 HO 39

noxi’, /adj. *noh xib nukuch, /adj. nuut’, /adj.

big [lit. big-man] big narrow

HO 11 HO 49 HO 129

o
-oo’, /suf. -ooh #-ob och, /sub. -o’och, /num.cl. »u-yo’och b’ooyo’ ohel, /v. »b’ix a-wohel-e’ex ok (1), /sub. »u-yal u-yok ok (2), /v. ok (3), /v. -okol ok’, /v. #uk’ ool, /sub. »»pixan, /sub. -’ol #ol orasion (S), /sub. otoch, /sub. otzil, /adj. ox, /num. oox (1), /sub. oox (2), /v. definitive plural marker definitive plural marker fox ration (of food) the ration of tamales know do you (pl.) know foot his/her toes enter steal cry cry spirit, breath, mind, sense spirit formal heart, intention prayer home poor three ramon tree dry HO 12 HO 71 CO 593 HO 21 HO 275 HO 275 HO 47 HO 47 HO 59 HO 172 HO 10 HO 15 HO 76 HO 40 CO 899 HO 70 HO 37 HO 79 CO 604 HO 190 HO 16 HO 123 HO 12 HO 38 HO 112

p
pa’, /v. paa’ pach (1), /sub. pach (2), /sub. »u-pach a’-che’ pah, /v. pak, /sub. »a’-t-u-ox-pak-eh paak, /v. pak’, /v. break back bark the bark of the tree pretend time at the third time clear await, wait
18

HO 09 HO 09 HO 57 HO 231 HO 231 HO 131 HO 161 HO 161 HO 47 HO 71

pak’-tuut, /v. paal, /sub. »ah xi’ paal »mo’nok paal »ix ch’up paal pan, /v. pat-, /pre. patal, /v. patz’, /v. pax, /sub. pay-chi’, /sub. paya(l)-chi’ paay, /sub. paayla, /sub. päk’, /v. päk’-b’u’ul-oo’, /sub. pecheech, /sub. pech’, /v. pek, /v. pek’, /sub. pich, /sub. pik’, /v. pim, /adj. piintoh (S), /adj. »»we’we’el, /adj. piix, /sub. »u-ho’ol u-piix mak-eh pixan, /sub. »u-k’in a’-pixan-ooh-eh »ool, /sub. pok-che’, /sub. pol, /sub. » ho’ol, /sub. polok, /adj. »k-a-polok-tal porke (S), /part. potz’, /adj. »po-potz’-ki, /adj. pul (1), /v. pul (2), /v. puuro (S), /adj. putz’, /v. pwes (S), /adv.

HO 135 HO 08 HO 80 HO 163 HO 80 HO 296 HO 25 HO 133 HO 90 HO 38 HO 71 HO 277 beach HO 113 caldron HO 244 plant HO 43 bean planting HO 302 spindle HO 189 crush HO 87 move HO 18 dog HO 12 certain tree HO 114 snap HO 88 thick HO 229 spotted HO 112 spotted HO 112 knee HO 69 a person’s kneecap HO 69 spirit HO 37 the day of the spirits (All Souls’ Day) HO 71 spirit HO 70 foliage, weed HO 57 head HO 13 head HO 50 thick, fat, wide HO 13 that you get fat HO 29 because HO 13 slippery HO 70 very slippery HO 70 throw HO 36 stick HO 69 pure, only HO 70 flee HO 179 well HO 53

spit (noun incorporating verb) child male-child small child girl-child scrape, wear down abilitive aspect pay massage music devotion, prayer

p’
p’at, /v. remain, stay
19

HO 10

p’ax, /sub. p’ät, /v. -p’atp’äx, /v. -p’eel, /n.cl. »hun p’e che’ »hun p’eel noh aktun -p’el -p’e p’e’es, /v. p’is (1), /sub. p’is (2), /v. p’iit, /sub.

debt leave owe inanimate numeral classifier a/one tree one big cave flay measure, size measure bit

HO 81 HO 09 HO 09 HO 81 HO 45 HO 11 HO 45 HO 97 HO 11 HO 120 HO 104 HO 15 HO 110

r
riifle (S), sub. »tz’on, /sub. rifle gun HO 98 HO 44

s
-s-, /suf. -essaak (1), /sub. #sah #sahakil saak (2), /adv. »saak-en »saak-ah-en saantoh (S), /sub. saap, /adv. sam-ih, /adv. »sam-ih hastka’ samal, /sub. san, /adj. »san-samal sap’, /v. sas (1), /adj. sas (2), /v. »ka’ sas-ah-ih ka’-eh »ya akä’ u-sas-tal sat, /v. säk, /adj. seeb’, /adv. segiir (S), /v. causative marker fear fear talk with fear afraid I am afraid I was afraid saint armlength while, a while ago a while ago, in the morning tomorrow every every day dry clear, bright light, dawn then it dawned it was already dawning lose white quick continue
20

HO 32 HO 302 HO 187 CO 707 CO 707 HO 29 HO 29 HO 29 HO 79 HO 189 HO 24 HO 24 HO 24 HO 73 HO 73 HO 295 HO 94 HO 61 HO 103 HO 61 HO 40 HO 13 HO 37 HO 91

sekreeto (S), /sub. semaanah (S), /sub. se’es, /sub. »u-se’es a’-che’oo’ si, /v. si’ (1), /sub. si’ (2), /v. sikil, /sub. si’p, /sub. siis-pomeen, /adj. si’is-pomeen siit’, /sub. sol, /v. suku’un, /sub. su’uk, /sub. sum, /sub. sup’ (1), /adj. sup’ (2), /v. sut, /v. swerte (S), /sub.

charm, secret week (wood) chip the chips of the branches give (fire) wood donate (certain) squash crime numb (composite adjective) jump, leap skin older brother grass rope overgrown be overgrown turn back, return luck

HO 157 HO 54 HO 89 HO 89 HO 68 HO 10 HO 15 HO 317 HO 145 HO 60 HO 163 HO 98 HO 120 HO 72 HO 298 HO 13 HO 22 HO 75 HO 20 HO 99

t
t-, /pre. -t-, /suf. taach, /n.cl. »ka’ taach u-k’ab’-i’ih tak, /prep. -tak, /suf. »u-may-tak a’-keeh-eh tak’, /v. ta’k’in, /sub. tal, /v. »ti tal -ta-tal (1), /suf. -tal (2), /suf. tam, /prep. tan, /v. tan-, /pre. tan-xeel, /prep. taan (1), /prep. »taan-il, /ord. »taan-ka’, /prep. taan (2), /sub. tat, /sub. completive aspect derived transitive marker numeral classifier two hands up, till plural suffix for certain inanimate nouns the hooves of the deer stick, attach money come, arrive ... to come positional suffix inchoative suffix deep attend it was (durative aspect) other side front first outside half father
21

HO 25 HO 31 HO 109 HO 109 HO 20 HO 12 HO 12 HO 92 HO 15 HO 27 HO 46 HO 170 HO 28 HO 29 HO 70 HO 74 HO 44 HO 129 HO 166 HO 167 HO 64 HO 259 HO 149

tä’-täk’-ki, adj. täka’, /v. täk’, /adj. »tä’-täk’-ki täl, /v. tämän, /sub. te’, /adv. »i te’ in-chuy-kin-m-ah tech, /pron. tel-chaak, /sub. ten, /pron. te’ex, /pron. ti, /part. ti’ (1), /prep. tti’ (2), /part. tich’-k’ak’, /v. ti’ih, /pron. layti’ tikin, /adj. »ah tikin che’-eh »k-u-tikin-tal toch, /v. toh, /adv. took, /v. to’on, /pron. to’on-e’ex, /pron. top’ (1), /sub. »hum p’eel u-mo’nok k’ab’ top’ -top top’ (2), /v. tuk, /v. tul (1), /adv. tul (2), /v. tuul, /n.cl. »hun tuul winik »hun tuul ich tuuh tuu tulakal, /sub. tulis, /adv.

sticky send sticky very sticky beat cotton there (clause-initial participle that marks locative scope) and there I have hung them you (second person singular independent pronoun) buttress I (first person singular independent pronoun) you (second person plural independent pronoun) subordinator to, at, on (vowel-inicial) distal patient marker illuminate (noun incorporating verb) he (third person singular independent pronoun) dry the dry tree it dries hide (?) still burn we (exclusive first person plural independent pronoun) we (inclusive first person plural independent pronoun) flower a small hand of flowers hatch think full fill animate numeral classifier one man one of the... all whole
22

HO 23 HO 183 HO 13 HO 13 HO 110 HO 189 HO 21 HO 23 HO 19 HO 85 HO 19 HO 19 HO 13 HO 23 HO 23 HO 11 HO 50 HO 19 HO 19 HO 13 HO 13 HO 29 HO 111 HO 218 HO 195 HO 19 HO 19 HO 170 HO 170 HO 171 HO 11 HO 69 HO 184 HO 188 HO 08 HO 08 HO 114 HO 08 HO 08 HO 13 HO 209

tu’umb’en, /adj. »t-u-män-ah hum p’e lak tu’umb’en (tu)men, /rel.noun tun-, /pre. tunich, /sub. tup, /v. tus, /v. tutz’, /v. »t-u-tutz’-ah u-chem-eh tu’ux, /int. »a’-tu’ux

new he bought a new clay plate because it was (durative aspect) stone extinguish join put out he put out his canoe where where

HO 13 HO 13 HO 41 HO 11 HO 176 HO 273 HO 209 HO 124 HO 124 HO 13 HO 162

t’
t’an, /sub. t’äb, /v. »t’äb-ä’ a’-k’aak’-eh #t’ab t’äm, /v. t’än, /v. -t’an t’uch, /v. t’u’ul, /sub. t’ut’, /v. thought, mind light light the fire light call speak squat rabbit follow HO 152 HO 114 HO 114 HO 830 HO 77 HO 106 HO 163 HO 29 HO 127 HO 124

tz
tzay, /v. tzel, /sub. tzem, /sub. tzikb’al (1), /sub. tzikb’al (2), /v. -tzil, /suf. »a’-itz’in-tzil-eh »a’-suku’un-tzil-eh tzimin, /sub. tzo’otz, /sub. »chawak u-tzo’otz-el u-pol follow side chest story tell referential suffix the younger brother the older brother mule, horse hair long is the hair of her head HO 27 HO 109 HO 90 HO 11 HO 102 HO 120 HO 120 HO 121 HO 93 HO 16 HO 16

tz’
tz’ah, /v. tz’atz’ak, /sub. give, put medicine
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HO 10 HO 113 HO 224

tz’äk, /v. »ti tz’äk-b’-äl -tz’aktz’äk-yah, /v. tz’äp, /v. #tz’ap tz’e, /adj. »tz’e-tz’e-tak tz’eek, /adv. tz’iib, /v. tz’ik, /v. tz’iik, /adj. tz’o-tz’op-ki, /adj. tz’o’ok, /v. »tz’o’k-a’an u-b’el-oo’ tz’on (1), /v. tz’on (2), /sub. »riifle (S), sub. tz’op, /v. tz’u’, /adj. tz’ul, /sub. tz’utz’, /v.

HO 09 HO 46 HO 09 heal (lit. cure pain) HO 187 plant HO 108 plant, hoist CO 878 little HO 307 little by little HO 307 bit HO 86 write HO 77 give HO 42 fierce, brave HO 284 very swampy HO 13 end HO 153 they were married (lit. ended their road) HO 166 shoot HO 09 gun HO 44 rifle HO 98 sink HO 69 soft HO 285 patron HO 223 ate, suck HO 317

cure ... to be cured

u
’u-, /pron. ’u-...-oo’, /pron. ’u-, /pron. »’u-hol u »u-yätan ’u-...-oo’, /pron. u-b’a’al, /sub. u-ti’a’al, /pron. ub’ (1), /v. -uub’»»u’y, /v. ub’ (2), /v. uch, /v. uch-ben, /adv. uch-ih, /adv. uk taan, /prep. he, she, it (third person singular [ergative] dependent pronoun) (Set A) HO 18 they (third person plural [ergative] dependent pronoun) (Set A) HO 18 he, she, it (third person singular possesive pronoun) (Set A) HO 18 his hole HO 08 HO 08 his wife HO 08 they (third person plural possessive pronoun) (Set A) HO 18 bullet HO 43 his (independent possessive pronoun) HO 21 hear HO 45 HO 181 hear HO 44 feel HO 163 happen HO 24 old HO 95 long ago HO 24 (in) front HO 66
24

-uknal, /rel.noun »-a-wuknal-eh »»et-el, /rel.noun »»-äknal, /rel.noun #iknal uk’ (1), /sub. uk’ (2), /v. ul, /v. uuleh, /sub. utz, /adv. » yutzil utz’in, /v. uy, /v. u’y, /v. -u’uy»»ub’, /v.

with with you with with with drink drink cut, sever nipple good pretty, beautiful kiss hear hear hear

HO 132 HO 132 HO 13 HO 170 CO 265 HO 115 HO 09 HO 86 HO 49 HO 93 HO 85 HO 278 HO 277 HO 44 HO 57 HO 45

v
(specific suffixes are formed through vowel harmony, as such -V indicates a dublicated root vowel) -V’, /suf. subordinate patient marker HO 09 -Vk, /suf. irrealis (subjunctive) suffix HO 09 -Vl, /suf. intransitive suffix HO 09

w
wa (1), /adv. waa wa (2), /rel.noun wa’, /v. wach’, /v. wah, /sub. wakax, /sub. waak, /num. wak’, /v. wal, /adv. watz’, /v. -wätz’wa’yeh, /adv. wäl, /v. we’we’el, adj. »piintoh (S), /adj. wi’ih (1), /adv. if (clause-initial conditional marker) HO 43 HO 241 either, or HO 41 stand HO 28 burst out HO 205 tortilla HO 208 cattle HO 107 seven (actually six?) HO 172 explode HO 44 perhaps HO 25 double (the corn over) HO 207 HO 208 here HO 40 stretch HO 121 spotted HO 112 spotted HO 112 hungry HO 19

25

wi’ih (2), /sub. »in-wi’ih-il #wi’h winik, /sust. »hun tuul winik »winik-ech »winik-ah-ech witz, /sub. »t-u-chun hun kuul witz »t-u-ni’ a’-witz-eh yok’ a’-witz-eh »t-u-chun a’-witz-eh wok’, /adv. »-in-wok’-ol, /rel.noun

hunger HO 123 my hunger HO 123 hunger CO 922 man HO 08 one man HO 08 you are a man HO 29 you were a man HO 29 hill HO 20 at the base of the hill HO 140 at the top of the hill, on top of the hill HO 97 at the base of the hill HO 147 over HO 15 over me HO 15

x
xan, /v. xa’an, /sub. xana, /sub. xäk, /v. xäman, /sub. xet’, /sub. xib’, /adv. »u-xib’-il i u-ch’up-al »»ah ton xik, /v. xileeteh (S/E), /sub. xi’il ke’el, /v. xi’mal (1), /sub. xi’mal (2), /v. »ti xi’mal -xi’maxo’om, /sub. xot’, /v. xul, /sub. xu’l, /v. xux, /sub. delay, linger, last thatch shoe crouch north piece male the male and the female male go razor chill (noun incorporating verb) step walk ... to walk pole cut end end wasp (?) HO 152 HO 11 HO 224 HO 121 HO 196 HO 86 HO 217 HO 217 HO 217 HO 146 HO 231 HO 59 HO 58 HO 20 HO 46 HO 71 HO 86 HO 111 HO 70 HO 88 HO 209

y
ya (S), /pre. ya’, /sub. yaab’, /adv. yah (1), /sub. yah (2), /adv. already (durative prefix) zapote tree much, a lot of pain very bad
26

HO 10 HO 226 HO 10 HO 187 HO 17

yalam, /adv. yaam, /sub. yan, /copula »yan-eh yan-, /pre. yax, /ord. »a’-yax ha’-oo’ yax-k’in, /sub. ya’ax nik, /sub. yäh, /adj. »u-yäh-tal yet-el, /rel.noun ye’ye’-lox, /v. yok’, /prep. »yok’ a’-witz-eh yuul, /n.cl. »hun yuul-i’ih yum, /sub. »u-yum-il a’-kab’ »u-yum-il k’aax »u-yum-il witz yun yuntun, /sub.

below, underneath HO 86 clearing HO 45 there is HO 38 ...there HO 131 obligative aspect HO 25 first HO 14 the first rains HO 203 summer HO 290 green flower (name of tree) (not as such interpreted by Hofling) HO 268 ripe HO 205 the ripening HO 206 with HO 41 threaten to hit (composite verb) HO 129 over HO 17 on top of the hill (lit. over the hill) HO 97 piece HO 15 a piece of it HO 15 lord HO 17 bee (lit. the lord of the honey)HO 268 the lord of the forest HO 17 the lord of the hills HO 60 HO 133 sling HO 241

end file itza_based-on_hofling1991.pdf

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