2. . Always check a switchboard for proper grounding. Have 8 qualified electrician ~heck a switchboard If necessary. wear proper safety gloves until source of arcing Is located and fixed. II unusual or loud noises are coming from a switchboard. The door can blow open In case of explosion. call a qualified electrician. When working with switchboards always remember: HIGH VOLTAGE CAN KILL! 1 Stand to the right side of a switchboard when stanlng or stopping a unit. make sure proper meters and safety gloves are being used. 4 5. leave voltages alone If untrained or nervous. 6.SAFETY i Section 1 1. I I . If checking high voltages. 3.1 SWITCHBOARD SAFETY TIPS I I I I LIsted below are several safety tips that should be followed In addition to any local safety requirements. If arcing noises are present.


Proper maintenance and calibration of the recording devices should also be done. Section 4.. . Usted below are monitored: Dally amp charts Unusual operating characteris ics Auid levels Casing and tubing pressure Gauges (tubing & casing) Tear-down reports Cause analyses Daily Monitorina I Sufficient records should be kept to allow the engineer or foreman to get an overview of the pump's operation and well performance.I MONITOIRING AND REPORTING Monitoring some da1:a is the to be key to efficient ESP opera tions. ua "UlIUId~t:U. ..2 shows a Standard OpArating Procedure used by Sacroc to monitor well performance. If electronic data gathering systems are used then a hard copy should be kept periodically so the entire pump life can be examined. Any out of the ordinary operating characteristics should be noted In the well's file.. I I I '-""IG'lUa'IUI'~ .. Seven day or daUy charts should be used. Amperage charts should be maintained and used as a daily monitoring procedure (see Trouble Shooting Amp Charts).


Rangley Shuttle Valve
A second alternative Is the shuttle valve developed In Rangely, Colorado. and Is similar to a check valve. The main dlHerence Is when the ESP shuts down, the check valve drops. preventing "uld !rom flowing through the ESP, and exposes a side opening which allows the tubing 'and annulus to equalize. The side opening will allow chemicals to be pumped down the tubing, but not through the ESP. When the ESP Is restarted the check valve rises and seals the side opening.




EQUIPMENT TI,e ESP system can be divided Into subsurface and surface components. rhe major downhole components Include an electric motor. seal section. muill-siage cenlrifugalpump wilh an Intake and discharge. and power cable. Optional downhole equipment may Illclude a bottomhole pressure/temperature sensor. check and drain valves. motor shroud. and a gas separator. The surface components illclude a 'unction box. switchboard. and transformers. A typical ESP Illstalialion Is shown in Figure A. A description of each component I~ given below ,beginning downhole and moving up the well.
..I Subsur1ace EoulDment



ESP motors are two-pole. threEt-phase, squirrel cage Induction motors which operate at fl nominal speed of 3500 rpm at 60 Hz. Voltages range from 480 to 4,125 volts, whOe amperages range from 14 to 143 amps. Horsepower Is Increased by Increasing motor length for a given diameter size or motor series. Large horsepclwer requirements usually require two or more motors, commonly referred to as tandem motors. Molors.. are lilled with a nonconductlve oil with a high dieleclr!c strength which provkJes lubrication lor bearings and good thermal conductIvity. Produced fluid moving past the outside 01 the motor carries heat away; cooling the motor (minimum recommended fluid velocity Is I ft/sec). lIthe fluid veloclty'\s nor sufllclenllo coollhe motor, or if Ihe motor Is located below the per1orations, 0 shroud should be placed around'the motor.


Seal~Pro'ec'or, Equalizer
The seal section (also known a!i a protector or equalizer) Is located between the motor and lIuld Intake 01 the pump. The seal sery~s live main junctions: ;"


t. .I .J. I.


eliliained In Ihe cable 10 escape 10 Ihe almOsphE!re before reaching Ihe switchboard. The junction box also provides easily accessible test points for electrically checking downhole equipment. [fa be used wilh pac.,-off type subpump hangar. Not necessary with EFT (Electronic Feed Through) hangar. Switchboard
Switchboards (motor controllers) consist of a motlor starter, relays for over1oad and under1oad protection, a circuit breaker, time delay relays, and a recording ammeter. The switchboard also features a lIghted display so that a pump's operating condillon can be seen from a distance. Overload and underload relays protect the ml)tor trom


drawing excessive amperage and Insufficient simperage, respectively A system does not automatically ~:11f It goes down on overload. Time delays are used to aliolN enough time to pass after a shutdown betore a restart attempt Is made; the time delay should be long enough to alli)w nuld In the tubing to equalize wilh the annular fluid. Time jjelays are also used with external control devices, such as tank level controls or line pressure switches. Excessive cyciling Is not recommended due to the high amperage occ:urrlng at start-up.

The ammeter records the amperage drawn by thel motor on a 24-hour or 7-day amp chart. Amp charts are a vital means 01 ESP diagnostics. They give Indications 01 power nuctuations. gas locking, pump-a", false starts, cycling, undercurrent loads, overload, debris, and normal conditions (see Trouble Shooting Amp Charts).
Variable Speed Drive (Optional)


ESPs are relatively Inllexible In their production range when operated at a fixed frequency. Variable speed dri'/es (VSOs) allow an operator to vary the frequency. and thus the flow rate, to bener match well conditions. However. '/SOs have high Initial and maintenance costs. Most ESP comlpanles rent VSO's lor testing.

Pump hot oil or water down t ! tubing if possible." :.:. ESPs become partially PlUgged asphaltenes.~:'1i Wax ! I I I I I Wax can tubing as remedied down the build up in the upper secti nl of the production in a rod pump well. wax or Occasionally. you likely have scale build up in your ESP.z TREATING (ACID."". Scale It well bore scale problems are presen in your field.C L... . Irol tubing over instead the treatment of the and the acid will nol contact t . The following some points annulus. Try to will can acid are to consider: pump This the oHers acid bener down co th . Excessively hot fluids down the nnulus could exceed the ESP cable temperature ratin . SCALE) !!JatinG PartiallY PluGGed ES~ with scale. Frequently you treat the pump for scale by pumping t e recommended tor your type ot scale through the pu p. Suggested treating is as tollows. .". These pr blems can often be by hot oiling or hot watering down the tubing or annulus through the pump. he following is a key point to consider: . ..... (Be r\ cause emulsions that tion) Not to mention eleased from scale.. reducing pump performance and i creasing lifting cost. c:ii:'!if::. .armored cable.: . Corrosion inhibitors can be ad to protect the steel armor a careful! Corrosion inhibitors c could be damaging to the for' tormation plugging trom tines ed to acid treatments ound the cable.

.. the propl!r treatment can be applied before the pump becomes Irreversibly plugged.:::. the hot 011 must be I I I I I pumped down the annulus..~~. Chemical manufacturers have additives to hellp Improve solvent penormance.~~~:::.-..Asphaltenes I II you diagnose an asphaltene problem. Otherwise.. Hat all If a check valve exists above the ESP.: 'i~.:. .:::. When pumping down the annulus. :. I I If asphaltenes cut material are suspected a wlreline knife can be used to loose In the tubing.: .1. This material can be analyzed. formation clamage. breaking them up so they can be removed. thereby rE!qulrlng less volume and lower temperatures.L ? 1~~~~=~:==:=~~~!!I~~ :.:~~:. It Is more desirable to IPump down the tubing In order to prevent exposing the cable to the hot all.:.oncerns about scaling. Hot watering wililrequently have better results thiin hot oiling C. Be sure to ~ ~ the ~~ manufacturer ~ Dumolng solven~ to be sure what allect they will have on elastomers (rubber material) Ilrl the cable and pump.. the hot 011 can be pumped down the tubing...~~.1j£ . aromatic solvents (such as xyiene and toluene) must be used to disperse the asphaltenes. corrosion.:. If It proves to be asphaltenes. bacteriel.. and emulsion problems can be overcome by using I.. use one and a hall annular volumes at 80% to 100% of the formation \ Hlot Watering temperature. use two tubing volumes at 80% to 100% 01 the lormatlon tlemperature.. Th~ procedure lor hot watering Is the same as hot oiling except Droduced water is used.:.~::._c~ . Cable may be damaged If the temperature of the 011 exceeds the cable's temperature rating. The advantage 01 using water I~i that It holds heat longer than oil..:.. Good rules of thumb awe: When pumping down the tubing.

the volume and strength of acid required can be ""determined by the quantity of scale present.I t appropri"te chemical additives. rather than smaller volume and stronger solution. Good rules of Ihumb are: I.eatlng ! T al:idizing procedure lor a seized ESP Involves a lined The Ifpressllre truck with a lined or nonreactive pump. Always use a larger volume and weaker solution. Rules 01 thumb I:atering lare the same as lor hot oiling. The acid shoul(]1 be thoroUGhly mixed orior to pumping down the Itubin~11.'~ suggested acid procedure is as lollows: ' . acid with good U~e 2 bbls/ I 000 leel 01 lubing. because the bottom ortlorl 01 the cable and some cable bands will unavoidably come In contact with the acid. II the acid is weaker the ~orroslve ellects are lessened. U~e a 5% solution 01 appropriate c:orrosion inhibition additives. t 8r. All large acid supply companies will analyze a proouced water sample from the well to predict the type of S cale present Once the type of acid and corrosion Inhibitors re selected. Selection lor hot ~Cid he type of scale present will determine the type of acid equirecJ.

tubing volume of acid Into the ESP. The iron acts to crosslink the asphallene molecules. tubing volume 01 acid Into the ESP. Allow a 15 minutelor soak lime the acid 10 work. tubing volume 01 spent acid Into the annulus and the next '/. 6. 3. 5. lormlng added. tubing volume 01ack1 Is used up. Pump a Iresh. as It dissolves scale Irom the tubing 2. Let soak approximately six hours.Rate Description 1 Pump until acid Is above the ESP. Pump the V.oil sludges. tubing volume 01 acid Is not pumped Ihrough the ESP because II will be diluted by tile nuid used 10 displace Ihe acid (usually waler) Acldlzlng Asphaltenes Asphaltic crudes are sensitive to the presence ollerric iron during acidizing operations. Turn on the ESP and produce the spent acid down the flowline. Volume 11ublng volume acid of (bbls/mln) I I 'h tubing volume of ~ acid 4. Iron . or spent. y..r . The first '/. . lubing volume 01 ~ acid 'h The final Y. unspent Y.

or spent.I Treallng The asphaltene removal procedure lor a seized ESP Involves a pressure truck with a pump containing tenon seals. tubing volume 01 spent solvent Into the annulus and the next Y. I . 6. tubing volume of !-i solvent 5. Turn on the ESP and produce the spent solvent down the nowtine. tubing volume of scjvent Into the ESP. as it removes asphaltene from the Volume 1 tubing volume 01 RIle (bbls/mln) 1 solvent I I tubing 2. Pump the Y. unspent V. The first Yo tubing volume of solvent Is used up. 3. tubing volume 01 solvent Into the ESP. The solvent Is thoroughly mixed prior to pumping It Is then pumped down the tubing A typical asphallene removal program is as follows: Description 1 Pump untH solvent Is above the ESP. Pump a fresh. Allow a 15 minute soak lime lor the solvenl to work. six hours. Let soak approximately I I I ~ tubing volume 01 solvent ~ -4 'I.

h will come in contact with the cable and destroy the Integrity 01 Its nuld jacket. .sequestering agents are IneHective at preventing ackt-oU sludging since the sludges are formed before the sequestering agents function. unbiased testing. send a sample to COFRC. and these will swell and seize the ESP if they are contacted by a solvent. I I I r Most miscible flooding operalions will have asphallene deposition In the well during Initial stages 01 gas breakthrough. The various chemical manufacturers have sur1actants and dispersants which will Improve the performance 01these aromatic solvents. I '. Most fluid jackets are nltr~e-based and most solvents will swell nitrite 25 '0 50%. I I . For complete. Improving the eHectiveness of the acid. A good rule 01 thumb lor treatment volumes Is 1 bbl/IOOO leet ollubing 01 aromatic solvent/asphallene dispersant as a preflush to the acid. II solvent Is pumped down the annulus at lull strength. I Solvent Selection The Iwo most common and eHective aromatic solvents are xytene and toluene. Solvent-Rubber Reaction Solvent Is usually pumped down the tubing and rarely down the annulus. Check with the ESP manufacturer before pumping any solvents through an ESP. but the testing Is extremely biased. The aromatic will also clean the tubing and ESP. I I I I . This Is usually done quickly. These sludges can best be controlled by a prenush of aromatic solvent/asphaltene dispersant which removes any existing asphaltene deposits plus acts as a spacer between the acid and oil. Chemical companies will test a sample 01 asphaltene and determine which Is the best lormula lor the sample given. Some manufacturers use nitrite bushings in the pump. II this happens the cable armor may burst and/or an electrical short will occur. Both are equally eHectlve at repetizing asphaltenes. The testing time Is longer but the recommendations will be nonbiased.

and Immedlale producllon upon reslartIng.' allow Immediale reslarting. reverse circulating down Ihe annulus can be done inslead. The major dlsadvanlage is Ihat check valves do nor allow clrculallon down Ihe tubing. The advanlages are Ihal check val\/es are inexpensive. prevenl sand or particles In Ihe fluid fr. A good bbls/ I 000 feel of tubing.The volume of solvent will be determined rule by the quantity of asphallene present. .Qm plugging pump during shuldown. a coiled tubing unit can be used to clear the plug In the tubing and/or squeeze solvent through the ESP Plugging can be avoided by implemer1tlng the monitoring Aeduclna program described below. No Check Valve Check valves are Ihe mosl common melhod of prevenllng nuid from passing Ihrough Ihe pump. Back Spin Relay I . Treatment CQl1J I Check Valve VI. of thumb Is IIC) use 2 II the tubing or ESP Is plugged solkj and pumping clown the tubing Is impossible.

..c.Redesign .~7 '.I PUMP OFF ~roblems ....Stimulate ( ".i.~~~::::::::: .Unit 100 large syslem with smaller pump (currenl syslem 100 large) well Solutions I I .

Auto restart delay not of sufficient lenglh to allow adequate fluid build-up.FALSE STARTS Problem~ .Increase .Redesign restart delay ESP - . SolutIOQ~ .

three-phase sta~ard transformers.Transformers Transformers are used to convert primary line volta'ge to motor voltage requirements. dry type transformelrs are available. Three types of transformers used In conjunction with ESPs are: banks 01 three single-phase transformers. The transformers are oill-filled and self-cooling. The transformers are equipped with taps to provide maximum flexibility In voltage outPut. arKi three-phase auto transformers. For oHshore platiorms where oil-filled transformers might be prohibited. . I I I I I I .


TROUBLE SHOOTING Section 3 3. For help in Inlerpreling amp charts see Trouble Shoaling Amp Charts. the unit downhole I:rom the i.. 5. call an electrician to check lor a shan downhole before anempting to reslan. 6. ~I j. . I I . 4. . . Visually inspect transformer hookups.1 TROUBLE SHOOTING GENERAL Check the switchboard's indicator lights 10 see it ihe unit is running If down. These Ituses will open when there is a surge of power on one leg. . I. 7 "I Insure the electrician checks lowest point of connection. !! . .j . Check primary fuses to see If they are open. check to see it it is down due 10 IJnder1oad or over1oad. 2 :1 Check the amp chart 10 see if any unusual lines or blips are present.. Check Ihe murphy switch or the eX1ernal switches Ihey are coni rolling the switchboard. 10 see Ii 3. . f. II down due 10 an over1oad condition.

.~\li(:.:.~..~ t.a .:t~.:. .:....:.I I I J-.I!t._-~..-.~:::..:.i..~ J~j..... ..1. :' --_~~~__2~~:.


Problem #2: Unil shuls down due to undercurrent.Change out pump. Underioad set too high .. . Possible Corrective Actlcinl Possible Causes Low well productivity pumped-oN condition . Treating) . I I I I I. . I .Pump acid down tubin!) and through pump II tubing Is open to pump discharge. consider pump ctllange.Shoot fluid level. .Check amperage dowrlhole on all three phases and comlpare with nameplate amperage 01 motor.Check amperage downhole I I Plugging of pump Intake . Have the pump ackilzed and tested beliore sending lor repair. \I there Is lIullj In the well. Do nol go below 60% 01 molar arnperage. This may avoid the unnecessary cost of repairing a scaled pump. (see 13ectlon2.Pump acid down backside and spot around pump Intake.Check to see if pump Is pumping fluid. Reset under1oad lilt Is above 80% 01 nameplate amperage. Pump water down backside II no fluid levEllls available.

Check pressure on wellhead and lIowline. Check amps again. Is gas locked .Check setting depth to see if unit can be lowered closer to perforations. Pump water down backside if available. . . Reverse leads again.Install Faulty remole conlrols switchboard 10 shroud or gas separator. Reverse unit In switchboard by changing two downhole leads.Check pressure control circuit or other auxiliary that could cause shutdown.Broken shah In unit ~ .Pump water down backside break gas lock. ~Pump . Flowline restrictions I . " amperage Is constant through this procedure.Vent casing to flowline to II possible . Check to see it pu~p is pumping fluid. Start unit again.Compare downhole amperage with Idle load amperage (typically 45-55% 01 nameplate amps). . are open. they should be within :t 10% of lirst reading.Check all valves to make sure the'. a broken shaft exists and the unit must be pulled.

I I I I I I"r..'~i._:~:~ -:. . ..':..' . .~: ."' :. ~. ..

: ~ .'~. II Possible Causes Possible Corrective Actions = C II Control relaystuck ". I '~t:..8rOb'em #51: Unit will not restart atter underload shutdown. [prOblem #6: Unit will not shut down with HOA switch.J I I Problem#7: Unit will not shut down by underloador overlclad.

i.5.Possible Cause.Check remote contclcts and clean or repair as neces~lry.Underload underload Is set too low. II ~or~al~ust setting. Change II necessarf.i. Unll will nol slart In lime-oil II relmole contacts are open.Check remote circuits. Undercurrent shutdown Remote controls have opened and shut unit Possible Corrective Ac:tlonl .~.Check lor correct phasing on control power Irans10rmer. timer sequence Is not operational. I Unit starts but shuts down withIn 5 seconds I Unit will not tlme-olf I ..Check downhole arTlperage.st the lowest I I I I 1 se"lng mark. Check CT ratio 8~ adjust underload as needed. ~~. " Is set pa.7 10 controller If necessary. .iL -" .Check CT phasing. . .Check for open or closed contacts on remote circuits and clean or repair as necessary. down . . Change 3.


' Pump The submersible pump Is a multi-stage centrifugal pump. Provides a reservoir for volume changes as the motor oil heats up and cools down. ..:. the impeller will be in a downthrust condilloQ.' :.~:.~~' t~". In combination with a labyrinth chamber. Several operators have Increased run lives using tandem seal sections as an added means of protection. Seals may also contain a positive elastomeric barrier. However. The blocking fluid is commonly the same ail used In the motor.' '. ii. which are the most common.-" "'. or BAG.. gas separators may be Installed between the seal and pump to reduce the amount of tree gas entering the pump.. ::::::::-i:" ~'::::i~i:.. It may also be a high density fluid for special applications. fluid. -~:.. Aoating imoellers. move axially along the shaft and are tree-floating when the pump is operating within the recommended capacity range (see Figure B).~~'.- .~1t~ .::o..:.'.' . ..:-~. Allows pressure equalization between Ihe well annulus pressure and the molar internal pressure. :c. ~~~.:i'. that produces a given amount ot head for a given volume..i.:: I Seals contain a labyrinth chamber with a blacking fluid between the well fluid and motor ail..::. Gas separators QQ !:!Q! handle significant volumes of free gas efficiently. 3 4 5. each stage consisting ot a rotating Impeller and a stationary diffuser.. jf the pump is operating ~ (to the left of) the recommended capacity ~. Gas Separators (optional) Gas reduces the efficiency of ESPs. ~Ie~ '~!~I . ~I ... . Conversely. Impeilers may be either floatinq or fixed.. Protects the motor oil from contaminalion by the well .:~~i.:~ . 2. Connects the drive shalt of the motor directly to the pump shatto Absorbs the axial thrust from the pump. ::[. Both reverse flow and rotary separators are available with the latter being more efficient at gas separation...~.. Some operators run tandem gas separators In high GaR wells 10 more effectively remove gas trom the pump intake. if the pump is operating ~ (to the right of) the recommended capaCity~ the . therefore.


The most common is a melal alloy called NI-Resist which Is composed mainly 01 iron and nickel. Drain valves are not required unless a check valve Is used. f:lxed Impeller. I . and since corrosion does not affect plastic. Check and Drain Valve. Impellers may be made 01 dl"erent materials. For 8 given diameter pump. (Optional Equipment) A check valve. The check valve. Impellers are classified as either radial flow or mixed flow type. located one loint above the check valve. Ryton Is advantageous in scaly or corrosive envlronmenls since scale does not lorm on the Ryton. NI-Reslst Is belter for deep wells. if not plugged open by debris. A drain valve. This reverse rotation occurs when the fluid In the tubing tails back aher the unit has stopped. An attempt to start the system while the pump Is rotating backward could result In a twisted shalt. Allhough this saves impeller and diHuser wear. thus protecting the pump trom reverse rotation.I impeller will be in an u~Ihrust condition Both downthrust and upthrust can cause excessive wear and can be detrimental to the pump. Drain valves also allow circulation ollhe wall when a check valve is run. Other Impellers are made 01 a plasllc called Ryton. fIxed Impellers may allow lor a high axial thrust to be developed which must be absorbed by the thrust bearing In the seal. prevents pulling a wet tubing string. will keep the fluid trom tailing. and abrasive I I I fluids. radial flow Impellers will have higher head pressure but slightly lower rate capacity than mixed now Impellers. I I Fixed Impellers are directly connected 10 the pump shalt and cannot move axially. high temperatures. prevents the pump trom rotating In the reverse direction when the unit shuts down. located two to three joints above the pump.

. The cable Is made up of three copper conductors. . temperature. and No. Cables are available In round or "at configurations a~ In various sizes.1 (largest).58-65 amps -66+ amps I I As B general rule. Flat cables are used where clearance between the unh and casing Is small The most common conductor sizes are No. .Power Cable Electric cable strapped to the tubing Supplies power from the switchboard to the motor. No.~::~~. General amperage ratings for the diHerent cable sizes are: #8 #4 #2 #1 -up to 37 Imps -38-57 Imp. The 'unction box allows gas ~.--"'---' "- .:. temperature. corrected for boltomhole exceed 30v /1000 It. and pressure.~. A metal armor Is wrapped around the/acket lor further protection against mechanical damage. The metal armor also helps prevent swelling when gas or liquid permeates the jacket material at high pressures.6 (smallest). either solid or mullistrand The conductors are Individually Insulated: various Insulallons are available depending on well fluids. should not Motor Flat Cable A motor "at cable. gas may permeate tile cable and migrate to the surlace.2. connected 10 the lop 01 the motor. The molar fiat Is necessary due to the lack 01 clearance belween the ESP and casing Sul1ace Eaulcmenl I Junction Box A vented junction box is located between the wellhead arid switchboard. voltage drop within the Installed length of cable.4. In high pressure wells. No. A jacket material surrounds the Ins~ated conductors for protection against mechanical damage and the environment.-"'. Is run along the length 01 the ESP syslem and spliced Into the main power cable lust above Ihe pump.j~:.



Sending equipment to be tested Is of particular Importance when equipment has been subjected to a hostile well environment (high water cut. I 1 . It is recommended that it be tested. if the equipment Is not going to be rerun Immediately. if not more so. HJS. gyP. The cleaning of equipment and preparation for storage that Is Included In the testing procedure. or unlU acid reaction Is complete. or If there is doubt as to hs condition. 3 HCL containing an Inhibitor and dispersant should be pumped through the pump lor a minimum 01 two hours. a well site Inspection may be adequate to determine whether it Is suitable lor rerunning. ! . and asphaltenes. in particular. I I I When ESP equipment Is pulled from a well its disposition may vary from running h back Into a well. Pumps. The pump should be steam cleaned Inside and out 10 remove paraffin and well fluids. expensive repair costs can also be reduced as much as 90%. than the testing Itself. to having h tested by a manufacturer or testing company. is as Important.+-ANA I L YZE PBQ~L-. to sending it to the manufacturer to be rebuilt. left stored on the rack without flushing can "lock down. In the motor testing program.!4. such as a twisted shah. Testing Is an Inexpensive means of determining the condition of used equipment. ! PumR Tesllng Each section 01 a pump should be Inspected lor problems.1 EQUIPMENT TESTING I i i I . etc. 4 The pump should be flushed with clear water prior 10 lesli"g. .EM Section 4 . COl. hole in the housing. However. if scale is present. or any problem that would require h to be sent lor repairs rather than testing. paraffins. 2. lf the equipment was pulled for some reason other than a failure. Olher chemical washes are also avaUable 10 remove sulfate scale. I 'ii~~U1 . and become Inoperable.).

8. 7. Typically. Check the phase-la-phase (lead-to-lead) resistance II should be balanced among all leads.g a. the phase-to-ground (lead-to-housing) b. Molar Testlo. Check resistance. h should be more than 2000 on a megohm meter with no pressure c. megohms device. . 9.5 I I 6.

IROUBlE ~HOOTlt~G AMMETER CHARTS rnalyzing ammeler charts Is one of Ihe best ways to diagnose a . Comparing these amp charts to your amp chart may give an B Indication 01 the type 01 problem you have.~ulllber of problems.Submerslble Pump Handbook" with permission Ilroin Centrilift.. I I I I I . LIsted on the next few pages are examples of ammeter charts lor various operating conditions. These charts are reprinted from the .

. ~!)!I ~~j~iJ 0.I I I I NORMAL .'."I. lJ~!..' "oJ :.O' .Under normal conditions the ammeter should draw a smooth symmetrical curve near nameplate current. . S'plkes at start-up are normal.. . o..': :. "':.o'~... '.' '.:. Oil"" -J .

10 causes 01 fluctuations (Start-up Injection pumps) . ..' I I POWER FLUCTUATIONS Problems . . ' " .) (Start-up of large HP SolU1lons ..~' .J.4 At I-(~ I Z 8 3 .~ I °1\"ifs :.Fluctuation of Primary Power Supply motors Injection pumps etc.I :1 -::°.Call power company of larget HP mott .Investigate Power Fluctuations .

Coast time should be smooth and last 6 to 8 seconds.:. " . The motor then coasts down alter running.. .." This procedure Involves placing \he mo\or in an Insulated compartment and applying DC current to the stator until the tempera\ure reaches 250°F.~.\:~.. The hi-pot lesl should be run al a' vollage which can be calculaled by the following equalion: (NPV) x 1..1.. cap nXltorwhile It Is still lull 01oil. Do not steam head. The motor should be lIushed Irom top down while qurning rotor stack occasionally. . .~::. .i~.~. it c'Duld possibly be salvaged by sending it \hrough a "mini dryIDu\.' 't I.' r~ The P . Flush the oil unit the discharge is clear. The lead washers on Iill valves should always lor tie replaced.5 + 1. :. ) ~ 1 lJ The spin test Is per1ormed by running the motor at Name Plate Voltage until the temperature reaches 100°F. Dielectric strength 01the 011should be atlealst 25KV. .' -. b. and melled babbit contenl (silver In oil'l..Cle~n molor I a Sleam clean body to within one foot of motor head.1. (NPV) = Narneplale Voltage) 6 . I' .0. I~ ! I.!~~1-:~":=~. I The phase-to-ground megohms trom the hi-pot test should be greater than 5.lleakage) oflhe molar should be calculated and have a grealer value than 2. i f ~ : ~ \I \he motor does no\ mee\ \he above cri\eria. Ii . Once Ilush Is co~lete.r.: t: O.:1 . All boll holes and pothead cap a. varnish/epoxy content.rings should be checked damage. --" ::~\. Check oil during Ilush lor obvious Indicators 01 nXltor problems..7. . Solvent wash molor head and lill valve areas " I T"8 nXltor oil should be drained and checked lor bronze content (Indicator 01 bearing wear). Spin testing should be per1orl1ned tor both the clockwise and counterclockwise directions. water content:.000 megohms. r. r ~ 17 I I . While the motor Is cooling it Is 1 ~~i(~!!~~j~l~i~. .~.

the motor is retested as previously described. I I I I I I I . Replacement 01 the motor Insulation block In the terminal head Is recommended as part 01 any "mllli dryou. I ..".::~-~ ~ purged with nitrogen After the dryout.

.m' w".."oo T"m "". lo. .'ed hV.' 10' d"'..".II'V A.o"V""d'05AC'OC"""5"oo"dOO"""" O""d. SACROC O"."". g.o"."hm.". f. 1- ~ .ed""o. '00 .""" o"mp' I I I I I I I I .rno.I ~2 STANDARD RATING I DOE ORDCEDURE 1 1h' loll~.

I -:'~.Lower .Put pump on \imer production pump back .Redesign .Gas fluid 'e~el e~oI~es In pump .Choke .~..S-Q!Y1!~ .1f-:--.I GAS LOCKING I ~ .Lowering .I 111 .

PnllUrt . ... unit D n. Inltl. c. Commt8U: 8~.lia..a8uoD: (YIN! I Do. 18m. 1111 m8pr roalldtnllt081 lor ~alpmtDIItI«kd: VI.pIoW: Do.Comm.ta Sheet. E.WORKOVER AJrnFlClAL UFT SELECll0N n...u UII (F't v.1 ~uipment Selection w... tqUlpm'8' fWlllb.II" brirf r'pl. mlled for! If 80.WO c.. rn-wo nul. W.orillD811.acn .

DAn: fllnD u:vEl COMMENTS IX.." " .. Dale Equip. X.~ 1\ WORKOVER VII. RUD RUIOD Pulled os Up/DUp/D. Poll Workower Tell 0818 D4TE 80 BW GV DATA 1\ Ii VIII.~'--. Up/D. CO1~ POll Work ower fluid lAwell CASING PRESS.~'-.. Resl" Dall Equip.7':~. Up/D. Comments: I I I I ~ ~~:-: ....-.-' I !:l!. Up/D.


':i O. ! . (Bill' Ford at COFRC for more information about or to obtain a copy of the program."I DESIGN! "Capital and operating costs.!' . I ' . I -ESPO. and ease of . Contact W. Although computer programs make the technical task of ESP design easier. I An IBM PC computer program called ESPO (Electric Submersible Pump Optimization' is available from COFRC for ESP design. ESPO selects the most economic system for each manufacturer considering both capital cost and power cost. I I I .-~ ..:. well conditions.. they should not preclude your engineering judgement and experience.opera~ing and maintaining the equipment are key considerations 'e when designing an ESP... equipment and service performance. H. reservoir perlormance. -.II.:':' .

TI19 foundation 01 good decisions Is historical data. whict! utilizes many lools of decision analysis. Please keep go~ recordsl !. Merek. .DECISION At~AL YSIS ECONOMICS Decision analysis can help you make Ihe best economic artificial lift decision. Is a good program to base your economic decisions.

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Pump .Chevron Representative (coordinale Iplacement 01 equipment.I PUL G A~ 1Jl':/J TABI: UP Ssction 6 I INSTALLATION/PULLING PROCEDURES Pre-Job Checklist listed In this section are tips that will hopefully lead to fewer failures.Check Valve . Eaulcment ReQuired Motor Ogtlonal EglliPJillll!'.Variable Speed Driver .Switchboard .Cable Reel (54" or larger! . . For complete running and pulling directions please consult API RP IIR.Electrician (lor disconnecting and connecting ESP and testIng cable! " Subpump SeNlce Technician (on 10catlof1lor length 01 lob) ! .Transformers . I .Gas Separator . timing 01 deliveries.Round Power Cable . and supeNislon 01 the installation!.Seal Section .Motor Shroud .ESP Tubing Hanger with Tubing Head .Cable Bands and Bander (Hand band with precut bands or power band with reel 01stainless steel bands! . I 00 NOT RUSH.Junction Box .Cable Motor Flat .Tubing PUP (2'-6') Services Required .Drain Sub . Preolannina is an investment for success.Rnlnn npnlh A ~Ip~n ntillrin t)plnw IhA . Wellbore PregaraliQn Run a bit and positive scraper set to drih diameter at least 100 leet below nllmn !.

~gJRunnlna performed. damaged.bottom perforation Is recommended any past and present "tIght spots. unloading. Note Eaulcment Handling When unloading ESP equipment. Never pick-up In the middle! If the equipment damaged. or appears already II should be checked by the service technician on Note: Slightly more than 50% of III ESP failures In Chevron Ire cable failures. .. Is dropped. Hold a safely meeting Suggested personnelon location: -2 Roor Hands -Derrick Man 1 Operator -2 Cable Reelers (if by hand) . so speclll care must be taken In handling the cable. If cost ellectlve. Never pick the cable reel up by the cable. use a spreader bar with a chain allached near each end of the box. Eaulomeot 10 discuss the scope of work 10 be Note any special problems or concerns. or storing. Any rotation of the cable will cause damage. Never let any load be placed on the cable during loading. location.

sight. as recommended by the subpump Clble ReellnQ/BandinglRunnlng Reeling 1 Reel size should be 54" or larger. . to prevent cable from dragging Banding It Is very Important the tubing. . Reel should be located 75-100' 'rom service rig. Continue with guard to lust below the "at cable-round cable side of above has the the flat splice. Always have the cable reel In the operator's line 01 5.I . Tubing band should be at right angles to the tubing with the cable vertical. that the cable be run straight up Band squarely across the cable. 4. Always have slack between the cable reel and guide wheel.' 2. 3. 6.1 Service Technician 1 Chevron Supervisor Handle equipmenl technician. 2. Use cable stands through the dirt. Start Immediately the pothead with a section of flat guard which bonom end slightly tapered. 3. Cable guide on rig should be no more than 30' above ground. Band flat cable and flat guards straight up the the seal sectlof11 and pump.

STOP and contact a service technician damaged. Quality control of the splicing procedures and materials determine the success of splice. Splices I I I Well conditions and field experience will dictate what type 01 splice Is appropriate. scale.!!Q! allow the tubing to rotate. doglegs.4. cables. must be smoothly wrapped and tight. Cleaniness of the tapes. Extra care should be laken In runnIng cable Inlo a well where an ESP has nol been Installed before. Specific procedures and recommendatIons can be obtained from the Rangely oHlce.75 (31655)) as minimum. additional bands may be required In consideration of the cable weIght. one midway on the lolnt. Stainless steel bands are recommended (025 x . 5. and the splicer's hands Is a must. This could elongate the cable and destroy the protective Insulation Avoid sharp edges and rubbing 01 the cable during running QQ.. etc. 8. Tapes if used. if the cable Is 7. The cable and conductors should not be manhandled or sharply bent during the splicing procedure. Running/Pulling Cable 1 QQ1!Ql apply tension to the cable.) larger bands (.035 X 1 25 (31655)) should be used. The person making the splice has the greatest Innuence over It. A Install two bands per 30' loint. Good splices are the key to reducing cable related failure. and the other 18" above the collar. Cable band should slightly deform cable power bander should use about 125 psla. armor. Where conditions warrant (hole deviations. I 6. The lob should not be rushed because the care and time taken here wUI be recovered In longer run times lor your systems. . If using lead sheathed power cable.

: . 4 5 6.) (Note depth of damage to cable) Keep slips In good condition with sharp dies of non-rotating type Be sure the swivel lock on the hook Is latched and that the hook Is not free to swivelRun and pull pump between 1000' and 2000' per hour Never pull the cable 'rom tile reel..~: ... ESP I B.'"1 I I I ! I I I 2 Clleck cable and molar every 2000' going in the hole (ulecllical conlinuilY and j'lsulalion resistance checks). . . 7 All slops and slarts should be as smoolh as possi~e. Always use lihlng subs lor raising or lowering equipment. . I I . J Check \he cable visually and electrically coming out 01 IIle hole. or the Insulation or armor is damaged (Remember: most cable fallurea reault from mishandling. . STOP and have a service technician Inspect the cable If the cable Is broken.

c. 4. 8. d. If pump falls electrician. . Low amperage and long pump-up time might Indicate reverse rotation. Check amp charts frequently and turn used charts In to supervisors when charts are changed. Make sure the load voltage required surface voltage. Insure that the restart time delay Is set for a minimum of 30 minutes. Observe the ammeter and flowline pressure during start-up. Set time delay for a minimum 01 30 minutes. I 11. consult a service technician and or I 9. Once the amps have stabilized after start-up do the following: a. Install pressure gauge in tree and record pressure. Set the seleclor 5wilch to the "Hand" or "Auto" posilion start the pump. Send 8 record of equipment to the well file. Install proper amp cllart Set overload amperage at 110-120 percent of motor I 3 nameplate amperage. Sel underload amperage al 80 percenl 01 running amps. 5.62 START-UP PROCEDURES before slart-up if possible. Is within 10 percent 01 the 10. 7. 8. and lank battery to 6. to start. Check all valves between the wellhead Insure they are In their proper position. Load tubing 2. Use 24-hour charts for first three days alter ESP Installation (may go to 7 -day charts alter). b.

.~~~.Gas .I I I GASSY Problems .:: . : "'.Install Is being produced through the pump Solutions pump (use shroud gas separator if pump lower than lowest peri) ~--".Lower .~~.: .-".~~.~-.

Obtain . - ..Plugged TBG .Check a nuid level alter shut-down lor high TBG pressure .Tubing leak Solutions .I I EXCESSIVE CYCUNG PrQblem~ .Too large a Unit .Detrimental to ESP motors .

No /luki In hole .!.g~ .UNDERCURRENT lOAD P.Remedial ackJ.Lower Undercurrent .Failure of timing relay ~~ . settings (by ESP specialist) I .

::~...Shut well In .I I I I UNDER CURRENT BELOW NO LOAD Problem~ I II . . '" I ~-.Unit oversized ..... ....:..: . . : ': :i: ...Under current set below Idle amperage Actions .

Controlled shut down (By tank level.Use .I I I I I I I I I CONTROLS Eroblems .Check auto start delay timer above thirty minutes HOA switch to delay start controls I . elc) ~ .Set .

Have . emulsions.Do electrician check out unit not restart . or mechanical problems (lightning). sand production.I I I OVERLOAD Problems .Increase I I I In nuld viscosity. motor overheat or worn equipment ~ctions .

:if: .d~ ~~' Proble~ . sand.- ". ".fA/ :..:-o:--~~ "-Ill: I I I I I I I I I I DEBRIS 0:- -< r ~ ~ .1.- .See treating .Use clean workover lIuids ..Clean well prior to ESP installation . I . I .Debris (scale. muds) SolutlQll~ . I : .."\J .

I I EXCESS RESTARTS Problems I I .Do .." 1 ---j~"J .Power problems unit ctlecked not restart out by an electrician Solulions .Have ..--- . . .

I I I .

. .Do not restar1 until unit Is checked out. burn motor.Change In suriace pressures .Mechanlcallallure (locked pump.I I I I I I I ERRATIC Problems .Change In specific gravity blown fuses) Solutions .

I'.--he lollowing tWo pages are Ilow chans generated by Chevron's Colorado oHice to help in trouble shoaling. [:~ I I I i:-t.. ~angeIY.:: .: tj. I I I I /}.

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