Wby Sbould You Care?
Cadmium is an extremely toxic; heavy metal which is a probable carcinogen and is commonly found in industrial workplaces
Cadmium is also used to manuIacture pigments and batteries and in the metal-plating and plastics industries Cadmium Poisoning
occurs when a person breathes in high levels of cadmium from the air, or eats food or drinks water containing high levels of
cadmium. Cigarettes are also a significant source of cadmium exposure For nonsmokers, food is generally the largest source
of cadmium exposure Cadmium levels in some foods can be increased by the application of phosphate fertilizers or sewage
sludge to farm fields.
Cadmium is a naturally occurring metal, but it is usually present in the environment as a mineral combined with other elements (eg,
oxygen, chlorine, sulIur) Occupational exposures to cadmium are encountered in the smelting and welding industries, shipyard
employment, construction industry, and the agricultural industry. Cadmium is used extensively in electroplating, although the
nature oI the operation does not generally lead to overexposures Cadmium is also found in some industrial paints and may
represent a hazard when sprayed. Hobbyists such as jewelry makers and artists may also be at increased risk due to the
common use of cadmium in imported jewelry and pigments in paints Operations involving removal oI cadmium paints by
scraping or blasting may pose a signiIicant hazard as well
The main sources of cadmium in the air are the burning of fossil fuels such as coal or oil and the incineration of municipal
waste Cadmium has been found in at least 1,014 of the 1,669 current or former Superfund National Priority List (NPL) sites
Cadmium groundwater contamination can result Irom entry into aquiIers oI mine drainage water, waste water, tailing pond
overflow, and rainwater runoff from mine areas
In the 1950`s and 1960`s the US Military conducted numerous unannounced and unethical human experiments which exposed
thousands of soldiers to cadmium sprays The military also sprayed at least six major cities in North America with cadmium
compounds as part of their large area dispersal tests. These tests were conducted during the cold war to model potential threats
Irom airborne chemical and biological agents which might be used in biochemical warIare
Either short-term or long-term exposure to cadmium can cause serious health problems The acute (short-term) eIIects oI
cadmium in humans through inhalation exposure consist mainly oI effects on the lung, such as pulmonary irritation Chronic
(long-term) inhalation or oral exposure to cadmium leads to a build-up of cadmium in the kidneys that can cause kidney
disease Cadmium has been shown to be a developmental toxicant in animals, resulting in Ietal malIormations and other eIIects, but
no conclusive evidence exists in humans An association between cadmium exposure and an increased risk of lung cancer has been
reported from human studies. There is also some evidence to suggest that diabetics may be more susceptible to the toxicity of

Proven and Probable Carcinogens.
The U$ Department oI Health and Human $ervices (HHS) has determined that cadmium and cadmium compounds are known
human carcinogens The International Agency Ior Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that cadmium is carcinogenic to
humans. EPA has classified cadmium as a Group B1, probable human carcinogen It has been linked to lung cancer and there
is a significant association between cadmium, liver cancer and pancreatic cancer It is also suspected as a risk Iactor in bladder
and prostate cancers
A recent study suggests that cadmium and ST exposures may synergistically increase risk for prostate cancer. The 2009
Emory Univ. Study found ~a nearly ten-fold increase in incidentprostate cancer among those with a history of a sexually
transmitted disease.¨

Sources and Uccurrence
ost cadmium used in the United $tates today is obtained as a byproduct Irom the smelting oI zinc, lead, or copper ores
Occupational Exposure is the greatest risk Ior nearly halI a million workers in the Iollowing industries:

$ource: AT$DR

Cadmium is also found in the following consumer products:
O Batteries
O Pigments
O Metal coatings
O Plastics
O Some metal alloys
O Fertilizers
O Cigarettes
O Silver solder
Cadmium has been detected in surIace water samples collected at 354 oI the 1,014 NPL hazardous waste sites, and in groundwater
samples collected at 675 oI these waste sites Cadmium may also be emitted into the air Irom zinc, lead, or copper smelters
For nonsmokers, food is generally the largest source of cadmium exposure Fruits and vegetables, especially grains, potatoes and
leaIy vegetables like spinach, grown in soils with high levels oI cadmium, may contain elevated levels oI cadmium $hellIish and
organ meats, like liver or kidney, oIten contain more cadmium than other Ioods According to the CDC, sunflower seeds absorb
cadmium Irom surrounding soil and water, and are a primary source that can expose humans to high levels oI cadmium poisoning over
long-term consumption Cadmium levels in some foods can be increased by the application of phosphate fertilizers or sewage
sludge to farm fields $moking is another important source oI cadmium exposure $mokers have about twice as much cadmium in
their bodies as do nonsmokers
Between 2003 and 2006, the annual cadmium reIinery production in the United $tates declined Irom 1,450 to 700 metric tons,
dropping 52° between 2005 and 2006 In 2005, it was estimated that the total cadmium recovery rate was only 12°, with an
estimated 40,000 tons of cadmium being disposed of in municipal waste or held in household storage or industry stockpiles
between 1996 and 2005.

Pollution History
In the 1950s and 1960s industrial exposure to cadmium was high, but as the toxic eIIects oI cadmium became apparent, industrial
limits on cadmium exposure have been reduced in most industrialized nations and many policy makers agree on the need to reduce
exposure Iurther $erious toxicity problems have resulted Irom long-term exposure to cadmium plating baths
Buildup oI cadmium levels in the water, air, and soil has been occurring particularly in industrial areas Environmental exposure to
cadmium has been particularly problematic in Japan where many people have consumed rice that was grown in cadmium
contaminated irrigation water This phenomenon is known under the name itai-itai disease For these elderly Japanese women high
cadmium levels can lead to painIul and debilitating bone disease in individuals with risk Iactors such as poor nutrition Decreases in
bone mineral density, increases in the risk oI
Iractures, and increases in the risk oI osteoporosis have also been observed in populations living in cadmium polluted areas

Food is another source oI cadmium Plants may only contain small or moderate amounts in non-industrial areas, but high levels may
be Iound in the liver and kidneys oI adult animals
Cigarettes are also a signiIicant source oI cadmium exposure Although there is generally less cadmium in tobacco than in Iood, the
lungs absorb cadmium more eIIiciently than the stomach
Aside Irom tobacco smokers, people who live near hazardous waste sites or Iactories that release cadmium into the air have the
potential Ior exposure to cadmium in air However, numerous state and Iederal regulations in the United $tates control the amount oI
cadmium that can be released to the air Irom waste sites and incinerators so that properly regulated sites are not hazardous The
general population and people living near hazardous waste sites may be exposed to cadmium in contaminated Iood, dust, or water
Irom unregulated releases or accidental releases Numerous regulations and use oI pollution controls are enIorced to prevent such
Workers can be exposed to cadmium in air Irom the smelting and reIining oI metals, or Irom the
air in plants that make cadmium products such as batteries, coatings, or plastics Workers can
also be exposed when soldering or welding metal that contains cadmium Approximately 512,000
workers in the United $tates are in environments each year where a cadmium exposure may
occur Regulations that set permissible levels oI exposure, however, are enIorced to protect
workers and to make sure that levels oI cadmium in the air are considerably below levels thought to result in harmIul eIIects
In 1985, The National Institute Ior Occupational $aIety and Health (NIO$H) doctors examined 45 current and Iormer cadmium
workers The exam included blood and urine samples NIO$H also examined 32 hospital workers who had not been exposed to
cadmium The purpose was to see iI cadmium workers had signs oI kidney damage that the other workers didn't
The Iinal NIO$H report on this study came out in 1988 The study Iound that cadmium workers had more cadmium in their blood and
in their urine than hospital workers; 8 oI 45 (18°) cadmium workers had kidney stones and 1 oI 32 (3°) hospital workers had kidney
It Iound signs that the kidneys oI cadmium workers were not working as well as they should be
For example, 18 oI 45 (40°) cadmium workers had too much protein in their urine Only 1 out oI 29 (3°) hospital workers had too
much protein in their urine
Protein in the urine is a typical Iinding in people exposed to too much cadmium
One reason to stop kidney damage is that once the kidney is damaged, it may never return to normal This was seen in cadmium
workers who showed signs of kidney damage even though they had not worked at the plant for over 5 years.
Artists who work with cadmium pigments, which are commonly used strong oranges, reds, and yellows, can easily accidentally ingest
dangerous amounts, particularly iI they use the pigments in dry Iorm, as with chalk pastels, or in mixing their own paints
$ome sources oI phosphate in Iertilizers contain cadmium in amounts oI up to 100 mg/kg, which can lead to an increase in the
concentration oI cadmium in soil (Ior example in New Zealand) Nickel-cadmium batteries are one oI the most popular and most
common cadmium-based products, and this soil can be mined Ior use in them
An experiment during the early 1960s involving the spraying oI cadmium over Norwich has recently been declassiIied by the UK
government, as documented in a BBC News article
At the beginning oI 2010, Iollowing reports oI toxic cadmium and lead in kids' jewelry, the head oI the Consumer Product $aIety
Commission urged that cheap metal bracelets, necklaces, pins and other jewelry be taken Irom children

In February 2010, cadmium was Iound in an entire line oI Wal-art exclusive iley Cyrus jewelry
The charms were tested at the behest oI the Associated Press and were Iound to contain high levels oI
cadmium Wal-art did not stop selling the jewelry until ay 12 because "it would be too diIIicult to
test products already on its shelves

On June 4 cadmium was detected in the paint used on promotional drinking glasses Ior the movie $hrek Forever AIter, sold by
cDonald's Restaurants, triggering a recall oI 12 million glasses Coca Cola also recalled tens oI thousands oI glasses Ior the same
reason The paint used by the largest producer oI soIt drinks in the world was Iound to also have cadmium
Despite the awareness oI the problem these cheap toxic glasses and cups remain a
problem $uch problems are supposed to exist Ior only a short period oI time, when
announcements are made and recalls are issued No one says anything about the
examples oI the same thing on previous promotional cups, which come out every
Another problem is the collector market Ior such cheap items and glasses A review
oI both cDonald's $hrek glasses and Coca cola's glasses reveal many thousands are
bought and sold on eBay all the time Apparently these toxic cups and glasses are still
collectible aIter they are Iound to be hazardous to human health?

Acute inhalation exposure to high levels oI cadmium in humans may result in eIIects on the lung, such as bronchial and pulmonary
irritation A single acute exposure to high levels of cadmium can result in long-lasting impairment of lung function Cadmium is
considered to have high acute toxicity, based on short-term animal tests in rats
Acute exposure to cadmium Iumes may cause Ilu like symptoms including chills, fever, and muscle ache sometimes referred to as
"the cadmium blues." $ymptoms may resolve aIter a week iI there is no respiratory damage ore severe exposures can cause
tracheo-bronchitis, pneumonitis, and pulmonary edema. Symptoms of inflammation may start hours after the exposure and
include cough, dryness and irritation of the nose and throat, headache, dizziness, weakness, fever, chills, and chest pain.
Inhaling cadmium-laden dust quickly leads to respiratory tract and kidney problems which can be fatal (often from renal
failure). Ingestion of any significant amount of cadmium causes immediate poisoning and damage to the liver and the kidneys.
Compounds containing cadmium are also carcinogenic.
The bones become soft (osteomalacia), lose bone mineral density (osteoporosis) and become weaker. This causes the pain in the
joints and the back, and also increases the risk of fractures. In extreme cases of cadmium poisoning, mere body weight causes
a fracture.
The kidneys lose their Iunction to remove acids Irom the blood in proximal renal tubular dysIunction The kidney damage inflicted
by cadmium poisoning is irreversible. The proximal renal tubular dysIunction creates low phosphate levels in the blood
(hypophosphatemia), causing muscle weakness and sometimes coma. The dysIunction also causes gout, a form of arthritis due
to the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints because of high acidity of the blood (hyperuricemia) Another side eIIect is
increased levels oI chloride in the blood (hyperchloremia) The kidneys can also shrink up to 30° Other patients lose their sense oI
smell (anosmia)

Chronic EIIects (Noncancer):
Chronic inhalation and oral exposure oI humans to cadmium results in a build-up oI cadmium in the kidneys that can cause kidney
disease, including proteinuria, a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, and an increased frequency of kidney stone formation
Other eIIects noted in occupational settings Irom chronic exposure oI humans to cadmium in air are effects on the lung, including
bronchiolitis and emphysema.
Chronic inhalation or oral exposure of animals to cadmium results in effects on the kidney, liver, lung, bone, immune system,
blood, and nervous system
The ReIerence Dose (RID) Ior cadmium in drinking water is 00005 milligrams per kilogram per day (mg/kg/d) and the RID Ior
dietary exposure to cadmium is 0001 mg/kg/d; both are based on signiIicant proteinuria in humans
Reproductive/evelopmental Effects:
· Limited evidence exists Ior an association between inhalation exposure and a reduction in sperm number and viability in
· Human developmental studies on cadmium are limited, although there is some evidence to suggest that maternal cadmium
exposure may result in decreased birthweights
· Animal studies provide evidence that cadmium has developmental eIIects, such as low Ietal weight, skeletal malIormations,
interIerence with Ietal metabolism, and impaired neurological development, via inhalation and oral exposure
· Limited animal data are available, although some reproductive eIIects, such as decreased reproduction and testicular damage,
have been noted Iollowing oral exposures
Cancer Risk:
· $everal occupational studies have reported an excess risk of lung cancer in humans from exposure to inhaled cadmium
However, the evidence is limited rather than conclusive due to conIounding Iactors
· Animal studies have reported cancer resulting Irom inhalation exposure to several Iorms oI cadmium, while animal ingestion
studies have not demonstrated cancer resulting Irom exposure to cadmium compounds
· EPA considers cadmium to be a probable human carcinogen (cancer-causing agent) and has classiIied it as a Group B1
iagnosis and Testing
The amount oI cadmium in your blood shows your recent exposure to cadmium The amount of cadmium in your urine shows
both your recent and your past exposure.
The amount oI cadmium present in blood or urine can be measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and used as an indication
oI cadmium exposure
Increased concentrations oI urinary beta-2 microglobulin can be an early indicator oI renal dysIunction in persons chronically exposed
to low but excessive levels oI environmental cadmium The urinary beta-2 microglobulin test is an indirect method oI measuring
cadmium exposure Under some circumstances, the Occupational Health and $aIety Administration requires screening Ior renal
damage in workers with long-term exposure to high levels oI cadmium Blood or urine cadmium concentrations provide a better index
oI excessive exposure in industrial situations or Iollowing acute poisoning, whereas organ tissue (lung, liver, kidney) cadmium
concentrations may be useIul in Iatalities resulting Irom either acute or chronic poisoning Cadmium concentrations in healthy persons
without excessive cadmium exposure are generally less than 1 µg/L in either blood or urine The ACGIH biological exposure indices
Ior blood and urine cadmium levels are 5 µg/L and 5 µg/g creatinine, respectively, in random specimens Persons who have sustained
renal damage due to chronic cadmium exposure oIten have blood or urine cadmium levels in a range oI 25-50 µg/L or 25-75 µg/g
creatinine, respectively These ranges are usually 1000-3000 µg/L and 100-400 µg/L, respectively, in survivors oI acute poisoning and
may be substantially higher in Iatal cases
the influence of chelating agents on Cadmium distribution and excretion is generally confined to the early period after acute
Cadmium exposure


EPA uses mathematical models, based on animal studies, to estimate the probability oI a person developing cancer Irom breathing air
containing a speciIied concentration oI a chemical EPA calculated an inhalation unit risk estimate oI 18 × 10-3(µg/m3)-1 EPA
estimates that, iI an individual were to continuously breathe air containing cadmium at an average oI 00006 µg/m3 (6 x 10-7 mg/m3)
over his or her entire liIetime, that person would theoretically have no more than a one-in-a-million increased chance oI developing
cancer as a direct result oI breathing air containing this chemical $imilarly, EPA estimates that continuously breathing air containing
0006 µg/m3 (6 x 10-6 mg/m3) would result in not greater than a one-in-a-hundred thousand increased chance oI developing cancer,
and air containing 006 µg/m3 (6 x 10-5 mg/m3) would result in not greater than a one-in-ten thousand increased chance oI developing
The RID is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order oI magnitude) oI a daily oral exposure to the human population
(including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without appreciable risk oI deleterious noncancer eIIects during a liIetime It is not
a direct estimator oI risk, but rather a reIerence point to gauge the potential eIIects At exposures increasingly greater than the RID, the
potential Ior adverse health eIIects increases LiIetime exposure above the RID does not imply that an adverse health eIIect would
necessarily occur
· EPA has high conIidence in both RIDs based primarily on a strong database Ior cadmium toxicity in humans and animals that
also permits calculation oI pharmacokinetic parameters oI cadmium absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination
· EPA has not established a ReIerence Concentration (RIC) Ior cadmium
· The CaliIornia Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) has established a chronic reIerence exposure level oI 000001
milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) Ior cadmium based on kidney and respiratory eIIects in humans The CalEPA reIerence exposure
level is a concentration at or below which adverse health eIIects are not likely to occur

Health ata from Inhalation Exposure

ACGIH TLV--American ConIerence oI Governmental and Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value expressed as a time-weighted
average; the concentration oI a substance to which most workers can be exposed without adverse eIIects
(Lethal Concentration
)--A calculated concentration oI a chemical in air to which exposure Ior a speciIic length oI time is
expected to cause death in 50° oI a deIined experimental animal population
NIOSH ILH--National Institute oI Occupational $aIety and Health's immediately dangerous to liIe and health; NIO$H
concentration representing the maximum level oI a pollutant Irom which an individual could escape within 30 minutes without escape-
impairing symptoms or irreversible health eIIects
OSHA PEL--Occupational $aIety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit expressed as a time-weighted average; the
concentration oI a substance to which most workers can be exposed without adverse eIIect averaged over a normal 8-h workday or a
40-h workweek
The health and regulatory values cited in this Iactsheet were obtained in December 1999
Health numbers are toxicological numbers Irom animal testing or risk assessment values developed by EPA
Regulatory numbers are values that have been incorporated in Government regulations, while advisory numbers are nonregulatory
values provided by the Government or other groups as advice O$HA numbers are regulatory, whereas NIO$H and ACGIH numbers
are advisory
The LOAEL is Irom the critical study used as the basis Ior the CalEPA chronic reIerence exposure level

Cadmium is a soIt silver-white metal that is usually Iound in combination with other elements Cadmium compounds range in
solubility in water Irom quite soluble to practically insoluble $olid cadmium is inIlammable but powdered cadmium will burn and
release corrosive and toxic Iumes

Map Distribution

U$ ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Kidney Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

U$ ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Kidney Disease Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

According to the U$G$, only three companies in the United $tates were thought to have produced reIined cadmium in 2010 One
company, operating in Tennessee, recovered primary cadmium as a byproduct oI zinc leaching Irom roasted sulIide concentrates The
other two companies, with Iacilities in Ohio and Pennsylvania, thermally recovered secondary cadmium metal Irom spent nickel-
cadmium (NiCd) batteries and other cadmium bearing scrap
Unetbical Human Experimentation by tbe US Military
Operation LAC (Large Area Coverage), was a Chemical Corps operation in 1957 and 1958 which dispersed microscopic zinc
cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) particles over much of the United States The purpose was to determine the dispersion and geographic
range oI biological or chemical agents From 1950 through 1953, the US Army also sprayed the toxic chemicals over six cities in
the United States and Canada, in order to test dispersal patterns of chemical weapons The residents in affected cities --
including Minneapolis; St. Louis; Winnipeg, Manitoba; Corpus Christi, Texas; and Fort Wayne, Ind. -- became concerned
about possible health effects after details of the tests became widely known in the 1990s.

$outheast U$ ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Kidney Disease Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

$outheast U$ ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Kidney Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

U$ ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Pancreatic Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

Some of the tests released zinc cadmium sulfide offshore along a 100-to-150-nautical-mile (190 to 280 km) line approximately 5
to 10 nautical miles (10 to 20 km) off the coast of Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina Two oI the trials dispersed
clouds oI zinc cadmium sulIide over large areas oI all three U$ states $imilar tests were conducted by the British over the UK about
the same time
From 1963 to 1969 as part of Project Shipboard Hazard and efense (SHA), the U.S. Army performed tests which involved
spraying several U.S. ships with various biological and chemical warfare agents, while thousands of U.S. military personnel
were aboard the ships The personnel were not notified of the tests, and were not given any protective clothing. Chemicals
tested on the U.S. military personnel included the nerve gases VX and Sarin, toxic chemicals such as zinc cadmium sulfide and
sulfur dioxide, and a variety of biological agents. Reportedly not even the US Presidents were informed of these tests.
In 2002, a class action federal lawsuit was filed on behalf of the US sailors exposed in the testing Additional actions, including a
multi-year medical study was conducted by National Academy oI $ciences/Institute oI edicine to assess the potential medical harm
caused to the thousands oI unwitting U$ Navy sailors, civilians, and others who were exposed in the secret testing The results oI that
study were Iinally released in ay 2007

Case Studies

Aerial Views and Maps of Kettleman City Showing
Location of Chemical Waste Management Landfill

In August 2011, Chemical Waste Management in Kettleman City, CA was fined about $1 million for failing to
properly dispose of waste according to the HuIIington Post This is the largest toxic dump in the West and the
landfill is near a community known for a rash of birth defects The majority oI these Iunds will be required to
replace its laboratory equipment, soItware and procedures Federal regulators also have ordered the waste company to
use an outside lab Ior at least two years to veriIy that its hazardous wastes meet treatment standards prior to disposal
In February 2010, the EPA Iound the Iacility's laboratory equipment was improperly calibrated for more than five
years and as a result was unable to detect the accurate concentration levels of hazardous chemicals EPA
inspectors Iound similar discrepancies with the lab equipment in 2005, but discovered that the company hadn't Iixed

Historical Releases oI $ome oI the Chemicals and etals Irom CW LandIill

Because lab results were skewed, material that was too toxic was allowed to go into the landfill The chemicals
involved were mainly heavy metals such as cadmium and chromium The company had to excavate toxic waste
from the landfill on 18 occasions in the last 5 years, because it was incorrectly tested and buried The Iacility has
applied for a permit renewal and expansion of the facility
The EPA previously Iined the operator oI the Iacility $300,000 in November 2010 for allowing PCBs to leach into
the soil in an area adjacent to a storage and Ilushing building at the dump
And in November 1985, the EPA and the California epartment of Health Services entered into a $4 million
settlement agreement with Chemical Waste to resolve violations that included unapproved modifications to the
facility, lack of a groundwater monitoring system and improper disposal of PCBs

CaliI ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Liver Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

CaliI ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Kidney Disease Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

The upper Clark Fork River in Montana is contaminated with large amounts of cadmium from past mining activities between
1880 and 1972 As a regular practice, tailings, smelter wastes, slag, and flue dust were dumped into the Missouri River until
1915, after which most wastes were deposited on site. The state estimated 27.5 to 31 million tons of slag and tailings were
dumped directly into the river Contaminants associated with these sources included antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium,
cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc

In 1908 a massive flood washed millions of cubic yards of toxic mine wastes into the Clark Fork River system Generations
later, in 1983, the illtown Reservoir was listed by the Environmental Protection Agency as a $uperIund site aIter the discovery that
several million cubic yards of heavy metal (including cadmium) contaminated sediments had piled up behind the dam,
polluting the groundwater beneath with high concentrations of arsenic.
While the Anaconda Copper Mining Company was responsible for the problem, its successors, the Atlantic Richfield Company
and British Petroleum, along with the dam's owner Northwestern Energy, have legal liability Ior the cleanup today The $uperIund
work is led by the EPA and the state DEQ while the work itselI is carried out by the issoula-based Envirocon, a subsidiary oI the
Washington Corporation
EPA released a proposed plan Ior cleanup in August 2002 The cleanup proposal included a combination of removal and in-place
treatment of tailings and contaminated soil, followed by revegetation. Stabilization of eroding streambanks is an important
part of the remedy, because they contribute approximately 60 percent of the pollutants to the river
On February 7, 2008, a Consent Decree Ior the Clark Fork River Operable Unit $ite was lodged with the Federal District Court in
ontana The Consent Decree provides the structure Ior how Atlantic Richfield "cashed out" its cleanup responsibilities by
providing over $168 million to the State of Montana, which will perIorm the remedy and restoration activities with EPA and NP$
The main project goal is to reclaim the illtown aquiIer by removing the contaminated sediments and reservoir above it To do that,
the Milltown am was removed and the worst of the sediments have been excavated and shipped to an existing repository at
the Anaconda Superfund Site.

ontana ap $howing Cadmium $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Lung Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

ontana ap $howing Cadmium $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Kidney Disease Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

ontana ap $howing Cadmium $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Pancreatic Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

$outhern U$ ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Pancreatic Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

In the United $tates, the Mississippi elta region of Louisiana has the highest rate of pancreatic cancer in addition to being one
of the most highly polluted regions in the nation According to a 2006 L$U study, 'In Louisiana, the high rates of pancreatic
cancer match the high levels of cadmium exposure Rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas in Louisiana has up to three
times the level of cadmium compared to imported rice A previous case-control study in Louisiana showed a signiIicantly
increased risk Ior pancreatic cancer associated with rice consumption with a dose-response relationship A pilot case-control study was
conducted in the Acadiana region oI south Louisiana to examine the relationship between environmental Iactors and pancreatic cancer
FiIty-Iour pancreatic cancer cases and 108 sex, race, and age-group matched population controls were recruited in the study. The
Iindings oI this study suggest that higher excretory cadmium level is signiIicantly associated with increased risk oI pancreatic cancer
Close to 60° oI increased risk oI pancreatic cancer diagnosis is associated with each unit oI urinary cadmium level The President`s
Cancer Panel Iound 'Urinary cadmium excretion levels in studied Louisiana pancreatic cancer patients have been found to be
more than four-fold higher than control subjects.

$outhern U$ ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Liver Disease Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

$outhern U$ ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Liver Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

idwest ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Liver Disease Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

Great Lakes ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Liver Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

Great Lakes ap $howing Cadmium Toxic Release Inventory and $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Pancreatic Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

New England

New England ap $howing Cadmium $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Liver Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

New England ap $howing Cadmium $uperIund $ites
Overlain to Liver Cancer Death Rate in ales
(bluer colors are higher rates)

bings to Avoid!
While working with cadmium it is important to do so under a Iume hood to protect against dangerous Iumes $ilver solder, Ior
example, which contains cadmium, should be handled with care
or More Information - see websites.
·AT$DR Case $tudies in Environmental edicine: Cadmium Toxicity U$ Department oI Health and Human $ervices
O National Pollutant Inventory - Cadmium and compounds
O http://wwwcanoshweborg/odp/html/cadmiumhtm
O $aIety and Health Topics , Cadmium
Cadmium (Cd) Toxicity: Key Concepts , AT$DR - Environmental ...
http://wwwatsdrcdcgov/csem/csemasp°3Fcsem°3D6°26po°3D0 - Cached

O Cadmium Toxicity UPC, Pittsburgh, PA, U$A
http://wwwupmccom/healthatoz/pages/healthlibraryaspx°3Fchunkiid°3D120796 -
Please Note: The main sources oI inIormation Ior this Iact sheet are EPA's Integrated Risk InIormation $ystem (IRI$), and the Agency
Ior Toxic $ubstances and Disease Registry's (AT$DR's) Toxicological Profile for Cadmium

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