Materials and the Environment

Solution manual for exercises

Solutions to exercise:
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11

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Eco text: solution manual

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Chapter 1
E 1.1. Use Google to research the history and uses of one of the following materials Tin Glass Cement Bakelite Titanium Carbon fiber Present the result as a short report of about 100 - 200 words (roughly half a page). Imagine that you are preparing it for school children. Who used it first? Why? What is exciting about the material? Do we now depend on it or could we, with no loss of engineering performance of great increase in cost, live without it? Specimen answer: tin. Tin (symbol Sn), a silver-white metal, has a long history. It was traded in the civilizations of the Mediterranean as early as 1500 BC (the Old Testament of the Christian bible contains many references to it). Its importance at that time lay in its ability to harden copper to give bronze (copper containing about 10% tin), the key material for weapons, tools and statuary of the Bronze age (1500 BC – 500 BC). Today tin is still used to make bronze, for solders and as a corrosion resistant coating on steel sheet (“tin plate” ) for food and drink containers – a “tinnie”, to an Australian, is a can of beer. Plate glass is made by floating molten glass on a bed of liquid tin (the Pilkington process). Thin deposits of tin compounds on glass give transparent, electrically conducting coatings used for frost-free windshields and for panel lighting. Most of the applications of tin could be filled by other materials – polymer coatings for food containers, aluminum instead of tin to make bronzes, indium for transparent coatings (though at an increased cost). Finding a replacement for tin in solders is more difficult.

E 1.2. There is international agreement that it is desirable (essential, in the view of some) to reduce global energy consumption. Producing materials from ores and feedstocks requires energy (its “embodied energy”). The table lists the energy per kg and the annual consumption of 4 materials of engineering. If consumption of each could be reduced by 10%, which material offers the greatest global energy saving? Which the least? Material
Steels Aluminum alloys Polyethylene Concrete Device-grade silicon

Embodied energy MJ/kg
29 200 80 1.2 Approximately 2000

Annual global consumption (tonnes/yr)
1.1 x 109 3.2 x 10
7

Annual energy commitment (MJ)
3.2 x 1010 6.4 x 109 5.4 x 109 1.8 x 1010 1.0 x 107

6.8 x 107 1.5 x 1010 5 x 10
3

Answer. An additional column has been added to the table above: it shows the annual energy commitment associated with the production of each material (the product of the numbers in the two columns to its left). Reducing consumption of steel and of concrete – by more efficient design of structures perhaps – have by far the greatest potential for global energy saving. Doing the same for device grade silicon has the least, by a large factor. Although the embodied energies of materials differ considerably, it is the much greater differences in annual consumption that dominate the total energy commitment and the carbon burden they generate. This is one reason that much of the discussion of this book focuses on the materials used in the greatest quantities.

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Thus a large fraction of the world’s population can never reach the same level of consumption currently enjoyed by developed countries unless the global population declines.7 x 109 = 1. The surface area of the globe is 511 million square km. and only part of that land is useful – the best estimate is that 1.1 x 1010 hectares of the earth’s surface is biologically productive. perhaps based on genetically modified crops and animals.64 hectares/person.3.1 x 1010 / 6. km. One resource. however. although estimates can be made.7 billion (6. 08/12/2008 . less than 1/3 of that currently needed to support a person in a developed country. has a well-defined limit: that of usable land area.01 sq. Eco text: solution manual 3 MFA. Industrial countries require 6 hectares of biologically productive land per head of population to support current levels of consumption. enable a dramatic increase (factor 3) in the productivity of the areas of the earth’s surface that are biologically productive. The current (2008) global population is close to 6. The current biologically productive area per person is 1. The ultimate limits of most resources are difficult to assess precisely.7 x 109). or 5.E1. What conclusions can you draw from these facts? Answer.11 x 1010 hectares (a hectare is 0.) Only a fraction of this is land. or new forms of intensive agriculture.

08/12/2008 .2) of the text describes the production rate of a material.Chapter 2 E2. and it is much larger than the reserve but much less certain. with P0 = production rate at time t = t o and r = annual growth rate in % per year. How long does it take to double? Answer. Equation 20.2 The world consumption rate of CFRP is rising at 8 % per year.3 Derive the dynamic index t ex . Improved extraction technology can enlarge it.10 of the book). can be estimated. by various extrapolation techniques. ⎧ r (t − t o ) ⎫ P = P0 exp ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ 100 ⎭ Integrating this over time to give the cumulative production Qt* up to time t = t * and equating the result to the reserve R gives Qt* = ∫ P dt = to t* 100 Po r ⎛ ⎧ * ⎜ exp ⎪ r( t − t o ⎨ ⎜ ⎜ ⎪ 100 ⎩ ⎝ ⎞ )⎫ ⎪ ⎟ ⎬ − 1⎟ = R ⎟ ⎪ ⎭ ⎠ Eco text: solution manual 4 MFA. technical and legal conditions. E2. The answer should include a sketch of the diagram illustrating reserves and resources is (Figure 2. with the consequence that reserves tend to grow in line with consumption. The resource base (or just resource) of a mineral is the real total.7 years.d = rR 100 log e ( + 1) r 100 Po starting with equation (2.1 Explain the distinction between reserves and the resource base.2) of the text.3 of the text gives the doubling time t D as tD = 100 70 log e ( 2 ) ≈ r r where r is the percentage fractional rate of growth per year. known and unknown deposits that cannot be mined profitably now but which – due to higher prices. It includes. Answer. better technology or improved transportation – may become available in the future. E2. but environmental legislation or changing political climate may make it shrink. which grow and shrink under varying economic. Equation (2. Demand stimulates prospecting. Thus a growth rate of 8% means that consumption doubles every 8. It includes not only the current reserves but also all usable deposits that might be revealed by future prospecting and that. A mineral reserve is defined as that part of a known mineral deposit that can be extracted legally and economically at the time it is determined. Answer. too. Reserves are an economic construct.

It is calculated by equating C in equation 1 to 2C0. the doubling time both of consumption and of the total quantity consumed.Solving for the time interval ( t * − t o ) gives the desired result t * − t o = t ex . expressed as % per year? If there were 15 million cars already on Chinese roads by the end of 2007 and this growth rate continues.4 A total of 5 million cars were sold in China in 2007. 1 2C0 = C0 exp (r tD) giving tD = ln 2 r the quantity ln 2 = 0. process and dispose of more “stuff” in the next 25 years than in the entire 300 years since the start of the industrial revolution. Starting with equation (2. The cumulative number of cars entering use in the subsequent 13 years is found from the integral of this equation over time Qt* = ∫ P dt = to t* 100 Po r ⎛ ⎧ * ⎜ exp ⎪ r( t − t o ⎨ ⎜ ⎜ ⎪ 100 ⎩ ⎝ ⎞ )⎫ ⎪ ⎟ ⎬ − 1⎟ ⎟ ⎪ ⎭ ⎠ Entering Po = 5 x10 6 (the number 2007). at a growth rate of 3% per year ( r = 0.5 Prove the statement made in the text that. Eco text: solution manual 5 MFA.6 x10 6 and Po = 5 x10 6 and the time interval (t − t o ) = 1 year. assuming that the number that are removed from the roads in this time interval can be neglected? Answer. What is the annual growth rate of car sales. (This colossal number is still only equivalent to 1 car per 3-person family. less than the current car ownership per family in the US.8% per year. 08/12/2008 . The result is r = 27. in 2008 the sale was 6. so that.”. Exponential growth has a number of alarming features.2) ⎧ r (t − t o ) ⎫ P = P0 exp ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ 100 ⎭ we enter P = 6. giving a final total of 655 x10 6 . . meaning that the rate will have doubled to 2C0 in the time tD = t – t0.6 million. how many cars will there be in 2020. consumption doubles in 23 years.69.8% per year and (t * −t o ) = 13 gives the additional number of cars by 2020 at Qt* = 650 x10 6 . r = 27. among them. and solve for r . To this (if we are picky) we must add the number already there in 2007.d = rR 100 log e ( + 1) r 100 Po E2.03 ) .) E2. The consumption rate C of a resource grows by follows the law C = C0 exp r (t – t0) (1) here C0 is the consumption rate when t = t0. “at a global growth rate of just 3% per year we will mine. larger than the number in 2007 by a factor of 100. Answer. The doubling time for the consumption rate is tDC.

2 3.9 27.7 4.6 29.9 2.e. consumed since consumption began.7 3. Q.27 1.56 1.6 14. t t Q = ∫0 Cdτ = C o ∫0 exp r ( τ − t o ) dτ giving Q= Co { exp (r (t . production and reserves against time) – what do you conclude? Tabulate the Reserves / World production to give the static index of exhaustion.0 28.81 World production (million tonnes/yr) 9. namely.8 32.4 Growth rate (%/yr) 8. It is the integral of C over time. Thus.5 31.7 11. 1 tQ = ln 2 r { ( ) } (The underlying reason both tD and tQ are the same is simply that ∫ e x dx = e x ) That means that the total quantity of a given resource that will be consumed in the next 23 years (given the modest rate of growth of consumption of 3%/year) is equal to the total quantity consumed over the history of industrial development.6 13. the result for the doubling time of consumption is the same as that for consumption rate.3 27.3 12.t o )) − exp( −r t o )} r (2) Q0 is the total amount consumed prior to the present day (when t = t0). Not a happy thought.5 7. it is roughly 10-13.We are interested here not in the consumption rate but in the total quantity.59 1.7 3.65 1. The table lists the world production and reported reserves of copper over the last 20 years Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Price (US$/kg) 2.0 2. C Q0 = o { 1 − exp( −r t o )} (3) r We want the time tQ (the time to double the total quantity consumed) where tQ = t – t0 is the time from the present day that Q = 2 Q0. then exp (.8 32. Compared with 2 both numbers are negligible.67 1.2 13. i.8 5.2 31.7 -2. thus.78 2.0 25.3 Reserves (million tonnes) 310 310 320 340 340 340 340 440 470 470 470 480 Reserves/World production (yrs) 31.4 13.7 6.6 Examine trends (plot price.86 3.r t0 ) = 0.8 33.8 10.9 15.25 2.9 14.2 12. E2. If t0 = 1000 years. when (from equations 2 and 3) Co 2 Co exp r t Q − exp( − r t o ) = { 1 − exp( − r t o )} r r solving for tQ gives exp (r tQ) = 2 – exp (– r t0) Now note that if t0 = 100 years (meaning that consumption started 100 years ago) and r = 3% per year (0.03).05.6 Understanding reserves: copper. 08/12/2008 .8 24.7 13. What does the result suggest about reserves? Eco text: solution manual 6 MFA.93 2.2 4.81 1.

03 3. The rates of growth of production are listed in the last column of the table above: world production and reserves have increased steadily over the 12 year period 1995 .56 Growth rate of reserves % per year 2.7 The table shows the production rate and the reserves of 5 metals over a period of 10 years.97 4. The last two columns of the table above show the growth rates.0 x 106 10.04 x 106 3.Answer. For nickel. The figure shows the data.71 x 106 15. with no indicators of supply problems. The two metals that are cause for concern are platinum and cobalt.5 x 103 22. Eco text: solution manual 7 MFA. All this suggests a well-balanced market. the 1995 value for Po and (t − t o ) = 10 years gives the average growth rate over the 10 year interval.60 Platinum Nickel Lead Copper Cobalt 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 Answer. For both the growth of reserves – meaning the rate at which new. on inversion. reserves lag behind production but not by much.2006. Only the price.27 x 106 2. calculated from equation 2. What has been the growth rate of production? What is that of the reserves? What can you conclusions can you draw about the criticality of the material? Metal Year Production rate. E2. 08/12/2008 .49 x 106 1. Both are used for critical functions for which there is no other easy substitute: platinum for catalysts and cobalt for high temperature alloys.1 x 103 Reserves.88 4. tonnes/year 217 145 1.05 9. gives ⎩ 100 ⎭ r = (t − t o ) 100 ⎛ P ln ⎜ ⎜P ⎝ o ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Inserting the 2005 value of production or reserves for P . The ratio of reserves to production (second last column of the table) is steady at around 30 years. which was steady or falling up to 2003 shows a sudden increase in 2005 / 2006 because of a surge in demand from China.37 5. exploitable ore bodies are proven – lags well behind the rate of production.6 1.0x 106 57. For two of the metals – lead and copper – the rate of growth of reserves is more or less in balance with the growth in production. All the other indicators suggest that the supply chain is capable of adapting to meet it.2 of the text ⎧ r (t − t o ) ⎫ P = Po exp ⎨ ⎬ which.37 3.09 1. tonnes 71 x 103 56 x 103 64 x 106 47 x 106 67 x 106 69 x 106 480 x 106 310 x 106 7 x 106 4 x 106 Growth rate of production % per year 4.

65 x 108 1. When. the annual world production measured in m3/year. in kg/m3. It is used for catalysts. A web search (and a search of CES) gives the following information. The first three columns of the table below list data for world production in tonnes/year. magnesium and iron have remained much more stable. Cobalt costs about $30/kg – far more than common structural materials. These are high value-added applications.8 Tabulate the annual world production in tonnes/year and the densities (kg/m3) of carbon steel.2 x 107 1. Answer. Wood remains one of the central materials of structural engineering. The last column lists the world production in m3/year .15 x 109 6. The ores of cobalt are localized in relatively few countries. PE. Take cobalt as an example.53 x 1010 Density kg/m3 7850 950 520 2450 World production m3/year 1. How does the ranking change? Answer.000 tonnes in 2005.25 x 109 E2.000 tonnes in 1995 to 54.85 x 107 9. softwood and concrete (you will find the data in data sheets for these materials in Chapter 12 of this book – use an average of the ranges given in the data sheets). 08/12/2008 .and density. drawn (as averages) from the data sheets of Chapter 12. where output grew at over 60% per year in 2005 as a result of expansion by domestic producers. Pm . the existence and availability of the substituted dampens price fluctuations. medical implants. Other recent increases have come from new projects including Voisey's Bay in Canada (Inco). Those of aluminum. substitutes are readily available (plastics substituting for steel or aluminum in many applications. Material Carbon steel Polyethylene Softwood Concrete World production tonnes/year 1. Coral Bay in the Philippines (Sumitomo) and Sally Malay in Australia (Sally Malay and Sumitomo). But for at least two of these materials – softwood and concrete – it is the volume that is used that is important. the price rises steeply because there are no substitutes. the strongest growth in production of cobalt has come in China.E2. By this measure wood is second only to concrete in the quantity used. hightemperature cobalt based superalloys.86 x 109 6. for each. cermets (tungsten carbide – cobalt) cutting tools. far higher than that of most materials. ρ . an average rate of growth at times exceeding 12% per year. is unable to meet demand. not the weight. The USGS web site listed under Further Reading is a good starting point. Since 2002.) Concrete and steel dominated production when measured in tonnes per year . alloying of steels. When the supply chain for metals with unique applications. as you might anticipate from the high price of the metal. Eco text: solution manual 8 MFA. like cobalt.46 x 108 7. Pv calculated as P Pv = 1000 m ρ (The 1000 is to convert the density into tonnes/m3. and as a pigment in glass and paints. World production of cobalt has increased steadily year-on-year. by contrast. Why? Research this by examining uses (which metal are used in high value-added products?) and the localization of the producing mines. copper and nickel have fluctuated wildly in the past decade. alloys for high field magnets. Calculate. and has almost trebled from around 20.9 The price of cobalt.

10 The production of zinc over the period 1992 – 2006 increased more or less steadily at a rate of 3. calculated from these data. making use of the relative growth rates of production and reserves and on the dynamic index (equation 2.5%. Year Production rate.000 to 71. increased by 3. Taken together these indicators point to a market for zinc that is well balanced. Answer. the consumption of water will increase over the next 42 years by the factor (t − t o ) 100 ⎛ C ln ⎜ ⎜C ⎝ o ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Eco text: solution manual 9 MFA.9 years. What conclusions can you draw from this about the criticality of zinc supply? Answer.1 % per year. The dynamic index of exploitation.E2.03 Growth rate of reserves % per year 2. on inversion. has risen from 145 to 217 tonnes per year over the last 10 years.2% / year . over a 10 year period. vital for catalysts and catalytic converters. is 20.11 The production of platinum. r %.000 tonnes in the same time interval. The reserves have risen from 56. If this growth rate continues. • The production rate curve peaks and starts to decline • The minimum economic ore grade falls • The price starts to rise sustainable.6 of the text) calculated using 2005 data. Russia and Canada.12 Global water consumption has tripled in the last 50 years. The symptoms of criticality are • The rate of growth of discovery falls below the rate of growth of production. What deductions? There are many danger signs here. Write consumption as ⎧ r (t − t o ) ⎫ C = C o exp ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ 100 ⎭ which. The dynamic index – not a reliable measure. We are told in the question that growth in production has been steady – no sign of a flattening out suggesting a peak in production is near. The growth rate of reserves is comfortably larger than that of production indicating no shortage of supply. The reserves. tonnes Growth rate of production % per year 4. over the same period. The growth rates of production and of reserves. giving r = 2. The ores are highly localized in South Africa. are listed in the table below. lagged behind that of exploitation.37 Platinum 2005 1995 71 x 103 56 x 103 Those are the facts. What is the growth rate. E2.7. 08/12/2008 . E2. calculated as described in the solution to Exercise E2. Sources are localized and only one is in a country with a long history of economic and political stability. in consumption assuming exponential growth? By what factor will water consumption increase between now (2008) and 2050? Answer. Platinum has applications for which there is no present substitute. but another indicator none the less – is low when compared with those of most other metals. gives r = The ratio C / C o = 3 for the time interval (t − t o ) = 50 years. Would you classify platinum as a critical material? Base your judgment on the these facts. The growth rate of reserves has. tonnes/year 217 145 Reserves.

What trend is visible? Answer.14 Use CES to plot the Annual world production of materials against their Price.52 Co ⎩ 100 ⎭ that is. Metals are labeled. There is a correlation – the lower the price. The trend described in the solution to E2. Exercises using CES Eco Level 2.14. What trend is visible? Answer. The contours have a slope -2. which. It is not clear how this need will be met. See the answer to Exercise E2.13 Plot the Annual world production of metals against their Price. E2. very approximately. it will more than double. with log scales (as here) means that. The figure shows the plot. Water supply in many parts of the world is already barely able to meet demand. the larger is the annual production.⎧ r (t − t o ) ⎫ C = exp ⎨ ⎬ = 2. E2. in which the annual world production for materials is plotted against price as a CES exercise.14 appears also when metal data alone areplotted. using mean values from the data sheets in Chapter 12 of this book. Annual world production ∝ 1 (Pr ice)2 -2 Eco text: solution manual 10 MFA. 08/12/2008 .

with the consequence that reserves tend to grow in line with consumption. Which metals have the longest apparent resource life? Why is this index not a reliable measure of the true resource life of the metal? Answer. technical and legal conditions. if they rise above it. there is growing incentive to prospect for and develop new mines. copper. is not a true indicator of resource life. there is little incentive to do so. with the result that the ore grade currently mined is much leaner than it was 25 years ago. The static index. The figure shows that the reserves of the more critical metals are typically between 20 to 50 times the annual production. Those of nickel.15 Make a plot of the static index of exhaustion for metals (the reserves in tonnes divided by the annual production rate in tonnes per year). aluminum and titanium are plentiful and very widely distributed. Demand stimulates prospecting. This is because the reserves are an economic construct. Improved extraction technology can enlarge it. created with the CES Eco Level 2. however. zinc and lead are more localized and already significantly depleted. which grow and shrink under varying economic. but environmental legislation or changing political climate may make it shrink. using the “Advanced” facility in CES to plot the ratio. The figure shows the plot of the static index. for these there is no concern about depletion. If the reserves fall below this zone. Eco text: solution manual 11 MFA. The ores of magnesium. 08/12/2008 .E2. This is a comfort zone.

As a general rule. if heated. when we get to ecoaudits. Resources Energy: polymer molding Energy: metal forming Energy: glass molding Resources Resources Oil for polymers Minerals for metals. if a product requires energy to perform the use-phase of its life.Chapter 3 E3. SOx Slag. Take the coffee maker as an example. the question can be answered properly. then it is the cumulative energy of use that dominates. glass Energy for both Water Paper for filters Coffee Energy to heat water Emissions Cut-offs (recycled) Low grade heat Resources Emissions CO2.1 Which phase of life would you expect to be the most energy intensive (in the sense of consuming fossil fuel) for the following products? Pick one and list the resources and emissions associated with each phase of its life along the lines of Figure 3. otherwise use. tailings Chemical waste Low grade heat Energy for collection Energy to disassemble Energy to recycle Emissions Low grade heat Coffee grounds Waste filters Emissions Materials (recycled) Waste to landfill Eco text: solution manual 12 MFA. it is the material production phase that dominates.3 (template provided). Answer. NOx. then the use phase The material production phase of life The use phase The use phase Perhaps material production if the coffee maker is rarely used. Product Energy intensive life phase A toaster A two car garage A bicycle A motorbike A refrigerator A coffee maker A LPG fired patio heater Probably the use phase The material production phase if garage is unheated. At this stage we can only guess at the energy-intensive phase – later. No need to ask. 08/12/2008 . When the product does not use energy.

gum. Think of the basic need the product provides – it is this that determines use – and list what you would choose. some hidden. incur costs though damage to health and property via air and water pollution. In these circumstances the environmental cost becomes a burden on society as a whole and is said to be externalized. and particularly when it is global in impact.2 Functional units. the environmental cost is said to be internalized. Many human activities incur costs. ozone layer depletion and climate change. The table lists the suggested functional units Product Washing machines Refrigerators Home heating systems Air conditioners Lighting Home coffee maker Public transport Hand-held hair dryers Functional unit Energy (kW. Much current negotiation and legislation aims to internalize environmental costs that. at present.hr or MJ) per unit volume of cooled space per unit time (per m3 per year) Power (Watts) per lumen (the measure of light intensity) Energy (kW.hr or MJ) per passenger. If your life is so pure that you have less than three.3 What is meant by “externalized” costs and costs that are “internalized” in an environmental context? Now a moment of introspection. rather than recycling. some obvious. Answer.mile Energy (kW. thinking of all from an environmental standpoint Answer. When the damage not attributable. When the damage is local and the creator of the emissions accepts the responsibility and the cost for containing and remediating it. Industrial emissions.hr or MJ) or liters of water per kg of clothes washed Energy (kW. nickel-cadmium batteries Eco text: solution manual 13 MFA.hr or MJ) per unit volume of heated space per unit time (per m3 per year) Energy (kW.hr or MJ) per m3 of cooled space per year Energy (kW. Internalized Cost of mobile phone (assuming microwave radiation is harmless) Cost of use of personal computer Cost of broadband connection Cost of private health care Cost of home ownership Externalized Dropping cigarette butts.hr or MJ) per drying episode (difficult: long hair takes longer than short) E3. List three internalized costs associated with your life style.hr or MJ) per cup of coffee Energy (kW. Now list three that are externalized. acid rain. hamburger wrappers in the street Disposing of television sets or personal computers by dumping Travel by plane (the traveler does not yet pay for the eco-damage of the emissions) Dumping.E3. are externalized. 08/12/2008 . then list some of other people you know. in particular. it is much more difficult to establish creator-responsibility.

product use and product disposal. To assess the energy demand.1 and. by reducing the cost and speeding the process. Assign an integer between 0 (highest impact) and 4 (least impact) to each box and then sum to give an environmental rating. product manufacture. what emissions excreted? Impact assessment: what do these do to the environment – particularly. The first step in lifecycle assessment (LCA) is to decide on the system boundary. • • • A full LCA is a time-consuming task requiring days or weeks of experts’ time. Thus the embodied energy and carbon footprint of a material is found by enclosing only the material production within the system boundary. what bad things? Interpretation: what do the results mean and how are they to be used? E3. elaborated in the ISO 14040 set of standards. For the LCA to meet ISO standards. allow much wider application. E3.E3. The four steps in conducting an LCA. The boundary should normally enclose all four phases of life: material production. A simpler. approximate approach would. and thus is expensive. Answer. It is sometimes desirable to conduct a partial LCA. Deciding what to include and what exclude in the life-cycle (the “system”).4 What. E3.5 Describe briefly the steps prescribed by the ISO 14040 Standard for life-cycle assessment of products. is not simple.however. carbon footprint and emissions-profile of a product it is necessary to sum the contributions it makes to each of these over its entire life cycle. in the context of life-cycle assessment.6 What are the difficulties with a full LCA? Why would a simpler. using your judgment. Make your own assumptions (and report them) about where the product was made and thus how far it has to be transported. the results are subject to considerable uncertainty. setting the system boundary around only one phase of life. Despite the formalism that attaches to LCA methods. if approximate. the LCA expert must define and state what aspects of each phase of life are included within the system boundary and which aspects remain outside it. 08/12/2008 . Why do the assessment? What is the subject and which bit(s) of its life are to be assessed (setting system boundaries)? Inventory compilation: what resources are consumed. attempt to fill out the simplified streamlined LCA matrix below to give an environmentally responsible product rating. technique be helpful? Answer. are: Setting goals and scope.7 Pick two of the products listed in Exercise E. is meant by “system boundaries”? How are they set? Answer. The output of an LCA that meets the ISO 14040 Standard is complex and detailed – it is of little help for design. providing a comparison. Try the protocol Eco text: solution manual 14 MFA. and whether it will be recycled.3.

but it is evident that any one of them requires a degree of experience. 08/12/2008 . Eco text: solution manual 15 MFA. with associated emissions. The figure shows an attempt to fill out the matrix. Transport: is the product manufactured far from its ultimate market? Is it shipped by air freight? If yes. score 0. score 0. largely metals.• Material: is it energy-intensive? Does it create excessive emissions? Is it difficult or impossible to recycle? Is the material toxic? If the answer to these questions is yes. A toaster consumes electrical energy during use. The final total. though chromium plating is a particularly toxic process. almost certainly in South Asia. score 4. based on this information. Use: does the product use energy during its life? Is the energy derived from fossil fuels? Are any emissions toxic? Is it possible to provide the use-function in a less energyintensive way? Scoring as above. It is not all easy to fill out the matrix with confidence unless you have considerable experience of assessing products in this way – the rankings chosen here are. The present attempt (correctly) identifies the use and the transport phase (assuming the product is shipped over large distances) as the most damaging . This is just one example of the matrix approach – there are many variants of the row and column categories. A toaster uses about 1 kg of materials. Manufacture: is the process one that uses much energy? Is it wasteful (meaning cut-offs and rejects are high)? Does it produce toxic or hazardous waste? Does make use of volatile organic solvents? If yes. score 4. Use the intermediate integers for other combinations. etc. guesses. quite frankly. Example: the toaster. If the reverse. score 4. • • • • What difficulties did you have? Do you feel confident that the results are meaningful? Answer. Most toasters used in the US and Europe are made in South-east Asia. 34 out of a possible maximum of 80 suggests the product is not a particularly harmful one. Disposal: Will the product be sent to land-fill at end of life? Does disposal involve toxic or long-lived residues? Scoring as above. Manufacture. If no. score 0. requires only simple processes. If no. The toaster itself produces no emissions (unless you burn the toast) and is simple to recycle at end of life. most of which at present derives from fossil fuels. Some are better adapted for particular products than others. so considerable transport is involved.

The technical life. If not. only 45% efficient. and at end of first life. What are the reasons for this? Answer. rejected as “waste”. if fossil fuels are involved. there are conversion efficiencies for the transformation of materials during manufacture. All of these steps involve energy. All these factors combine to make some waste unavoidable. or aesthetic preference render the product unattractive. constitute one sort of waste – waste heat – and. meaning the time at which advances in technology have made the product unacceptably obsolete. All manufacture involves conversion: conversion of ores and feedstock into raw materials. meaning the time in which the product breaks down beyond economic repair.2 Do you think manufacture without waste is possible? “Waste”. The losses. meaning the time when the need for it ceases to exist. and because contamination of one material by another cannot. can be achieved with an efficiency of 90% . E4. fashion. for fundamental thermodynamic reasons. meaning the time at which advances in design and technology offer the same functionality at significantly lower operating cost.e. But what is waste to some markets is a resource to others.3 What options are available for coping with the waste-stream generated by modern industrial society? Answer. combust for heat recovery. another: waste emissions. why not? Answer. in some products. Materials have a life-cycle.Chapter 4 E4. at best. though salvaging 90% might be. includes waste (i. conversion of raw materials into products. be prevented. The functional life. emissions and solid and liquid residues that cannot be put to a useful purpose.1 of the text introduced the options: commit to landfill. All conversions involve conversion efficiencies. for instance. even though it may still work well The life expectancy is the least of • • • • • • The physical life. The legal life – the time at which new standards. creating a number of alternative channels down which the materials continue to flow. manufactured into products. directives. Eco text: solution manual 16 MFA. but more usually in a converted form as electricity or mechanical power. 08/12/2008 . lowgrade) heat. legislation or restrictions make the use of the product illegal And finally the loss of desirability – the time at which changes in taste. Some are economic in origin – salvaging and sorting 100% of the scrap produced during manufacture is not economic. The sketch of Figure 4. Some conversion efficiencies are high – conversion of electric to mechanical power. sometimes in its primary form as oil or gas. They are extracted and refined. and for the recovery of materials at end of life. The economical life. here. A product reaches the end of its life when it’s no longer valued. the use of the products and their ultimate disposal. are not – the conversion of fossil fuels to electric power is. recycle (or downcycle). used. Others. re-engineer (refurbish or recondition) and reuse.1 Many products are thrown away and enter the waste stream even though they still work. E4. Recovering materials at end of life has lower efficiencies because the dispersion of materials in products makes full recovery uneconomic. Just as there are conversion efficiencies for energy. small or large.

ni-environment. of which 18. Widely distributed “scrap” – material contained in discarded products – is a much more expensive proposition to collect.uk/environment/waste/topics/tyres. • Recycling may not be cost-efficient. and this energy carries its burden of emissions. particularly in cement making.htm www. Many materials cannot recycled. making recycling – when it is possible at all – an energy-efficient propositions. • • E4. Most can only be retreaded once. cannot be re-separated economically into fiber and polymer in order to reuse them. the second lists ways to use them. From them we learn that 3. and the third provides statistics for collection. The recycling market is like any other.tyredisposal. Sea defences can be constructed using floating arrays of tyres Fuel: used tyres are burnt for heat.gov. that depends on the degree to which the material has become dispersed. either in the form of the tyre or in some decomposition of it. 2. Rubber crumb is made by shredding tyres. In a free market the materials that are recycled are those from which a profit can be made. In-house scrap. The recycle energy is generally small compared to the initial embodied energy. Whole or part tyres can be used in wall structures for earth retention. What are the obstacles to recycling? Answer. www. on the product into which has been incorporated and on the price of virgin material with which the recycled material must compete.co. Thus the fraction of a material production that can ultimately re-enter the usestream depends on the material itself. Recycling requires energy.php The first describes regulations about disposal of tyres.pdf www.uk/cms/index. The main channels for reusing used tyres are: • • • • • Retreading almost doubles the life of tyres. Most materials require an input of virgin material to avoid build-up of uncontrollable impurities. separate and clean.gov/dep/ www.4 Recycling has the attraction of returning materials into the use-stream. But there are difficulties.gov. 3. with prices that fluctuate according to the balance of supply and demand. Use the internet to research ways in which the materials contained in car tyres can be used. however. for instance. reuse and disposal.5 Car tyres create a major waste problem. continuous-fiber composites.ct. 4.9 million tons of used tyres are produced in the US every year. 1. It is used for playground and sports track surfaces. The following sites are among many that provide information about used tyres.uk/usedtyresleaflet.7% are recycled. Tyres do not compost. Answer.E4. although they may still be reused in a lower-grade activity. generated at the point of production or manufacture is localized and is already recycled efficiently (near 100% recovery). Eco text: solution manual 17 MFA. though they can be chopped and used as fillers.defra. 08/12/2008 .

(d) Polystyrene with 15% glass fines (powdered glass). Packaging performs at least five functions • • • • • Protection: packaging extends product life by protecting foodstuffs and controlling the atmosphere that surrounds them.6 List three important functions of packaging. E4. (b) Polyamide 6 (Nylon 6) with 10% glass fiber. You encounter components with the following recycle marks: How do you interpret them? Answer. its sell-by date (if it has one) and gives instructions for use. Drainage for patio garden pots. separating the materials for recycling. 08/12/2008 . Flotation for fish-farm enclosures. Security: tamper-proof packaging protects the consumer. Shred to make artificial snow for theatre productions. appliances and much else when transported – most of which at present is sent to landfill. (c) Polypropylene with 20% talc. computers. The idea here is to encourage free thinking.8) gives the information needed to crack the codes.8 You are employed to recycle German washing machines. Answer. Pack in the attic to improve the thermal insulation of your home / garage / outhouse. Answer. Eco text: solution manual 18 MFA.E4. Information: pack information identifies the product. Here are just a few possible uses • • • • • • Break up for bean bags. Presentation: packaging “presents” the product in much the same way that clothing presents the wearer. Send to Art schools as raw material for hot-wire sculptures. Chapter 4 and its Appendix (Section 4.7 As a member of a brain-storming group you are asked to devise ways of reusing polystyrene foam packaging – the sort that encases TV sets. E4. Affiliation: brands are defined by their packaging. Use free thinking: no suggestion is too ridiculous. (a) Polypropylene.

The material is not at present recycled at end of life but it could be. What level of recycling is necessary to make this possible? Answer. Batteries consume 38% of all lead. even though the fraction recycled is smaller than that of architectural lead.10 A material M is imported into a country principally to manufacture one family of products with an average life of 5 years and a growth rate of rc % per year. Δt . The lead on buildings has an average life of 70 years. in architecture for roofing and pipe-work (particularly on churches) and as pigment for paints. 08/12/2008 . have an average life of 4 years.009 to current supply.E4. Architectural lead accounts for 16 % of total consumption. The first two of these allow recycling. Thus the scheme will only work if r exp( c Δt ) ≤ 2 100 or Δt ≤ 100 ln( 2 ) rc Eco text: solution manual 19 MFA. the same growth rate (4% per year) as batteries.4) show that lead from batteries contributes a fraction 0. Over the life of the product. This requires a recycle fraction f crit where r f crit C o = ΔC = C o exp( c Δt ) − C o 100 Thus r f crit = exp( c Δt ) − 1 100 Clearly f crit cannot be greater than 1. The short life of the batteries means that the lead they contain makes a much larger contribution to the secondary scrap stream. E4. it grows from C o to r C = C o exp( c Δt ) 100 an increase of r ΔC = C o exp( c Δt ) − C o 100 For zero growth in imports recycling must feed back into the “Material” phase of life a quantity of material equal to the growth in consumption over the product life time. Consumption C is growing at a rate rc % per year . Inserting these data into equation (4.26 that from buildings only 0. and 95% of it is recycled. the third does not.9 The metal lead has a number of uses: principally as electrodes in vehicle batteries. The government is concerned that imports should not grow. a growth rate of 4% per year and the lead they contain is recycled with an efficiency of 80%. What is the fractional contribution of recycled lead from each source to current supply? Answer.

thereby internalising them. namely states and international organizations. at present.4 How does emissions trading work? Answer. Command and control environmental legislation makes it illegal to use specific resources or allow specific emissions – examples are bans on dumping of toxic waste. Taking carbon as an example. through the greenhouse effect. The alternative is to use market forces to initiate change. The Kyoto Protocol of 1998 commits the nations that signed it to reduce the emissions of gases that. the use of lead in petrol. There is a growing recognition that this can lead to perverse effects where action to fix one isolated problem just shifts the burden elsewhere and may even increase it. What is the difference between command and control methods and the use of economic instruments to protect the environment? Answer. • • The Montreal Protocol of 1987 commits the nations that signed it to phase out the use of chemicals that deplete ozone in the stratosphere. Much current negotiation and legislation aims to internalize environmental costs that. trading schemes – that seek to use market forces to encourage the efficient use of materials and energy. the environmental cost is said to be internalized. Emissions trading is a market-based scheme that allows participants to buy and sell permits for emissions. subsidies.3. E5. subsidies and other incentives to make environmental protection economically attractive. the release of certain chemicals that pollute water or those that damage the ozone layer.Chapter 5 E5. The word “protocol” crops up most frequently in the language of medicine: there it means a detailed plan. Instead of outright bans. all of which require a mechanism to insure compliance. This can take the form of outright bans. For this reason there has been a shift from command and control legislation towards the use of economic instruments – green taxes. When environmental damage can be attributed to an particular industry or activity that accepts both the responsibility and the expense of containing and remediating it. an investigation or an intervention. economic instruments seek to target environmental burdens that have costs that are not paid for by the provider or user (externalized costs). penalties or taxes. fines. transferring the costs back to the activity creating it. When the damage is not attributable. 08/12/2008 . the environmental cost becomes a burden on society as a whole and is said to be externalized. E5. and many of which are unpopular.1 What is a Protocol? What do the Montreal Protocol and the Kyoto Protocol commit the signatories to do? Answer. cause climate change. the regulator first decides on a total acceptable emissions level and divides this into tradable units Eco text: solution manual 20 MFA. are externalized (the “Polluter pays” policy). or credits for reduction in emissions in certain pollutants.2 What is meant by “internalized” and “externalized” environmental costs? What legislative steps can be taken to pressure polluters to internalize environmental costs? Answer. to be followed in a study. E5. The meaning of “protocol” in the context of this Chapter is a treaty – an agreement under international law entered into by the actors. through trading schemes. or set of steps.

The scheme only achieves it aim if the mitigating project runs for its planned life. achieved their claimed offset only at the end of their design life. based on their actual carbon emissions at a chosen point in time. E5. wind or wave power for example. Emissions trading has another dimension – that of off-setting carbon release by buying credits in activities that absorb or sequester carbon or that replace the use of fossil fuels by energy sources that are carbon-free: tree planting. Answer. 08/12/2008 . have to grow for 50 to 80 years to capture the carbon with which they are credited – fell them sooner for quick profit and the off-set has not been achieved. lead in petrol. Carbon trading sounds like the perfect control mechanism to enable emissions reduction. falling if they develop more efficient production technology or rising if they increase capacity. obvious problems – dumping of toxic waste. What are the merits and difficulties associated with (a) taxation and (b) trading schemes as economic instruments to control pollution? Answer. fines. The motive is to transfer externalized costs back to the activity creating them. • • It provides an excuse for enterprises to continue to pollute as before by buying credits and passing the cost on to the consumer. for instance. Trees. It is hard to verify that the credit payments actually reach the mitigating projects – the treeplanters or wind turbine builders – for which they were sold. water pollution. A company that emits more than its allocated allowances must purchase allowances from the market. environmental legislation has targeted individual. Historically. and this is often very long. The difficulties are those of ensuring that the trading schemes function as a well-balanced market and are not distorted by high administrative costs or misuse.5. Eco text: solution manual 21 MFA. The buyer is paying a charge for polluting while the seller is rewarded for having reduced emissions. too much of it gets absorbed in administrative costs. Wind turbines and wave power. solar.6. The actual carbon emissions of any one participant change with time. But nothing in this world is perfect. typically 20 to 25 years. Use the internet to research the imperfections in the system and report your findings. while a company that emits less than its allocations can sell its surplus. penalties or direct taxes. subsidies. carbon credits – seek to use market forces to encourage the efficient use of materials and energy. Trading schemes and other economic instruments – green taxes. These are allocated to the participants. similarly. • E5. There is a growing recognition that this can lead to perverse effects where action to fix one isolated problem just shifts the burden elsewhere and may even increase it. ozone depletion – taking a command and control approach based on outright bans.called permits. By purchasing sufficient credits the generator of CO2 can claim to be “carbon neutral”. The criticisms of Carbon trading and offsetting are as follows.

coatings. the European Union. achieved their claimed offset only at the end of their design life. organic solvents and petroleum products. Answer.8. 08/12/2008 .com www. is carbon-neutral. Your neighbour with a large 4 x 4 boasts that his car. The company claimed that its purchase of offsets for each car sold made Saab the first car brand to make its entire range carbon free. Answer. for instance.7.9. In a press release the company said they planned to plant 17 native trees for each car bought.htm www.gov. similarly. have to grow for 50 to 80 years to capture the carbon with which they are credited – fell them sooner for quick profit and the off-set has not been achieved. The US.parish-supply. or the company from which he bought the vehicle. At present most sites focus on explaining the regulation. help and new disposal methods for dealing with volatile organic compounds. 5. many consumer products. and this is often very long. 4. Even Saabs only last for 15 years.org. Eco text: solution manual 22 MFA.hk/epd From them we learn that VOCs (volatile organic compounds) are found in wide variety of everyday products such as solvent-based paints. 3.processingtalk. Among them are 1. In December 2007 Saab posted advertisements urging consumers to “switch to carbon neutral motoring” claiming that “every Saab is green”. Numerous sites offer advice. Australia and New Zealand all are in progress of introducing labelling. a few offer technical solutions for dealing with VOCs to render them harmless (generally by controlled combustion). What is misleading about this statement? (The company have since withdrawn it). E5. Wind turbines and wave power.epd. E5.org/wiki/Volatile_organic_compound www. The scheme only achieves it aim if the mitigating project runs for its planned life. 2. en.wikipedia. and a ban on sales without permit to limit the release of VOCs into the atmosphere. so the mitigation claimed for them is not even half-achieved by the time the vehicle dies. typically 25 years. printing inks. He means that he. What on earth does he mean (or thinks he means)? Answer. Trees. despite its size. What tools are available to help companies meet the European Union VOC (volatile organic compounds) regulations? Carry out a Web search to find out and report your findings. but it is not always easy to verify how much of the payment reaches the project and how much is absorbed in administrative costs on the way.com/volatile_organic_compounds.uk/ http://www. He thinks he means that these pay for projects that absorb carbon (like tree planting) or replace carbon-using energy sources with those that do not.E5. has purchased carbon reduction certificates equal to the expected carbon emission of the vehicle. restrictions on use.

Numerous sites report.10. 3. it will set limits on a product-by-product basis of how much energy can be used in a product’s entire lifecycle (Source (1).ee. EuP compliance in brief.com/article/06/10/31/45OPreality_1.sgs.com/eup_compliance_eup_ee www. A number of web sites (Source (3) is an example) offer in-house training and planning assistance to help companies set up procedures to comply with the Directive. use.infoworld.E5. It appears that many organizations with environmental knowledge are seeking to capture what maybe a large market in establishing procedures that are practical and affordable. offer advice and consultancy on the EuP Directive. Answer. sell.g.asp From these we learn the following • The Directive. offering to design and put it place compliance procedures.uk/Services/ecodesign. but none have yet emerged as clear market leader.html www. Source (4) go further. 2. and dispose of almost every one of its products. 4.html www. Companies will be required to produce a document file for each of their products and should therefore start by collecting data on the mentioned environmental aspects in the different life cycle phases (Source (2)).co. What tools are available to help companies meet the European Union EuP (Energy-using Products) regulations? Carry out a Web search to find out and report your findings. Services and tools to help with EuP compliance. Among them are: 1. including all subassemblies and components. above). transport. • • Eco text: solution manual 23 MFA. www. Others (e. The EuP Directive will require manufacturers to calculate the energy used to produce. It will require that the manufacturer go all the way back to the energy used when extracting the raw materials to make its product. Manufacturers can choose to perform the conformity assessment either by ecological product profiles or within a management system like ISO 14001 or EMAS.synapsistech. And in time. 08/12/2008 .com/solutions/compliance/eup.era.

of course. The kiln itself has to be heated to the same temperature.06. to melt it (requiring the latent heat of melting) and to raise the temperature of the liquid a little higher to ensure that. driving off carbon dioxide to leave lime. energy must be provided to heat the metal to its melting point. What is meant by embodied energy per kilogram of a metal? Why does it differ from the free energy of formation of the oxide. This is because. The embodied energy of a metal is the output of an energy audit of the resources and processes need to extract. concentrating the ore and reducing it to metal.3 Make a bar chart of CO2 footprint divided by Embodied energy using data from the data sheets of Chapter 12. and the energy “loss” that results from the inefficiencies of the processes. Energy is consumed in mining or extracting the ores and feedstock. 08/12/2008 . E 6.2 What is meant by the process energy per kilogram for casting a metal? Why does it differ from the latent heat of melting of the metal? Answer. when cast. The heat itself is provided by the combustion of fossil fuel (efficiency about 70%) or by electric heating (oil-equivalent efficiency about 40%). The casting energy is the sum of all the energies involved.1. be provided. all with energy losses. sulfide. The Figure shows the important features. but it also includes the energy to mine. transport and concentrate the ore. carbonate or sulfide from the which it was extracted? Answer.04 . In order to cast a metal. E 6. making cement (a component of concrete) involves “calcining” calcium carbonate.Chapter 6 E 6. For most materials the ratio is about0. The embodied energy includes this. or carbonate ore to metal. it does not solidify before it has filled the mold. Which material has the highest ratio? Why? Answer. This CO2 contribution adds to that derived from the fuel that is used to heat the kiln to give the high total. For cement and concrete it is far higher. requiring additional energy. To convert an oxide.0. refine or synthesize it. Eco text: solution manual 24 MFA. The thermal energy of both kiln and metal is lost as low-grade heat when the casting cools to room temperature. the free energy of formation of those compounds must.

37 -2.and embodied energy/m3.36 E6.74 Hm ρ MJ/m3 2. Crediting the materials with storing energy and carbon gives all of them a negative carbon footprint and all but one (paper) a negative embodied energy. steel is the best bet. with carbon. Finally rank them by embodied energy per unit stiffness (measured by H m ρ / E where E is Young’s modulus).4 The embodied energies and CO2 footprints for woods. H m ρ – polyethylene has by far the lowest. Compare these with the embodied energies of cast iron and of aluminum. If you want a material that is stiff and has low embodied energy. H m . Steel has the lowest. 08/12/2008 . plywood and paper. Column 5 lists the embodied energy per unit volume. Material Wood Plywood Paper Embodied energy (MJ/kg) 7.5 MJ/kg. The table shows the data and the calculated information. taking the means of the ranges shown on the data sheets. and by a large margin. using data drawn from the data sheets of Chapter 12 (use the means of the ranges given in the databases).51 x 105 5.2 7.E 6.44 Embodied energy. adjusted (MJ/kg) -17.7 x 10 4 Hm ρ / E (Dimensionless) 1. Density ρ kg/m3 7850 2700 950 Material Low carbon steel Aluminum alloys Polyethylene Energy H m MJ/kg 32 220 81 Modulus E GPa 207 75 0. Aluminum alloy and Polyethylene by embodied energy/ kg.75 1. H m . Answer.43 0. Fe2O3.6 -10 2 CO2 footprint.4 15 27 CO2 footprint (kg/kg) 0.9 104 E6.5 Rank the three common commodity materials Low carbon steel.8 kg CO2 per kg). for the reasons explained in the text.6 Iron is made by the reduction of iron oxide. plywood and paper do not include a credit for the energy and carbon stored in the wood itself. Recalculate these. The last column is the embodied energy per unit stiffness (note the inclusion of ρ in the ratio so that top and bottom are both in the same units). The last two columns show the values adjusted as described in the question. H m ρ . What conclusions do you draw? Eco text: solution manual 25 MFA. The table lists the embodied energies and carbon footprints for wood. crediting them with sequestering energy and carbon by subtracting out the stored contributions (take them to be 25 MJ/kg and 2. aluminum by the electrochemical reduction of Bauxite. Now steel is the lowest. that of aluminum to its oxide is 20.94 x 105 7. adjusted (kg/kg) -2. Is there a net saving? Answer.05 -1. retrieved from the data sheets of Chapter 12 (use means of the ranges given there). The enthalpy of oxidation of iron is 5. The reasons we use the “uncorrected” values are explained in the text. basically Al2O3. where ρ is the density.5 MJ/kg. Column 2 gives the embodied energy per kg.

Answer. than the enthalpy of oxidation. Its specific heat is 1445 J/kg.8. so the energy to raise one kg of PET from room temperature (20o C) to the melting point is about 0. by a factor of 3 to 10. part in heating the extrusion or molding press. As explained in the text.11 and its discussion). you would expect some scatter. Eco text: solution manual 26 MFA. the eco-indicator value is a normalized. Plot eco-indicator values against embodied energy (a much simpler measure of impact). Tm. The data sheets of Chapter 12 list eco-indicator values where these are available. and the energy required for mining transporting and concentrating the ores before reduction. Given these. in power dissipated by the mechanism of the press.5 Embodied energy (MJ/kg) from Chapter 12 17 220 E6.7 Estimate the energy to mold PET by assuming it to be equal to the energy required to heat PET from room temperature to its melting temperature.8 MJ/kg. There is a clear correlation. Is there a correlation? Answer. PET melts at about 238 C. Is the scatter significant? Think back to the inherent uncertainty in determining embodied energy (Figure 6. about 200 C above room temperature. but with scatter. This is because of the inherent irreversibility of the reduction process. weighted sum involving resource consumption.31 MJ/kg. Where does the extra energy go? Part in the relatively low conversion efficiency of fossil-fuel energy to electric power (about 38%). We conclude the embodied energy is an approximate but still useful proxy for the eco-indicator. Material Cast iron Aluminum Enthalpy of oxidation (MJ/kg) 5. The embodied energies are larger.6 MJ/kg. the specific heat and the melting temperature in the data sheet for PET in Chapter 12 (use means of the ranges). See the chart in the answer to exercise E6. The table shows the data. It is a CES plot of eco-indicator values against embodied energy. The extrusion energy is 3.5 20. 08/12/2008 . E6.2) and in the arbitrary nature of the weight factors used to calculate eco-indictors (Figure 3. Both are more than ten times greater than the estimate based simply on heat the polymer. You will find the molding energy. the molding energy 9. Compare this with the actual molding energy.11 (below).K. heat and other energy losses. emissions and estimates of impact factors. and as incidentals – the general energy overhead of the plant. What conclusions do you draw? Answer.

it looks very like the embodied energy per m3. 08/12/2008 . Use the “Advanced” facility in the axis selection window to make the one for kg CO2/m3 by multiplying kg CO2/kg by the density in kg/m3. E6. using CES.9 of the text are plots of the embodied energy of materials per kg and per m3. The chart is shown below. where H m is the embodied energy per kg. Not surprisingly.8 and 6. shown in Figure 6.Exercises using the CES software. You will need to use the “Advanced” facility in the axisselection window to make the function Hm ρ σy . Ceramics and Hybrids are segregated to separate columns by selecting them for the x-axis using the “Trees” option in the Advanced facility. Answer. ρ is the density and σ y is the yield strength.10 Plot a bar chart for the embodied energies of metals and compare it with one for polymers.) E6.9 of the text.9. Polymers. (The Metals. on a a “per unit yield strength” basis. Figures 6. Do this by using the “Advanced” facility in the Axis selection box to form (Embodied energy * Density) / Yield strength (elastic limit) Which materials are attractive by this measure? Eco text: solution manual 27 MFA. Use CES to make similar plots for the carbon footprint.

The figure shows the CES output. but with some scatter. eco-indicator values where none are available? Answer.11 Compare the eco-indicator values of materials with their embodied energy. (Ignore the data for foams since these have an artificially-inflated volume). approximately. Is there a correlation between the two? Is it linear? Given that the precision of both could be in error by 10 % are they significantly different measures? Does this give a way of estimating.) Carbon steels and cast irons have a lower embodied energy per unit of strength – than any other metal or any polymer. See the answer to Exercise 6. make a chart with (Embodied energy x Density) on the x-axis and Eco-indicator value on the y-axis. Eco text: solution manual 28 MFA. There is a clear correlation.Answer. (The Metals and Polymers are segregated to separate columns by selecting them for the x-axis using the “Trees” option in the Advanced facility. 08/12/2008 . E6.9 for a commentary on this. The plot of eco-indicator values against embodied energy is shown below. To do so.

Slope -2 Eco text: solution manual 29 MFA. meaning Annual world production ∝ 1 (Pr ice ) 2 It is no surprise that production falls as price rises. The origin of the power of -2 is obscure. The plot shows that there is a correlation.Eco – indicator values E6. 08/12/2008 .12 Plot material price against annual production in tonnes per year – is there a correlation? Answer. The grid of broken lines has a slope of -2.

The total life energies without recycling are summarized in the table below. The last column of the table lists the life-energy with recycling. The glass bottle remains almost three more energy intensive than the one made of PET. energy is “recovered”: it is the difference between the embodied energy and the recycle energy. If both the PET and the glass are recycled. also listed in the data sheets of Chapter 12.2 Alpure water has proved to be popular. To do so they plan to market their water in 1 liter glass bottles of appealing design instead of the rather-ordinary PET bottles with which we are familiar from the case-study in the chapter. the dominant contributions to energy and carbon are those of the material of the bottle. The energy audit for 100 glass bottles. (Data are taken from the record for soda-glass in Chapter 12. Use the methods of this chapter and the data available in Chapter 12 to analyze this situation. The error margins are marked on the figures below. Answer.1 If the embodied energies and CO2 used in the Alpure water case study in the chapter are uncertain by a factor of ± 25%. 08/12/2008 . Even when the most extreme values are taken. carried out in the same way as the PET bottles described in the text and assuming the glass is recycled at end of life. Material (100 bottles) PET bottles Glass bottles Life energy without recycling (MJ) 490 1200 Life energy with recycling (MJ) 300 830 Eco text: solution manual 30 MFA. using mean values of the ranges of embodied and process energies). The importers respond that glass has lower embodied energy than PET. The importers now wish to move up-market.3 (you are free to copy it) and then state your case. The choice of glass is almost 3 times more energy intensive than PET. E7. The conclusions reached in the text still stand. do the conclusion change? Mark ± 25% margins onto each bar in a copy of Figure 7. A single 1-liter glass bottles weigh 430 grams. gives the breakdown shown below. What do you conclude? Answer.Chapter 7 E7. Critics argue that this marketing-strategy is irresponsible because of the increased weight. much more than the 40 grams of those made of PET. the bar chart shows the contributions.

how much does the total embodied energy of the product change? If this reduces the electric power consumed over life by 10%. for 20 minutes on half power. In addition.3 kg. Use PVC as a proxy for polyurethane.66 Embodied energy (MJ/kg) 25 81 Difference: Energy per container (MJ) 8. Using data for the embodied energy of and borosilicate glass and stainless steel from Chapter 12 gives the results in the table. What conclusions can you draw? How might the energy be reduced? Eco text: solution manual 31 MFA.33 0.Eco-audit for 100 glass Alpure bottles. borosilicate glass is difficult to recycle (it cannot be mixed with ordinary glass) whereas stainless steel is readily recycled. does the energy balance favor the substitution? Answer.140 MJ E7. The stainless steel jug is twice as heavy as the glass one but saves 10% of the use energy. The stainless steel jug carries 45 MJ more embodied energy but saves more than three times this energy over life.5 + 45 MJ Electrical energy over 5 years (MJ) 1380 1240 . E7. using data from the data sheets of Chapter 12.25 53. is then used. The table lists the data and results. Create an eco-audit for the iron assuming that it is used once per week over a life of 5 years.4 of the text is replace by a double walled stainless steel one weighing twice as much. 98% of which is accounted for by the 7 components listed in the table.3 If the glass container of the coffee maker audited in Section 7. 08/12/2008 .4 The figure shows a 1700 Watt steam iron. using information about the mass of the container and the energy consumption over life given in the question. At end of life the iron is dumped as landfill. The iron heats up on full power in 4 minutes. typically. Material Borosilicate glass Stainless steel Mass (kg) 0. It weighs 1.

18 0.5 MJ.1 2. The material energy is found by multiplying the mass of each component by its embodied energy/kg (listed.65 3.7 2.03 0. equivalent to 14 minutes per day. 52 days per year. C p is its specific heat and ΔT is the temperature interval through which it is heated. giving 977 MJ.6 2. 3 meter Cable core. 3 meter Plug body Plug pins Mass (kg) 0. Eco text: solution manual 32 MFA. generated from fossil fuel with an efficiency of around 38%. or both. 5 years) converted to seconds. requiring energy Q = m C p ΔT Where m is the mass of the base of the iron (0. The process energy is found in the same way.35 10. accounting for 90% of the total energy. so to get the “oil equivalent” energy this electrical energy must be divided by 0. then divided by 1000 (to convert kJ to MJ). on the right of the table) and summing. 08/12/2008 . To calculate the usephase energy multiply the power (1. giving 371 MJ. The bar chart shows this distribution of energy commitment over the phases of life. But this is electrical energy.80 0.7 kW) by the effective use-time on full power (4 minutes on full power.38. 20 on half power.037 0.15 0.0 * From the data sheets of Chapter 12 Answer. The result is 108 MJ.8 kg). About 29% of the use-phase energy is used to heat the iron itself up to the working temperature.05 0. here the result is 6. Thus energy could be saved by reducing the mass of the base of the iron or by selecting a material for it with a lower specific heat.03 Material Polypropylene Nichrome Stainless steel Polyurethane Copper Phenolic Brass Shaping process Molded Drawn Cast Molded Drawn Molded Rolled Material energy* MJ/kg 97 134 82 82 71 90 71 Process energy* MJ/kg 8. The use phase dominates. using data from Chapter 12.Steam iron: bill of materials Component Body Heating element Base Cable sheath.0 12.

necessary to carry off the moisture distilled from the bread.4 MJ. 365 days per year.93 0. 08/12/2008 . The bar chart shows this distribution of energy commitment over the phases of life.7 2.6 2. but carrying off energy too. giving 1510 MJ. The result is the MJ of electrical energy consumed over life. At end of life it is dumped.03 Material Polypropylene Nichrome Low carbon steel Polyurethane Copper Phenolic Brass Shaping process Molded Drawn Rolled Molded Drawn Molded Rolled Material energy* MJ/kg 97 134 32 82 71 90 71 Process energy* MJ/kg 8. Eco text: solution manual 33 MFA.4 10.E7.011 0. The process energy is found in the same way. then divided by 1000 (to convert kJ to MJ).0 * From the data sheets of Chapter12 Answer.2 kg including 0. using data from Chapter 12. The toasters are made locally – transport energy and CO2 are negligible. The result is 67 MJ.037 0. How could the energy efficiency be increased? Air circulates through the toaster during use. 0. accounting for 90% of the total energy.24 0.97 kW) by the use-time on full power (9 minutes per day. giving 574 MJ. It is used to toast. Create an eco-audit for the toaster using data from the data sheets of Chapter 12.03 0.0 12. When toasting a single slice in a 2-slice toaster half the heat is wasted.65 2. so it draws its full electrical power for 9 minutes (540 seconds) per day over its design life of 3 years.75 meter Plug body Plug pins Mass (kg) 0. Optimizing this air flow and the use of infra-red lamp elements instead of the resistance coils could focus the heat more precisely where it is needed. 8 slices per day. The use phase dominates. Toaster: bill of materials Component Body Heating element Inner frame Cable sheath. Provision of a switch or sensor to limit heating to the slot containing bread would significantly reduce energy consumption. here the result is 5.5 The figure shows a 970 Watt toaster. so to get the “oil equivalent” energy this electrical energy must be divided by 0. But this is electrical energy. 0.1 2. generated from fossil fuel with an efficiency of around 38%. To calculate the use-phase energy multiply the power (0. on average. on the right of the table) and summing.045 0. 3 years) converted to seconds. It takes 2 minutes 15 seconds to toast a pair of slices. The material energy is found by multiplying the mass of each component by its embodied energy/kg (listed.75 meter Cable core.75 m of cable and plug.38. It weighs 1.

and solving for X. to estimate whether. The breakeven distance is found by equating the total energy associated with the steel bumper-set to that of the CFRP set for a driven distance of X km.1 MJ/tonne.000 km) followed by delivery by heavy truck over a further 250 km (Table 6.km (Table 6. manufacture. Make an energy-audit bar chart for the car with bars for material.500 km. The result is 98. Material of fender Low alloy steel CFRP Mass kg Material energy. there is a net energy saving. E7.000 km per year consuming 2MJ/km. what steps would do most to reduced lifeenergy requirements? Eco text: solution manual 34 MFA. It is anticipated that the CFRP set will weigh 7 kg.7 of the text gives the energy per tonne. 08/12/2008 .km for both). The two bar charts display the relative magnitudes of material and use energies. and will be driven on average 25. MJ 14 7 35 273 490 1910 7210 3610 7700 5520 * From the data sheets of Chapter 12. The car is manufactured in Germany and delivered to the US show room by sea freight (distance 10.6 in the text by one made of CFRP. MJ Total: material plus use. distribution.7 It is reported that the production of a small car (mass 1000 kg) requires materials with a total embodied energy of 70 GJ. use and disposal.7 of the text) we find the use-energy over 250.E7. over the life pattern used in the text. The car has a useful life of 10 years. MJ Use energy.000 km. MJ/kg* Material energy.6 It is proposed to replace the low-alloy steel bumper set of Case Study 7. Assume that recycling at end of life recovers 25 GJ per vehicle.000 km to have the values shown in the second last column. Using the energy consumption of a gasoline-powered car as 2. The table below lists mean values for the embodied energies of the two materials. Which phase of life consumes most energy? The inherent uncertainty of current data for embodied and processing energies are considerable – if both of these were in error by a factor of 2 either way can you still draw firm conclusions from the data? If so. drawing data from the data sheets of Chapter 12. Answer. and a further 15 GJ for the manufacturing phase. the substitution gives a substantial energy saving if the vehicle is driven the full 250. Based on this very crude comparison. Following the procedure of the text.

4 96.4 11.8 The table below lists one European automaker’s summary of the material content of a mid-sized family car.Answer. 08/12/2008 . The figure shows the bar chart based on the data with the factor of 2 uncertainty indicated by Tbars showing the ranges on the Material and the Manufacturing bars. It is essential to then check that the consequent change in embodied energy of the material choice has not negated the gain resulting from the lower mass. Use this information here to make an approximate comparison of embodied and use energies of the car assuming it is driven 25.4 2.8 8.6 4.7 gives the energy of use: 2. equating to 3. E7.km. The data sheets of Chapter 12 provide the embodied energies of the materials: mean values are listed in the table.2 158.000 km per year for 10 years.4 0. Material content of a family car.2 4. Material choice should focus first on reducing vehicle mass since it is this that most directly correlates with fuel consumption. Material proxies for the vague material descriptions are given in brackets and italicized.6. The vehicle is gasoline-powered and weighs 1800 kg.4 Steel (Low alloy steel) Aluminum (Cast aluminum alloy) Thermoplastic polymers (PU. PVC) Thermosetting polymers (Polyester) Elastomers (Butyl rubber) Glass (Borosilicate glass) Other metals (Copper) Textiles (Polyester) Total mass * From the data sheets of Chapter 12 950 438 148 93 40 40 61 47 1800 Eco text: solution manual 35 MFA. Table 6. MJ/kg* 32 220 80 88 110 15 72 47 Total energy Energy per car GJ 30. using the method of exercise E7.1 MJ/tonne. total weight 1800 kg Material Mass (kg) Material energy. Even with this colossal allowance for the imprecision of the base-line data the conclusion is inescapable: the use-phase of the vehicle remains the dominant contribution to life-energy consumption (more on this in Chapter 9).8 MJ/km for a car of this weight.

059 kg CO2/MJ. emits 1338 kg of CO2. The table below lists the carbon footprints of the materials and manufacturing processes for the patio heater. over 5 years. at which time the owner tires of it and takes it to the recycling depot (only 6 miles / 10 km away. or 50. using data for virgin and recycled material from the data sheets of Chapter 12. The bar chart plots the totals.km (from Table 6.4 kg is unidentified injection-molded plastic (so use a proxy of your own choosing for this). The bar chart below shows the comparison. so small as to be invisible on the bar chart. Not surprisingly. The input data are of the most approximate nature. but it would take very large discrepancies to change the conclusion: the energy consumed in the use phase (here about 85%) greatly exceeds that embodied in the materials of the vehicle. E7. of which 17 kg is rolled stainless steel. The material energy of the car is found by multiplying the mass of each material used in it by its embodied energy.000 km to the US where it is sold and used. Use data from the text and data sheets of Chapter 12 to construct a bar-chart for CO2 emission over life. 0. of course. The heater is used for 3 hours per day for 30 days per year. carbon steel and brass are sent for recycling. The second table lists these differences. It weighs 24 kg. It is manufactured in SE Asia and shipped 8. Sea transport over 8000km. Fuel consumption scales with weight (more detail on this in Chapter 9).015 kg CO2/ tonne.059 kg of CO2 /MJ. releasing 0.7 of the text) releases 2.10 Conduct a CO2 eco-audit for the patio heater shown here. The answer here is to make the car from lighter materials – provided. Answer.Answer. The use of the heater. consuming 0. In use it delivers 14 kW of heat (“enough to keep 8 people warm”) consuming 0.4 MJ/hour with the release of 0.9 kg of propane gas (LPG) per hour. The column added to the right of the table above lists the contributions and their sum. the carbon emission during use (over 1 tonne of CO2 over the course of life) dominates.6 kg is cast brass and 0. Recycling saves the difference between the carbon footprint of virgin and that of recycled material. 6 kg is rolled carbon steel. delivering 14 kW.9 kg of carbon dioxide per unit. so neglect the transport CO2) where the stainless steel. Eco text: solution manual 36 MFA. There is only one way to reduce the carbon footprint of a device like this: turn it off. 08/12/2008 . that the embodied energy of the replacement is not so high that it offsets the gain made by light-weighting. 158 GJ per car.

kg kg/kg* 85.Material Mass (kg) Stainless steel. cast Thermoplastic polymer molded (polypropylene) Totals * From the data sheets of Chapter 12 17 6 0.5 5.16 0.27 6. rolled Carbon steel.8 1.4 24 Difference between material CO2 and recycling CO2 kg/kg* 3. rolled Carbon steel.55 CO2 saved by recycling per unit.4 24 Material CO2 kg/kg* 5.95 1.25 2. rolled Brass.285 15 0.7 Material CO2 Process CO2 per unit.6 75 Eco text: solution manual 37 MFA.8 2. cast Thermoplastic polymer molded (polypropylene) Totals 17 6 0.68 1.4 0.8 3.1 0.1 105 Process CO2 per unit. rolled Brass.9 0.6 0.2 0. kg 61. kg 4.6 1.05 2.6 0.2 10.195 3.4 Recycled material Mass (kg) Stainless steel.2 0. 08/12/2008 .

more logical when ranges are large) and because it calculates the oil equivalent of electrical energy using a countrydependent energy mix (the mix of fossil fuel. The report summary and bar chart delivered by the software are show below. listed in the first four columns of Table 7. using the additional information in exercise E7. Answer. Summary: jug kettle with recycling Life phase Material Manufacture Transport Use End of life Total Energy. 08/12/2008 . 2. wind and nuclear in the grid supply).2.3.1 the CES eco-audit tool. replacing the PET bottle by a glass one. The output and bar charts in some cases differ slightly from those of the earlier exercises because of the way the software creates means of the property ranges (it uses geometric rather than arithmetic means. The recycling offers a potential energy saving of 51 MJ. using the ecoaudit tool of the CES Edu software (found in the pull-down menu under “Tools”). MJ 120 10 130 1900 -51 2110 Jug kettle Eco text: solution manual 38 MFA.4% of the energy total. here using the electrical energy mix for Australia. E7.Exercises using the CES eco-audit tool These exercises repeat or extend those of the text or of the preceding exercises.11 Repeat the analysis of the PET bottle for the Alpure water – the first case study in the Chapter – entering data from Table 7. selecting “Recycle” for end of life for the PP body and the packaging and “Landfill” for all the others. Answer. The resulting bar charts and report reproduce those already presented in Exercises E7. now using the fact that the PP kettle body and the cardboard packaging are recycled. hydro.12 Carry out the eco-audit for the jug kettle of Section 7. E7.2.5 of the text into the eco-audit tool.1 and 7. Enter the bill of materials for the jug kettle. Then repeat.

selecting “Re-engineer” for end of life for the heat shield and all the components of the fan.3 kg of CO2. When all the material inputs are entered instead as “100% recycled” the material energy falls to 59 MJ. The material energy of 147 MJ is 8% if the total. kg 209 Eco text: solution manual 39 MFA. Enter the bill of materials for the space heater. Table 7. Answer. Coffee maker Summary: Coffee maker.3 Life phase Material Manufacture Transport Use End of life Total CO2. virgin materials Life phase Material Manufacture Transport Use End of life Total Energy.7 1.5. assuming that at end of first life the fan and heat shield are reengineered to incorporate them into a new product. Re-engineering (and then reusing) the fan and heat shield saves 3.14 Carry out the eco-audit for CO2 for the portable space heater using the bill of materials from Section 7. Enter the bill of materials for the coffee maker. The report summary delivered by the software is show below.6 of the text into the eco-audit tool. here using the average electrical energy mix for Europe.E7. listed in the first four columns of Table 7.7 of the text into the eco-audit tool. 08/12/2008 . The report summary and bar-chart are shown below. and selecting “Virgin materials” for all. The resulting bar-chart is shown below – it reproduces that shown as Figure 7.13 Carry out the eco-audit for the coffee maker of Section 7.3 190 -3. and “Landfill” for all the others. Summary: Space heater Space heater 19 1.7 of the text. selecting “Recycle” for end of life for the PP body (as in the original case study of the text) and “Landfill” for all the others. listed in the first four columns of Table 7. now only 4 % of the total.4. Answer. MJ 147 13 6 1480 -52 1594 E7. now using the fact that it is made entirely from recycled materials (select the grade “100% recycled”) and that the PP housing and the steel parts are themselves recycled at end of life.7 of the text.

kg 3.7 to 2.15 Carry out Exercise E7. using “Standard” grades for all materials reduces the Material energy from 68 to 56 MJ and the Material CO2 from 3. data for which is included in the data sheets).7 0. Make bar charts both for energy and for CO2. Summary: Toaster .4 0 1250 0 1323 Toaster Summary: Toaster – CO2 Life phase Material Manufacture Transport Use End of life Total CO2.5 into the eco-audit tool.E7. The report summaries and bar-charts for energy and CO2 when virgin materials are used are shown below. and repeat (“Standard” grade is material with a recycle content equal to the recycle fraction in current supply. 08/12/2008 . Then select the grade “Standard” in the calculation. Compare the result with using virgin material for making the toaster .4 0 164 0 168 Eco text: solution manual 40 MFA. MJ 68 5. using the bill of materials listed there. The same audit. from Exercise E7.energy Life phase Material Manufacture Transport Use End of life Total Energy.9 kg. Answer. Enter the bill of materials for the toaster.5 (the toaster) using the CES eco-audit tool.

as in the table below. eco-friendly swings and climbing frames for a children’s’ playground Translation Constraints: seek materials that meet specified levels of Stiffness Strength Fracture toughness Objective: minimize Carbon footprint of material Eco text: solution manual 41 MFA. A constraint is an essential condition that must be met. eco-friendly swings and climbing frames for a children’s’ playground. frequently the minimization of cost. mass. Common constraints Must meet a target value of Stiffness Strength Fracture toughness Thermal conductivity Service temperature Common objectives Minimize Cost Mass Volume Energy consumption Carbon emissions E 8. Design requirements Materials are required to make safe. Translation is the step of converting the design requirements into constraints and objectives that can be applied to a materials database. An objective allows the materials that meet all the constraints to be ranked: the one that minimizes the objective is the best choice. 08/12/2008 . volume or – of particular relevance here – environmental impact. The design requirements for a component of a product specify what it should do but not what properties its materials should have. Describe and illustrate the “Translation” step of the material selection strategy. A constraint is a “Go / No go” criterion – if the constraint is not met. the material is rejected.2.Chapter 8 E 8. How would you translate these design requirements into a specification for selecting materials? Answer. Thus the design requirement “Materials are required to make safe. Materials are required to make safe. The distinction is brought out by comparing common constraints and objectives. What is meant by an objective and what by a constraint in the requirements for a design? How do they differ? Answer. usually expressed as an upper or lower limit on a material property. An objective is a quantity for which an extreme value (a maximum or minimum) is sought. eco-friendly swings and climbing frames for a children’s’ playground” might translate as shown in the table.1.

E 8. Meet target values of strength and toughness. You are asked to design a fuel-saving cooking pan with the goal of wasting as little heat as possible while cooking. 08/12/2008 . fatigue strength) Minimize cost Minimize cost Folding bikes Minimize mass (for portability) and volume (for compactness). The table lists constraints and an objective Constraints Objective: minimize • Must be non-toxic • Meet an upper limit on acceptable cost • Meet constraints of formability • Meet FDA* standards for contact with food. Bicycles come in many forms. Objective(s) Minimize mass Minimize cost Maximize damage tolerance (toughness. The balance between cost and other objectives (like mass) depend on the consumer-group at which the bike is aimed. Meet target values of stiffness and strength. Answer. What objective would you choose.4. Suggested constraints and objectives are listed in the table below. • Must be recyclable (to save embodied energy) • Thermal resistance (thus maximize thermal conductivity) *The US Food and Drug Administration approves materials for contact with foods. Meet target value strength and mass. Eco text: solution manual 42 MFA. and what constraints would you recommend should be met? Answer. Meet target values of stiffness and strength Meet target values of strength and mass. Bike type Spring bikes Touring bikes Mountain bikes Shopping bikes Children’s bikes Constraints Meet target values of stiffness and strength. ease of molding or forming.3. each aimed at a particular sector of the market: Sprint bikes Touring bikes Mountain bikes Shopping bikes Children’s bikes Folding bikes Use your judgment to identify the primary objective and the constraints that must be met for each of these.E8.

7. stiff panel on a copy of the Modulus-Density chart of Figure 8. in highly competitive sport. more strictly. These materials have the lowest (best) values of the index. like fiber composites. is irrelevant. however. or on a scanned image of the chart in WORD. Performance is maximized by seeking the materials with the most extreme (biggest or smallest) value of the index. Omitting ceramics and glasses because of brittleness. Formulate the constraints and objective you would associate with the choice of material to make the forks of a racing bicycle. E8.E 8. Cost. Answer. we find • • • • Woods CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymers) Magnesium (Mg) alloys Three density-grades of rigid polymer foams. The performance of a component or product is limited by the properties of the materials of which it is made. 08/12/2008 . with the slope indicated by the guide line on the figure. the flexural modulus. applying it then removes any materials that can only meet the stiffness constraint if they are too thick. Plot the index for a light. The property or property-group that limits performance for a given design is called its material index.8. is ρ / E 1 / 3 . What is meant by a material index? Answer. The index. Construct a line by hand. Eco text: solution manual 43 MFA. What is the appropriate material index? Answer. Sometimes it is limited by a single property. where E is Young’s modulus (or. E8. is that for a stiffness limited panel of minimum volume: minimize 1 / E 1 / 3 . read from Table 8. Polymer foams have the problem that their modulus is low. read from Table 8. excluding ceramics because of their brittleness. The index for selecting materials for light stiff panels. equal to E for isotropic materials but not for those.6. It is possible to apply a constraint on thickness (it translates into a lower limit for modulus).3. The central objective is to minimize mass.11. usually the smallest.3 of the text. The important constraints are those of meeting target values of stiffness (for control and comfort) and strength (for safety). so although they are light. that are not isotropic). Which six to you find? What material classes do they belong to? Answer. positioning the line such that six materials are left above it. then position it so that a few materials lie to its left. Mass. carries a heavy performance penalty.5. S * to prevent damage to the screen. E8. the panel has to be thick to achieve much stiffness. as shown. sometimes by a combination of them. The objective in selecting a material for a panel of given in-plane dimensions for the lid-casing of an ultra-thin portable computer is that of minimizing the panel thickness h while meeting a constraint on bending stiffness.

Ignoring ceramics because or brittleness. the best choices are • • • • Woods Cast irons Carbon steels Three density-grades of rigid polymer foams. The index for a strength limited panel of minimum embodied energy. excluding ceramics because of their brittleness. E8. as shown. The panels should have the lowest possible embodied energy but be strong enough to deter an intruder who. 08/12/2008 . will load the panels in bending. Eco text: solution manual 44 MFA. ρ is its density y and σ y its yield strength. Which six to you find? What material classes do they belong to? Answer. in attempting to break in. where H m is the embodied energy per kg of the material. positioning the line to find the best choice. Polymer foams are unsuitable for other reasons (too easily cut.9.Index ρ / E1 / 3 The Modulus – Density chart: the one for stiffness at minimum weight. read from Table 8. Panels are needed to board-up the windows of an unused building. Which index would you choose to guide choice? Plot the index on the Strength-Embodied energy chart of Figure 8.14. It is position to leave a few materials to its left.3 of the text. reading the slope from the appropriate guide line in the lower right of the chart.8. and too thick) leaving the others as the most environmentally friendly choices. is H m ρ / σ 1 / 2 . The index is plotted on the Strength – Embodied energy chart using the procedure described in the answer to example E8.

Index H m ρ / σ 1/ 2 y The Strength – Embodied energy chart: the one for strength at minimum embodied energy. 08/12/2008 .10. A material is required for disposable forks for a fast-food chain. The primary considerations in choosing materials for disposable applications are health. Answer. Constraints: the material must be Objective: minimize • • • • • Non toxic Cheap Cheap also to mold or shape Low embodied energy Easily (and profitably) recyclable • Embodied energy or • Carbon footprint (they lead to essentially the same choice) Eco text: solution manual 45 MFA. The table list the resulting constraints and objectives. List the objective and the constraints that you would see as important in this application. E8. cost and the environmental damage that disposal might cause.

L . where F = C2 Iσy hL ≥ F* Here C 2 is a constant that depends only on the distribution of the loads and I is the second moment of area.E8. with minimum embodied energy content is M = ρ Hm σ 1/ 2 y where H m is the embodied energy of the material. b and C 2 are all specified. 08/12/2008 . The best materials for a strong panel with the lowest embodied energy are those with the smallest values of Mp = ρ Hm σ 1/ 2 y Eco text: solution manual 46 MFA. / 2 Using this to eliminate h in the objective function gives ⎛ 12 F * L3 b ⎞ ⎟ Hp ≥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ C2 ⎠ ⎝ 1/ 2 ρ Hm σ 1/ 2 y The quantities F * . Combining the last two equations and solving for h gives ⎛ 12 F * L h≥⎜ ⎜ C2b σ y ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1. is I = b h3 12 We can reduce the energy H p by reducing h . The objective function for the embodied energy of the panel. Show that the index for selecting materials for a strong panel with the dimensions shown here. rework the panel derivation in Section 8. is the volume Lbh times the embodied energy of the material per unit volume. loaded in bending.12. Answer. the only freedom of choice left is that of the material. but only so far that the stiffness constraint is still met. H p . To do so. for a rectangular section.10 replacing the stiffness constraint with a constraint on failure load F requiring that it exceed a chosen value F * where F = C2 Iσ y hL > F* where C2 is a constant and I is the second moment of area of the panel : I = b h3 12 . ρ H m H p = bh L ρ Hm Its failure load F must be at least F * . which. ρ its density and σ y its yield strength.

the two chairs do not differ significantly in embodied energy. is much less energy and CO2 intensive than the PP. Use the data sheets for these two materials in Chapter 12 of the book to find out who is right – are the differences significant? (Remember the warning about precision at the start of Chapter 12). A typical PP chair weighs 1. Eco text: solution manual 47 MFA. but they do in carbon release. A maker of polypropylene (PP) garden furniture is concerned that the competition is stealing part of his market by claiming that the “traditional” material for garden furniture. cast iron. Material Embodied energy* MJ/kg CO2* kg/kg Embodied energy MJ/chair CO2 kg/chair Cast iron Polypropylene 17 103 1. If the PP chair lasts 5 years and the cast iron chair lasts 25 years.E8. per kg. 08/12/2008 . The construction is shown below.05 2. 8.13. The metal with a modulus greater than 100 GPa and the lowest embodied energy is cast iron.13 to find the metal with a modulus E greater than 100 GPa and the lowest embodied energy per unit volume. If the longer life of the cast iron chair is recognized by dividing the values by the life in years (to give energy and carbon per chair.6 4.7 187 165 11.year) the cast iron chair wins easily. The table lists mean values of embodied energy and carbon footprint. does the conclusion change? Answer.6 kg. Use the chart E − H m ρ chart of Figure 8. Answer. for the two materials. Lower embodied energy Modulus E = 100 GPa The Modulus – Embodied energy chart: the one for stiffness at minimum embodied energy. The last two columns show the values per chair.32 * From the data sheets of Chapter12. If the difference in lifetime is ignored. one made of cast iron weighs 11 kg.14.

Exploring design using CES Edu Level 2 Eco.
E8.15. Use a “Limit” stage to find materials with modulus E > 180 GPa and embodied energy H m < 30 MJ/kg. Answer. Apply the two constraints using a “Limit” stage in CES Edu Level 2 with Eco. Four materials meet them. They are

Selected materials
Cast iron, ductile (nodular) High carbon steel Low carbon steel Medium carbon steel

E8.16. Use a “Limit” stage to find materials with yield strength σ y > 100 MPa and a carbon footprint
CO 2 < 1 kg/kg.

Answer. Two materials meet the constraints. They are

Selected materials
Cast iron, ductile (nodular) Cast iron, gray

E8.17. Make a bar chart of embodied energy H m . Add a “Tree” stage to limit the selection to

polymers alone. Which polymers have the lowest embodied energy?
Answer. The figure below shows the bar-chart created by CES. It was made using a “Graph” stage with Embodied energy plotted on the y-axis. The selection was limited to Polymers and elastomers by selecting, for the x-axis, this subset using the “Tree” option found under Advanced in the axis choice dialog box. The four polymers with the lowest embodied energy are listed below. They are all biopolymers – polymers made from natural feedstock, not oil.

Selected materials
Natural Rubber (NR) Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA, PHB) Polylactide (PLA) Starch-based thermoplastics (TPS)

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E8.18. Make a chart showing modulus E and density ρ . Apply a selection line of slope 1, corresponding to the index ρ / E positioning the line such that six materials are left above it. What families do they belong to?

Answer. The chart generated by CES is shown below with a selection line of slope 1 positioned to leave six materials above the line. These are the materials with the lowest values of the index. They are listed in the table. Five are ceramics, one is a composite.

Selected materials
Alumina Aluminum nitride Boron carbide CFRP, epoxy matrix (isotropic) Silicon carbide Silicon nitride

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E8.19. A material is required for a tensile tie to link the front and back walls of a barn to stabilize both. It must meet a constraint on strength and have as low an embodied energy as possible. To be safe the material of the tie must have fracture toughness K 1c > 18 MPa.m1/2. The relevant index is
M = Hmρ / σ y

Construct a chart of σ y plotted against H m ρ . Add the constraint of adequate fracture toughness, meaning K 1c > 18 MPa.m1/2, using a “Limit” stage. Then plot an appropriate selection line on the chart and report the three materials that are the best choices for the tie.
Answer. The chart is shown below with a selection line leaving just three materials exposed. They are listed in the table.

Selected materials
Cast iron, ductile (nodular) High carbon steel Low alloy steel

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List the material you find. Selected materials Natural Rubber (NR) Polylactide (PLA) Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA. The equivalent chart of carbon footprint.E8. Use the “Search” facility in CES to find biopolymers. reveals that CO2 release associated with their production is at the lower end of that for polymers – it is about the same as that polyethylene or PVC. shown in the answer to exercise E8. The plot of embodied energies for polymers. A search on “Biopolymer” delivers the 5 materials listed in the table. 08/12/2008 . A company wishes to enhance its image by replacing oil-based plastics in its products by polymers based on natural materials.17 shows that the first four have lower embodied energies than any other polymer or elastomers. below. Answer. Are their embodied energies and CO2 footprints less than those of conventional plastics? Make bar charts of embodied energy and CO2 footprint to find out. PHB) Starch-based thermoplastics (TPS) Cellulose polymers (CA) Eco text: solution manual 52 MFA.20.

Chapter 9 E9. Answer. Derive the correction factor to allow for recycle content cited in Exercise E9.95 0. Container type PET 400 ml bottle PE 1 liter milk bottle Glass 750 ml bottle Al 440 ml can Steel 440 ml can Material PET High density PE Soda glass 5000 series Al alloy Plain carbon steel Embodied energy* MJ/kg 84 81 15.8 19. The first lists the correction factor . The materials of the drink containers of Figure 9. If the drink containers are made of virgin material.5 34 6.44 0. energies to recycle and typical recycled fraction in current supply.5 3.2.5 9. the second lists the energy per liter multiplied by the correction factor. The factor we seek is the ratio of these two: ( 1 − f rc )H m + f rc H rc ⎛ H = 1 − f rc ⎜ 1 − rc ⎜ Hm Hm ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Eco text: solution manual 53 MFA.8 6. You will find data for all three attributes in the data sheets of Chapter 12.89 0.21 0.3 3.2 of the text with two additional columns added. the energy per kg falls to ( 1 − f rc )H m + f rc H rc . grams 25 38 325 20 45 Energy/liter MJ/liter 5.8 5. Steel still emerges as the best choice.1 Answer. The second table reproduces Table 9.1.7 2.87 0. 08/12/2008 . multiply the energy per liter in the last column of the table by the factor ⎛ H ⎞ 1 − f rc ⎜ 1 − rc ⎟ ⎜ Hm ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where f rc is the recycle fraction in current supply.0 Recycle fr. The inclusion of recycled material significantly reduces all the energies.5 208 32 Recycle energy* (MJ/kg) 38.7 9. in current supply* 0. The first table below lists the materials of the drink containers and the embodied energies.42 * From the data sheets of Chapter 12 Container type PET 400 ml bottle PE 1 liter milk bottle Glass 750 ml bottle Al 440 ml can Steel 440 ml can Material PET High density PE Soda glass 5000 series Al alloy Plain carbon steel Mass.6 5. H m is the embodied energy for primary material production and H rc is that for recycling of the material.2 change if the contribution of recycling is included? To do so.70 Corrected energy MJ/liter 4.3 E9.3 Correction factor 0.085 0.24 0.1 are recycled to different degrees. If instead they are made of material containing a fraction f rc of recycled material that had required the recycle energy H rc to produce it.7 3. How does the ranking of Table 9. each carries an embodied energy of H m per kg.60 0. but glass rather than aluminium now becomes the most energy-intensive.

4.14) to select materials for each of the barriers. ρ σ 2/3 y Hmρ σ 2/3 y Eco text: solution manual 54 MFA. 08/12/2008 . Answer. Reject ceramics and glass on the grounds of brittleness. Use the indices for the crash barriers (equations 9. Position your selection line to include one metal for each. List what you find for each barrier.E9.12) and strength and embodied energy (Figure 8.1 and 9.2) with the charts for strength and density (Figure 8.

Each is position to leave one class of metal exposed. The best choice is CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymers). among . aluminium sheet is routinely used for shell structures. as did the selection method used in the text. 08/12/2008 . All are practical for shells. The exercise brings out how strongly the selection to minimize environmental burden depends on the application. Eco text: solution manual 55 MFA. among metals. The earliest light-weight shells were made of plywood (some still are). magnesium alloys. The selection is wood.The figure above shows the two charts with the indices M 1 = Hmρ σ 2/3 y and M 2 = ρ σ 2/3 y marked. and foams on the grounds that the shell would have to be very thick. metals cast irons offer the solution with lowest embodied energy. magnesium sheet can be used in the same way but its has more limited ductility. aluminium alloys and wood lie above it (ignoring the ceramics and foams).11.4 by plotting the stiffness index M1 = ρ E1/ 2 onto a copy of the modulus-density chart of Figure 8. Reject ceramics and glass on the grounds of brittleness. Complete the selection of materials for light. Which materials do you find? Which of these would be practical for a real shell? Answer. magnesium alloys offer the lightest solution . making it harder to shape. finally CFRP is now the material of choice for light weight shells. The upper selection is that for the mobile barrier with minimizing mass as the objective.5. The lower selection is that for the static barrier with minimizing embodied energy as the objective. stiff shells of Section 9. The selection line with slope 2 (picked up from the guide line on the lower right) is position here such that CFRP. Selected materials: mobile barrier Carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) Magnesium alloys (Aluminum alloys) (Wood) Selected materials: static barrier Wood Cast irons (Carbon steels) E9.

which we take to be the sum of the initial cost and the cost of the energy used over life. We wish to minimize life-cost.6. So define the penalty function Z * = C* + α e H * t f f where C* is the initial cost and H * is the energy per year (both per cubic meter of cold space).hr and t is the service life of the fridge in years. If you had to choose just one fridge to use in this land. using this value for the exchange constant.hr gives Z * = C * + 20 H * f f Rearranging gives H* = f 1 * 1 * Z − Cf 20 20 Eco text: solution manual 56 MFA.ρ E1/ 2 The Modulus – Density chart: the one for stiffness at minimum weight.8) and plot a new set of penalty lines onto it. Inserting a life t of 10 years and an energy cost α e of $2/kW. Make a copy of the trade-off plot for fridges (Figure 9. α e .hr. which would it be? Answer. . f f the exchange constant. making Z* the life-cost of the fridge per cubic meter of cold space. is the cost of energy per kW. 08/12/2008 . α e . E9. it costs $2/kW. In a far-away land. fridges cost that same as they do here but electrical energy costs 10 times more than here – that is.

You are asked to design a large heated work-space in a cold climate. making it as eco-friendly as possible by using straw-bale insulation. C p is the specific heat of the wall per unit mass (so C p ρ is the specific heat per unit volume) and t is the time interval between heating and cooling. It is ringed in red: the Hotpoint RLA 175. a specific heat capacity of 1670 J/kg. Inserting the data given in the question (and remembering to convert the 12 hour cycle time into seconds) gives the result w = 0. Eco text: solution manual 57 MFA.7. is given by equation 9. E9. 08/12/2008 .K and a thermal conductivity of 0. w. has a density of 600 kg/m3. Contours of Z* for an exchange constant of $2/kW.hr The trade-off plot for fridges with contours of the new penalty function Z*. The space will be heated during the day (12 hours) but not at night.So the penalty function plots as a set of lines of slope 1/20 on the trade of plot of H * against C* .hr is that nearest the point where the new Z* contours are tangent to the trade-off surface. f f They are shown in black on the figure. Straw.09 meters = 9 centimeters.16 of the text: ⎛ 2λ t ⎞ ⎟ w = ⎜ ⎜Cp ρ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1/2 where λ is the thermal conductivity. when compressed. The required insulation wall-thickness.09 W/m. What is the optimum thickness of straw to minimize the energy loss? Answer. The choice that minimizes total life-cost when electrical power costs $2/kW.K.

The use-energy of any vehicle. increases with the mass of the vehicle. They are: • • • Polycarbonate. picking up the slope of 1. Which index is the one to guide this selection if the aim is to maximize the range for a given battery storage capacity? Plot it on the appropriate chart from the set shown as Figures 8. be it gasoline or electric powered.8. The bumper contributes to this mass. Maximizing range for a given battery capacity means minimizing mass.11 – 8. Answer.E9. The makers of a small electric car wish to make bumpers out of a molded thermoplastic. . ρ σ 2/3 y The Strength – Density chart: the one for strength at minimum weight. The function of the bumper is to sustain bending loads. and make a selection. PEEK is too expensive for application such as this.14. The required index (equation 9. 08/12/2008 .5 from the guide line at the lower right. Eco text: solution manual 58 MFA.2 of the text) is M2 = ρ σ 2/3 y This is plotted on the strength – density chart below. PC Polyamide (nylon) PA and Polyetheretherketone PEEK In practice bumpers are made of blends of Polycarbonate with other polymers such as Polypropylene or Polyamide. The selection line is position such that a few polymers remain above it – they are the best choice. or of fiber reinforced thermosets such as Polyester.

500 MJ.6: H km = 3. Table 9. as a function of vehicle mass m is listed in Table 9. and assuming the conditions of use described here (200.07 Δm Thus a weight saving of 6 kg made possible by the change from steel to aluminum bumpers on a car of mass 1500 kg saves. over an assumed life of 200. You will find the embodied energies of steel and aluminum in the datasheets of Chapter 12. over the assumed life.93 The marginal change in this energy resulting from a small change is mass when bumpers of one material are replace by those of another is found by differentiating this: ΔH km = 3. but not much. Material Steel Aluminum Bumper mass (kg) 20 14 Embodied energy (MJ/kg) 32 220 Material energy per bumper (MJ) 640 3080 (c) One liter of gasoline provides 35 MJ of energy (see Table 6.9. work out whether. Both materials have a much higher embodied energy than steel. Using current pump prices for gasoline.000 km the picture changes. From these the material energy per bumper-set is calculated: the difference is 2. Thus the change of material has saved the equivalent of one liter of fuel. (a) Work out how much energy is saved by changing the bumper-set of a 1500 kg car from steel to aluminum. Fuel cost depends on country. (a) The energy in MJ/km. If the life-distance is increased to 400. Thus the switch from steel to aluminum bumpers has saved energy. and then. Thus from an economic point of view. Most cars now have extruded aluminium or glassreinforced polymer bumpers. Take the weight of a steel bumper-set to be 20 kg.000 km on a vehicle of mass 1500 kg) the change of material is not justified on cost grounds. Ignore the differences in energy in manufacturing the two bumpers – it is small. Answer. over 200.7 x10 −3 m 0.000 km.E9. The difference between the material and the use energy over 200.000 km (b) Calculate whether the switch from steel to aluminum has saved energy over life. (b) The table below lists the embodied energies of steel and aluminum. The energy of use then becomes 4.6 gives the equation for the energy consumption in MJ/km as a function of weight for petrol engine cars based on the data plotted in Figure 9. it varies at present between $1/liter and $2/liter. even with cheap gasoline ($1 per liter) the change becomes economically attractive.470 MJ.5 of the text).44 x10 −3 m 0.11 of the text. 08/12/2008 . the energy 2.440 MJ.000 for a vehicle of this mass is only 30 MJ. (c) The switch from steel to aluminum increases the price of the car by $60. they are the means of the ranges given in data sheets of Chapter 12.. and has cost $60. it is cheaper to have the aluminum bumper or the steel one. H km . Car bumpers used to be made of steel. the difference between material and use energy becomes 2. equivalent to 71 liters of gasoline.940 MJ. and that of an aluminum one to be 14 kg. Eco text: solution manual 59 MFA.

They are listed in the table below. polymers and composites and natural materials. 08/12/2008 . Thus density plays a larger role in determining the value of the index than the other two properties. selecting only metals.10. Make a chart with the two shell indices M1 = ρ E1/ 2 and M2 = ρ σ 1/ 2 y as axes.4) using Level 3 of the CES software. epoxy matrix (isotropic) Softwood: pine. Refine the selection for shells (Chapter 9. Which ones emerge as the best choice? Why? Answer. Section 9. E9. Then add a “Tree” stage. modulus E and strength σ y enter only as the square root. Selected materials Age-hardening wrought Al-alloys CFRP. Density ρ enters the two indicies with a power of 1. which in part explains the selection. All have low densities. The figure below shows the CES Level 2 output.Exercises using the CES Edu software. along grain Titanium alloys Wrought magnesium alloys The interesting bit Eco text: solution manual 60 MFA. The materials that have the most attractive values of both indices are those at the bottom left. using the “Advanced” facility to make the combination of properties.

Level 2 Age-hardening wrought Al-alloys Titanium alloys Wrought magnesium alloys The same selection at Level 3 gives 76 alloys of magnesium. ρ σ 2/ 3 y 1. There are no polymer matrix composites on either plot – they are eliminated by the requirement of recyclability. Switching from Level 2 to Level 3 has populated the chart in much more detail.5 Level 2 data Eco text: solution manual 61 MFA. The selection at Level 2 with the selection line in the position shown is Selected materials. Displacing the line upwards to refine the search until just six are left gives a much more specific selection listed below.5) in the same position on both.11. Tackle the crash barrier case study using CES Level 2 following the requirements set out in Table 9.E9. 08/12/2008 . Then replace Level 2 with Level 3 data and explore what you find. Answer. aluminum. Then make a chart with density ρ on the x-axis and yield strength σ y on the y-axis and apply a selection line with the appropriate slope to represent the index for the mobile barrier: M2 = ρ σ 2/3 y List the best candidates. and with a selection line with the appropriate slope (1. Use a Limit stage to apply the constraints on fracture toughness K 1c ≥ 18 MPa.3.m and the requirement of recyclability. titanium and steels. The two figures below show the Level 2 and the Level 3 charts on exactly the same axes.

7055. Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mo. 08/12/2008 . Solution Treated and Aged Titanium alpha-beta alloy. annealed Wrought aluminum alloy.ρ σ 2/ 3 y 1. T77511 Wrought aluminum alloy. Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mo. 7150.5 Level 3 data Level 3 data Selected materials. Level 3 Titanium alpha-beta alloy. T61511 Wrought magnesium alloy (EA55RS) Wrought magnesium alloy (ZC71) Eco text: solution manual 62 MFA.

gives a much more specific selection shown. using a “Limit” stage. and with a selection line with the appropriate slope (1. Eco text: solution manual 63 MFA. AISI P2 Low-carbon mold tool steels.11. As in the preceding exercise there are no polymer matrix composites on either plot – they are eliminated by the requirement of recyclability. Displacing the line upwards to refine the search until just six are left. many of them sophisticated tool steels.12.5) in the same position on both. Then. Answer. AISI P3 Low-carbon mold tool steels. The two figures below show the Level 2 and the Level 3 charts on exactly the same axes. dump in Level 3 data and explore what you find. as before. below. AISI W2 (Annealed) Water-hardening tool steel. Switching from Level 2 to Level 3 has populated the chart in much more detail. 08/12/2008 . The problem is overcome by applying a further constraint. AISI O6 Water-hardening tool steel. AISI P5 Oil-hardening cold work tool steel. Selected materials. ductile (nodular) Cast iron.E9. AISI W5 (Annealed) These steels are expensive and an inappropriate choice for a low-grade application such as a static crash barrier. but this time make a chart using CES Level 2 on which the index for the static barrier M1 = Hmρ σ 2/3 y can be plotted – you will need the Advanced facility to make the product H m ρ . The selection at Level 2 with the selection line in the position shown is Selected materials. Level 3 Low-carbon mold tool steels. The result is shown in the third chart and table below. for instance. Repeat the procedure of Exercise E9. List what you find to be the best candidates. gray High carbon steel Low alloy steel Low carbon steel Medium carbon steel The same selection at Level 3 gives 379 cast irons and steels. requiring that the material cost less than $1/kg. Level 2 Cast iron.

08/12/2008 .Hmρ σ 2/ 3 y   Level 2 data 1.5 Hmρ σ 2/ 3 y   Level 3 data 1.5 Eco text: solution manual 64 MFA.

Level 3 with limit on price of £1/kg Carbon steel.Selected materials. Hardened & Tempered) Pearlitic malleable cast iron (BS grade P 70-02) Pearlitic malleable cast iron (former BS P 690/2-OQ) Hmρ σ 2/ 3 y   1. 08/12/2008 .5 Level 3 data with price < $1/kg Eco text: solution manual 65 MFA. AISI 9255 (tempered @ 205 C. oil quenched) Low alloy steel. AISI 1340 (tempered @ 205 C. oil quenched) Nodular graphite cast iron (BS 700/2. Hardened & Tempered) Nodular graphite cast iron (BS 900/2.

chemical or biological treatment. Establishing a renewable-energy based system requires very large capital investment but so. Design for the environment (DFE) is the strategy to foresee and minimize the damaging effects of product families at the design stage. It is basically a clean-up or “end-or-pipe” measure. a concept emerging from industrial ecology.1. giving emphasis to the objectives of minimizing emissions by reducing weight or adopting an alternative propulsion system – hybrid. reliability. Returning to the example of the car: it is to redesign the vehicle. making the system as a whole difficult to disrupt. via photocells. E10. as electricity It is these that offer the possibility of power generation without atmospheric carbon. a parallel between the functioning of the natural and the industrial systems. Pollution control and prevention (PC and P) is intervention to mitigate environmental damage caused by existing products or processes without the burden of redesigning them. The ecological metaphor. both as direct heat and. Taking transport as an example. Taking water-borne pollution of beaches as an example. it is redesigning the process generating the effluent so that. All offer independence from the international trade in fossil fuels and the uncertainty of price and supply that this involves. balancing them against the conflicting objectives of performance. Positive aspects of converting to renewable energy sources. E10.2. does the building of conventional power generating plant. it is the addition of catalytic converters to cars. All renewable energy sources generate electrical power without significant emissions. What is meant by the ecological metaphor? What does it suggest about ways to use materials in a sustainable way? Answer. quality and cost. it is extending the exit pipe to carry effluent further out to sea. And all require a large number capture devices distributed over a large area of land or sea.3 What are the potential sources of renewable energy? What are the positive and negative aspects of converting to an economy based wholly on renewable sources? Answer.Chapter 10 E10. is based on the precept that we must see human activities as part of the global eco-system. When would you use the first? When the second? Answer. through filtration. Eco text: solution manual 66 MFA. 08/12/2008 . Extracting significant power for renewable resources involves committing large areas of land or sea because the energy is so dispersed. It has sometimes led to the idea is that a study of the processes and balances that have evolved in nature might suggest ways reconcile the imbalance between the industrial and the natural systems. Negative aspects of converting to renewable energy sources. the water leaving the plant is no longer polluted. perhaps. The dispersion and reliance on (and thus lack of protection from) the forces of nature creates maintenance problems. in some senses. and that there is. Distinguish pollution control and prevention (PCP) from design for the environment (DFE). too. There are five potential sources of renewable energy:. • • • • Wind Wave Tidal Geothermal • Solar. Using the example of water-borne waste again. a step to mitigate an identified problem with an existing product or system. or electric.

7 kW. what fractional of the area of the country would be taken up by turbines in order to meet the energy needs? Answer. 08/12/2008 .5 kW.5.11x10 8 kW The wind power that can be generated from an area A km2 is Pw = A x 10 6 x 2 x 0.5 million and the average power consumed per capita there is 10.11x10 5 km 2 This is 2. Eco text: solution manual 67 MFA.526 km2. the area is insufficient. The land area of the New York State is 131. There is no way wind power from within the State can supply all the energy it needs.5 / 1000 = 1000 A kW Here the factor of 106 is to convert km2 to m2 and the factor of 1000 is to convert W to kW.1 x10 5 km 2 This is 3.12 times the area of the State of New York.4.5.E10. The land area of the Netherlands (Holland) is 41.05 x10 8 kW The wind power that can be generated from an area A km2 is Pw = A x 10 6 x 2 x 0. Its population is 19. Even with a probably unrealistic load factor of 0. E10.67 times the area of the Netherlands. If the average wind power is 2 W/m2 of land area and wind turbines operate at a load factor of 0. Equating this to the power demand gives A = 1. If the average wind power is 2 W/m2 of land area and wind turbines operate at a load factor of 0. what fractional of the area of the country would be taken up by turbines in order to meet the energy needs? Answer.5 million and the average power consumed per capita there is 6.25.5. There is no way wind power can supply all the country’s needs.25 / 1000 = 500 A kW Here the factor of 106 is to convert km2 to m2 and the factor of 1000 is to convert W to kW.255 km2. The average power demand of the State of New York is P = Population x power per person = 2. The average power demand of the Netherlands is P = Population x power per person = 1. Equating this to the power demand gives A = 14. Its population is 16.

The average power demand of the US is P = Population x power per person = 3. in New Mexico.14 x10 5 km 2 This is 0.1 / 1000 = 5000 A kW Here the factor of 106 is to convert km2 to m2 and the factor of 1000 is to convert W to kW. The power needs could just be met if both States were completely paved with solar cells.6. The combined land area of the State of New Mexico (337. which. Is the combined area of the two States large enough to provide solar power that would meet the current needs of the United States? Answer. is roughly 50W/m2.367 km2) is 623.367 km2) and Nevada (286. The population if the United States is 301 million and the average power consumed per capita there is 10.98 times the combined area of the two States.734 km2. Eco text: solution manual 68 MFA. Mass-produced solar cells can capture 10% of the energy that falls on them.2 kW.E10. 08/12/2008 . Equating this to the power demand gives A = 6.07 x10 9 kW The solar power that can be generated from an area A km2 is Pw = A x 10 6 x 50 x 0.

The cost of the electric power at 0. and costs $10.org. The cost of the saucepan will rise to $ 13. in your view.sirc. 3. If the price of energy doubles this rises to $ 5. The embodied energy of aluminum is 220 MJ/kg.5.wikipedia.3.025 $/MJ this rises to $ 6. If the cost of industrial electric power doubles from 0. Originating in 1930s Eco text: solution manual 69 MFA. If the cost on industrial electric power doubles from 0. An aluminum saucepan weighs 1.025 $/MJ. Select and report the definition that. E 11. which has a long history. en. 4. The cost of the electric power at 0. which is extended by maintenance and repair enabled by low labor costs. What is the underlying reason for this? Answer.jncc. an increase of 33%. Among them are: 1. Use the Worldwide Web to research the meaning and history of “The precautionary principle”.0125 $/MJ to 0.3.gov. The embodied energy of assembled integrated electronics of this sort is about 2000 MJ/kg. lack of scientific certainty or consensus must not be used to postpone preventative action.i-sis. 08/12/2008 .uk/prec.0125 $/MJ to 0. Answer.30. associations and styling as for their functionality.4.php From these we learn the following. E11. If the price of energy doubles to 0. An MP3 player weighs 100 grams. and costs $120.0125 $/MJ to make the aluminum for one 1.1.2 kg. The average life of a car in the US is 13 years.2. The cost of the player will rise to $ 125. High labor costs make maintenance and repair uneconomic so that even minor breakdown causes rejection and replacement.uk/page-1575 www.025 $/MJ. The precautionary principle states that when there is reasonable suspicion of harm. E11. how much will it change the cost of the MP3 player? Answer. Numerous sites comment on or criticize the precautionary principle. an increase of just 4%. In affluent economies such as those of the US and much of Europe consumers are sufficiently wealthy to purchase products as much for their character.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle www. New models often appear on an annual basis.org/articles/beware www.0125 $/MJ to make one MP3 player is $2. In less affluent economies the capital cost of products represents a much larger fraction of disposable income.Chapter 11 E11.6. how much will it change the cost of the saucepan? Answer.2 kg saucepan is $ 3. stimulating replacement of previously purchased products before the end of their functional life. best sums up the meaning. 2. Cars in Cuba are repaired and continue in use when 25 years old. To avoid the need for more capital investment products are kept for their full functional life.

08/12/2008 . predictions are made and the model is validated (or revised) as additional data becomes available. a customer's gender. Predictive analytics is the area of data mining concerned with forecasting probabilities and trends.wikipedia. 3. en. Predictive modeling is the use of mathematical models based on known or measured behavior to predict the behavior of systems under conditions for which measurements do not exist. a vendor consortium.techtarget. often expressed as differential equations that can then be calibrated against known response and subsequently integrated with new boundary conditions to explore response under different circumstances. data is collected for the relevant predictors. variable factors that are likely to influence future behavior or results. mapped out by sophisticated software. for example. Despite this it remains at the heart of discussions of mans’ influence on the environment. sound common sense in an emotional net. A number of sites discuss and give examples of predictive modelling. To create a predictive model. Physically-based models enable this. to issues relating to climate change. The behavior must be predicted. at bottom.com www.org/wiki/Predictive_modeling searchdatamanagement. a statistical model is formulated. and purchase history might predict the likelihood of a future sale. in all three examples response to service or use conditions cannot easily be measured because of the expense of doing so or because international treaties forbid it. Answer. thereby ensnaring what is. Since the 1970s the principle has sometimes been invoked by green activists and those opposed to technological change. Among them are: 1. Eco text: solution manual 70 MFA. 2.Germany as Vorsorgeprinzip (literally foresight principle). above all. the uncontrolled development of nanotechnology and. The model may employ a simple linear equation or a complex neural network.html From these we learn the following. A predictive model is made up of a number of predictors. E11. Use the Worldwide Web to research examples of problems that are approached by predictive modeling.5. Physically-based models are based on the principles of physics. behavior of systems in space and the explosion of nuclear devices are examples. In marketing. age. The design of a new aircraft. The Data Mining Group.com/specialreports/20050215/1019956-1. uses a XML-based language called the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML) to enable the definition and sharing of predictive models between applications. the deployment of genetically modified crops. often with little scientific justification.dmreview. Statistically-based models use predictive analytics to create a statistical model of future behavior. it has become one of the guiding principles in dealing with issues of loss of biodiversity.

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