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AL Wala Wal Bara 2 and 3 by Shaykh Muhammad Saeed Al Qahtani and Bara according to the Quran and Sunnah and theTIONTIONTION IN THE MADINANwenty Forms of Alliance with the Disbelievers 112o Sit with Disbelievers who Ridicule the Quran 129d the Disbelievers in Wrongdoing 121ude towards these Aspects: 124TION 126ance and Dissassociation 126iance and Dissassociation 127, it is concerned with one of Islam's main foundations, namely the qualities, it has been written at a very crucial time: everything has become soightye to First Editione praise Him and seek His assistance. We ask for His. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, Alone,, his Companions, and upon thoseishes and the guidance of His Messenger. Allah hasd,awhid is the reason for which: Balances of Justice are set up,ah, alone, should be one's God and, and the restraint of the heart from pursuing other than Allah and Hisord (Tawhid), with all the meanings and requirements it entails, has beenala' Wal Bara.al Bara' isala' Wal Bara'. Some people think that the principle of faith is a matter of secondaryou who believe! Do not take your fathers or your brothers as, andake not the Jews and the Christians as Awliya'wliya' to one another. And if anywliya', then surely he is one of them.erily, Allah guides not those people who are the Zaalimunala' Wal Bara', after the requirement of Tawhid and the..est?p).orship, it is part of theahhab who said:ou will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day,ala' Wal Bara' In Islam, knowing, before hand, that I cannot fully cover , I would like to thank my teacher Sheikh Muhammad Qutb for his advice andou did lay on those before us; our Lord! Impose not on us thatou are our Protector, and give us victory over the disbelieving people.Qahtaani, the slave, or the free slave. It is always based,ol.4/294. 4baani said this Hadith is Sahih. See:awbah,usuf used to chase after work". Abu Hurayrahusuf and him, but only an analogy.Allah has said: "Allah is theaymiyyah says: "Alliance is the opposite of enmity. Alliance isAllah has said:ah has opposed Allah, and who is opposed to, it, early Muslim society in the period that followed the Rightly Guided, they arose, after the encroachment of scholastic theology, a generation without comparisonlah who created humanity, who fashioned his, which grew and flourished in the dark mistsas this simply the result of following blindly behind tradition? Was it due to the, the famous Sicilian library, which, the Son and the Holy Ghost,' to produce translations of o

further illustrate the deep gulf which divides the Islamic creed, as embodied in theorlds. The origin of . He came from Hira in Iraq where hises, indeed, a Warner came unto us; but we denied him and said:. And they say: Had weAllah and mentionaha,ou who, O People of the Book,, I bear witness that we havey and the second is as the certainty thatg them in our lives", chemistry, medicine, and the like, in order that what was translated would, all the Greek sciences indiscriminately, reported Ahadith from a number of usif, the student of Abu Hanifa, said, "Knowledge of philosophy is ignoranceaymiyyah said about this that philosophers who differ with both the Book and, rather , must be denouncedsect that formed when a group of people left the camp of Ali, the fourth Khalifah,j claimed that no one should agreeaymiyyah's "Anh Publications, 1993).,. Likewise,er he is warned and cautioned we are to struggle againste disassociate ourselves from him as we do from any self-al Jama'ah free themselves from all. Thus the innovator considers himself to be, large or small, he is a disbeliever e will return to this topic again later, Insha' Allah., do not be a servant of Satan, surely he is an enemy of , I fear that the punishment of Allah:ou have a shining example in Abraham and those with him when they. Thus, Ibn al- Qayyim al-Jawziyya said, "Allianceorlds'. Abraham's. There is no ally other than Allah, and there is no alliance except inabari remarks, "O followers of Prophet Muhammad, you have had ater this was clear to him he freed himself completely of , in the story of the companions of the Trench, Allahorthy of all Praiseord and His Religion, as theAnd theyerily, among mankind who have the best claim to Abraham are thoseerily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), soruth (Islam), to make it superior over all religions even though the, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, wherein theerily, Allah will help those who help His (cause). Truly, Allah is All-ighty. Those who, if We give them power in the land, orderou, one who will protect, and raise for us, from You, onee will now examine the details of how Muslims should dissociate themselves froms:awbah:. So travel freely (O. So if you (Mushrikun) repent, it is better for you,Al-Muttaqun. Thenerily, Allah is Oft- Forgiving, Mostlah will enrich you, if He Will, out of His bounty. Surely, AllahAbu Bakr to Makkah in order to announce to the pagans,awaf se.tle of Allah? He said: Their ruth while you know?"ou have nothing till youour Lord (the Qur'an)." Verily, that which has beenour Lord increases in many of awbah we were warned to oppose. Sternness towards them would itself be a kind of ol. 3/161).ahrim, verse 9. Surah At-Tawbahlah records their nightly (plots). So oppose them and put yourcient as a Disposer of affairs.awbah:, and died while theyqun.lah for you", they turn aside their heads, and you,, Allah guidesou (Muhammad) will not find a people who believe in Allah and the, even if they were their fathers or their sons, their brothers orAllah is well pleased with them, and they with, about

Ali and Hamza who had killed Utbah andaleed ibn Utbah in the battle of Badr lah and those of Satan,awbah the final order of complete separation is issued, and it makes itou who believe! Do not take your fathers or your brothers as, andawbah, with regards to the, injury and death for one's former ideals and beliefs. This struggle must beest.The matters which we will detail may take a person out of Islam, as is the. One will not care if one ison of types of allianceahhab and his sons.wenty Forms of Alliance with the Disbelieverse haveaymiyyah said with regard to this, "That. Once the desires of the heart are complete and clear then theAllah warns you toabari has explained that to take them as "allies" means to seek their help,ol.1/354, and, Allah does not guide an those people who are theds:aymiyyah, in his discussion of these same Words, adds that another ah and in the Prophet and in what has beenlah has determined, and there is none more qualified than. This ishoever entered these religions before the revelation of theerily! As for those whom the angels take (in death) while they areerily! As for those whom the, nor in its fifth part, except in the battles in whichaymiyyah said, "The state of a place reflects the state of a person. It is possible tool.13/8, and, migration, like anything else, is in the first instance a matter of ol.3/1296, Hadith 1271. For the Hadith of plague, see: Sahih al-Bukhari, e have already discussed the nature of the powers of Satan and of the. The forces of evil will never tolerate this and will spare no expense toe also discussed dissociation saying that the highest expression of it is, he would not be permitted to press its people to accept Islam as their . But humanlah to whom they should all turniance, there would be no virtue in patience nor in steadfastness before themiyyah said: "There is nothing to compare to it., or to receive martyrdomou who believe! Shall I tell you of an exchange which will savelah and a near victory,, andould you then, if you were given. Allah says:Allah tests those of Allah and His, not only yesterday, but todayee must know that falsehood can onlye shall grant him a mighty rewardou will surely beAamir who, on hearing the call to war . Those who are interested will find rich discussion of it in, faith can offer us no rewards until we return to the Qur'an and thee must acquire knowledge of the lives of the founders of our e must understand the nature of worship; the nature of religion; the nature of , people, race, class, or lah is their Protector and that the ruse of , however if a person was motivated by a desire for ware of what you conceal and of what you reveal. Whoever amongalib, "Allah's Messenger . Take the letter from her.'.' She replied, 'I have no letter with me.' We said, 'Either youe; it contained a statement from HaatibApostle said, 'Haatib! What is this?' Haatibafsir at-Tabari",enger! Don't hasten to give your judgment about me. I was a man. So, I wanted to recompense for my lacking any blood relation to them byah's Apostle said, 'Haatib participated in theou can't kill a Muslim", rather, he said: "Who knows,. Allah was so

pleased with and proud of them thatou who believe! Do not take Myyas Ibn Salamah Ibn. The, the common bond of resemblance brings about a feeling of harmony andou who believe, do not take the Jews and the Christians as, they can avail you in no way against Allah. Verily,miyyah says in his 'Tafseer' of this verse that Allah had commanded ProphetAnyone who differs with the Shari'ah is included in., if youah, or thataymiyyahe said, "O Allah's Apostle! (Do you mean) the Jews and the Christians?" He said,Abbas Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah answers this questionol.5/218. Itsar" or the "Land of Disbelief' when there is no, for ite may pray in our shoes, unlike the Jews whoo agree, participating in their fashions and styles requires you to mix freely witha'laa and ad-Dhahaak. So, if Allah has announcedmiyyah has talked much about this subject in his book e used to engage ourselves on them in the pre-, as we have been warned against resembling them, and have been told that we.. The Sahabah and the scholars are in full agreement that non-Muslims are noto, their celebrations are the most appalling things about them; approval of them isAllah. What., Christmas Day, Mothers' or Fathers' Day, Independence Day and theo answer this question we shouldmiyyah says that, in these Conditions, the point of distinguishing them from the, nor should, nor display the cross or anything of their scriptures. Their funerals should not pass by Muslim homes andesterners, or the champions in the East. Could such a person really consider , the obsequiousness of est; by their wonderment and awe before whatever the enemies of Islam may say; by., nor forbid thaterily, those who annoy Allah and His Messenger, Allah has cursed them, and has prepared for them a humiliatingYou have conveyed Allah'sou have conveyed Allah's Message,ou should know that theabian Peninsulaamaamah and their respective, nevertheless, with the permission of theol.3/1387, Hadith 1765.ere they to send an emissary itwould not be. In this case a Secretary, or some other appointed, "I doaymiyyah comments, "The fact of the matter is that the origin of their religion isawaaf is performed. When this verse was revealed, the Jews were still living atol. 1/185.ference between Alliance and Courtesy.e have sent among every nation a Messenger, (proclaiming):pAllah and avoidahbah az-Zuhayli asserts that, "It is not the aim of Islam to impose itself on mankindowards this. It was, after all, the People of the Book who used to say to the disbelievers fromugoslavia, in China and Turkestan, in placed on his chest, as he was pinned down in the blazing sun. His torturers demandedthathe deny the unity of Allah, but he only replied, `Ahad, Ahad, i.e., `One, One', and thensaid,`ByAllah, if I knew a word more odious to you than this I would say it!' 307 Similarly, Habib Ibn Zayd al-Ansari

308 , when Musaylimah al-Kadaab asked him,`Do you say Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah?' replied, 'Yes'. Musaylimah said, 'Do 303 "Tafseer at-Tabari", Vol.14/182. 304 "Tafseer Ibn Kathir", Vol.4/525. 305 "Fath al-Ba'ri", Vol.12/311-312. 306 "Tafseer al-Khaazin", Vol.4/117. 307 "Tafseer Ibn Kathir", Vol.4/525. 308 Habib Ibn Zayd Ibn A'sim Ibn Amru Al-Ansari, the brother of Abdullah Ibn Zayd, was mentioned byIbnu Ishaaq among those who were at al-Aqabah. He was killed by Musaylimah. Ibnu Sa'd said:Habib participated in the Battles of Uhud, al-Khandaq, and others, see: "Al-Isa'bah", Vol.1/307. 82you testify that I am the messenger of Allah!' But Habib continued to say, `I do not hear this' asMusaylamah cut himup.' 309 Also there is the example of the Companion, Abdullah Ibn Hudhaafa asSahami,who was taken hostage by the Romans. They brought him before their king who said,`Convert to Christianity, and I shall give you a share in my kingdom, and mydaughter in marriage.' Abdullah replied, `If you were to give me all that you possessand all that the Arabs possess, I would not renounce the religion of Muhammad, for aninstant.' The King said, `Then you are a dead man.' `So be it,' said Abdullah. So they took himand hung himup on a cross. Thenmarksmenwere called to shoot their arrows, grazinghishands and his legs, and all the while they called him to adopt their religion which he stillrefused to accept. Then they cut him down and brought a huge copper pot, which theyheated up. They brought one of their Muslim prisoners whom they threw into the pot, before Abdullah, soon he was roasted to bones. They threatened himwith the same, butstillhe refused. Then they brought a block and tackle, to winch him up and throwhimin

the pot, but when they were about to throw him in he began to weep. This sparked some hope intheheart of the king, so he asked him again, to which he replied, `I was crying because Ihave but one life to sacrifice for the Sake of Allah. O, that I should have as many as thenumbers of hairs on my head, to be tormented in this way, for the Sake of Allah!In another account he is said to have been imprisoned and deprived of food and drink for a number of days. But when they sent him wine and pork, he did not go near it.Thentheysummoned himand asked, 'Why don't you eat?' 'While it is allowed for me to eat this, Ifear that I would then feel badly toward you for it,' he said. The king said: `kiss my head andI will set you free.' Abdullah said, `And you will also set free all the Muslim hostages.'The king agreed. Abdullah kissed his head and the king set him free with all the Muslimhostages he had taken. When he returned Omar ibn al- Khattab said, 'Every Muslim should kiss the head of Abdullah IbnHudhaafah, and Iwill be the first to do so. Then heroseand kissed his head. 310 Aspects of Coercion 1. Force may drive one to seek refuge. In the face of persecution youmay take refuge inyour heart but take no pleasure in this, in the absence of any alternative. This is thecontext inwhich the verse was revealed: (Whoever disbelieved in Allah after his belief, except himwho is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with Faith).2. Forcemay take the formof threats.When someone capitulates under threats, althoughacting against his will, an element of choice remains. Choosing the lesser of two evils isanillustration of this. Thus Shu'aib chose between returning to disbelief or exile fromhis homeland: The chiefs of those who were arrogant among his people said: "We shallcertainly drive you out, O Shu'aib, and those who have believed withyou from our town, unless you return to our religion." He said: "Eventhough we hate it! We should have invented a lie against Allah if we returned to your religion, after Allah has rescued us from it. It is 309 "Tafseer Ibn Kathir", Vol.4/525. 310 "Tafseer Ibn Kathir", Vol.4/526. 83

not for us to return to it unless Allah, our Lord, should (so) will. OurLord comprehends all things in His Knowledge. In Allah do we put ourtrust. Our Lord! Judge between us and our people in truth, for Youare the Best of those who give judgment 311 Therefore, it is not permitted to accept such coercion (to return to disbelief). This isalso supported by another verse:Of mankind are some who say: "We believe in Allah," but, if they are made tosuffer for the sake of Allah, they consider the trial of mankind as Allah'sPunishment; and then, if victory comes from your Lord, (the hypocrites) will say:"Verily! We were with you (helping you)". Is not Allah Best Aware of what is inthe breast of the Aalameen (mankind and Jinns) 312 3. Force can break the morally weak. In this case there may be no threat nor persecution, but the feeble will fall under the weight of obligation placed upon him byhis peers. This is what happened to those Muslims who remained in Makkah after the hijrah. Because of their inability to either defend their position or leave, theyfound themselves with no alternatives, though had they been able to overcome thisdilemma they would have done so, regardless of the cost. Allah has forgiven such people. 313 Ibn Atiq has spoken earlier about the position with regard to those who had been ableeither to resist or to leave, but did not do so, preferring to suffer the consequences.Here, he cited Ibn Taymiyyah as his authority, `I have studied various opinions andfound that coercion varies according to the coerced person. Accordingly, thecoercion which brings with it a declaration of disbelief is not the same as thatallowed in H iba (gifts donated freely), because as Imam Ahmad had mentioned, on manyoccasions, coercion can only be an excuse for someone who has been subjected to persecution or torture. Simple words have no power to force disbelief. 314 Final word about Coercion

It is important to point out the difference between coercion and the feeling of fear, whichisassociated with the hope and awe, both of which are aspects of worship. So too, weshould distinguish between weakness and lack of moral fibre; between submission tothe enemy and inclining towards him, the loss of heart and the abandonment of reliance and trust in Allah. Everyone has within himself an inner source of strength onwhich to draw, according to the circumstances. This enables him to reject anything inthe privacy of his heart. The Prophet called this 'Jihad when he said, "..whoever fightsthemwith his heart, is a believer. But beyond this, there remains not a mustard seed's weightof faith." 315 311 Al-A'raf. 88-89. 312 Al-Ankabut: 10 313 Abdul Majid Ash-Shaadhili, "Haddu al-Islam Wa Haqiqatu al-Eemaan", p.523-526. 314 Ibnu Ateeq, "Ad-Difa'", p.30. 315 "Sahih Muslim", Vol.1/70, Hadith 50, The Book of Eemaan. 84It is therefore imperative to resist the oppressive ruler and the alliance which he demands;even if he has the power to persuade you, otherwise, he can not be allowed to influenceyour heart. Allah addressed the believers, after the events at Uhud, thus, And with how many a prophet have there been a number of devoted menwho fought (beside him). They quailed not for aught that befell them inthe Way of Allah, nor did they weaken, nor were they brought low.Allah loves the steadfast. Their cry was only that they said: Our Lord!Forgive us for our sins and wasted efforts, make our foothold sure, andgive us victory over the disbelieving folk. So Allah gave them the reward of the world and good reward of the Hereafter. Allah loves those whosedeeds are good. O you who believe! If you obey those who disbelieve,they will make you turn

back on your heels, and you turn back as losers.But Allah is your Protector, andHe is the best of helpers. 316 Abdullah Ibn Mas'oud said, "It is enough for Allah to see the heart of one whohas seen a reprehensible action, and could not do anything other than to be resentful atit." That you distance yourself from it, and not to lend yourself to it, is proof of your having been resentful. The heart should show superiority towards internal defeat. By thestrength of the heart you may refuse falsehood, regardless of the arrogance and pride of those who would force you to submit to them. By this strength, you may withdraw fromthem within and deny their right on you. This is Jihad of the heart; it is a Jihad which hasits deepest effect on the life of man. 317 316 Aal-Imraan: 146-150. 317 AbdulMajid Ash-Shaadhili, "Haddu al-Islam Wa Haqiqatu al-Eemaan", p.527-528