Citation: Priyadarshi, P., kya bharopiya bhasha-parivar ka janma Bharat men hua tha?

Naye sakshyon ka ek punaravalokan, Warima 2011 October, ISSN 0976-8548, 2:94-106.

email: priyadarshi101@hotmail.com

(Indo-Iranian) (PIE Se, grind,

1

(Renerew)

R1a

Y-chromosome

R1a R1a

M17

J2

2

J2

R1a

R1a

J2

J2b

J2b

3

4

(drilling)

5

(birch):

6

(struthio,

(eszterag, (sterkjok, (storche,

(Lachs) Lachs; Laks, Laks, Leax; Lax Lax, Lex;

(Lakshi)

7

Laks – “Laks”

(Altaic)

(substratal

word)

[ Luossa, Laka,

Lohi, naka-tais Laka,

Lazac, Ru, ] Lachs

8

(Hittite)

“ai” (ai)

ai

O2a(M95)

9

(Plough, Plugas, nangeli,

plogo,

cognate

Sow, Sero,

Sawan, Sevi,
10

Sulh,

Semen, * (*Se, *Seh,

Seju),

Seti) (si, siu,

Silo,

Sow

si, zhji,

sehm,

sito- sitya, siri, sili, sili, sro, sra, saro, sar,

sro, sre, sru, swa, sos,
11

sro,

susv,

sla, shu, san,

so,

Kers, krukka, kraacho colere, kras, krah, kret, kroja, pestle, pestillum, pis, piht, pas, pyit, pestel, khra, kein,

pitta, pastry,

petta, pasta,
12

pizza,

mylen, mola, muhle, mel/mol/ml, maw, mo:h, molere,

brato, bhreue, fran, bujh, bo:jh, grindenen, grida, ghreu, ghen, grendh, gurgu, gruaam, gra deuuang, garan, gumrin, grias, ghrets, gro:hng, ghren, gher, gherjdh, prek,

13

ghwaj,

ghrets,

corn, granum,

kurnam

gon/guan, Katuik Kan, cook, coccus, pekw-, paj, coc, cob kun,

zebu

gAw, kuh/kuhe, gu, ku, ngombe, goe, koe, ko, ngan, komo, koh,

14

Pokorny starostin

1. Schrader, P., referred by Mahendale, M. A., “Indo-Aryans, Indo-Iranians and Indo-Europeans”, in Trautman, T. R. (Ed.), The Aryan Debate, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2005, p. 57. 2. Mahendale, M. A., Indo-Aryans, Indo-Iranians and Indo-Europeans”, in Trautman, T. R. (Ed.), The Aryan Debate, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2005, p. 57. 3. Bokonyi, S., Horse remains from prehistoric site of Surkotada, Kutch, late 3 rd millennium BC, South Asia Studies, 1997, 13:297-307. 4. Gupta, S.P., “The Indus-Sarasvati Civilization, Beginnings and Development”, in Trautman, T. R. (Ed.), The Aryan Debate, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2005, pp. 186-191. 15

5. Lal, B.B., “The Truant Horse clears the Hurdles”, in Trautman, T. R. (Ed.), The Aryan Debate, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2005, pp. 230-233. 6. Bloch, P. J., La Charru vedique, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1936, 8(2-3):411-418. 7. Mahendale, p. 57. 8. Comrie, Bernard; “Farming dispersal in Europe and the spread of the IndoEuropean language family”, in Bellwood, P. and Renfrew, C. (Eds.), Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis, Cambridge: The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2002, pp. 409–419. 9. Renfrew, Colin, “Language Families and the Spread of Farming”, in Harris, D. R. (Ed.), The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, Routledge, 2004; First Published UCL Press, Oxon; 1996 P. 74. 10. Priyadarshi, P., The First Civilization of the World, Siddhartha Publications, New Delhi, 2011, p. 9. 11. Wells, R.S. et al; The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Ychromosome diversity. PNAS 2001, 98: 10244-10249. 12. Underhill, P. et al, Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a, European Journal of Human Genetics 2009, 1-6 (advanced online publication). 13. Ibid. 14. Sahoo, Sanghmitra et al; A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios, PNAS 2006, 103(4): 843-848. 15. Sengupta, S. et al; Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists, Am J Hum Genet 2006, 78(2): 202–221. 16. Trivedi, R. et al, Genetic Imprints of Pleistocene Origin of Indian Populations: A Comprehensive Phylogeographic Sketch of Indian Y-Chromosomes, Int J Hum Genet, 2008, 8(1-2): 97-118. 17. King, Roy and Underhill, Peter A., Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figuries with Y chromosome lineages, Antiquity 2002, 76:707-714. 18. Semino, O. et al, Origin, diffusion and differentian of Y chromosome haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area, Am J Hum Genet 2004, 74: 1023-1034. Cinnioglu, C. et al, Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia, Hum Genet 2004, 114 : 127–148. 19. Sengupta, op. cit., p. 212. Also see, Priyadarshi, P., Recent Studies in Indian Archaeo-linguistics and Archaeo-genetics having bearing on Indian Prehistory”, Paper presented at International Seminar on Recent Achievements of Indian Archaeology, 28-30 December 2010 during Joint Annual Conference of Indian Archaeology Society (44th Conference), Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies (38th Conference), Indian History and Culture Society (34th Conference, Lucknow India. 20. Wheeler, R. E. M., Harappa 1946: ‘The Defenses and Cemetery R-37’ in Ancient India: Bulletin of Archeological Survey of India, 3: 58-130, 1947, p. 82. (quoted in

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Lal, B. B.; “Aryan Invasion of India: Perpetuation of a Myth” In Bryant and Patton, op. cit. p. 52.) 21. Marshall, J., Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization, London, 1931, pp 106-108. (See Chapter VIII, The Age and Authors of Indus Valley Civilization.) Also see, Guha, B.; “The racial affinities of the people of India” in Census of India, 1931, Part III, Ethnographical, Simla, Government of India Press, 1935. 22. Gupta, S. P., “The Dawn of Indian Civilization (up to c. 600 BC)” in Pande, G.C. (Ed.), Chattopadhyaya, D.P. (Gen. Ed.), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Vol. 1, Part I, Centre for Studies in Civilization, New Delhi, 1999. Gupta, S. P., Indus Sarasvati Civilization, Pratibha Prakashan, New Delhi, 1996. 23. Lal, B. B., The Sarasvati Flows on: The continuity of Indian Culture, Aryan Books International, 2002. Lal, B. B., “The Aryan Invasion of India”, in Bryant, E. and Patton, Laurie (Eds.), The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in History, 2005, p. 51. 24. “But there is no archaeological or biological evidence for invasions or mass migrations into the Indus Valley between the end of the Harappan Phase, about 1900 BC and the beginning of the Early Historic period around 600 BC.” Kenoyer, Jonathan M.; Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, Oxford University Press, and American Institute of Pakistan Studies, Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan, 1998, p. 174. Also see, Kenoyer, J.M., “Culture and Societies of the Indus tradition”, in Thapar, R. (Ed.), India, Historical Beginnings and the Concept of the Aryan, National Book Trust, New Delhi, 2006, pp. 41-97. 25. Jarrige, J. F., “Chronology of the earlier periods of the Indus as seen from Mehrgarh, Pakistan”, in South Asian Archaeology 1981, Ed. B. Allchin, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1984, pp. 21-28. Jarrige, J.F., Jarrige, C. and Quivron, G., “Mehrgarh Neolithic: the updated sequence”, in Jarrige, C., and Lefevre, V. (Eds.), South Asian Archaeology (pp. 129–141). Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations, 2001. Jarrige, J. F., Mehrgarh Neolithic, Pragdhara 2008, 18:135154. 26. Moulherat, C. et al.; First Evidence of Cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh, Pakistan: Analysis of Mineralized Fibres from a Copper Bead, J Archaeological Sc. 2002, 29(12): 1393-1401. 27. Ibid. 28. Coppa, A., et al; Palaeontology: Early Neolithic Tradition of Dentistry, Nature 2006, 440: 755-756. 29. Pokharia, A. K. et al, Plant macro-remains from Neolithic Jhusi in Ganga Plain: Evidence for grain-based agriculture, Current Science, 2009, 97(4): 564-571. Pokharia, A. K., Palaeoethnobotanical record of cultivated crops and associated weeds and wild taxa from Neolithic site, Tokwa, Uttar Pradesh, India, Current Science, 2008, 94(2): 248-255. Misra, V. D., Stone age cultures, their chronology and beginning of agriculture in the north–central India, An Annual Conference of India Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies, Gwalior, 2006. Tewari, R. et al; “Second Preliminary Report of the excavations at Lahuradewa,District Sant Kabir Nagar, UP 2002-2003-2004 & 2005-06.” Pragdhara No. 16. Sharma, G. R.; “From Hunting and Food-gathering to Domestication of Plants and Animals in the Belan and Ganga Valleys”, in Misra, V. N. and Bellwood, Peter (Eds.), Recent 17

Advances in Indo-Pacific Prehistory : Proceedings of the International Symposium Held at Poona, December 19-21, 1978, BRILL (Pub.), 1985. 30. Kumar G, et al., Engraved ostritch egg shell objects: new evidence in Upper Palaeolithic art in India, Rock Art Res. 1988, 5: 43–52. 31. Thieme, Paul, discussed in Mahindale, op. cit. 32. Mahendale, op. cit, p. 54. Also, Burrow, T., The Proto-Indoaryans, JRAS, 1973, 123-40. 33. Kumar, V. et al, Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations, BMC Evol Biol 2007, 7:47. [They found origin of O2aM95 in India, about 65,000 +/- 40,000 years back]. Reddy, B. M. et al, Austroasiatic Tribes of Northeast India Provide Hitherto Missing Genetic Link between South and Southeast Asia, PLoS One, 2007, 2(11):e1141. [This article examines both Y-chromosomal as well as mitochondrial DNA, and finds that on both the bases, the Austro-Asiatic speakers originated in India and then migrated to the Southeast Asia through northeast Indian corridor.] Trivedi, R. et al, Genetic Imprints of Pleistocene Origin of Indian Populations: A Comprehensive Phylogeographic Sketch of Indian Y-Chromosomes, Int J Hum Genet, 2008, 8(1-2): 97-118. [This work found overall age of O2a-M95 in India as 36,000 years.] 34. Puhvel, Jaan, The Indo-European and Indo-Aryan Plough: A Linguistic Study of Technological Diffusion, Technology and Culture 1964, 5(2): 176-190. Bloch, P. J., La Charru vedique, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1936, 8(2-3):411-418. 35. Witzel, M., Early Sources for South Asian Substrate Languages. Mother Tongue (extra number): 1-70, Boston 1999. Witzel, M., The Linguistic History of some Indian Domestic Plants, Appendix of Full Text version on net of the article published in J. Biosci. 34(6), December 2009, 829–833. 36. Discussed by Mahindale, op. cit. p. 57. Also see Bloch, op. cit. 37. Chen, S. et al; Zebu cattle are an exclusive legacy of the South Asian Neolithic, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Sept 21, 2009, 0:msp213v1-msp213. (accepted manuscript). Freeman A. R., et al, Combination of multiple microsatellite data sets to investigate genetic diversity and admixture of domestic cattle, Anim. Genet. 2006, 37 (1), 99. 1-9. Zeder, Melinda A. et al, Documenting domestication: the intersection of genetics and archeology, Trends in Genetics (Genetics, Archeology and the Origins of Domestication; Elsevier) 2006, 22(3): p. 146. 38. Boursot, P., et al, Origin and radiation of the house mouse: mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, Journal of Evolutionary Biology 1996, 9: 391-415. Ferris, S. D. et al, Mitochondrial DNA evolution in mice, Genetics 1983, 105(3):681-721. Geraldis, Armando, et al, Inferring the history of speciation in house mice from autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked and mitochondrial genes, Molecular Ecology 2008, 17(24):5349-5363. Also, Din, W. et al, Origin and radiation of the house mouse: clues from nuclear genes, Journal of Evolutionary Biology 1996, 9(5):519-539. Boursot, P. et al, Evolution of House Mice, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1993, 24:119-152. Groves, Colin P., “Domesticated and Commensal Mammals of Austronesia and Their Histories”, in Bellwood, P., Fox, J. and Tryon, D., The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, 1995. Also, Groves, C. P., Of mice and men and pigs in the Indo-Australian archipelago, Canberra Anthropology 1984, 7:1-19. 18

39. Kumar, Satish et al; Phylogenography and domestication of Indian river buffalo, BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007, 7:186. 40. De Datta, S. K., Principles and Practice of Rice Production, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1981, p. 173. Grillo, M. A. et al, Genetic Architecture for the Adaptive Origin of Annual Wild Rice: Oryza nivara, Evolution, 2009, 63 (4):870-883. Lonedo J. P. et al; Phylogenography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogen, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice oryza sativa, PNAS 2006, 103, 9578-5983. Harris, David; “The Multi-disciplinary Study of Agricultural Origins: ‘One World Archeology’ in Practice”, in The Future for Archeology, edited by Layton, Robert et al, Routledge Cavendish, 2006, p. 238. Chen, et al; Distribution of deletion type in CpDNA of cultivated and wild rice, Japanese Journal of Genetics 1993, 68: 597-603. Yamane, Hiroko et al; Molecular and Evolutionary analysis of the Hd6 Photoperiod Sensitivity Gene Within Genus Oryza, Rice 2009, 2:56-66. Badr, A. et al, On the Origin and Domestication History of Barley, Molecular Biology and Evolution 2000, 17(4): 499-510. Morell P. L. and Clegg M. T.; Genetic evidence for a second domestication of barley (Hordeun vulagare) east of fertile crescent, PNAS 2007, 104: 3289-3294. Azhanguvel, P. and Komatsuda, T.; A phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequence of a marker linked to brittle rachis locus indicates a diphylectic origin of barley, Ann Bot. Lond. 2007, 100: 1009-1015. Saisho, Daisuke and Purugganan Michael D.; Molecular phylogenography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in Old world, Genetics 2007, 177: 1765-1776. Jones, Huw et al; Population-Based resequencing reveals that the flowering time adaptation of cultivated barley Originated east of Fertile Crescent, Molecular Biology and Evolution 2008, 25(10): 2211-2219. Sang, Tao; Genes and Mutations underlying domestication transitions in grasses, Plant Physiology 2009, 149: 63-70. American Society of plant Physiologists

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