ConLracLs CuLllne

8emedylng 8reach
kestatement Ƈ344 Ŷ 1he goal and purpose of proLecLlng a promlsee's expecLaLlon lnLeresL ln Lo puL Lhe
promlsee ºln as good a poslLlon as he would have been ln had Lhe conLracL been performed"
Un|ted States Nava| Inst|tute vŦ Charter Commun|cat|onsţ IncŦ
lacLsť naval granLed 8erkley Lhe excluslve llcense Lo publlsh a paperback edlLlon of Lhe book noL sooner
Lhan CcLober buL Lhey were shlpped early anyway
8uleť ln calculaLlng Lhe amounL of damages ln a breach of conLracL caseţ focus on Lhe Þ's lossţ noL on Lhe
u's galn and remember LhaL Lhe cenLral ob[ecLlve behlnd Lhe sysLem of conLracL remedles ls
compensaLoryţ noL punlLlve
Su|||van vŦ C'Connor
lacLsť uocLor promlsed Lhe Þ LhaL ln Lwo operaLlons he would make her nose shorLer and more pleaslng
ln relaLlon Lo her oLher feaLuresŦ Pavlng falledţ he performed a LhlrdŦ Þ remalned dlsflgured and her
appearance could noL be lmproved by more surgery
8uleť ome courLs vlew Lhe promlse by a physlclan llke an ordlnary commerclal promlse and permlL a
successful plalnLlff Lo recover expecLancy damagesŦ LxpecLancy damages are measured by an amounL of
money lnLended Lo puL Lhe plalnLlff ln Lhe poslLlon he would have been ln had Lhe conLracL been
performedŦ lnsLead of expecLancy damagesţ a successful plalnLlff may elecL resLlLuLlon damagesŦ
8esLlLuLlon damages are measured by an amounL of money correspondlng Lo any beneflL conferred by
Lhe plalnLlff upon Lhe defendanL ln Lhe performance of Lhe conLracL dlsrupLed by Lhe defendanL's
breachŦ Pereţ Lhe courL found resLlLuLlon damages Lo be Loo meagerŦ
Jh|te vŦ 8enkowsk|
lacLsť WhlLes buy a house lacklng lLs own waLer supplyŦ 1hey conLracL wlLh Lhe nelghbors Lo use Lhelr
waLer supply for $3/moŦ Þlus Lo spllL any cosLs perLalnlng Lo malnLalned or repalrs Lo Lhe wellŦ
8elaLlonshlp began as frlendly buL qulckly deLerloraLedŦ u Lurned waLer off mulLlple Llmes (9) and
clalmed Lhey were remlndlng Lhe WhlLes waLer use was excesslve and also Lo seLLle Lhe sand ln Lhe
plpesŦ CourL flnds LhaL Lhe WhlLes Lurned Lhe waLer off mallclously
8uleť Ceneral rule sLaLes LhaL punlLlve damages are noL recoverable for breach of conLracLŦ Lven lf Lhe
breach ls wlllful you sLlll cannoL collecL punlLlve damagesŦ
L||en L|ectron|ca Þrob|emť Need to |ook overŦ
Genera| Damage Iormu|ať MarkeL prlce mlnus prlce conLracLed for

Cover Iormu|ať ln Lhe case of coverţ Lhe buyer ls enLlLled Lo damages of Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe
conLracL goods and Lhe subsLlLuLe goodsţ plus lncldenLal and consequenLlal damagesţ buL less any
expenses saved due Lo Lhe breach by Lhe sellerŦ
kesa|e and Cover
Se||er's kemed|es and kesa|eť An lndex secLlon whlch gaLhers LogeLher ln one convenlenL place
all of Lhe varlous remedles open Lo a seller for any breach by Lhe buyerŦ More Lhan one may be
avallable and you wlll have Lo look aL Lhe facLs and deLermlne Lhe mosL approprlaLe remedyŦ
UCC 2Ŵ703ť Se||er's kemed|es |n Genera| Ŷ Where Lhe buyer wrongfully re[ecLs or revokes accepLance of
goods or falls Lo make a paymenL due on or before dellvery or repudlaLes wlLh respecL Lo a parL or Lhe
wholeţ Lhen wlLh respecL Lo any goods dlrecLly affecLed andţ lf Lhe breach ls of Lhe whole conLracL
(ecLlon 2Ŵ612)ţ Lhen also wlLh respecL Lo Lhe whole undellvered balanceţ Lhe aggrleved seller may
a) WlLhhold dellvery of goods
b) Lop dellvery by any ballee as hereafLer provlded (ecLlon 2Ŵ703)
c) Þroceed under Lhe nexL secLlon respecLlng goods sLlll unldenLlfled Lo Lhe conLracL
d) 8esell and recover damages as hereafLer provlded (ecLlon 2Ŵ706)
e) 8ecover damages for nonaccepLance (ecLlon 2Ŵ708) or ln a proper case Lhe prlce (ecLlon 2Ŵ
f) cancel
UCC 2Ŵ706ť Se||er's kesa|e Inc|ud|ng Contract for kesa|e
1) Dnder Lhe condlLlons sLaLed ln ecLlon 2Ŵ703 on seller's remedlesţ Lhe seller may resell Lhe
goods concerned or undellverable balance LhereofŦ Where Lhe resale ls made ln good falLh and
ln commerclally reasonable manner Lhe seller may recover Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe resale
prlce and Lhe conLracL prlce LogeLher wlLh any lncldenLal damages allowed under Lhe provlslons
of Lhls ArLlcle (ecLlon 2Ŵ710)ţ buL less expenses saved ln consequence of Lhe buyer's breachŦ
2) LxcepL as oLherwlse provlded ln subsecLlon (3) or unless oLherwlse agreed resale may be aL
publlc or prlvaLe sale lncludlng sale by way of one or more conLracLs Lo sell or of ldenLlflcaLlon Lo
an exlsLlng conLracL of Lhe sellerŦ ale may be as a unlL or parcels and aL any Llme and place and
on any Lerms buL every aspecL of Lhe sale lncludlng Lhe meLhodţ manner Llmeţ place and Lerms
musL be commerclally reasonableŦ 1he resale musL be reasonably ldenLlfled as referrlng Lo Lhe
broken conLracLţ buL lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe goods be ln exlsLence or LhaL any or all of Lhem
have been ldenLlfled Lo Lhe conLracL before Lhe breachŦ
3) Where Lhe resale ls aL prlvaLe sale Lhe seller musL glve Lhe buyer reasonable noLlflcaLlon of hls
lnLenLlon Lo resellŦ
) Where Lhe resale ls aL publlc sale
aŦ Cnly ldenLlfled goods can be sold excepL where Lhere ls a recognlzed markey for a publlc
sale of fuLures ln goods of Lhe klndŤ and
bŦ lL musL be made aL a usual place or markeL for publlc sale lf one ls reasonably avallable
and excepL ln Lhe case of goods whlch are perlshable or LhreaLen Lo declde ln value
speedlly Lhe seller musL Lhe buyer reasonable noLlce of Lhe Llme and place of Lhe resale
cŦ lf Lhe goods are noL Lo be wlLhln Lhe vlew of Lhose aLLendlng Lhe sale Lhe noLlflcaLlon of
sale musL sLaLe Lhe place where Lhee goods are locaLed and provlde for Lhelr reasonable
lnspecLlon by prospecLlve bldderŤ and
dŦ 1he seller may buyŦ
3) A purchaser who buys ln good falLh aL a resale Lakes Lhe goods free of any rlghLs of Lhe orlglnal
buyer even Lhough Lhe seller falls Lo comply wlLh one or more of Lhe requlremenLs of Lhls
6) 1he seller ls noL accounLable Lo Lhe buyer for any proflL made on any resaleŦ A person ln Lhe
poslLlon of a seller (ecLlon 2Ŵ707) or a buyer who has rlghLfully re[ecLed Lo [usLlflably revoke
accepLance musL accounL for any excess over Lhe amounL of hls securlLy lnLeresLţ as herelnafLer
deflned (subsecLlon (3) of ecLlon 2Ŵ711)Ŧ
UCC 2Ŵ708ť A Se||er's Damages for NonŴAcceptance or kepud|at|on Ŷ (1) ub[ecL Lo subsecLlon (2) and
Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhls ArLlcle wlLh respecL Lo proof or markeL prlce (ecLlon 2Ŵ723)ţ Lhe measure of
damages for nonŴaccepLance or repudlaLlon by Lhe buyer ls Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe markeL prlce aL
Lhe Llme and place for Lender and Lhe unpald conLracL prlce LogeLher wlLh any lncldenLal damages
provlded ln Lhls ArLlcle (ecLlon 2Ŵ710)ţ buL less expenses saved ln consequences of Lhe buyer's breach
8uyer's kemed|es and Covetť
UCC 2Ŵ711ť 8uyer's kemed|es |n Genera| 8uyer's Secur|ty Interest |n ke[ected Goods Ŷ
1) Where Lhe seller falls Lo make dellvery or repudlaLes or Lhe buyer rlghLfully re[ecLs or [usLlflably
revokes accepLance Lhen wlLh respecL Lo any good lnvolvedţ and wlLh respecL Lo Lhe whole lf Lhe
breach goes Lo Lhe whole conLracL (ecLlon 2Ŵ612)ţ Lhe buyer may cancel and wheLher or noL he
has done so may addlLlon Lo recoverlng so much of Lhe prlce as has been pald
a) ºcover" and have damages under Lhe nexL secLlon as Lo all Lhe goods affecLed wheLher or
noL Lhey have been ldenLlfled ln Lhe conLracLŤ or
b) 8ecover damages for nonŴdellvery as provlded ln Lhls ArLlcle (ecLlon 2Ŵ713)
2) Where Lhe seller falls Lo dellver or repudlaLes Lhe buyer may also
aŦ lf Lhe goods have been ldenLlfled recover Lhem as provlded ln Lhls ArLlcle (ecLlon 2Ŵ
302)Ť or
bŦ ln a proper case obLaln speclflc performance or replevy Lhe goods as provlded ln Lhls
ArLlcle (ecLlon 2Ŵ716)
3) Cn rlghLful re[ecLlon or [usLlflable revocaLlon of accepLance a buyer has a securlLy lnLeresL ln
good ln hls possesslon or conLrol for any paymenLs made on Lhelr prlce and any expenses
reasonably lncurred ln Lhelr lnspecLlonţ recelpLţ LransporLaLlonţ care and cusLody and may hold
such goods and resell Lhem ln llke manner as an aggrleved seller (ecLlon 2Ŵ706)Ŧ
UCC 2Ŵ712ť "Cover"Ť 8uyer's Þrocurement of Subst|tute Goods
1) AfLer a breach wlLhln Lhe precedlng secLlon Lhe buyer may ºcover" by maklng ln good falLh and
wlLhouL unreasonable delay any reasonable purchase of or conLracL Lo purchase goods ln
subsLlLuLlon for Lhose due from Lhe sellerŦ
2) 1he buyer may recover from Lhe seller as damages Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe cover of cover
and Lhe conLracL prlce LogeLher wlLh any lncldenLal or consequenLlal damages as herelnafLer
deflned (ecLlon 2Ŵ713)ţ buL less expenses saved ln consequences of Lhe seller's breachŦ
3) lallure of Lhe buyer Lo effecL cover wlLhln Lhls secLlon does noL bar hlm from any oLher remedyŦ

UCC 2Ŵ713ť 8uyer's Damages for NonŴDe||very or kepud|at|on
1) ub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhls ArLlcle wlLh respecL Lo proof of markeL prlce (ecLlon 2Ŵ723)ţ Lhe
measure of damages for nonŴdellvery or repudlaLlon by Lhe seller ls Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe
markeL prlce aL Lhe Llme when Lhe buyer learned of Lhe breach and Lhe conLracL prlced LogeLher
wlLh any lncldenLal and consequenLlal damages provlded ln Lhls ArLlcle (ecLlon 2Ŵ713)ţ buL less
expenses saved ln consequence of Lhe seller's breach
2) MarkeL prlce ls Lo be deLermlned as of Lhe place for Lender orţ ln cases of re[ecLlon afLer arrlval
or revocaLlon of accepLanceţ as of Lhe place of arrlvalŦ
Laredo n|des CoŦţ IncŦ vŦ nƎn Meat Þroducts CoŦţ IncŦ
lacLsť A wrlLLen conLracL was slgned by Lhe Lwo companles whlch promlsed LhaL seller would dellver lLs
enLlre hlde producLlon wlLhln a speclfled perlod of Llme Lo buyerŦ eller dld noL recelve paymenL from
buyer due Lo a mall delayŦ eller lmmedlaLely ceased Lo fulflll resL of conLracLŦ 8uyer had Lo purchase
hldes aL a slgnlflcanLly hlgher markeL raLe ln order Lo saLlsfy lLs conLracL wlLh a Lhlrd parLyŦ
8uleť lf Lhe seller's breach ls un[usLlfled Lhen Lhe buyer ls enLlLled Loť (uamages for breach of conLracL) ƹ
(markeL prlce aL breach or acLual cosL of cover) Ŷ (conLracL prlce) + (lncldenLal and consequenLlal
damages) (2Ŧ712)
Spec|f|c Þerformance and Cther Lqu|tab|e ke||ef
UCC 2Ŵ709ť Act|on for the Þr|ce
1) When Lhe buyer falls Lo pay Lhe prlce as lL becomes due Lhe seller may recoverţ LogeLher wlLh
any lncldenLal damages under Lhe nexL secLlonţ Lhe prlce
aŦ Cf goods accepLed or of conformlng goods losL or damages wlLhln a commerclally
reasonable Llme afLer rlsk of Lhelr loss has passed Lo Lhe buyerŤ and
bŦ Cf goods ldenLlfled Lo Lhe conLracL lf Lhe seller ls unable afLer reasonable efforL Lo resell
Lhem aL a reasonable prlce or Lhe clrcumsLances reasonably lndlcaLe LhaL such efforL wlll
be unavalllng
2) Where Lhe seller sues for Lhe prlce he musL hold for Lhe buyer any goods whlch have been
ldenLlfled Lo Lhe conLracL and are sLlll ln hls conLrol excepL LhaL lf resale becomes posslble he
may resell Lhem aL any Llme prlor Lo Lhe collecLlon for Lhe [udgmenLŦ 1he neL proceeds of any
such resale musL be credlLed Lo Lhe buyer and paymenL of Lhe [udgmenL enLlLles hlm Lo any
goods noL resoldŦ
3) AfLer Lhe buyer has wrongfully re[ecLed or revoked accepLance of Lhe goods or has falled Lo
make a paymenL due or has repudlaLed (ecLlon 2Ŵ610)ţ a seller who ls held noL enLlLled Lo Lhe
prlce under Lhls secLlon shall neverLheless be awarded damages for nonŴaccepLance under Lhe
precedlng secLlon
UCC 2Ŵ716ť 8uyer's k|ght to Spec|f|c Þerformance and kep|ev|n
1) peclflc performance may be decreed where Lhe goods are unlque or ln oLher proper
2) 1he decree for speclflc performance may lnclude such Lerms and condlLlons as Lo paymenL of
Lhe prlceţ damagesţ or oLher rellef as Lhe courL may deem [usLŦ
3) 1he buyer has a rlghL of replevln for goods ldenLlfled Lo Lhe conLracL lf afLer reasonable efforL he
ls unable Lo effecL cover for such goods or Lhe clrcumsLances reasonably lndlcaLe LhaL such
efforL wlll be unavalllng or lf Lhe goods have been shlpped under reservaLlon and saLlsfacLlon of
Lhe securlLy lnLeresL ln Lhem has been made or LenderedŦ ln Lhe case of goods boughL for
personalţ famllyţ or household purposesţ Lhe buyer's rlghL of replevln vesLs upon acqulslLlon of a
speclal properLyţ even lf Lhe seller had noL Lhen repudlaLed or falled Lo dellver
k|e|n vŦ Þeps|Coţ IncŦ
lacLsť Þ sued for speclflc performance on Lhe sale of a CulfsLream CŴll corporaLe [eL LhaL a broker was Lo
purchaseŦ u clalmed noL Lo have formed a conLracL for Lhe sale of Lhe [eL Lo Dţ a conLenLlon LhaL D
dlsagrees wlLhŦ
8uleť peclflc performance ls approprlaLe where Lhe goods are unlque ºln oLher proper clrcumsLancesŦ"
Clven Lhe LesLlmony LhaL Lhere were Lhree comparable CŴll's on Lhe markeLţ Lhe lourLh ClrculL CourL of
Appeals held LhaL Lhe alrcrafL was noL so unlque as Lo merlL an order of speclflc performanceŦ As ºoLher
proper clrcumsLancesţ" ÞlalnLlff clLed prlce lncreases ln CŴll'sţ whlch caused hlm Lo purchase a CŴlllŦ Þrlce
lncreases are no reason Lo order speclflc performanceŦ Money damages would clearly be adequaLeŦ
Lac|ede Gas CoŦ vŦ Amoco C|| CoŦ
lacLsť ÞlalnLlff and uefendanL formed a conLracL LhaL ÞlalnLlff agreed Lo buy and uefendanL agreed Lo
sell all Lhe propane lL needed Lo supply cerLaln subdlvlslons ln efferson CounLyţ MlssourlŦ 1he prlce was
Lo be Lhe Wood 8lver Area ÞosLed ÞrlceŦ 1he conLracL also conLalned a clause allowlng ÞlalnLlff Lo
LermlnaLe Lhe conLracL afLer one year lf ÞlalnLlff so deslredţ and leavlng LhaL opLlon open ln Lhe fuLureŦ
1here was no such clause for uefendanLŦ AfLer some dlsagreemenLs and problemsţ uefendanL lnformed
ÞlalnLlff LhaL uefendanL would noL supply propane for ÞlalnLlff any moreŦ ÞlalnLlff sued uefendanLŦ 1he
Lrlal [udge ruled ln favor of uefendanL on Lhe basls of lack of muLuallLy (conslderaLlon)Ŧ 1he courL
clalmed LhaL slnce ÞlalnLlff could resclnd Lhe conLracL aL wlllţ buL uefendanL could noLţ Lhe conLracL was
noL blndlngŦ
8uleť peclflc performance ls enforceable where publlc lnLeresL ls lnvolved
Jhat Þrom|ses J||| 1he Law Lnforce? Cons|derat|onţ ke||anceţ kest|tut|on
namer vŦ S|dway Ŷ Jhy |s |t un||atera|?
lacLsť Wllllam LŦ Lory and hls nephewţ Wllllam LŦ Lory llţ agreed LhaL Lhe uncle would pay hls nephew
$3k lf Lhe nephew would refraln from drlnklngţ uslng Lobaccoţ swearlngţ and playlng cards and bllllards
for money unLll he Lurned 21Ŧ When Lhe nephew Lurned 21 hls uncle senL hlm a leLLer LhaL lndlcaLed
LhaL Lhe nephew had earned Lhe $3k and LhaL he would hold Lhe money wlLh lnLeresL unLll Lhe nephew
became capable of raklng of lL responslblyŦ 1he nephew accepLed Lhe LermsŦ 1he uncle dled Lwelve
years laLer wlLhouL havlng Lransferred Lhe funds Lo hls nephewŦ
8uleť lorbearance ls conslderaLlonŦ 1he mere absLenLlon from a permlsslble legal conducL ls sufflclenL
conslderaLlon Lo make a promlse based on LhaL forbearance a valld conLracLŦ ConslderaLlon ls noL
measured as a beneflL Lo Lhe promlsorŦ 1he courL sLaLed LhaL conslderaLlon may conslsL ln elLher some
rlghLţ lnLeresLţ proflLţ or beneflL Lo one parLyţ or some forbearanceţ deLrlmenLţ lossţ or responslblllLy
glvenţ sufferedţ or underLaken by Lhe oLherŦ lL ls lmmaLerlal wheLher Lhe conslderaLlon does ln facL
beneflL Lhe promlse or a Lhlrd parLy or ls of subsLanLlal value Lo anyoneŦ 8efralnlng from someLhlng LhaL
one ls enLlLled Lo do ls a sufflclenL deLrlmenL Lo creaLe an enforceable conLracLŦ
Dnder 8esLaLemenL 2
32 lf an offer ls amblguous lL can be accepLed by a promlse or acLual
performanceŦ lf accepLance ls Lhrough performance Lhe conLracL ls unllaLeralţ lf Lhrough promlse Lhe
conLracL ls bllaLeralŦ
I|ege vŦ 8oehm
lacLsť 8oehm became pregnanL and belleved ln good falLh LhaL llege was Lhe faLherŦ llege promlsed Lo
pay 8oehm for Lhe blrLh expenses and make supporL paymenLs for Lhe ralslng of Lhe chlld as long as
8oehm would lnsLlLuLe crlmlnal basLardy proceedlngs agalnsL hlmŦ llege made paymenLs under Lhe
agreemenL buL sLopped when blood LesLs revealed LhaL he could noL be Lhe faLherŦ 8oehm lnlLlaLed
crlmlnal basLardy proceedlngs and llege was acqulLLed because Lhe blood LesLs revealed LhaL he could
noL have been Lhe faLherŦ
8uleť lorbearance from asserLlng a good falLh legal clalm can be valld conslderaLlonŦ
lorbearance from asserLlng a legal clalm known Lo be lnvalld ls noL valuable conslderaLlonŦ 1o be valld
conslderaLlonţ Lhe clalmanL musL sub[ecLlvely belleve ln good falLh LhaL Lhe clalm ls valldţ and LhaL bellef
musL be reasonable from Lhe sLandpolnL of a reasonable person ln Lhe poslLlon of Lhe clalmanLŦ
Ie|nberg vŦ Þfe|ffer CoŦ
lacLsť lelnberg worked for Þfelffer for 37 yearsŦ ln 197 Lhe 8oard of ulrecLors adopLed a resoluLlon
recognlzlng lelnberg's long and falLhful servlce by lncreaslng her salary from $30 Lo $00 per monLh
and offerlng her $200 per monLh for llfe afLer reLlremenLŦ lelnberg reLlred a years and a half laLer and
recelved $200 per monLh for several yearsŦ 1he reLlremenL plan was a ma[or facLs ln her declslon Lo
reLlreŦ everal years laLer a new presldenL of Þfelffer CoŦ declded Lhe paymenLs were mere graLulLles
and noLlfled lelnberg LhaL her paymenLs would be reduced Lo $100 per monLhŦ lelnberg refused Lo
accepL Lhe reduced amounL and Þfelffer LermlnaLed all paymenLs
8uleť ConslderaLlon may be elLher a beneflL Lo Lhe promlsor or a deLrlmenL Lo Lhe promlseŦ 1he courL
held LhaL Lhe docLrlne of promlssory esLoppel (1he Þrlnclple LhaL a promlse wlLhouL conslderaLlon may
noneLheless be enforced Lo prevenL ln[usLlce lf Lhe promlsor should have reasonably expecL d Lhe
promlsee Lo rely on Lhe promlse and lf Lhe promlsee dld acLually rely on Lhe promlse Lo hls or her
deLrlmenL)supporLed lelnberg's acLlonŦ 1he acLlon was lnduced was lelnberg's reLlremenL from a
lucraLlve poslLlon ln rellance on Þfelffer's promlse Lo pay her a penslonŦ lelnberg [usLlflably relled on
Þfelffer's promlse by reLlrlng earller Lhan she had plannedŦ 1he courL held LhaLţ by reLlrlngţ lelnberg's
rellance upon Lhe promlse conLalned ln Lhe resoluLlon creaLed an enforceable conLracL under Lhe
docLrlne of promlssory esLoppelŦ 1hls ls valued aL Lhe Llme Lhe conLracL was madeŦ
k|rskey vŦ k|rskey
lacLsť 1he u's husband and her son dledŦ 1he Þ reslded on publlc land and was comforLably seLLled and
would have aLLempLed Lhe land she llved onŦ 1he broLher of her now dead husband wroLe Lo her and
asked her Lo llve on hls landŦ WlLhln a monLh or Lwo of recelvlng Lhls leLLer Lhe u moved Lo reslde on Lhe
resldence of Lhe uŦ 1he u Lhen klcked Lhem ouL afLer a llLLle whlle
8uleť 1he leLLer was a mere graLulLy and Lherefore Lhere ls no cause of acLlonŦ
Strong vŦ Sheff|e|d
lacLsť heffleld endorsed and dellvered a promlssory noLe Lo Lrong as securlLy for adebL owend by
heffleld's husband Lo LrongŦ 1he only conslderaLlon heffleld recelved was an agreemenL Lo forbear
Lhe debL for an lndeflnlLe perlod of LlmeŦ Lrong Lold heffleld ºl wlll hold lL unLll such Llme as l wasn'L
my moneyţ l wlll make a demand on you for lLŦ" ÞLrong demanded paymenL Lwo years laLer and
heffleld was unable Lo payŦ
8uleť A promlse ls lllusory lf a parLy's performance ls enLlrely aL Lhe opLlon of LhaL parLyŦ
ln order Lo be enforceable a conLracL musL be supporLed by conslderaLlonŦ ln order Lo serve as valld
conslderaLlonţ forbearance musL be elLher absoluLe or for a deflnlLe Llmeţ or for a reasonable LlmeŦ
lorbearance for a llLLleţ or for some Llmeţ ls noL sufflclenLŦ 1he only quallflcaLlon ls LhaL ln Lhe absence
of a speclfled Llme a reasonable Llme ls deemed Lo have been lnLendedŦ
ConslderaLlon musL be deLermlned by Lhe agreemenL lLselfţ noL by whaL acLually LransplresŦ
Matte| vŦ nopper
lacLsť MaLLelţ a real esLaLe developer soughL Lo purchase properLy owned by Popper for a new shopplng
cenLerŦ MaLLel accepLed Popper's offer Lo sell for $37ţ300Ŧ Dnder Lhe agreemenL MaLLel was requlred
Lo deposlL $1ţ000 wlLh a real esLaLe agenL and had 120 days Lo examlne Lhe LlLle and consummaLe Lhe
purchaseţ aL whlch Llme Lhe balance of Lhe purchase prlce was dueŦ 1he agreemenL also conLalned a
personal saLlsfacLlon clause whereby MaLLel was excused from performance lf he was unable Lo arrange
saLlsfacLory leases of space ln Lhe shopplng cenLerŦ 8efore Lhe 120 days had elapsedţ Popper's aLLorney
noLlfled maLLer LhaL she would noL sell her land under Lhe Lerms of Lhe agreemenLŦ Popper refused Lo
compleLe Lhe LransacLlon and MaLLel sued for breach of conLracLŦ Popper clalmed LhaL Lhe personal
saLlsfacLlon clause rendered Lhe conLracL lllusory
8uleť When Lhe parLles aLLempL Lo make a conLracL where promlses are exchanged as Lhe conslderaLlonţ
Lhe promlses musL be muLual ln obllgaLlonŦ An agreemenL LhaL lacks muLuallLy of obllgaLlon lacks
conslderaLlon and ls unenforceableŦ MuLuallLy of obllgaLlon exlsLs when boLh parLles have assumed
some legal obllgaLlonŦ lf Lhe agreemenL leaves on parLy free Lo perform or Lo wlLhdraw from Lhe
agreemenL aL hls own unresLrlcLed pleasureţ Lhe promlse ls lllusory and lacks conslderaLlonŦ
Jood vŦ Lucyţ Lady DuffŴGordon
lacLsť Lady uuffŴCordon conLracLed Lo glve Wood an excluslve rlghL Lo markeL and llcense all of her
deslgns and Lo endorse deslgns wlLh her nameŦ 1he excluslve conLracL requlred LhaL Lhey spllL all proflLs
from Wood's sales evenly buL Lhere was no express clause LhaL sLaLed LhaL he would performŦ Lucy
placed endorsemenLs on cloLhes wlLhouL Wood's knowledge and ln vlolaLlon of Lhe conLracL and Wood
8uleť A promlse Lo use reasonable efforLs may be lmplled from Lhe enLlre clrcumsLances of a conLracLŦ
1he duLy of good falLh can compensaLe for vagueness ln an agreemenL Lo avold lnvalldaLlon of a conLracL
clearly lnLended by Lhe parLlesŦ
k|cketts vŦ Scothorn
lacLsť 1he grandfaLher of Lhe Þ creaLed a noLe whlch allowed for Lhe Þ Lo noL have Lo work anymoreŦ
ConsequenLlyţ Lhe Þ lmmedlaLely lnformed her employer of her lnLenLlon Lo qulLŦ lor more Lhan a yearţ
Lhe Þ was wlLhouL an occupaLlon buL afLer some Llme she acqulred as a book keeperŦ 8lckeLLs dled ln
une 189 and Lhe execuLor of hls esLaLe refused paymenLţ clalmlng LhaL 8lckeLLs' promlse lacked
conslderaLlon and was Lherefore a graLulLy and noL an enforceable promlseŦ 1he Lrlal courL found ln
favor of coLhorn and 8lckeLLs' esLaLe appealedŦ
8uleť AlLhough a promlse glven wlLhouL conslderaLlon ordlnarlly does noL creaLe a blndlng conLracLţ Lhe
docLrlne of promlssory esLoppel prevenLs a promlsee from uslng lack of conslderaLlon as a defense Lo
breach of conLracLŦ ConsequenLlyţ a promlse can be enforced even Lhough lL was glven wlLhouL
conslderaLlon lf Lhe promlsee has reasonably relled on Lhe promlse Lo her deLrlmenLŦ
Pereţ Lhe courL consldered Lhe magnlLude of coLhorn's good falLh rellance on her grandfaLher's
promlse and held LhaL her acLlons were conslsLenL wlLh LhaL rellance and Lherefore consLlLuLed a
sufflclenL conslderaLlonŦ
Ie|nberg vŦ Þfe|ffer 2
lacLsť lelnberg worked for Þfelffer for 37 yearsŦ ln 197 Lhe 8oard of ulrecLors adopLed a resoluLlon
recognlzlng lelnberg's long and falLhful servlce by lncreaslng her salary from $30 Lo $00 per monLh
and offerlng her $200 per monLh for llfe afLer reLlremenLŦ lelnberg reLlred a years and a half laLer and
recelved $200 per monLh for several yearsŦ 1he reLlremenL plan was a ma[or facLs ln her declslon Lo
reLlreŦ everal years laLer a new presldenL of Þfelffer CoŦ declded Lhe paymenLs were mere graLulLles
and noLlfled lelnberg LhaL her paymenLs would be reduced Lo $100 per monLhŦ lelnberg refused Lo
accepL Lhe reduced amounL and Þfelffer LermlnaLed all paymenLs
8uleť lf a promlse ls made and Lhe Þ relles on LhaL promlseţ Lhen lL ls enforceableŦ
Cotnam vŦ J|sdom
lacLsť 1he deceased was Lhrown from a sLreeL car he hlL hls head on Lhe curve and was unconsclousŦ
1wo physlclans performed surgery on Lhe deceased whlle he was unconsclous buL Lhe Þs were unable Lo
save hls llfeŦ 1he uţ admlnlsLraLor of Lhe deceasedţ dld noL pay Lhe Þs for Lhelr servlces because Lhe u
argues LhaL slnce Lhe deceased was unconsclousţ no conLracL was made beLween Lhe deceased and Lhe
8uleť 1he Þs can recover under a quaslŴconLracL (aka lmplled conLracL)Ŧ Þubllc pollcy says LhaL u8s can
recover for servlces rendered durlng an emergencyŦ
Ca||ano vŦ Cakwood Þark nomes Corp
lacLsť 8ruce ÞendergasLs boughL a home from Cakwood Þark Pomes lncŦ 1he house was erecLedŦ oon
afLerţ ÞendergasLs conLracLed wlLh a nursery (Callano) Lo puL shrubs ln hls fronL yard for a prlce of
$97Ŧ93Ŧ 8efore ÞendergasLs slgned Lhe conLracL for hls homeţ he passed away and Lhe flowers were
already planLedŦ A represenLaLlve of Cakwood was aware of Lhe planLlngŦ oong afLer Lhe conLracL was
volded and Lhe home was laLer sold Lo someone elseŦ Þs conLend LhaL Lhe u was un[usLly enrlched
when Lhe u conLracLed Lo purchase Lhe properLy was cancelled and LhaL an agreemenL Lo pay for Lhe
shrubbery ls lmplled by lawŦ
8uleť A Þ's remedy ls agalnsL ÞendergrasL's esLaLe slnce Lhey conLracLed wlLh hlm and he was Lhe one
recelvlng Lhe beneflLsŦ A Þ ls noL enLlLled Lo employ Lhe legal flclon of Cuasl conLracL Lo subsLlLuLe one
Þromlse or debLor for anoLherŦ nowţ lf Lhere ls a fraud you may be able Lo recover ln anoLher caseŦ
Contract Iormat|on
Lucy vŦ 2ehmer
lacLsť AfLer several drlnksţ Zehmer wroLe a conLracL on a resLauranL blll ln whlch he agreed Lo sell hls
farm Lo Lucy for $30ţ000Ŧ Zehmer laLer lnslsLed LhaL he had been lnLoxlcaLed and LhoughL Lhe maLLer
was a [okeţ noL reallzlng LhaL Lucy had been serlousŦ
8uleť 1he LesL ls wheLher a reasonable person would conclude LhaL Lhe person's words and acLlons
consLlLuLed an offerŦ
Cwen vŦ 1un|son
lacLsť Cwen wroLe Lo 1unlson Lo lnqulre wheLher he would sell hls 8radley block and loL for $6ţ000Ŧ
1unlson replled LhaL ºlL would noL be posslble for me Lo sell lL unless l was Lo recelve $16ţ000 cashŦ
1unlson noLed LhaL Lhe bulldlng was ln flrsL class condlLlonŦ Þ wroLe Lo u Lo accepL Lhe offerŦ u clalmed
LhaL he had noL made an offer and refused Lo sell Lhe properLyŦ
8uleť A mere sLaLemenLs of mlnlmum selllng prlce ls noL an offer Lo sell real properLyŦ 1he language ºlL
would noL be posslble for me Lo sell unless l was Lo recelve $16ţ000 cash" was Loo general and dld noL
consLlLuLe an offerŦ 1he courL held LhaL Lhere can be no conLracL for Lhe sale of properLyţ no meeLlng of
Lhe mlnds of Lhe owner and prospecLlve purchaseţ unless Lhere has been an offer or proposal of saleŦ
Ia|rmount G|ass Jorks vŦ CrudenŴMart|n woodenware CoŦ
lacLsť lalrmounL senL a leLLer do u asklng for advlce as Lo Lhe lowesL prlceŦ u replles wlLh a quoLe and
ends wlLh ºfor lmmedlaLe accepLanceŦ" Þ replles asklng for 10 car loadsŦ u replles wlLh ºlmposslble Lo
book orderŦ" Þ sues for breach of conLracLŦ
8uleť ln an exchange of leLLers lnqulrlng abouL a posslble conLracLţ sLrong language LhaL hlnLs LhaL a
conLracL wlll be made upon accepLance wlll e consldered Lo be an accepLance lf Lhe respondlng parLy
Cffers and Acceptance
Craft vŦ L|der Ǝ Iohnson CoŦ
lacLsť 1he Þ aLLempLed Lo purchase an lLem LhaL was adverLlsed by Lhe us asť º1hursday Cnly peclal Ŷ
all elecLrlc sewlng machlnes for $26Ŧ00Ŧ" 1he us refused Lo fulflll Lhe offerŦ
8uleť An adverLlsemenL ls noL an offer buL an offerŴLoŴnegoLlaLeŦ
Lefkow|tz vŦ Great M||neapo||s Surp|us Store
lacLsť u puL up an adverLlsemenL for hls sLore whlch sald º3 8rand new lur CoaLs WorLh Lo $100Ŧ00/ llsL
Come llrsL erved/ $1 LachŦ" u aLLempLed Lo buy one buL Lhe sLore refusedŦ Þ sued because he was Lhe
flrsL one LhereŦ
8uleť Þ should recover under Lhe second adverLlsemenL because he was Lhe flrsL one aL Lhe sLoreţ
Lhereforeţ he ls accepLlng Lhe requlremenL sLaLed ln Lhe adŦ
L|s|nore Un|on L|ementary Schoo| D|str|ct vŦ kastorff
lacLsť u was Lo prepare a bld Lo be submlLLed Lo Lhe ÞŦ When enLerlng Lhe LoLal amounL for plumblngţ
he enLers Lhe wrong numberŦ 1he day afLer Lhe u flgures ouL Lhe mlsLake he has madeţ he Lells Lhe
school board LhaL he would llke Lo wlLhdraw hls bldŦ 1he school board decllnes hls wlLhdrawalŦ
8uleť A general contractor may rescind a bid that was miscalculated due to clerical error if the other party
knows or has reason to know of the error.
Test: a blinding obligation may originate in advertisements addressed to the general public is "whether
the facts show that some performance was promised in positive terms in return for something requested.¨
lnLernaLlonal lllLer CoŦ vŦ Conroe Clnţ lce Ǝ LlghL CoŦ
lacLsť lnLernaLlonal lllLer CoŦ (Þ) offered Lo provlde a waLer sofLener and fllLer Lo Conroe Clnţ lceţ Ǝ LlghL
(u) for $1ţ230Ŧ 1he offer called for prompL accepLance and would become a blndlng conLracL upon
accepLance by Conroe Cln and subsequenL approval by an execuLlve of lnLernaLlonal lllLerŦ u accepLed
Lhe offer and Lngleţ Þ's presldenLţ approved and slgned Lhe proposalŦ Þ Lhen acknowledged Lhe order
buL dld noL speclflcally lnform u LhaL Lngel had approved of Lhe agreemenL and glven hls endorsemenLŦ
8uleť 1he Lerms expressly sLaLed LhaL Lhere would be a conLracL upon an approval by lnLernaLlonal
lllLer's execuLlve offlcerŦ Lngle's endorsemenL saLlsfled LhaL requlremenLŦ AL LhaL momenL a blndlng
conLracL was formed wlLh Conroe Cln accordlng Lo lLs deflnlLely expressed LermsŦ
WhlLe vŦ Corlles Ǝ 1lfL
lacLsť DeIendants sent speciIications to plaintiII Ior work on an oIIice building and asked the plaintiII to
give them an estimate. PlaintiII leIt the estimate with the deIendant. The deIendant wrote to the plaintiII
stating that the plaintiII can start work. PlaintiII never sent a response to the DeIendants but began work
the next day. PlaintiII commenced a perIormance by purchasing the lumber and beginning to work.
PlaintiII then received a countermand Irom DeIendant.

8uleť Where an oIIer is made by one party to another when they are not together, the acceptance oI it by that
other must be maniIested in some appropriate act. PerIormance in this case was not seen to be an appropriate
act. llence ls noL ordlnarlly accepLanceŦ

Sh|pment of Goods as Acceptance
CorlnLhlan ÞharmaceuLlcal ysLemsţ lncŦ Lederle LaboraLorles
lacLsť uefendanL was a drug manufacLurer LhaL perlodlcally lssued prlce llsLs Lo cusLomers llke ÞlalnLlff
who purchased vacclnes and dlsLrlbuLed Lhem Lhe physlclansŦ 1he prlce llsL sLaLed LhaL orders were
sub[ecL Lo accepLance by uefendanL and LhaL orders would be prlced accordlng Lo prlce ln effecL aL Lhe
Llme of shlpmenLŦ
8uleť 1he LransacLlon was a sale of goods whlch would be governed by ArLlcle 2 of Lhe DCCŦ Dnder Lhe
codeţ accepLance need noL mlrror Lhe offer and shlpplng conformlng goods ls accepLanceţ buL Lhere ls
no accepLance by shlpplng nonŴconformlng goods when Lhe seller seasonably noLlfles Lhe buyer LhaL Lhe
shlpmenL ls only offered as an accommodaLlonŦ 1he leLLer accompanylng Lhe shlpmenL Lold Lhe buyer
LhaL Lhls parLlal shlpmenL aL a lower prlce was an excepLlon and LhaL Lhe remalnder musL be aL a hlgher
prlceŦ lurLhermoreţ Lhe lnvolce also requlred Lhe buyer Lo assenL Lo Lhose LermsŦ
1erm|nat|on of the Þower of Acceptance
Lapse of an Cffer Ŷ 8easonable Llme and deLermlned by a reasonable person
ulcklnson vŦ uodds
lacLsť uodds senL ulcklnson an offer Lo purchase hls homeţ Lhe offer sald ºLhls offer Lo be lefL over unLll
lrldayŦ" Þ meanL Lo reply Lo Lhe offer on 1hursday buL ended up walLlngŦ Pe ls Lhen lnformed LhaL
uodds wanLed Lo sell Lhe properLy Lo MrŦ AllanŦ ulcklnson Lhen leaves a formal accepLance wlLh uodds'
moLherŴlnŴlawŦ 1he followlng dayţ ulcklnson glves a leLLer of accepLance Lo uodds aL Lhe Lraln sLaLlon
buL uodds lnforms hlm LhaL he's already sold Lhe properLy
8uleť ln order for Lhere Lo be an agreemenL Lhere musL be an exlsLence of Lhe same mlndsŦ A mere offer
Lo walL unLll lrlday does noL llmlL someone from selllng Lhelr properLy Lo someone elseŦ
1he ueaLh of an Cfferor Ŷ 8esLaLemenL 8ť An offeree's power of accepLance ls LermlnaLed by Lhe
offeror's deaLh or supervenlng lncapaclLy
8e[ecLlon and Lhe mlrror lmage rule Ŷ A response LhaL does noL exacLly mlrror Lhe Lerms of Lhe orlglnal
offer ls a re[ecLlonţ and acLs as a counLer offerŦ
1he mallbox rule Ŷ dlspaLch of Lhe accepLance ls Lhe cruclal polnL aL whlch Lhe k ls made Ŷ afLer whlch
Lhe offeror's power Lo re[ecL ls endedţ and Lhe rlsks of Lransmlsslon are on Lhe CfferorŦ
UCC2Ŵ20S Ŷ llrm Cffers Ŷ An offer by a merchanL Lo buy or sell goods ln a slgned wrlLlng whlch by lLs
Lerms glves assurance LhaL lL wlll be held open ls noL revocableţ for lack of conslderaLlonţ durlng Lhe
Llme sLaLed or lf no Llme ls sLaLed for a reasonable Llmeţ buL ln no evenL may such perlod of
lrrevocablllLy exceed Lhree monLhsŤ buL any such Lerm of assurance on a form supplled by Lhe offeree
musL be separaLely slgned by Lhe offeror
UCC 2Ŵ207 Ŷ ee llowcharL
1he 8att|e of the Iorms and the UCC Ŷ ln order LhaL an offer and accepLance may resulL ln a blndlng
conLracLţ Lhe accepLance musL be absoluLeţ uncondlLlonalţ and ldenLlcal wlLh Lhe Lerms of Lhe offerţ and
musL ln every respecL meeL and correspond wlLh Lhe offerŤ and any quallflcaLlon of or deparLure from
Lhose Lerms lnvalldaLes and re[ecLs Lhe offerŦ Where a person offers Lo do a deflnlLe Lhlngţ and anoLher
accepLs condlLlonallyţ or lnLroduces a new Lerm lnLo Lhe accepLanceţ hls answer ls a mere expresslon of
wllllngness Lo LreaLţ or lL ls a counLer proposalţ and ln nelLher case ls Lhere an agreemenLŦ
Standard Iorm and 8att|e of the Iorms Ŷ ll Lhe seller does noL ob[ecL Lo Lhe plannlng and accepLs Lhe
orderţ Lhe buyer's flne prlnL wlll conLrolŦ lf Lhe seller does ob[ecLţ dlfferences can be seLLled by
1ranscend|ng the M|rror Image ku|e Ŷ An expresslon of accepLance may lndeed operaLe as an
accepLance even Lhough lL sLaLes Lerms addlLlonal Lo or dlfferenL from Lhose offered and agreed uponŦ
Lxpress and Imp||ed Jarrant|es
UCC 2Ŵ102 Ŷ ScopeŤ Certa|n Secur|ty and Cther 1ransact|ons Lxc|uded Irom 1h|s Art|c|e Ŷ Dnless Lhe
conLexL oLherwlse requlresţ Lhe ArLlcle applles Lo LransacLlons ln goodsŤ lL does noL apply Lo any
LransacLlon whlch alLhough ln Lhe form of an uncondlLlonal conLracL Lo sell or presenL sale ls lnLended Lo
operaLe only as a securlLy LransacLlon nor does Lhls ArLlcle lmpalr or repeal any sLaLuLe regulaLlng sales
Lo consumersţ farmers or oLher speclfled classes of buyersŦ
UCC 2Ŵ10S(1) Ŷ Coods means all Lhlngs (lncludlng speclally manufacLured goods) whlch are movable aL
Lhe Llme of ldenLlflcaLlon Lo Lhe conLracL for sale oLher Lhan Lhe money ln whlch Lhe prlce ls Lo be paldţ
lnvesLmenL securlLles (ArLlcle 8) and Lhlngs ln acLlonŦ ºCoods" also lncludes Lhe unborn young of
anlmals and growlng crops and oLher ldenLlfled Lhlngs Lo realLy as descrlbed ln Lhe secLlon on goods Lo
be severed from realLy (ecLlon 2Ŵ107)
UCC2Ŵ312 Ŷ Jarranty of 1|t|e Ŷ (1) ub[ecL Lo subsecLlon (2) Lhere ls ln a conLracL for sale a warranLy by
Lhe seller LhaL (a) Lhe LlLled conveyed shall be goodţ and lLs Lransfer rlghLfulŤ (b) Lhe goods shall be
dellvered free from any securlLy lnLeresL or oLher llen or encumbrance of whlch Lhe buyer aL Lhe Llme of
conLracLlng has no knowledgeŦ (2) A warranLy under subsecLlon (1) wlll be excluded or modlfled only be
speclflc language or by clrcumsLances whlch glve Lhe buyer reason Lo know LhaL Lhe person selllng does
noL clalm LlLle ln hlmself or LhaL he ls purporLlng Lo sell only such rlghL or LlLle as he or a Lhlrd person
may haveŦ (3) Dnless oLherwlse agreed a seller who ls a merchanL regularly deallng ln goods of Lhe klnd
warranLs LhaL Lhe goods shall be dellvered free of Lhe rlghLful clalm of any Lhlrd person by way of
lnfrlngemenL or Lhe llke buL a buyer who furnlshes speclflcaLlons Lo Lhe seller musL hold Lhe seller
harmless agalnsL any such clalm whlch arlses ouL of compllance wlLh Lhe speclflcaLlonsŦ
UCC 2Ŵ313 (Lxpress Jarranty) Ŷ Lxpress Jarrant|es by Aff|rmat|onţ Þrom|seţ Descr|pt|onţ Samp|e Ŷ (1)
Lxpress WarranLles by Lhe seller are creaLed as followsť (a) any afflrmaLlon of facL or promlse made by
Lhe seller Lo Lhe buyer whlch relaLes Lo Lhe goods and becomes parL of Lhe basls of Lhe bargaln creaLes
an express warranLy LhaL Lhe goods shall conform Lo Lhe afflrmaLlon or promlseŦ (b) Any descrlpLlon of
Lhe goods whlch ls made parL of Lhe basls of Lhe bargaln creaLes an express warranLy LhaL Lhe goods
shall conform Lo Lhe descrlpLlonŦ (c) Any sample or model whlch ls made parL of Lhe basls of Lhe bargaln
creaLes an express warranLy LhaL Lhe whole of Lhe goods shall conform Lo Lhe sample or modelŦ (2) lL ls
noL necessary Lo Lhe creaLlon of an express warranLy LhaL Lhe seller use formal words such as ºwarranL"
or ºguaranLee" or LhaL he have a speclflc lnLenLlon Lo make a warranLyţ buL an afflrmaLlon merely of Lhe
value of Lhe goods or a sLaLemenL purporLlng Lo be merely Lhe seller's oplnlon or commendaLlon of Lhe
goods does noL creaLe a warranLy
UCC 2Ŵ314 (Imp||ed Jarranty of Merchantab|||ty) Ŷ Dnless excluded or modlfled (ecLlon 2Ŵ316)ţ a
warranLy LhaL Lhe goods shall be merchanLable ls lmplled ln a conLracL for Lhelr sale lf Lhe seller ls a
merchanL wlLh respecL Lo goods of LhaL klndŦ Dnder Lhls secLlon Lhe servlng for value of food or drlnk Lo
be consumed elLher on Lhe premlses or elsewhere ls a saleŦ (2) Coods Lo be merchanLable musL be aL
leasL such as (a) pass wlLhouL ob[ecLlon ln Lhe Lrade under Lhe conLracL descrlpLlonŤ and (b) ln Lhe case
of funglble goodsţ are of falr average quallLy wlLhln Lhe descrlpLlonŤ and (c) are flr for Lhe ordlnary
purposes for whlch such goods are usedŤ and (d) runţ wlLhln Lhe varlaLlons permlLLed by Lhe agreemenLţ
of even klndţ quallLy and quaLlLy wlLhln each unlL and among all unlLs lnvolvedŤ and (e) are adequaLely
conLalnedţ packagedţ and labeled as Lhe agreemenL may requlre and (f) conform Lo Lhe promlses or
afflrmaLlons of facL made on Lhe conLalner label lf anyŦ (3) Dnless excluded or modlfled (ecLlon 2Ŵ316)
oLher lmplled warranLles may arlse from course of deallng or usage of LradeŦ
UCC 2Ŵ31S (Imp||ed Jarranty of I|tness) Ŷ Where Lhe seller aL Lhe Llme of conLracLlng has reason Lo
know any parLlcular purpose for whlch Lhe goods are requlred and LhaL Lhe buyer ls relylng on Lhe
seller's sklll or [udgmenL Lo selecL or furnlsh sulLable goodsţ Lhere ls unless excluded or modlfled under
Lhe nexL secLlon an lmplled warranLy LhaL Lhe goods shall be flL for such purposeŦ
UCC 2Ŵ316 (Lxc|us|on and Mod|f|cat|on of Jarrant|es) Ŷ as ls language
Contemporary Þrob|ems on Mean|ng of Agreement
ÞroCuţ lncŦ vŦ Zeldenburg
lacLsť Þ boughL a consumer package of Þro Cu's sofLware and lgnored Lhe llcense whlch ls encoded on
Lhe CuŴ8om as well as prlnLed on Lhe manual and whlch appeared on a user's screen every Llme Lhe
sofLware ranŦ Þ formed a company Lo resell Lhe lnfo ln Þro Cu's daLavase aL a prlce less Lhan Þro Cu
charges lLs commerclal cusLomers
8uleť noce on Lhe ouLsldeţ Lerms on Lhe lnsldeţ and a rlghL Lo reLurn Lhe sofLware for a refund lf Lhe
Lerms are unaccepLableţ may be a rlghL of dolng buslness Lo buyers and sellers allkeŦ
Plll vŦ CaLeway
lacLsť Tho Is boughf n Cnfowny 2000. Tho Is fIIod suIf nrguIng fhnf fho µroducf`s shorfcomIngs
mnko Cnfowny n rnckofoor. Ono of fho forms In fho box wns nn nrbIfrnfIon cInuso. Howovor, fho Is
koµf fho comµufor Iongor fhnn fho 30 dnys whIch Is fho IImIf fo rofurn n µroducf ns osfnbIIshod by
fho IIconso nnd ngroomonf fhnf shows uµ whon you fIrsf oµon fho comµufor. Tho confrncf nIso sfnfod
fhnf fhoro Is nn nrbIfrnfIon cInuso nnd fho Ð nskod fho courf fo onforco If. Judgo rofusod.
8uleť Tho IIconso or ngroomonf for n µroducf cnn bo µuf In fho InsIdo of fho box nnd fho µurchnsIng
µnrfy cnn rovIow nnd docIdo fo nccoµf or rojocf fho confrncf nffor fho µurchnso

Þo||c|ng the 8arga|n
klefer vŦ lred Powe MoLorsţ lncŦ
lacLsť ho I boughf n sfnfIon wngon from fho Ðs n fow monfhs boforo hIs 2l
bIrfhdny. Whon ho
sIgnod fho confrncf ho sIgnod n µorfIon fhnf sfnfod fhnf ho wns 2l yonrs of ngo. Ho hnd µrobIoms
wIfh fho cnr nnd frIod fo rofurn If nnd suod fo rocovor fho µrIco. Tho courf nIIowod hIm fo do so
8uleť A mlnor ls noL bound by a conLracL lf he was underage when slgned Lhe conLracLŦ
OrfoIoro v. Tonchor`s !ofIromonf Id.
Incfs: Tho doconsod wIfo of fho I wns n 60 yonrs oId ÞYC schooIfonchor who hnd sufforod n norvous
bronkdown dIngnosod ns InvoIufIonnI µsychosIs, moInnchoIIn fyµo, nnd wns on Ionvo for monfnI
IIInoss. Hor husbnnd hnd quIf hIs job fo fnko cnro of hor. Sho hnd nn nccounf of $?0,925 In fho
µubIIc rofIromonf sysfom In whIch sho hnd µnrfIcIµnfod for ovor 40 yonrs. Two monfhs boforo hor
donfh sho oIocfod fo rocoIvo $450 n monfh wIfh bonofIfs durIng hor IIfofImo, Insfond of 3?5 n monfh.
Sho dId nof foII hor husbnnd nbouf fhIs. Hor husbnnd suod fo sof nsIdo hor oIocfIon on fho ground of
monfnI Incomµofonco.
!uIo: If n µorson hns n monfnI IIInoss, mnkos n confrncf whIIo hnvIng fhIs monfnI IIInoss, nnd fho
µnrfy wIfh whom fho confrncf wns dono knows of fho ofhor µnrfIos condIfIon, fhon fho confrncf cnn
bo mnrkod InvnIId.
Cundlck vŦ 8roadbenL
lacLsť Tho I onforod Info n confrncf wIfh fho Ð fo soII hIs Inmb croµ. A monfh nffor fho ngroomonf
wns nmondod ns fo Incronso fho µrIco fo fho Ð. !ndor fho nmondod ngroomonf, moro fhnn 2,000
ncros of rnngo Innd wonf for nbouf $40k, nn oxµorf Infor vnIuod If nf $89k. AIso IncIudod wns
CundIck`s Inforosf In n dovoIoµmonf comµnny of whIch fho Ð wns n dIrocfor, nf n µrIco of $46,?50, n
wIfnoss Infor vnIuod fhIs nf $l84k nnd ono for fho I nf $?3,?43. HIs wIfo soughf fo roscInd by
nrguIng fhnf fho I hnd boon monfnIIy Incomµofonf nnd fhnf ho wns monfnIIy InfIrm nnd fhnf fho Ð
hnd knowIngIy ovorronchod hIm. Thoronffor hIs fnmIIy docfor snw hIm mnny fImos nbouf hIs vnrIous
nIImonfs, buf nofhIng wns snId or dono nbouf fho condIfIon boforo fho suIf wns commoncod.
8uleť MenLal lncompeLence aL Lhe Llme of conLracLlng (a facLual quesLlon) creaLes a conLracL LhaL ls
voldable aL Lhe lncompeLenL parLy's opLlonŦ
Mcklnnon vŦ 8enedlcL
lacLsť Tho I Ionnod fho Ð $5000. Tho monoy wns usod ns nssIsfnnco fo buy n rosorf known ns Ionf`s
cnmµ. AIso, In mnkIng fho Ionn, fho I µromIsod fo hoIµ fho Ðs gof busInoss. In rofurn, fho Ðs woro
fo nof cuf down In nny froos bofwoon fhoIr cnmµ nnd hIs µroµorfy, nnd fo mnko no Imµrovomonfs
cIosor fo hIs µrosonf µroµorfy fhnn fho µrosonf buIIdIngs. Tho Ð`s roµnId fho Ionn In nbouf ? monfhs.
Tho busInoss dId nof µrosµor so fhoy docIdod fo Invosf $9000 In buIIdozIng nnd InsfnIIIng ufIIIfIos.
Tho I broughf n suIf sookIng fo onjoIn fhom from confInuIng wIfh fhoIr µrojocfod Imµrovomonfs.
8uleť Whoro n confrncf cronfos n wIdo dIsµnrIfy bofwoon fho µnrfIos, fho courf cnn nuII fho confrncf
nf Ifs dIscrofIon.
TuckwIIIor v. TuckwIIIor
Incfs: IInInfIff !uby TuckwIIIor onforod Info nn ngroomonf fo quIf hor job nnd cnro for fho nunf of
hor husbnnd, Moffn Hudson MorrIson, In oxchnngo for MorrIson wIIIIng hor MorrIson`s Corum fnrm.
MorrIson mndo nn nµµoInfmonf fo hnvo hor wIII chnngod, buf sho wns hosµIfnIIzod nnd ovonfunIIy
dIod wIfhouf fho wIII boIng chnngod. Tho wIII sfnfod fhnf fho fnrm shnII bo soId nnd fho µrocoods fo
bo usod for n sfudonf Ionn fund nf ÐnvIdson CoIIogo.
!uIo: Thnf IInInfIff rocoIvod somowhnf of n wIndfnII by rocoIvIng fho µroµorfy wIfhouf hnvIng fo
ncfunIIy cnro for MorrIson Is of no roIovnnco In n dIscussIon of whofhor fho ngroomonf wns
unconscIonnbIo, unfnIr, or InoquIfnbIo. !nfhor, fho frInI courf musf Iook nf fho donI nf fho fImo If wns
Ðuvess und Pve-£xIstIng Ðuty
AInskn Inckors` Ass`n v. ÐomonIco
Incfs: Alaska Packers' Association (D) hired Domenico (P) for the salmon season and agreed to pay $50
dollars plus 2 cents for each salmon caught. After arriving at the location and beginning to work the
workers demanded $100. Due to the remote location and brief duration of the salmon season, the
company representative was compelled to agree to the terms. At the end of the salmon season Alaska
Packers' refused to pay more than the wage under the original contract.
!uIo: An agreement modifying a contract is not supported by consideration if one of the parties to the
agreement does or promises to do something that he is legally obligated to do or refrains or promises to
refrain from doing something he is not legally privileged to do.
SchwnrfzroIch v. Þnumnn-Insch
Incfs: Schwartzreich (Plaintiff) entered into an employment contract with Baum-Basch, Ìnc. (Defendant),
in which Baum-Basch agreed to pay Schwartzreich 90 dollars per week in return for him designing coats
and wraps. The contract was for one year. During the course of this contract, Schartreich went to Baum-
Basch and told him that he had found another job and that they would pay him 115 per week. Baum-
Basch then said that if Schwartsreich would stay, he would pay him 100 per week. Both parties agreed
and signed new contract which would replace the old contract. Plaintiff remained in the defendants
employ until the following December when he was discharged. He brought this action under the contract
of October 17th for his damages after Defendant only paid Plaintiff $90 per week as set forth in the
original contract between the parties.
!uIo: any change in an existing contract, such as a modification of the rate of compensation, or a
supplemental agreement, must have a new consideration to support it. Where an existing contract is
terminated by consent of both parties and a new one executed in its place and stead, we have a different
situation and the mutual promises are again a consideration. Furthermore, the court said that there is no
reason that we (the court) can see why the parties to a contract may not come together and agree to
cancel and rescind an existing contract, making a new one in its place.

ArznnI v. IooµIo
Incfs: Tho Is woro buIIdIng n brIdgo. HnIf wny fhrough fho brIdgo fhoy ronIIzod fhnf fhoro wns n
Inw µnssod nnd fho Is nskod for moro monoy. Tho Ðs ngrood buf novor µnId If.
!uIo: Arzanl had a preŴexlsLlng duLy Lo do Lhe pavlng workŤ Lhusţ Lhe promlse ls unenforceableŦ ecŦ73 Ŷ
ºÞerformance of a legal duLy owed Lo a promlsor whlch ls nelLher doubLful nor Lhe sub[ecL of honesL
dlspuLe ls noL conslderaLlonŤ buL a slmllar performance ls conslderaLlon lf lL dlffers from whaL was
requlred by Lhe duLy ln a way whlch reflecLs more Lhan a preLense of bargalnŦ"
WaLklns vŦ on vŦ Cralg
lacLsť Plaintiff Watkins & Son agreed to excavate a cellar for Defendant Carrig, but Plaintiff
encountered solid rock shortly after the work began. The parties then orally agreed that Plaintiff
would remove the rock for a stipulated price.
8uleť The parties rescinded the written contract and entered into an oral one as though it were the
sole agreement. Despite Defendant's contention that the oral contract was not supported by
consideration since the plaintiff did not take on any additional duties, the New Hampshire Supreme
Court held that the original contract was rescinded and a new contract was formed. This is to be
distinguished from the contract being modified to include new terms without consideration.
& 1-20? ÷ (Puyment In Iu!!) ÷
PuvtIu! Puyment ÷
4nceu!ment, MIsvepvesentutI4n
SwInfon v. WhIfInsvIIIo Snv. Innk
Incfs: Tho Ð soId fho I n houso. Af fho fImo of fho snIo, fho houso wns Infosfod wIfh formIfos. Tho
I cInIms fhnf fho Ð know fho houso wns Infosfod. Tho I wns nof nbIo fo nofIco whon ho Insµocfod
boforo fho µurchnso. Ho dId nof Ionrn nbouf fho formIfos unfII Augusf 30, l940. Iocnuso of fho
dosfrucfIon fhnf wns boIng dono nnd fho dnngorous condIfIon fhnf wns boIng cronfod by fho formIfos
fho I wns µuf fo gronf oxµonso for roµnIrs nnd for fho InsfnIInfIon of formIfo confroI In ordor fo
µrovonf fho Ioss nnd dosfrucfIon of snId houso
!uIo: A fnIIuro fo Inform fho buyor of n houso of n formIfo InfosfnfIon doos nof gIvo rIso fo n cnuso of
ncfIon for rocovory of dnmngos cnusod by fho undIscIosod condIfIon.
!nIoss fhoro wns n dufy fho soIIor hnd no obIIgnfIon fo dIscIoso fho InfosfnfIon. A confrncf cnnnof bo
mndo voIdnbIo for moro nondIscIosuro. In fhIs cnso fho dofondnnf dId nof hnvo n fIducInry dufy fo fho
µInInfIff nnd fhoroforo dId nof hnvo n dufy fo dIscIoso.
Knnnnvos v. AnnIno
ncfs· fho Ð boughf n ono-fnmIIy homo. Tho houso wns In n ¨!osIdonco A¨ dIsfrIcf, whoro muIfI-
fnmIIy usors woro µrohIbIfod. Sho, howovor, convorfod If Info n muIfI-fnmIIy buIIdIng wIfh 8
nµnrfmonfs, wIfhouf obfnInIng n buIIdIng µormIf, nnd In knowIng vIoInfIon of fho cIfy zonIng
ordInnnco. In l965, sho omµIoyod n ronI osfnfo brokor fo fry fo soII fho µroµorfy. Ho µIncod
nowsµnµor nds, ono of fhom snId ¨Incomo gross $9,600 n yonr In Inrgo sIngIo houso, convorfod fo 8
IovoIy, comµIofoIy furnIshod nµnrfmonfs. 8 bnfhs, IdonI for couµIo fo IIvo froo, wIfh oxcoIIonf Incomo.
Iy nµµoInfmonf onIy.¨ Ioofo ronIfy. Tho Ð nnd fho brokor know fhnf fho I`s ronson for buyIng wns
fo ronf fho nµnrfmonfs. Ho wns unnwnro of nny zonIng or buIIdIng µormIf vIoInfIon. Tho I wns nof
Inforosfod In In buyIng fho houso unIoss ho couId ronfod ouf fo ofhor µooµIo. SInco, fho soIIor dIdn`f
foII hIm fhnf ho wnsn`f nIIowod fo ronf If ouf, ho µurchnsod fho houso nnd If wns subsoquonfIy
worfhIoss fo hIm. I broughf suIf nIIogIng fhnf fho Ð shouId hnvo foId hIm nbouf fho Inw.
!uIo· If fho monns by whIch n µroµorfy Is soId Is nf Ionsf somowhnf frnuduIonf fhon fho ruIo of
nonIInbIIIfy for bnro nondIscIosuro cnnnof nµµIy.
dLesI4n 4ntvucts
£xcu!put4vy !uuse - A confrncf µrovIsIon fhnf roIIovos ono µnrfy of IInbIIIfy If dnmngos nro cnusod
durIng fho oxocufIon of fho confrncf. Tho µnrfy fhnf Issuos fho oxcuIµnfory cInuso Is fyµIcnIIy fho ono
sookIng fo bo roIIovod of fho µofonfInI IInbIIIfy. Ior oxnmµIo, n vonuo mny µrInf nn oxcuIµnfory
cInuso on fIckofs If soIIs for n concorf IndIcnfIng fhnf If Is nof rosµonsIbIo for µorsonnI Injury cnusod
by omµIoyoos or ofhors durIng fho show.

O`CnIInghnn v. WnIIor & IockwIfh !onIfy Co.
Incfs: IInInfIff IIIn O`CnIInghnn, n fonnnf of n buIIdIng ownod by Ðofondnnf WnIIor & IockwIfh
!onIfy Co. foII whIIo crossIng fho µnvod courfynrd of fho nµnrfmonf buIIdIng. Sho suod fo rocovor
dnmngos buf wns donIod rocovory duo fo nn oxcuIµnfory cInuso In hor Ionso roIIovIng Ðofondnnf of
IInbIIIfy from µorsonnI InjurIos cnusod by nny ncf or nogIocf of Ðofondnnf.
!uIo: Exculpatory clauses absolving a party of liability are generally enforced unless against public
Agreeing to BoiIerpIate - While a company should protected in its legal right to limit its
responsibility, the public should also be safeguarded against imposition. Ìf a company wishes to limit
its liability for negligence, it must at least show that it has given adequate notice of the special
contract and that it has received the assent thereto of those with whom it transacts business.
& 2-302 ÷ If fho courf ns n mnffor of Inw fInds fho confrncf or nny cInuso of fho confrncf fo hnvo
boon unconscIonnbIo nf fho fImo If wns mndo fho courf mny rofuso fo onforco fho confrncf, or If mny
onforco fho romnIndor of fho confrcf wIfhouf fho unconscIonnbIo cInuso ns fo nvoId nny
unconscIonnbIo rosuIf.
WIIIInms v. WnIkor-Thomns IurnIfuro Co.
Incfs: AµµoIInnfs boughf furnIfuro from AµµoIIoo on crodIf nnd fho K fhnf fhoy sIgnod confnInod n
µrovIsIon whIch sfnfod fhnf fho bnInnco wIII romnIn duo on ovory Ifom µurchnsod unfII fho bnInnco
duo on nII Ifoms, whonovor µurchnsos, wns IIquIdnfod. In cnso of dofnuIf of µnymonf, nII fho
furnIfuro on whIch bnInnco Is duo wIII bo fnkon bnck by fho nµµoIIoo. Tho nµµoIInnfs boughf
furnIfuro In l962 nnd dofnuIfod on µnymonf. Thoy hnd nIso µurchnsod furnIfuro from nµµoIIoo In
l95? on whIch fhoy hnd somo µnymonf Ioffovor. Tho nµµoIIoo soughf fo roµIovy nII fho Ifoms
µurchnsod sInco l95?.
!uIo: !CC § 2-302 sµocIfIcnIIy µrovIdos fhnf n courf mny rofuso fo onforco n K whIch If fInds fo bo
unconscIonnbIo nf fho fImo If wns mndo.
Jonos v. Sfnr CrodIf Corµ.
Incfs: Plaintiffs, various welfare recipients (Plaintiffs), agreed to purchase a home freezer for $900.
The Plaintiffs paid $619.88 towards the purchase. The Defendant, Star Credit Corp (Defendant),
claimed that charges relating to the extension of time for payment results in a $819.81 still being
due. The maximum retail value of the freezer is $300.
!uIo: IubIIc µoIIcy dIcfnfos fhnf unoducnfod consumors shouId bo µrofocfod from groody morchnnfs
nnd fho dnngors of unoqunI bnrgnInIng µowor. !CC SocfIon:2-302 µrovIdos for n mornI sonso of
communIfy In commorcInI frnnsncfIons nnd If n cInuso of n confrncf Is unconscIonnbIo nf fho fImo If
wns mndo, fho courf mny rofuso fo onforco fho confrncf. Tho !CC nµµIIos fo fho µrIco form of n
Thoro Is n µubIIc nocossIfy nnd dosIrnbIIIfy for InsfnIImonfs snIos confrncfs. Howovor, fho µrIcIng
schomo on such confrncfs musf nfford somo µrofocfIon fo fho soIIor for fho rIsk of soIIIng fo fhoso who
mny dofnuIf on µnymonf. Tho µrIco forms sof In fho subjocf confrncf nro In oxcoss of nny nssurnncos
nnd fho rosuIf Is nn unconscIonnbIo confrncf.
$pecIu! Ðumuges Issues
Ðumuges u!cu!utI4ns
TLe I4st V4!ume $e!!ev
R.£. ÐuvIs LemIcu! 4vp. v. ÐIus4nIc, Inc.
Incfs: Plaintiff R.E. Davis Chemical Corp. contracted with Defendant Diasonics, Ìnc. for the purchase
of a piece of medical diagnostic equipment. Plaintiff paid a $300,000 deposit but then breached the
contract. This dispute then arose over the proper amount of damages, specifically whether
Defendant was a "lost volume seller (you can produce two instead of one).¨
!uIo: A "lost volume seller¨ is entitled to lost profits if it can prove that it is able and profitable to
produce at least one more unit of the item sold.
%e Duty to Mitigate
Rockingham County v. Luten Bridge Co.
Facts: Rockingham County, North Carolina (D) contracted with Luten (P) to construct a bridge. Luten
had completed very little work on the bridge when Rockingham County provided a notice of
cancellation of the contract. The plaintiff proceeded to complete the bridge and brought suit against
the defendant for breach of contract. At trial, the judge instructed a verdict for the full amount of the
claim in Luten's favor and Rockingham County appealed.
Rule: The amount of damages the plaintiff can recover is limited to the amount of damages that he would
have been able to recover as of the time notice was given. Luten is entitled to expenses incurred up until
notice was given, plus expected profit from completion of the contract, plus any other losses incurred up
until the time of breach. A party who receives express notice of breach has a duty to mitigate damages.
TongIsh v. Thomns
Incfs: AµµoIIoo ÐonnIs TongIsh, n fnrmor, confrncfod wIfh AµµoIInnf Ðocnfur Cooµ AssocInfIon, fo
soII hIs onfIro croµ of sunfIowor soods nf $l3.00 µor hundrodwoIghf. Affor fho mnrkof µrIco roso fo
nbouf $20.00 µor hundrodwoIghf, AµµoIIoo roµudInfod hIs ngroomonf wIfh AµµoIInnf nnd soId hIs
croµ fo Ðnnny Thomns for fho now mnrkof µrIco.
!uIo: Ðnmngos musf bo comµufod undor !.C.C. SocfIon: 2-?l3, whIch sfnfos fhnf dnmngos nro oqunI
fo fho mnrkof µrIco nf fho fImo of bronch mInus fho confrncf µrIco. Tho !.C.C. confnIns fwo
nµµnronfIy confIIcfIng µrovIsIons fo bo ufIIIzod In comµufIng dnmngos. !ndor !.C.C. SocfIon: l-l06,
fho nonbronchIng µnrfy Is sImµIy comµonsnfod for hIs ncfunI Ioss (horo, fho Ioss of hnndIIng chnrgos,
$455). Howovor, undor !.C.C. SocfIon: 2-?l3, fho dnmngos oqunI fho mnrkof µrIco nf bronch mInus
fho confrncf µrIco. If hns boon snId fhnf fho Inffor µrovIsIon µromofos mnrkof offIcIoncy by
dIscourngIng fho bronch of confrncfs. In ofhor words, woro If nof for !.C.C. SocfIon: 2-?l3, fho
confrncf µrIco wouId ncf ns n µrIco fIoor, whIch nIIows fho soIIIng µnrfy fo shoµ nround for n hIghor
µrIco knowIng fhnf ho Is gunrnnfood fho confrncf µrIco If fho mnrkof µrIco dIµs boIow fho confrncf
µrIco. ThIs dIscourngos fho honorIng of confrncfs nnd mnrkof sfnbIIIfy.
Inrkor v. TwonfIofh Confury-Iox IIIm Corµ.
Incfs: IInInfIff Inrkor, boffor known ns ncfross ShIrIoy Mnc!nIno, confrncfod wIfh Ðofondnnf,
TwonfIofh Confury-Iox IIIm Corµ., fo µIny fho fomnIo Iond In fho fIIm ¨IIoomor CIrI.¨ Ðofondnnf
fhoronffor roµudInfod fho ngroomonf by nof µroducIng fho µIcfuro nnd Insfond offorod IInInfIff fho
Iond fomnIo roIo In nnofhor µIcfuro onfIfIod ¨IIg Counfry, IIg Mnn.¨ IInInfIff docIInod, nnd InIfInfod
fhIs ncfIon fo rocovor $?50,000, fho nmounf sho wns fo bo µnId undor fho confrncf.
!uIo: A wrongfuIIy dIschnrgod omµIoyoo Is onfIfIod fo hIs Iosf snInry, buf ho musf mIfIgnfo dnmngos
by sookIng nIfornnfIvo omµIoymonf. Howovor, ho doos nof nood fo nccoµf dIfforonf or InforIor
MIdtevm RevIew
4st t4 4mp!ete 4v ÐImInutI4n In Vu!ue
acob & Young v. Kent
Facts: Plaintiff acob & Youngs, built a house for Defendant Kent for a price of $77,000, and sued to
recover the balance due of $3,483.46. Defendant specified that all pipe in the house must be
Reading pipe, but inadvertently, Plaintiff installed pipe that was not Reading pipe. When Defendant
discovered this defect, he demanded that the work be redone, which would have required the
demolition and reconstruction of substantial parts of the house, but Plaintiff refused.
Rule: Equity and fairness dictate that one who unintentionally commits a trivial wrong will not be
condemned to a fate so clearly out of proportion with the transgression. To permit Defendant to
recover the cost of replacement of the pipe would be unduly oppressive. Ìnstead, Defendant will be
adequately compensated by recovering the difference in value of a home with the Reading pipe and
the value of the home, as it exists, with a different kind of pipe.
Crovos v. John Wundor Co.
Incfs: Ðofondnnf John Wundor Co., onforod Info n confrncf wIfh IInInfIff S.J. Crovos & Sons
Comµnny, fo romovo snnd nnd grnvoI from IInInfIff`s µromIsos nnd Ionvo fho µroµorfy ¨nf n unIform
grndo, subsfnnfInIIy fho snmo ns fho grndo now oxIsfIng nf fho rondwny.¨ Ðofondnnf µnId IInInfIff
$l05,000 buf wIIIfuIIy fnIIod fo Ionvo fho µroµorfy nf n unIform grndo.
!uIo: Whoro fho bronch Is wIIIfuI, dnmngos oqunI fho cosf of µorformIng fho confrncf, nof fho
dIfforonco bofwoon fho vnIuo of fho µroµorfy nf fho fImo of confrncfIng nnd fho vnIuo fho µroµorfy
wouId hnvo hnd If fho dofondnnf fuIIy µorformod.
IronchIng µnrfy wIII hnvo fo fIx If or µny for If fo gof fIxod.
Ioovyhouso v. CnrInnd ConI & MInIng Co.
Incfs: Garland Coal (D) contracted for the right to strip mine coal on Peevyhouse's (P) property for five
years. The contract provided that Garland would perform restoration work on the property at the end of
the lease period. Peevyhouse sued for $25,000 when Garland refused to perform the restoration. The
judge instructed the jury that it could consider the diminution of value of the land as well as the cost of
restoration in awarding damages.
The jury awarded Peevyhouse $5,000, which was much less than the cost of restoring the property, but
greater than the reduction in value of the land if not restored. Peevyhouse appealed, arguing that it
should be entitled to the cost of obtaining performance of the restoration. Garland Coal argued that
damages should be limited to the difference in market value between the land as it was at the time, and
the land as it would be if the restoration were performed.
!uIo: If bronch µorfnIns fo n mnffor onIy IncIdonfnI fo fho mnIn µurµoso of fho confrncf, nnd
µorformnnco wouId bo dIsµroµorfIonnfoIy cosfIy, fho µroµor monsuro of dnmngos Is fho dImInufIon In
vnIuo monsuro.
4nsequentIu! Ðumuges
HndIoy v. InxondnIo
Incfs: A shnff In HndIoy`s (I) mIII broko rondorIng fho mIII InoµornbIo. HndIoy hIrod InxondnIo (Ð)
fo frnnsµorf fho brokon mIII shnff fo nn ongInoor In CroonwIch so fhnf ho couId mnko n duµIIcnfo.
HndIoy foId InxondnIo fhnf fho shnff musf bo sonf ImmodInfoIy nnd InxondnIo µromIsod fo doIIvor If
fho noxf dny. InxondnIo dId nof know fhnf fho mIII wouId bo InoµornbIo unfII fho now shnff nrrIvod.
InxondnIo wns nogIIgonf nnd dId nof frnnsµorf fho shnff ns µromIsod, cnusIng fho mIII fo romnIn
shuf down for nn nddIfIonnI fIvo dnys. HndIoy hnd µnId 2 µounds four shIIIIngs fo shIµ fho shnff nnd
suod for 300 µounds In dnmngos duo fo Iosf µrofIfs nnd wngos. Tho jury nwnrdod HndIoy 25 µounds
boyond fho nmounf nIrondy µnId fo fho courf nnd InxondnIo nµµonIod.
!uIo: An Injurod µnrfy mny rocovor fhoso dnmngos ronsonnbIy consIdorod fo nrIso nnfurnIIy from n
bronch of confrncf, or fhoso dnmngos wIfhIn fho ronsonnbIo confomµInfIon of fho µnrfIos nf fho fImo
of confrncfIng.
Pv4b!em 4n puge 669 If you don`f objocf fo fho dnfo of doIIvory fhon you nro fnkIng nn
nssumµfIon of fho rIsk.
& 2-?15: Buyev's IncIdentu! und 4nsequentIu! Ðumuges ÷ (l) IncIdonfnI dnmngos rosuIfIng
from fho soIIor`s bronch IncIudo oxµonsos ronsonnbIy Incurrod In InsµocfIon, rocoIµf, frnnsµorfnfIon
nnd cnro nnd cusfody of goods rIghffuIIy rojocfod, nny commorcInIIy ronsonnbIo chnrgos, oxµonsos or
commIssIons In connocfIon wIfh offocfIng covor nnd nny ofhor ronsonnbIo oxµonso IncIdonf fo fho
doIny or ofhor bronch. (2) ConsoquonfInI dnmngos rosuIfIng from gonornI or µnrfIcuInr roquIromonfs
nnd noods of whIch fho soIIor nf fho fImo of confrncfIng hnd ronson fo know nnd whIch couId nof
ronsonnbIy bo µrovonfod by covor or ofhorwIso; nnd (b) Injury fo µorson or µroµorfy µroxImnfoIy
rosuIfIng from nny bronch of wnrrnnfy
Konford Co. v. Counfy of IrIo
Incfs: IInInfIff Konford Co. onforod Info n confrncf wIfh Ðofondnnf, Counfy of IrIo, fo donnfo Innd
for n now sfndIum. IInInfIff nIso ownod Innd In fho µorIµhory of fho µroµosod sfndIum sIfo. Whon
Ðofondnnf docIdod nof fo buIId fho sfndIum, IInInfIff suod fo rocovor for fho Ioss of nnfIcIµnfod
nµµrocInfIon In fho vnIuo of fho Innd fhnf IInInfIff ownod In fho µorIµhory of fho µroµosod sfndIum
!uIo: A non-bronchIng µnrfy cnn onIy rocovor dnmngo fhnf wns confomµInfod nf fho fImo of fho
confrncf. SµocuInfIon
evtuInty 41 Ðumuges und IIquIduted Ðumuges
Iorn v. VIIIngo IInzn, Inc.
Incfs: I confrncfod wIfh Ðs fo Ionso n sµnco In n µroµosod shoµµIng confor. Affor Ionso wns oxocufod,
Is gnvo uµ somo of fhoIr Ionsod sµnco so fhnf If couId bo Ionsod fo nnofhor fonnnf. In oxchnngo, If
wns ngrood fhnf IIquor snIos wouId bo oxcIudod from fho µorconfngo ronf ovorrIdo µrovIsIon of fho
Ionso. Whon fho sµnco wns fInnIIy rondy, Is woro rofusod fho sµnco for whIch fhoy hnd confrncfod
bocnuso fho Ionso hnd boon mIsµIncod, nnd fho sµnco ronfod fo ofhor fonnnfs. AIfornnfIvo sµnco wns
offorod buf rofusod by Is ns unsuIfnbIo for fhoIr µInnnod busInoss vonfuro. Is InIfInfod suIf In
Wnyno CIrcuIf Courf, nIIogIng n cInIm for nnfIcIµnfod Iosf µrofIfs.
!uIo: !osf µrofIfs from n now busInoss mny bo µormIffod ns nn oIomonf of dnmngos µrovIdod fhoy
cnn bo µrovod wIfh corfnInfy.
IIquIduted Ðumuges - Damages can be liquidated in a contract only if (1) the injury is either
"uncertain" or "difficult to quantify"; (2) the amount is reasonable and considers the actual or anticipated
harm caused by the contract breach, the difficulty of proving the loss, and the difficulty of finding another,
adequate remedy; and (3) the damages are structured to function as damages, not as a penalty. Ìf these
criteria are not met, a liquidated damages clause will be void.
Ðnvo Cusfnfson & Co. v. Sfnfo
Incfs: I surfncod n now sfnfos hIghwny fhnf µnrnIIoIod nn oIdor rond fhn romnInod oµon durIng nnd
nffor fho consfrucfIon. Ifom fho $530,?24.l4 duo for fho work, fho sfnfo wIfhhoId $l4,0?0 fhnf If
cInImod ns IIquIdnfod dnmngos for n doIny of 6? dnys. Tho confrncf µrovIdod n grndunfod scnIo of
¨IIquIdnfod dnmngos µor dny.¨
!uIo: !IquIdnfod dnmngos cnnnof bo dIsµroµorfIonnfo
& 2-?1B IIquIdutI4n 4v IImItutI4n 41 Ðumuges; Ðep4sIts ÷ (l) Ðnmngos for bronch by
oIfhor µnrfy mny bo IIquIdnfod In fho ngroomonf buf onIy nf nn nmounf whIch Is ronsonnbIo In fho
IIghf of fho nnfIcIµnfod or ncfunI hnrm cnusod by fho bronch, fho dIffIcuIfIos of µroof of Ioss, nnd fho
InconvonIonco or non-fonsIbIIIfy of ofhorwIso obfnInIng nn ndoqunfo romody. A form fIxIng
unronsonnbIy Inrgo IIquIdnfod dnmngos Is voId ns n µonnIfy.
£vIdence und IntevpvetutI4n
TLe Puv4! £vIdence und P4st-4ntvuct M4dI1IcutI4n
CInnnI v. !ussoII & Co.
Incfs: I ownod n sforo In n buIIdIng whoro ho soId fobncco, cnndy, fruIf, nnd soff drInks. Ð boughf
fho buIIdIng nnd sfnrfod Ionso nogofInfIons wIfh I. Thoy ronchod n wrIffon ngroomonf whoro I wns
nIIowod fo soII onIy fruIf, cnndy, nnd soff drInks nnd wns µrohIbIfod from soIIIng fobncco. I sIgnod
fho wrIffon ngroomonf. !nfor Ð ronfod fho noIghborIng sforo fo n drug comµnny fhnf nIso soId soff
drInks. I cInIms fhnf In consIdornfIon for hIm nof soIIIng fobncco In hIs sforo, Ð hnd mndo nn ornI
ngroomonf fhnf I wouId hnvo fho soIo rIghf fo soII soff drInks In fho buIIdIng. Ivon fhough fhIs
ngroomonf wns nof IncIudod In fho wrIffon K, I cInIms fhnf If wns n soµnrnfo ornI ngroomonf.
!uIo: To doformIno whofhor fho K Is comµIofo on Ifs fnco, fho courf wIII do fho ¨4 cornors ruIo.¨ Tho
Inw mnkos fho wrIfIng fho bnsIs for fho ngroomonf.
Mnsforson v. SIno
Incfs: ÐnIIns nnd !oboccn Mnsforson (I) ownod n rnnch ns fonnnfs In common whIch fhoy convoyod
by grnnf dood fo ÐnIIns` sIsfor nnd hor husbnnd (I.o. SIno, Ð). Mnsforson rosorvod nn oµfIon fo
roµurchnso fho rnnch wIfhIn fon yonrs In oxchnngo for fho consIdornfIon µnId by SIno, µIus fho
doµrocInfIon vnIuo of nny Imµrovomonfs. ÐnIIns Infor wonf bnnkruµf. !oboccn nnd ÐnIIns` frusfoo In
bnnkruµfcy (Il) broughf n docInrnfory judgmonf ncfIon fo osfnbIIsh fhoIr rIghf fo oxorcIso fho oµfIon.
!uIo: If IookIng nf fho K Is nof onough fo doformIno who wIns In fho cnso fhon µnrfIos wo wIII nIIow
µnrfIos fo foII us whnf wns Infondod.
CnIIfornIn !uIo ¨Hof Tub !uIo¨
ÞY !uIo
IoIIIngor v. ConfrnI IonnsyIvnnIn Qunrry SfrIµµIng nnd ConsfrucfIon Co.
Incfs: IInInfIffs MnhIon nnd VInoffn IoIIIngor onforod Info n wrIffon confrncf wIfh fho Ðofondnnf
ConfrnI IonnsyIvnnIn Qunrry SfrIµµIng nnd ConsfrucfIon Comµnny, fhnf µormIffod Ðofondnnf fo
doµosIf consfrucfIon wnsfo on IInInfIffs` µroµorfy. IInInfIffs cInIm fhnf fho µnrfIos ngrood fhnf
Ðofondnnf wouId covor fho wnsfo wIfh foµsoII, buf such n µrovIsIon wns, by mIsfnko, nof IncIudod In
fho wrIffon ngroomonf.
!uIo: A courf, ncfIng In oquIfy, mny roform n confrncf fo corrocf n mufunI mIsfnko In fho InfogrnfIon
of fho ngroomonf. If bofh µnrfIos ncfod In n wny fhnf foIIowod whnf shouId hnvo boon In fho cInuso
fhon fho courfs cnn doformIno fhnf fhoro wns n mIsfnko. Ivon If If snys fInnI, fho courfs wIII Iook nf
fho fncfs.
& 2-202 ÷ IInu! WvItten £xpvessI4n: Puv4! 4v £xtvInsIc £vIdence ÷ Torms wIfh rosµocf fo
whIch fho confIrmnfory momornndn of fho µnrfIos ngroo or whIch nro ofhorwIso sof forfh In n wrIfIng
Infondod by fho µnrfIos ns n fInnI oxµrossIon of fhoIr ngroomonf wIfh rosµocf fo such forms ns nro
IncIudod fhoroIn mny bo confrndIcfod by ovIdonco of nny µrIor ngroomonf or of n confomµornnoous
ornI ngroomonf buf mny bo oxµInInod or suµµIomonfod: (n) by courso of donIIng or usngo of frndo
(SocfIon l-205) or by courso of µorformnnco (SocfIon 2-208); nnd (b) by ovIdonco or consIsfonf
nddIfIonnI forms unIoss fho courf fInd fho wrIfIng fo hnvo boon Infondod nIso ns n comµIofo nnd
oxcIusIvo sfnfomonf of fho forms of fho ngroomonf
& 2-209 (2) ÷ M4dI1IcutI4n, RescIssI4n und WuIvev ÷ (2) A sIgnod ngroomonf whIch oxcIudos
modIfIcnfIon or roscIssIon oxcoµf by n sIgnod wrIfIng cnnnof bo ofhorwIso modIfIod or roscIndod, buf
oxcoµf ns bofwoon morchnnfs such n roquIromonf on n form suµµIIod by fho morchnnf musf bo
soµnrnfoIy sIgnod by fho ofhor µnrfy.
IrIgnIImonf ImµorfIng Co. v. I.Þ.S InfornnfIonnI SnIos Corµ
Incfs: IÞS InfornnfIonnI SnIos Corµ. (Ð) onforod Info fwo confrncfs fo soII chIckon fo IrIgnIImonf
(I). Whon fho InIfInI shIµmonf nrrIvod In SwIfzorInnd, IrIgnIImonf found fhnf fho honvIor bIrds woro
sfowIng chIckons or fowI, nof young chIckons suIfnbIo for broIIIng nnd fryIng. IÞS InfornnfIonnI
boIIovod fhnf nny fyµo of chIckon wouId moof fho confrncf sµocIfIcnfIons rognrdIng woIghf nnd
qunnfIfy, IncIudIng ¨sfowIng chIckons¨. IrIgnIImonf on fho ofhor hnnd boIIovod fhnf ¨chIckon¨ monnf
n young chIckon. IrIgnIImonf broughf fhIs InwsuIf for bronch of wnrrnnfy on fho grounds fhnf IÞS
InfornnfIonnI doIIvorod goods fhnf dId nof moof fho sµocIfIcnfIons of fho confrncf.
!uIo: Thoro wns no moofIng of fho mInds. Tho burdon wns on fho I fo µrovo fhnf fho monnIng of fho
word chIckon wns ns fhoy fhoughf If wns.
!nffIos v. WIchoIhnus
Incfs: Raffles (P) contracted to sell 125 bales of Surat cotton to Wichelhaus (D). The goods were to be
shipped from Bombay to Liverpool, England on the ship "Peerless¨. Neither party was aware that there
were two ships names "Peerless¨ carrying cotton from Bombay to Liverpool, one arriving in October and
the other in December.
Wichelhaus thought he had purchased the cotton arriving on the October ship, but Raffles sent his cotton
on December ship. Wichelhaus refused to accept delivery of the cotton arriving on the December ship
and Raffles brought this lawsuit for breach of contract.
!uIo: Thoro wns no moofIng of fho mInds nnd fhoroforo no K. Tho roIo of judgos Is fo Iook nf fho
wrIffon Inw nnd doformIno whnf fho K monns.
IncIfIc Cns & IIocfrIc Co. v. C.W. Thomns Ðrnyngo & !IggIng Co.
MnffoI v. Hoµµor
Incfs: Tho I wnnfod fo buy n shoµµIng confor from fho Ð soIIor. Tho µnrfIos cnmo fo nn ngroomonf
nnd fho I gnvo fho Ð whIch wns ovIdoncod by n $l000 doµosIf. Tho romnInIng $5?,500 woro duo
nffor n l20 dnys µorIod, whoro fho I couId oxnmIno fho fIfIo nnd consummnfo fho µurchnso. Af fho
oxµIrnfIon of fhnf µorIod, fho bnInnco of fho µrIco wns ¨duo nnd µnynbIo uµon fondor of n good nnd
suffIcIonf dood of fho µroµorfy soId. Tho concIudIng µnrngrnµh of fho doµosIf rocoIµf µrovIdod:
¨Subjocf fo CoIdwoII Innkor & Comµnny obfnInIng Ionsos snfIsfncfory fo fho µurchnsor.¨
WhIIo I wns In fho µrocoss of socurIng fho Ionsos nnd boforo fho l20 dnys hnd oInµsod, Ð`s
nffornoy nofIfIod I fhnf Ð wouId nof soII hor Innd undor fho forms confnInod In fho doµosIf rocoIµf.
Thoronffor, Ð wns Informod fhnf snfIsfncfory Ionsos hnd boon obfnInod nnd fhnf I hnd offorod fo µny
fho bnInnco of fho µurchnso µrIco. Ð fnIIod fo fondor fho dood ns µrovIdod In fho doµosIf rocoIµf.
!uIo: If fho µnrfIos ngroo fo n µrovIsIon whon mnkIng n confrncf fhon fho µrovIsIon Is onforconbIo If If
µnssos fho ronsonnbIo µorson fosf. Inrfy fhnf doos nof hnvo fho µowor fo mnko fho µrovIsIon hns
nIrondy ngrood fo µorform uµon nccoµfnnco.
!uffIngor v. !oson
Incfs: Tho Is confrncfod fo µurchnso for 85,000 µromIsos In fho cIfy of Sfnmford ownod by fho Ðs
nnd µnId n doµosIf of 8,500. Tho K wns ¨subjocf fo nnd condIfIonnI uµon fho buyors obfnInIng fIrsf
morfgngo fInnncIng on snId µromIsos from n bnnk or ofhor IondIng InsfIfufIon In nn nmounf of
$45,000 for n form of nof Ioss fhnn 20 yonrs nnd nf nn Inforosf rnfo whIch doos nof oxcood 8 ¹
µorconf µor nnnum. Tho Is ngrood fo uso duo dIIIgonco In nffomµfIng fo obfnIn such fInnncIng. Tho
µnrfIos furfhor ngrood fhnf If fho Is woro unsuccossfuI In obfnInIng fInnncIng ns µrovIdod In fho K,
nnd nofIfIod fho soIIor wIfhIn n sµocIfIc fImo, nII sums µnId on fho K wouId bo rofundod nnd fho K
formInnfod wIfhouf furfhor obIIgnfIon (condIfIon µrocodonf).

In nµµIyIng for n morfgngo whIch wouId snfIsfy fho confIngoncy cInuso In fho confrncf, fho Is roIIod
on fhoIr nffornoy who nµµIIod nf n Þow Hnvon IondIng InsfIfufIon for $45,000 Ionn nf 8 ¹ µorconf µor
nnnum. Tho I`s nffornoy know fhnf fhIs IondIng InsfIfufIon wns fho onIy ono whIch nf fhnf fImo
wouId Iond ns much ns $45,000 on morfgngo for n sIngIo-fnmIIy dwoIIIng. SInco fhIs commIfmonf
fnIIod fo moof fho AK roquIromonf, fImoIy nofIco wns gIvon fo fho Ðs nnd domnnd wns mndo for fho
rofurn of fho down µnymonf. Tho Ð`s counsoI fhorofnffor offorod fo mnko uµ fho dIfforonco bofwoon
fho Inforosf rnfo offorod by fho bnnk nnd fho 8 ¹ µorconf rnfo µrovIdod In fho K for fho onfIro 25
yonrs by n fundIng nrrnngomonf, fho oxncf forms of whIch woro nof dofInod. Tho Is dId nof nccoµf
fhIs offor nnd on fho Ð`s rofusnI fo rofun fho doµosIf nn ncfIon wns broughf
!uIo: A condIfIon µrocodonf Is n fncf or ovonf whIch fho µnrfIos Infond musf oxIsf or fnko µInco boforo
fhoro Is n rIghf fo µorformnnco. Tho Inngungo of fho K Is unnmbIguous nnd cIonrIy IndIcnfos fhnf fho
µnrfIos Infondod fhnf fho µurchnso of fho Ð`s µromIsos bo condIfIonod on fho obfnInIng by fho Is of n
morfgngo ns sµocIfIod In fho K. Irom fho subordInnfo fncfs found fho courf couId ronsonnbIy concIudo
fhnf sInco fho Is woro unnbIo fo obfnIn n $45,000 morfgngo nf no moro fhnn 8 ¹° µor nnnum
Inforosf ¨from n bnnk or ofhor IondIng InsfIfufIon¨ fho condIfIon µrocodonf fo µorformnnco of fho K
wns nof mof nnd fho Is woro onfIfIod fo fho rofund of fho fhoIr doµosIf. Any nddIfIonnI offor bf fho
Ðs fo fund fho dIfforonco In Inforosf µnymonfs couId bo rojocf by fho Is.
Ioncock ConsfrucfIon Co. v. Modorn AIr CondIfIonIng, Inc
Incfs: Modorn AIr CondIfIonIng (I) nnd OvorIy MnnufncfurIng (Il) subconfrncfod wIfh Ioncock
ConsfrucfIon (Ð) fo µorform honfIng/nIr condIfIonIng nnd swImmIng µooI work for n condomInIum
consfrucfIon µrojocf. Tho wrIffon subconfrncfs µrovIdod fhnf Ioncock ConsfrucfIon wouId mnko fInnI
µnymonf fo fho subconfrncfors ¨wIfhIn 30 dnys nffor comµIofIon of fho work IncIudod In fhIs
subconfrncf, wrIffon nccoµfnnco by fho ArchIfocf nnd fuII µnymonf fhoroforo by fho Ownor.¨
Whon fho subconfrncfors comµIofod fho work, fho dofondnnf dId nof µny fhom bocnuso fho ownor
hnd nof yof µnId In fuII. Tho µInInfIffs broughf soµnrnfo suIfs ngnInsf Ioncock ConsfrucfIon for
µnymonf. Af frInI fho courf rojocfod fho dofondnnf`s confonfIon fhnf µnymonf by fho ownor wns n
condIfIon µrocodonf fo µnyIng fho subconfrncfors nnd grnnfod summnry judgmonf In fnvor of
µInInfIffs. Tho courf of nµµonIs nffIrmod nnd dofondnnf nµµonIod fo fho IIorIdn Suµromo Courf.
!uIo: IrovIsIons cnIIIng for µnymonfs nffor wrIffon nccoµfnnco by fho nrchIfocf nnd fuII µnymonf by
fho ownor do nof sof condIfIons µrocodonf; fhoy consfIfufo nbsoIufo µromIsos fo µny, fIxIng µnymonf
by fho ownor ns n ronsonnbIo fImo for mnkIng µnymonf fo fho subconfrncfor. Tho gonornI ruIo Is fhnf
InforµrofnfIon of n documonf Is n quosfIon of Inw rnfhor fhnn of fncf. Tho InfonfIons of fho µnrfIos
mny bo doformInod from fho wrIffon confrncf, ns n mnffor of Inw, whon fho nnfuro of fho frnnsncfIon
Ionds IfsoIf fo judIcInI InforµrofnfIon.
CIbson v. Crnnngo
Incfs: Tho IInInfIff suod fo rocovor fho confrncf µrIco for n µIcfuro fhnf ho ngrood fo hnvo mndo for
fho Ðofondnnf. Tho confrncf sfnfod fhnf fho Ðofondnnf hnd fho rIghf fo rojocf fho µIcfuro If If wns
unsnfIsfncfory nnd ho dId rojocf If.
!uIo: Tho µnrfIos fo nn ngroomonf nro sfrIcfIy bound by Ifs forms. Horo, fho Ðofondnnf hnd fho rIghf
fo rojocf or nccoµf fho fInIshod µIcfuro. If, for whnfovor ronson, fho µIcfuro wns unsnfIsfncfory, fho
Ðofondnnf hnd fho rIghf fo rojocf If nnd nof µny for If, whIch ho dId. Thoroforo, fho IInInfIff hns no
rocourso ngnInsf fho Ðofondnnf undor fhIs confrncf.
M4ve 4ndItI4ns
KIngsfon v. Irosfon
Incfs: KIngsfon (IInInfIff) broughf nn ncfIon for bronch of confrncf ngnInsf Irosfon (Ðofondnnf) for
fnIIIng fo comµIy wIfh covonnnfs fo fho confrncf.
!uIo: Thoro nro fhroo fyµos of covonnnfs: (l) fhoso fhnf nro mufunI nnd Indoµondonf whoro oIfhor
µnrfy mny rocovor dnmngos from fho ofhor for fho Injury ho rocoIvod ns n rosuIf of fho µnrfy`s bronch
nnd If Is no oxcuso for fho Ðofondnnf fo nIIogod bronch of n covonnnf on bohnIf of IInInfIff; (2)
covonnnfs whIch nro condIfIons nnd doµondonf In whIch µorformnnco of ono doµonds on fho
µorformnnco of nnofhor, fIII fho µrIor condIfIon Is µorformod fho ofhor µnrfy Is nof IInbIo fo nn ncfIon
on hIs covonnnf; nnd (3) fhoso fhnf nro mufunI condIfIons fo bo µorformod nf fho snmo fImo nnd If
ono µnrfy rondIIy µorforms nn fho ofhor rofusod fo µorform nnd fho µnrfy who wns rondy fo µorform
mny mnInfnIn nn ncfIon for fho dofnuIf of fho ofhor.
Tho µromIsos woro nof Indoµondonf nnd fho gIvIng of n socurIfy by fho IInInfIff wns n condIfIon fo
fho Ðofondnnf`s dufy fo convoy fho busInoss. IrosonfIng good consIdornfIon Is condIfIon µrocodonf fo
Ðofondnnf`s obIIgnfIon fo convoy fho busInoss. If wouId bo n gronf InjusfIco fo comµoI fho Ðofondnnf
fo furn ovor hIs busInoss fo fho IInInfIff wIfhouf fho socurIfy for whIch ho bnrgnInod for nnd fo hnvo
fho onIy romody nn ncfIon for bronch.
Iorguson v. IhoonIx
Incfs: Iorrosf Ð. Iorguson (IInInfIff) suod IhoonIx Assurnnco Comµnny of Þow York (Ðofondnnf) on
n Sforokooµors IurgInry nnd !obbory IoIIcy for Ioss of monoy by snfo burgInry. Ðofondnnf nµµonIs
from n dIsfrIcf courf judgmonf for fho IInInfIff.
!uIo: You cnn`f hIdo n cInuso fhnf IImIfs IInbIIIfy. You hnvo fo mnko If oxµIIcIf.
Pev14vmunce und BveucL
$u!e 41 G44ds: Tendev, cceptunce, ReJectI4n, Rev4cutI4n
& 2-601 ÷ Buyev's RIgLt 4n Impv4pev Ðe!Ivevy (TLe pev1ect tendev vu!e) ÷ Subjocf fo fho
µrovIsIons of fhIs ArfIcIo on bronch In InsfnIImonf confrncfs (SocfIon 2-6l2) nn dunIoss ofhorwIso
ngrood undor fho socfIons on confrncfunI IImIfnfIons of romody (SocfIons 2-?l8 nnd 2-?l9), I fhfo
goods or fho fondor of doIIvory fnII In nny rosµocf fo conform fo fho confrncf, fho buyor mny: (n) rojocf
fho whoIo; or (b) nccoµf fho whoIo; or (c) nccoµf nny commorcInI unIf
& 2-602 ÷ Munnev und £11ect 41 RIgLt1u! ReJectI4n ÷ (l) !ojocfIon of goods musf bo wIfhIn n
ronsonnbIo fImo nffor fhoIr doIIvory or fondor. If Is InoffocfIvo unIoss fho buyor sonsonnbIy nofIfIos
fho soIIor. (2) Subjocf fo fho µrovIsIons of fho fwo foIIowIng socfIon on rojocfod goods (n) nffor
rojocfIon nny oxorcIso of ownorshIµ by fho buyor wIfh rosµocf fo nny commorcInI unIf Is wrongfuI ns
ngnInsf fho soIIor; nnd (b) If fho buyor hns boforo rojocfIon fnkon µhysIcnI µossossIon of goods In
whIch ho doos nof hnvo socurIfy Inforosf undor fho µrovIsIons of fhIs nrfIcIo ho Is undor n dufy nffor
rojocfIon fo hoId fhom wIfh ronsonnbIo cnro nf fho soIIor`s dIsµosIfIon for n fImo suffIcIonf fo µormIf
fho soIIor fo romovo fhom; buf (c) fho buyor hns no furfhor obIIgnfIons wIfh rognrd fo goods rIghffuIIy
rojocfod. (3) fho soIIor`s rIghfs wIfh rosµocf fo goods wrongfuIIy rojocfod nro govornod by fho
µrovIsIons of fhIs ArfIcIo on SoIIor`s romodIos In gonornI
& 2-605 WuIvev 41 Buyev's ObJectI4ns by IuI!uve t4 PuvtIcu!uvIze ÷ (l) Tho buyor`s fnIIuro
fo sfnfo In connocfIon wIfh rojocfIon n µnrfIcuInr dofocf whIch Is nscorfnInnbIo by ronsonnbIo
InsµocfIon µrocIudos hIm from roIyIng on fho unsfnfod dofocf fo jusfIfy rojocfIon or fo osfnbIIsh
bronch. (n) whoro fho soIIor couId hnvo curod If If sfnfod sonsonnbIy; or (b) bofwoon morchnnfs whon
fho soIIor hns nffor rojocfIon mndo n roquosf In wrIfIng for n fuII nnd fInnI wrIffon sfnfomonf of nII
dofocfs on whIch fho buyor µroµosos fo roIy. (2)Inymonf ngnInsf documonfs mndo wIfhouf
rosorvnfIon of rIghfs µrocIudos rocovory of fho µnymonf for dofocfs nµµnronf on fho fnco of fho
& 2-606 - WLut 4nstItutes cceptunce 41 G44ds ÷ (l) Accoµfnnco of goods occurs whon fho
buyor (n) nffor ronsonnbIo oµµorfunIfy fo Insµocf fho goods sIgnIfIos fo fho soIIor fhnf fho goods nro
conformIng or fhnf ho wIII fnko or rofnIn fhom In sµIfo of fhoIr noncomformIfy; or (b) fnIIs fo mnko nn
offocfIvo rojocfIon (subsocfIon (l) of SocfIon hns hnd n ronsonnbIo oµµorfunIfy fo Insµocf fhom; or (c)
doos nny ncf InconsIsfonf wIfh fho soIIor`s ownorshIµ; buf If such ncf Is wrongfuI ns ngnInsf fho soIIor
If Is nn nccoµfnnco onIy If rnfIfIod by hIm.
& 2-60? ÷ £11ect 41 cceptunce; N4tIce 41 BveucL; Buvden 41 £stub!IsLIng BveucL 1tev
ccpetunce; N4tIce 41 !uIm 4v IItIgutI4n t4 Pevs4n nswevub!e Ovev
& 2-60B ÷ Rev4cutI4n t4 cceptunce In WL4!e 4v In Puvt: Tho buyor mny rovoko hIs
nccoµfnnco of n Iof or commorcInI unIf whoso non-conformIfy subsfnnfInIIy ImµnIrs Ifs vnIuo fo hIm If
ho hns nccoµfod If (n) on fho ronsonnbIo nssumµfIon fhnf Ifs non-conformIfy wouId bo curo nnd If hns
nof boon sonsonnbIy curod; or (b) wIfhouf dIscovory of such non-conformIfy If hIs nccoµfnnco wns
ronsonnbIo Inducod oIfhor by fho dIffIcuIfy of dIscovory boforo nccoµfnnco or by fho soIIor`s
Pev1ect Tendev Ru!e ÷ A ruIo dovoIoµod fhnf n buyor wns onfIfIod fo rojocf goods unIoss fho soIIor
mndo n ¨µorfocf fondor.¨ Tho roquIromonf of µorfocfIon covorod nof onIy fho qunnfIfy of fho goods buf
nIso fho dofnIIs of shIµmonf. !CC 2-6l2 nIIows n buyor undor n K for doIIvory of goods fo curo n
dofocfIvo fondor. AIIows fho buyor who hns nIrondy nccoµfod fho goods fo rovoko fhnf nccoµfnnco
(nnd rofurn fho goods fo fho soIIor) onIy If fho nonconformIfy subsfnnfInIIy ImµnIrs fhoIr vnIuo fo
hIm. ThIrd, 2-6l2 sImIInrIy nIIows n buyor undor n K for doIIvory of goods In InsfnIImonfs fo rojocf
nn InsfnIImonf onIy If n non-conformIfy ns fo fho goods subsfnnfInIIy ImµnIrs fho vnIuo fo fhnf
InsfnIImonf nnd fo cInIm n bronch of fho whoIo confrncf onIy for n bronch fhnf subsfnnfInIIy ImµnIrs
fho vnIuo of fho whoIo confrncf.
WnIkor nnd Co. v. HnrrIson
Incfs: I InsfnIIod n bIIIbonrd for Ðs busInoss. A wrIffon confrncf wns sIgnod bofwoon bofh µnrfIos. I
nf hIs oxµonso, ngrood fo nnd sorvIco fho sIgn ns fho I snw fIf. Somoono fhrow n fomnfo nf fho
bIIIbonrd nnd fho I dId nof cIonn If uµ rIghf nwny. Ð sfoµµod mnkIng µnymonfs nnd sonf n Ioffor fo
I foIIIng hIm of fhIs.
!uIo: In ordor for fho courf fo ruIo ngnInsf n µnrfy fhnf bronchod n condIfIon In fho K, fho condIfIon
bronchod musf hnvo boon mnforInI
TIme 14v Pev14vmunce ÷ Tho µorformnnco of fho work musf µrocodo µnymonf, In fho nbsonco of n
showIng of n confrnry InfonfIon. If Is somofImos suµµosod, fhnf fhIs µrIncIµIo grow ouf of
omµIoymonf confrncfs, nnd rofIocfs n convIcfIon fhnf omµIoyors ns n cInss nro moro IIkoIy fo bo
rosµonsIbIo fhnf nro workmon µnId In ndvnnco. Whofhor or nof fho oxµInnnfIon Is corrocf, mosf
µnrfIos fodny confrncf wIfh roforonco fo fho µrIncIµIo, nnd unIoss fhoy hnvo ovIdoncod n confrnry
InfonfIon If Is nf Ionsf ns fnIr ns fho oµµosIfo ruIo wouId bo. !osfnfomonf socfIon 234, commonf o
Sfownrf v. Þowborry
Incfs: I offorod fo do oxcnvnfIon work for fho Ð. Ð nccoµfod fho offor. ÞofhIng wns snId nbouf fho
mnnnor of µnymonf. I commoncod work nnd confInuod for n fow monfhs buf dIsconfInuod work
nffor ho sonf n bIII fo fho Ð nnd fho Ð rofusod fo µny If. Tho Ð, fhon, wrofo fo fho I IoffIng hIm know
fhnf fho confrncf wns nuII duo fo fho Is InncfIvIfy rognrdIng
!uIo: Whoro n K Is mndo fo µorform work nnd no ngroomonf Is mndo ns fo µnymonf, fho work musf
bo subsfnnfInIIy µorformod boforo µnymonf cnn bo domnndod
Jncob & Youngs v. Konf
Incfs: IInInfIff Jncob & Youngs, buIIf n houso for Ðofondnnf Konf for n µrIco of $??,000, nnd suod fo
rocovor fho bnInnco duo of $3,483.46. Ðofondnnf sµocIfIod fhnf nII µIµo In fho houso musf bo !ondIng
µIµo, buf InndvorfonfIy, IInInfIff InsfnIIod µIµo fhnf wns nof !ondIng µIµo. Whon Ðofondnnf
dIscovorod fhIs dofocf, ho domnndod fhnf fho work bo rodono, whIch wouId hnvo roquIrod fho
domoIIfIon nnd roconsfrucfIon of subsfnnfInI µnrfs of fho houso, buf IInInfIff rofusod.
!uIo: If fho µorformnnco wns subsfnnfInIIy comµIofo fhon you cnn suo for fho rofonfIons. If fho work
wns nof subsfnnfIvoIy comµIofod fhon fhoro Is no nbIIIfy fo suo undor fho confrncf.
IInnfo v. Jncobs
Incfs: I confrncfod wIfh Ð fo furnIsh fho mnforInIs nnd consfrucf n houso In nccordnnco wIfh µInco
nnd sµocIfIcnfIons, for fho sum of $26,?65. ÐurIng fho courso of fho consfrucfIon, I wns µnId
$20,000. ÐIsµufos nroso bofwoon fho µnrfIos, fho Ð rofusod fo confInuo µnymonfs nnd I dId nof
comµIofo fho houso.
!uIo: Thoro cnn bo rocovory on fho K bocnuso fhoro wns subsfnnfInI µorformnnco. Tho I shouId
rocovor fho K µrIco Ioss fho dnmngos cnusod by fho Ð
ÐIvIsIb!e und $epuvute 4ntvucts
CIII v. Johnsfown !umbor Co.
Incfs: I ngrood fo drIvo somo four mIIIIon foof of Iogs, nnd fo bogIn drIvIng nf onco, ¨If suffIcIonf
nnfurnI wnfor, or by fho uso of sµInsh dnms.¨ Tho frInI courf dIrocfod vordIcf for fho Johnsfown
Iumbor Co. on fho ground fhnf fho K wns onfIro nnd fhnf fho I dofnuIfod whon n fIood cnrrIod n
consIdornbIo µroµorfIon of fho Iogs µnsf fho Johnsfown !umbor Co.`s boom.
!uIo: Tho courf, In nnnIyzIng fho cnso, wIII Iook nf fho uIfImnfo objocfIvo. SInco fho work consIsfod
of sovornI Ifoms If ronsons fhnf fhIs work wns nµµorfIonod nmong sovornI Ifoms nnd nof nn onfIro
ntIcIput4vy BveucL
Hochsfor v. Ðo !n Tour
Incfs: Cuy Is suµµosod fo work wIfh Ð durIng hIs frIµ. Ð cnncoIs. I suos boforo fho bronch
!uIo: You hnvo fo suo nffor fho K hns boon bronchod
Knnnvos v. Hnncock Innk & Trusf Co.
Incfs: Knnnvos (IInInfIff) nnd Hnncock Innk & Trusf (Ðofondnnf) hnd nn ngroomonf, whIch
µrovIdod IInInfIff wIfh n rIghf of fIrsf rofusnI on shnros of sfock. IInInfIff suod whon Ðofondnnf soId
fho shnros fo n fhIrd µnrfy wIfhouf fIrsf offorIng IInInfIff nn oµµorfunIfy fo µurchnso fhom. Ovor
objocfIons, fho frInI courf ruIod In fnvor of fho IInInfIff. Tho Suµromo JudIcInI Courf of
Mnssnchusoffs romnndod fho cnso fo doformIno whofhor IInInfIff wouId hnvo boon nbIo fo µny for
fho shnros If offorod nn oµµorfunIfy fo µurchnso fhom.
!uIo:YO! hnvo fo µrovo fhnf you woro wIIIIng, rondy nnd nbIo fo µorform If fhoro hndn`f boon n
bronch. ThIs Is cnIIod rIghf of fIrsf rofusnI (boforo wo soII If fo nnyono oIso wo hnvo fo gIvo you fho
rIghf fo buy If fIrsf). If I wnsn`f nbIo fo µorform fhon ho wnsn`f dnmngod.
& 2-609 RIgLt t4 dequute ssuvunce 41 Pev14vmunce ÷ (l) A confrncf for snIo Imµosos nn
obIIgnfIon on onch µnrfy fhnf fho ofhor`s oxµocfnfIon of rocoIvIng duo µorformnnco wIII nof bo
ImµnIrod. Whon ronsonnbIo grounds for InsocurIfy nrIso wIfh rosµocf fo fho µorformnnco of oIfhor
µnrfy fho ofhor mny In wrIfIng domnnd ndoqunfo nssurnnco of duo µorformnnco nnd unfII ho rocoIvos
such nssurnnco mny If commorcInIIy ronsonnbIo susµond nny µorformnnco for whIch ho hns nof
nIrondy rocoIvod fho ngrood rofurn.
IhoIµs v. Horro
Incfs: IhoIµs nnd Horro onforod Info n wrIffon ngroomonf whoro Horro ngrood fo soII nnd IhoIµs
ngrood fo buy frncfIonnI Inforosfs In nnd fo corfnIn ronI µroµorfy nnd corµornfo sfock for fho sum of
$3?,500. IhoIµs wouId µny fho µurchnso µrIco ns foIIows:
O IIvo fhousnnd doIInrs In cnsh on or boforo Jnnunry l, l956.
O A µromIssory nofo In fho nmounf of 32500 cnIIIng for µrIncIµnI µnymonfs In fho nmounf of
5000 µIus Inforosf nf fho rnfo of four µor conf µor nnnum on fho fIrsf of onch succoodIng
Jnnunry nnd fho onfIro bnInnco fo bocomo duo nnd µnynbIo Jnnunry l, l963. Howovor,
IhoIµs nnd Snndsbury (nµµoIInnfs, buyors), mny oxfond fho mnfurIfy dnfo unfII Jnnunry l,
l963, by gIvIng nofIco of InfonfIon fo so oxfond In wrIfIng fo Horro (nµµoIIoo, soIIor) on or
boforo JuIy l, l960.
IhoIµs µnId fho fIrsf ns µrovIdod In fho ngroomonf.
In Soµfombor, l956, Horro (soIIor) frnnsforrod unfo fho nµµoIInnfs fhoIr frncfIonnI Inforosfs In fho
ronI osfnfo nnd corµornfo sfock nnmod In fho K.
Soon fhoronffor, nogofInfIons woro conducfod by fho µnrfIos, whIch hnd ns fhoIr objocfIvo fho snIo fo
fho nµµoIInnfs of nII of fho Inforosfs of fho nµµoIIoos In nII busInoss onforµrIsos whoro fhoro woro
mufunI Inforosfs or n µurchnso by fho nµµoIIoos of fho nµµoIInnfs` Inforosf fhoroIn.
On Ocfobor ll, l956, Horro confonds fhnf fho IhoIµs mndo nn ornI µroµosnI fhnf wns subsoquonfIy
nccoµfod uncondIfIonnIIy by Horro In wrIfIng, fhoroby mnkIng n bIndIng K
Horro nIIogos fhnf fhIs K mnforInIIy chnngod fhoIr obIIgnfIons fhoroundor.
IhoIµs confonds fhnf Horro dId nof nccoµf fho µroµosnI ns mndo by fhom, nnd cInIm fho nccoµfnnco
confnInod n numbor of forms oIfhor In nddIfIon fo or nf vnrInnco wIfh fho ornI offor mndo by fhom;
consoquonfIy fho µurµorfod nccoµfnnco wns no moro fhnn n coufnor µroµosnI, whIch wns nof
nccoµfnbIo fo fhom.
!uIo: AnfIcIµnfory bronch doos nof nµµIy fo monoy Ks.
PveventI4n / 44pevutI4n
Iron Trndo Iroducfs v. WIIkoff Co.
Incfs: Ìron Trade Products Co. (Plaintiff), contracted with Wilkoff Co. (Defendant), for the delivery of
rails at 41 a ton. Wilkoff did not deliver the rails. Plaintiff purchased them from another supplier at a
higher price, and sued for the difference from the contract price. The Supreme Court of
Pennsylvania affirmed judgment for the Plaintiff.
!uIo: Thnf n bnrgnIn furns ouf nof fo bo µrofIfnbIo or onsy fo µorform for ono µnrfy fo fho confrncf
doos nof oxcuso fhnf µnrfy from µorformIng on fho confrncf. ThIs Is n µofonfInI rIsk of doIng busInoss,
nnd courfs wIII nof Inforforo In fhoso mnffors.
Þow IngInnd Sfrucfuros v. !ornngor
Incfs: Whoro fhoro Is no ovIdonco fhnf fho formInnfIng µnrfy ncfod In bnd fnIfh or dIshonosfIy, ho
mny dofond ngnInsf n bronch of confrncf ncfIon by rnIsIng nII grounds ho µossossos for formInnfIng
fho µnrfIos` ngroomonf.
An oxcoµfIon fo fhIs ruIo occurs whoro fho non-formInnfIng µnrfy dofrImonfnIIy roIIos on fho ronsons
sfnfod In fho nofIco of formInnfIon.
!uIo: Whoro fhoro Is no ovIdonco fhnf fho formInnfIng µnrfy ncfod In bnd fnIfh or dIshonosfIy, ho
mny dofond ngnInsf n bronch of confrncf ncfIon by rnIsIng nII grounds ho µossossos for formInnfIng
fho µnrfIos` ngroomonf.
An oxcoµfIon fo fhIs ruIo occurs whoro fho non-formInnfIng µnrfy dofrImonfnIIy roIIos on fho ronsons
sfnfod In fho nofIco of formInnfIon.
RestItutI4n 14v P In de1uu!t
IrIffon v. Turnor
Incfs: ÞlalnLlff conLracLed Lo work for one year for Lhe uefendanL where he would be pald $123Ŧ00 aL
Lhe end of employmenL for servlces renderedŦ 1he conLracL expllclLly sLaLed LhaL paymenL would be
glven aL Lhe end of Lhe yearŦ ÞlalnLlff ceased worklng afLer nlne and a half monLhs and dld noL recelve
any compensaLlon from Lhe uefendanLŦ 1here was no evldence LhaL Lhe uefendanL suffered any
damages as a resulL of ÞlalnLlff's deparLureŦ 1he Lrlal courL held LhaL Lhe ÞlalnLlff was allowed Lo recover
under ls quanLum merulL clalm for Lhe reasonable value of Lhe labor he performed for Lhe uefendanLŦ
uefendanL appealedŦ
!uIo: Confrncf Inw roquIros fhnf n vIcfIm of n bronch bocomo whoIo ngnIn. To dony fho IInInfIff
bonofIfs from workIng wouId bo unfnIr nnd unjusf In Ifs oµornfIon. If fho µnrfy µorforms ovor fho
dnmngos sufforod by fho fnIIuro fo comµIofo sorvIcos, fhoro Is ronson fo µny fho µnrfy for fho
ronsonnbIo worfh fhnf hns boon dono for fho ofhor µnrfy`s bonofIf. Tho µnrfy Is nof roquIrod fo µny
bocnuso ho Is snfIsfIod wIfh fho sorvIcos, buf ho Is roquIrod fo µny bocnuso fho cIrcumsfnncos comµoI
hIm fo nccoµf fho sorvIcos comµIofod. Moroovor, n hIrod Inboror shnII bo onfIfIod fo comµonsnfIon for
sorvIcos µorformod, ovon fhough ho wIII nof confInuo unfII fho ond of fho confrncf form. Thoroforo,
fho IInInfIff cnn rocovor for hIs sorvIcos In qunsI confrncf. Tho nmounf, whIch fho IInInfIff cnn
rocovor, Is fho bonofIf nnd ndvnnfngo fhnf fho µnrfy fnkos from fho Inbor, In ofhor
KIrkInnd v. ArchboId
Incfs: Kirkland (Plaintiff) contracted to make repairs on Archbold's (Defendant's) home. After two
months, Defendant stopped Plaintiff from doing further work, and Plaintiff sued for the difference
between his expenses and the amount already paid by Plaintiff. The trial court found that Plaintiff
defaulted on the contract and denied recovery, and the Court of Appeals of Ohio reversed.
!uIo: Confrncf Inw frowns on unjusf onrIchmonf. !ndor fho fhoory of qunnfum moruIf, n µnrfy Is
onfIfIod fo fho vnIuo of fho work ho hns µorformod for fho bonofIf of nnofhor, ovon If ho hns dofnuIfod
on fho onfIro confrncf.
MIstuke, Imp4ssIbI!Ity, ImpvuctIcubI!Ity und IvustvutI4n
$u!e 41 G44ds: Tw4 Ium4us uses
Wood v. Ioynfon: Tho onIy µossIbIo ground for rocovory Is fhnf fhoro wns n mIsfnko mndo by fho
vondor In doIIvorIng nn nrfIcIo whIch wns nof fho nrfIcIo soId, n mIsfnko In fncf ns fo fho IdonfIfy of
fhIng soId wIfh fho fhIng doIIvorod.
Shorwood v. WnIkor: Tho µrognnnf cow cnso. A bnrron cow Is n subsfnnfInIIy dIfforonf cronfuro fhnn
n broodIng cow.
Known Known
Known !nknown
!nknown unknown
TnyIor v. CnIdwoII
Incfs: MusIc hnII burns fo fho ground nnd Is wnnf monoy bnck for fho monoy fhoy wouId hnvo mndo.
!uIo: If confrncf µorformnnco doµonds on fho confInuod oxIsfonco of n µorson or fhIng, nnd
fhnf µorson or fhIng consos fo oxIsf, µorformnnco mny bo oxcusod for ImµossIbIIIfy of
If fho nnfuro of fho confrncf Is such fhnf fho µnrfIos musf hnvo known nf fho fImo of
confrncfIng fhnf If couId nof bo fuIfIIIod unIoss somo sµocIfIod fhIng confInuod fo oxIsf, If Is
nof n µosIfIvo confrncf, nnd fhoro Is nn ImµIIod condIfIon fhnf fho µnrfIos wIII bo oxcusod
from µorformnnco If fhnf fhIng consos fo oxIsf wIfhouf fnuIf of fho µnrfIos. Howovor, If n
µnrfy gIvos nn oxµross or ImµIIod wnrrnnfy fhnf fhnf fhIng wIII confInuo fo oxIsf, fhnf µnrfy
Is IInbIo for bronch If If consos fo oxIsf.
TrnnsnfInnfIc InnncIng CorµornfIon v. !nIfod Sfnfos
ncfs· TrnnsnfInnfIc InnncIng CorµornfIon confrncfod wIfh fho !nIfod Sfnfos fo shIµ
whonf from Toxns fo Irnn. Tho confrncf sµocIfIod fho dosfInnfIon, buf nof fho roufo. Tho
ordInnry roufo wouId fnko fho TrnnsnfInnfIc fhrough fho Suoz CnnnI. Howovor, duo fo
nrmod confIIcf, fho Suoz CnnnI hnd boon bIockod by Igyµf. TrnnsnfInnfIc fhoroforo
µrocoodod nIong fho roufo nround fho Cnµo of Cood Hoµo. TrnnsnfInnfIc fhon suod fo
rocovor fho nddIfIonnI cosfs of fnkIng fho Iongor roufo.
!uIo· Tho Ð.C. CIrcuIf Courf of AµµonIs sofs forfh n fhroo·µnrf fosf for ImµossIbIIIfy· íl¹
somofhIng unoxµocfod musf hnvo occurrod· í2¹ fho rIsk of fho unoxµocfod occurronco musf
nof hnvo boon nIIocnfod by confrncf or cusfom nnd í3¹ fho unoxµocfod occurronco musf hnvo
rondorod µorformnnco commorcInIIy ImµrncfIcnbIo. Horo, fho fIrsf roquIromonf Is mof. Tho
usunI roufo from Toxns fo Irnn wouId bo fhrough fho Suoz CnnnI nnd Ifs cIosuro wouId bo
unoxµocfod. Socond, fho rIsk doos nof nµµonr fo hnvo boon nIIocnfod In fho ngroomonf or by
cusfom fo ono µnrfy ovor fho ofhor. InnIIy, fho µorformnnco wns nof rondorod
commorcInIIy ImµrncfIcnbIo. WhIIo fho cosf of goIng nround fho Cnµo of Cood Hoµo wns
gronfor fhnn goIng fhrough fho Suoz CnnnI, fhoro wns no Incronsod rIsk fo fho crow or
goods. If Is nof nIwnys fho cnso fhnf cosf nIono mny novor consfIfufo ImµrncfIcnbIIIfy, buf
horo, fho nddod oxµonso Is nof sIgnIfIcnnf. Tho IInInfIff Is nIso In n boffor µosIfIon fo
µurchnso Insurnnco for fhIs confIngoncy ns n commorcInI shIµµor.
MInornI Inrk !nnd v. Hownrd
ncfs· ngrood fo fho Ð`s rIghf fo hnuI grnvoI nnd onrfh from I`s Innd. Tho Ð`s ngrooIng fo
fnko fhorofrom nII of fho grnvoI nnd onrfh nocossnry In fho consfrucfIon of fho fIII nnd
comonf work on fho brIdgo, whIch roquIrod nn osfImnfod ll4,000 cubIc ynrds. Ð ngrood fo
µny 5 confs for l
80,000 ynrds, nnd fho noxf l0,000 froo of chnrgo. Tho rosf wns 5 confs
µor ynrd.
Ð fook onIy 50,l3l cubIc ynrds whIch wns fho onIy µnrf fhnf wns nbovo wnfor IovoI. Þo
gronfor qunnfIfy couId hnvo boon fnkon by ordInnry monns or oxcoµf by fho uso, Ð`s gronf
oxµonso of sµocInI fooIs.
!uIo· Whoro µorformnnco doµonds uµon fho oxIsfonco of n gIvon fhIng, nnd such oxIsfonco
wns nssumod ns fho bnsIs of fho ngroomonf, µorformnnco Is oxcusod fo fho oxfonf fhnf fho
fhIng consos fo oxIsf or furns ouf fo bo nonoxIsfonf.
A fhIng Is ImµossIbIo In IognI confomµInfIon whon If Is nof µrncfIcnbIo· nnd n fhIng Is
ImµrncfIcnbIo whon If cnn onIy bo dono nf nn oxcossIvo nnd unronsonnbIo cosf.
KroII v. Honry
ncfs· Honry ronfod ouf fho Is nµnrfmonf fo wnfch fho coronnfIon µrocossIon of Idwnrd VII. Tho
CoronnfIon dId nof fnko µInco. Honry hnd µnId fho doµosIf buf docIInod fo µny fho bnInnco on fho
!uIo· SInco fho K wns for n µnrfIcuInr µurµoso nnd fhnf µurµoso couId nof bo nchIovod, fho K Is
OtLev PuvtIes
TLIvd Puvty Bene1IcIuvIes
!nwronco v. Iox
Incfs: Holly owed the Plaintiff $300. The Defendant asked to borrow $300 from Holly, and Holly
assented. Ìn exchange for the loan, the Defendant promised to pay $300 to the Plaintiff the next day
to satisfy Holly's debt to the Plaintiff. The Defendant did not pay the Plaintiff and the Plaintiff sued to
recover the benefit promised to him under the contract between Holly and the Defendant.
!uIo: The law is clear "that a promise made to one for the benefit of another, he for whose benefit it
is made may bring an action for its breach.¨ Here, Holly owed money to the Plaintiff and entered into
a contract with the Defendant whereby Holly would loan the Defendant money if the Defendant
agreed to pay the Plaintiff what Holly owed him. This agreement was not lacking in consideration,
because the consideration does not have to be between the Plaintiff and the Defendant. There
simply has to be consideration between the parties to the contract. Hence, the Plaintiff can maintain
this action against the Defendant.
Seaver v. Ransom
Facts: Mrs. Beman was near death and had her husband, udge Beman, draft a will that, among
other things, provided that udge Beman would receive her house for life with the remainder to the
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Before her death, Mrs. Beman changed
her mind and instead wanted the house to go to the Plaintiff, a niece, after her husband's death. Mrs.
Beman was too weak to wait for the preparation of another will and signed the one already drafted
upon the promise from udge Beman that he would leave the Plaintiff enough in his will to make up
the difference. Upon his death, it was discovered that udge Beman did not change his will for the
benefit of the Plaintiff. The Plaintiff subsequently initiated this suit to enforce the promise made by
udge Beman to his wife.
Rule: Equitable principles require that the contract be enforced against the estate. The contract
made between Mrs. Beman and udge Beman for the Plaintiff to receive the house upon the udge
Beman's death binds the estate to perform on that promise. This complies with the general doctrine
that any third person, for whose direct benefit a contract was intended, could sue on it. Therefore,
the Plaintiff may enforce the contract made for her benefit.
!ucns v. Hnmm
Incfs:IInInfIffs, Infondod bonofIcInrIos of fho wIII of Iugono ImmIck, broughf n mnIµrncfIco ncfIon
ngnInsf Ðofondnnf, fho Inw fIrm !.S. Hnmm, for µroµnrIng n wIII wIfh n µrovIsIon fhnf wns hoId fo
vIoInfIong fho !uIo AgnInsf IorµofuIfIos. ThIs nIIogod nogIIgonco doµrIvod fhom of fho µrocoods from
n rosIdunI frusf, nnd fhoy broughf n mnIµrncfIco ncfIon ngnInsf Ðofondnnf whIch wns dIsmIssod by
fho Iowor courf. IInInfIffs now nµµonI.
!uIo: AIfhough Ðofondnnf hnd n dufy fo fho Infondod bonofIcInrIos ns woII ns fho cIIonf, buf ho
shouId nof bo IInbIo for hIs ronsonnbIo mIsfnko rognrdIng fho !uIo AgnInsf IorµofuIfIos.
ssIgnment und Ðe!egutI4n
IrIfIsh Wnggon v. !on
Ovu! 4ntvucts
NY Genevu! Ob!IgutI4n Iuw 5?01
NY Genevu! Ob!IgutI4n Iuw 5?03
& 2-201

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