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LAST NAME: FIRST NAME: SIGNATURE:

____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________

STUDENT ID#: ____________________________

Course: CHEMISTRY

Number: 205/2

Section: 01, 02 and 51

Instructors: G. Dns, G. Kos, C.W. Rogers Examination: Final Date: 6th December, 2008 Time: 09:00 - 12:00 # of pages: 7

Materials Allowed: A data sheet and periodic table are attached to this paper - no other materials are allowed. You may tear off the data sheet and periodic table if you wish. Calculators Allowed: Yes (But NO OTHER ELECTRONICS are allowed, except a wrist-watch.) Special Instructions:

PLEASE READ THIS PAGE WHILE YOU WAIT TO START.


Check that your exam has 7 pages (p.1-14, double-sided). Write your ID # on all pages. Read all questions carefully BEFORE starting the exam, and answer ALL questions. This exam contains three sections. Please read the instructions for each section carefully. Write answers to Section I (multiple choice) on the computer-gradable form provided. Write answers to Sections II & III on the exam paper (use backs of pages for rough work). Show your work for all calculation questions, or you will NOT get full marks. PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU NEED CLARIFICATION.

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 2

Section I. The following 20 questions are multiple choice, worth 2 marks each. There is only ONE correct choice for each question. You may do rough work on your exam paper, but it will not be marked. You must mark your answers using a soft pencil on the computer-gradable answer form provided. Do not forget to mark your name and student number (your birth date is not required). 1. An electronic balance is used to determine the mass of a sample of NaCl crystals. If 25.717 g of NaCl is weighed on an instrument with a precision of 1 mg, what is the correct number of significant figures for this measurement? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 5 2. Which of the following statements is not true about the periodic table? a. It collects elements together as non-metals (groups 1-6), metals (7-12) and metalloids (13-18). b. It is helps us remember trends in atom sizes, electronegativities and valence electrons. c. It is a representation of the periodicity of properties within groups. d. It lists elements with increasing atomic number. e. It lists similarly behaving elements in periods. 3. Which of the following elements will have the largest mass, if you provide exactly 1 mole of this element? a. Phosphorus b. Bromine c. Calcium d. Copper e. Silicon 4. Which of the following statements is a basic definition of chemical change? a. Chemical change involves a change in the total number of atoms in the sample. b. Chemical change involves a change in the interactions between the molecules. c. Chemical change involves a change in the organization of the molecules. d. Chemical change involves a change in the identity of the substance(s). e. Chemical change involves a change of state. 5. What is the stoichiometric coefficient for oxygen when the following equation is balanced (using whole-number coefficients)? (Unbalanced) NH3(g) + O2(g) NO2(g) + H2O(g) a. b. c. d. e. 3 6 7 12 14

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 3

6. Which of the following statements is true for barium chloride, BaCl2 ? a. BaCl2 is a heterogeneous mixture of Ba(s) and Cl2(s). b. BaCl2 is a homogeneous mixture of Ba(s) and Cl2(s). c. BaCl2 is a molecular compound. d. BaCl2 is an ionic compound. e. All of the above are false. 7. Which of the statements below summarizes J.J. Thomsons hypothesis on atomic structure? a. Chemical reactions involve the reorganization of atoms but the atoms themselves are unchanged. b. Electrons occupy 3-dimensional orbitals around the nucleus, which vary in energy and shape. c. A dense, positively charged nucleus is surrounded by negatively charged electrons. d. Atoms are not indivisible, because some can disintegrate and emit radiation. e. Electrons are distributed evenly in a spherical cloud of positive charges. 8. Which one of the following statements correctly describes a reactions spectator ions? a. They are ions that precipitate out of the solution as a solid during the reaction. b. They are freely dissociated ions that are not consumed during the reaction. c. They are excess reactants that are not consumed during the reaction. d. They limit the amount of product that is formed during the reaction. e. They are included in the reactions net ionic equation. 9. Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide and copper(II) chloride are mixed together. Which statement correctly summarizes what happens? a. Both NaCl and CuS precipitate from solution. b. NaCl precipitates from solution. c. CuS precipitates from solution. d. No precipitate forms. e. No reaction occurs. 10. All three of the reactions shown below can be classified as: 2 Al(s) + 3 Br2(l) 2 AlBr3(s) 2 Ag2O(s) 4 Ag(s) + O2(g) CH4(l) + 2 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) a. oxidation-reduction reactions. b. precipitation reactions. c. gas-forming reactions. d. combustion reactions. e. acid-base reactions. 11. What mass of calcium chloride, CaCl2, is needed to prepare 2.850 L of a 1.56 M solution? a. 25.9 g b. 60.8 g c. 111 g d. 203 g e. 493 g

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 4

12. Using Bohrs model of the hydrogen atom, give the starting orbit number for an electron moving to the nearest orbit (higher or lower) that results in the emission of the radiation having the shortest possible wavelength. a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 13. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding electromagnetic radiation? a. The energy of ultraviolet radiation is larger than that of infrared radiation. b. The wavelength of radiowaves is shorter than that of infrared radiation. c. The wavelength of radiowaves is larger than that of visible light. d. The frequency of red light is lower than that of blue light. e. The energy of gamma-rays is larger than that of X-rays. 14. Which of the following values below is equal to the number of nodal surfaces an orbital has that slice through the nucleus of the atom? a. Angular momentum quantum number, l b. Electron spin quantum number, ms c. Magnetic quantum number, ml d. Principal quantum number, n e. (2l + 1) 15. Which of the following is the observed valence electron configuration for copper, Cu? a. [Ar] 3d9 4s1 4p1 b. [Ar] 3d10 4s2 c. [Ar] 3d10 4p2 d. [Ar] 3d10 4s1 e. [Ar] 3d9 4s2 16. Use the orbital box notation for the following elements and determine which ones, present as single atoms, would give rise to paramagnetism: N, Zn, Ar, Co, Ca a. only Zn, Co and Ca b. only Zn, Ar and Ca c. only N and Co d. only N and Ar e. all of them 17. Which of the following atoms has the highest electron affinity? a. Li b. Be c. B d. C e. N

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 5

18. Which ONE of the following statements is true about bond strength? a. The same types of atoms bonded via the same bond order will have similar bond strengths. b. Any types of atoms bonded via the same bond order will have similar bond strengths. c. Bond strength is the energy required to break an ionic compound into neutral atoms. d. Bond strength is the energy required to break an ionic compound into its ions. e. Shorter bonds are always stronger than longer bonds. 19. Which of the following laws / hypotheses showed that there must a minimum possible temperature (which gave rise to the absolute temperature scale)? a. Daltons law of partial pressures b. Avogadros hypothesis c. Charless law d. Ideal gas law e. Boyles law 20. Which of the following conditions would make a gas have close to ideal behaviour? a. Large, highly polar molecules at low temperature b. High pressure and high temperature c. Low pressure and high temperature d. High pressure and low temperature e. Low pressure and low temperature

You may use the rest of this page for rough work.

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 6

Section II. The following 6 questions (#21-26) require short answers and should be answered in the space provided on this paper. 21. (3 marks) Provide the missing name or formula for each substance below: NaNO2 SO2 TiCl2 __________________ __________________ __________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ dinitrogen tetraoxide potassium chlorate calcium nitrate

22. (6 marks) A few hydrogen and oxygen molecules are introduced into a container in the quantities depicted in the diagram below. These gases are then ignited by a spark, causing them to react to form water vapour.
Note: = H2 = O2

a) (1 mark) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

b) (3 marks) Determine the maximum number of water molecules that can be formed from our sample of hydrogen and oxygen. Explain briefly.

c) (2 marks) In the empty box above, draw a molecular level representation (like the diagram given) of the containers contents after the reaction.

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 7

23. (4 marks) Use the position of chlorine in the periodic table to explain whether it is a strong reducing agent or a strong oxidizing agent. Provide one example of a balanced equation that illustrates this behaviour.

24. (5 marks) When SO3 gains two electrons, SO32 forms. a) (4 marks) Which picture (A-D) below best illustrates the change in molecular geometry around S? Explain your choice. SO3 A SO32

B C D

b) (1 mark) Does the molecular polarity change during this reaction? Explain briefly.

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 8

25. (8 marks) For each of the diagrams below, mark in all the missing lonepairs and formal charges where appropriate. Do not change the number of bonds, and respect the charges on the species shown to their left. Supply the information requested in the right-hand column. Charge Lewis Structure

(a) Electron pair (basic) geometry zero (b) Molecular (observed) geometry (c) Xenon hybridization

(a) Total number of equivalent structures including this one. 2 (b) Average phosphorus oxygen bond order (c) Average charge on oxygen

26. (4 marks) The molecule tetracyanoethylene has been used in attempts to synthesize organic superconducting materials. Its structure is shown below. a) How many sigma () bonds does it contain (in total)? b) How many pi () bonds does it contain (in total)? c) Is this molecule polar, or non-polar? d) Sketch how two p-orbitals overlap to form a - bond.

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 9

Section III. Answer the following 2 problems (#27-28) on the exam paper, with complete written answers including calculations. Be sure to provide adequate explanations or details to justify your answers. Use the backs of the pages if you need more space. 27. (10 marks) Caffeine, a stimulant found in coffee, tea, and energy drinks, contains C, H, O, and N. Combustion of 1.000 mg of caffeine produces 1.813 mg CO2, 0.4639 mg H2O, and 0.2885 mg N2. Calculate the molecular formula of caffeine, whose molar mass lies between 150 and 200 g/mol.

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 10

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 11

28. (10 marks) Lakes that have been acidified by acid rain (HNO3 and H2SO4) can be neutralized by a process called liming, in which limestone (CaCO3) is added to the lake. The reactions involved are: 2 HNO3(aq) + CaCO3(s) CO2(g) + H2O(l) + Ca(NO3)2(aq) H2SO4(aq) + CaCO3(s) CO2(g) + H2O(l) + CaSO4(aq) a) (2 marks) What type of reaction are these (circle all that apply)? precipitation, acid-base, oxidation-reduction, gas-forming b) (8 marks) What mass of limestone (in kg) would be required to completely neutralize a 15.2billion litre lake (15.2109 L) that is 1.8105 M in H2SO4 and 8.7106 M in HNO3?

ID Number ______________________ Use this page for rough work, or if you run out of space.

Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 12

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Chem 205 Fall 2008 Final Exam Sections 01, 02 & 51 - p. 13

POTENTIALLY USEFUL INFORMATION


Atomic mass unit Avogadros number Definition of Joule Definition of Pascal Gas constant Plancks constant Pressure units Rydberg constant Speed of light 1 amu = 1.6605410 27 kg N = 6.02210 23 mol-1 1 J = 1 kgm 2s 2 1 Pa = 1 kgm1s 2 R = 0.08206 Latmmol1K1 = 8.314 Jmol1K1 h = 6.62610 34 Js 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 1.01325 bar R = 1.097410 7 m1 c = 2.997910 8 ms1

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Periodic Table of the Elements


13
5 6 7 8

18 2

H 14 C
12.01 14 15

1.008

2 B
10.81 13

15 N
14.007

16 O
15.999 16

17
9

He
4.00 10

Li

Be

F
18.998 17

Ne
20.18 18

6.941

9.012

11

12

Na 4
26.98 31 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Mg 5 V
50.94 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39

22.99

24.31

3 Ti
47.87 40

6 Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga
69.72 49

10

11

12

Al

Si
28.09 32

P
30.97 33

S
32.07 34

Cl
35.45 35

Ar
39.95 36

19

20

21

Ca

Sc

Ge
72.61 50

As
74.92 51

Se
78.96 52

Br
79.90 53

Kr
83.80 54

39.10

40.08

44.96

37

38

39

Rb
91.22 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 92.91 95.94 (97.91) 101.07 102.91 106.42 107.87

Sr

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd
112.41 80

In
114.82 81

Sn
118.71 82

Sb
121.76 83

Te
127.60 84

I
126.90 85

Xe
131.29 86

85.47

87.62

88.91

55

56

Cs
178.49 104 105 106 107 108 109 180.95 183.84 186.21 190.2 192.22 195.08

Ba

La-Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt

Au
196.97

Hg
200.59

Tl
204.38

Pb
207.2

Bi
208.98

Po
208.98

At
209.99

Rn
222.02

132.91

137.33

87

88

Fr
(261) (262) (263) (262) (265) (266)

Ra

Ac-Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt

223

226.03

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

La
140.12 90 91 92 140.91 144.24

Ce

Pr

Nd

Pm
(145) 93

Sm
150.35 94

Eu
151.97 95

Gd
157.25 96

Tb
158.93 97

Dy
162.50 98

Ho
164.93 99

Er
167.26 100

Tm
168.93 101

Yb
173.04 102

Lu
174.97 103

138.91

89

Ac
232.04 231.04

Th

Pa

U
238.03

Np
(237)

Pu
(245)

Am
(243)

Cm
(247)

Bk
(247)

Cf
(251)

Es
(252)

Fm
(257)

Md
(258)

No
(259)

Lr
(260)

227.03