# MAT 325: Topology

Professor Zoltan Szabo
Problem Set 6
Rik Sengupta
rsengupt@princeton.edu
March 30, 2010
1. Munkres, p. 199, problem 3
Show that every order topology is regular.
Solution. We ﬁrst prove that every order topology is Hausdorﬀ. So let (X, ≤) be a simply
ordered set. Let X be equipped with the order topology induced by the simple order. Fur-
thermore, let a and b be two distinct points in X, and suppose without loss of generality that
a < b. Let
A = {x ∈ X : a < x < b},
i.e. the set of elements between a and b. So now, if A is empty, then a ∈ (−∞, b), b ∈ (a, ∞),
and (−∞, b) ∩ (a, ∞) = ∅, and so X is Hausdorﬀ. If A is nonempty, then a ∈ (−∞, x),
b ∈ (x, ∞), and (−∞, x) ∩ (x, ∞) = ∅ for any x ∈ A, and therefore, X is Hausdorﬀ.
So in particular, single points in X are closed. Suppose now that x ∈ X, and A is a closed set,
disjoint from x. Then, there exists a basis element (a, b) containing x which is disjoint from
A. So pick any a

∈ (a, x), and let U
1
= (−∞, a

), V
1
= (a

, ∞). If no such a

exists, then
let U
1
= (−∞, x), V
1
= (a, ∞). Exactly as before, in both cases, the pair of sets is disjoint.
Similarly, try to ﬁnd b

∈ (x, b), and if that exists, let U
2
= (b

, ∞), V
2
= (−∞, b

), and if
not, let U
2
= (x, ∞), V
2
= (−∞, b). Again, these are disjoint, meaning that U = U
1
∪ U
2
and V = V
1
∪ V
2
are disjoint. Furthermore, x ∈ V and A ⊂ U, and so, X is regular, thereby
completing the proof.
2. Munkres, p. 199, problem 4
Let X and X

denote a single set under two topologies T and T

, respectively; assume that
T

⊃ T . If one of the spaces is Hausdorﬀ (or regular, or normal), what does that imply about
the other?
Solution. If X is Hausdorﬀ, then so is X

: the same neighbourhoods that are disjoint for two
distinct points p and q in X still work for X

.
If X

is Hausdorﬀ then X need not be so as well: consider the Sierpinski topology {{0}, ∅, {0, 1}}
on {0, 1} as X and the discrete one as X

, for instance.
For regularity this trick does not work: X

also has diﬀerent closed sets from X. So we don’t
have any implications: take any non-regular or non-normal topology as X and let X

be the
discrete one (normal and regular). This shows that a nice X

The other way round is taken care of by the example: X is R with the usual topology, X

is
the R
k
-topology, which is not regular (and hence not normal), but X is.
1
3. Munkres, p. 205, problem 1
Show that a closed subspace of a normal space is normal.
Solution. Suppose X is normal and Y is a closed subset of X. Let A and B be two closed
sets in Y . Then, A and B must each be the intersection of Y with closed sets in X, and so
each of them must also be closed. Since X is normal, there are open, disjoint U, V such that
A ⊂ U, B ⊂ V . Thus, U ∩ Y and V ∩ Y are open in Y and separate A and B.
4. Munkres, p. 205, problem 3
Show that every locally compact Hausdorﬀ space is regular.
Solution. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space. Then, X satisﬁes all the conditions
necessary for one-point compactiﬁcation. That is, there exists a compact Hausdorﬀ set Y
containing X as a subspace. In particular, Y is normal. Therefore, Y is completely regular.
The space X is completely regular as a subspace of a completely regular space.
5. Munkres, p. 205, problem 4
Show that every regular Lindel¨of space is normal.
Solution. Let A and B be closed subsets of a regular Lindel¨of space X. We must show that
A and B can be separated by disjoint open sets. Since X is regular, we know that for each
a ∈ A, there is an open neighborhood U
a
of a such that U
a
⊂ B
c
. Symmetrically, for each
b ∈ B, there is an open neighborhood V
b
of b such that V
b
⊂ A
c
. The set A is covered by U
a
and B is covered by V
b
. We also know that the set X −(A∪B) together with the sets U
a
and
V
b
cover X. The Lindel¨of condition guarantees that there is a countable subcover of X, and
hence, a countable subcover of A and B. We denote these covers by U
1
, U
2
, . . ., and V
1
, V
2
, . . ..
Now, we deﬁne
W
1
= U
1
∩ V
1
c
Y
1
= V
1
∩ U
1
c
W
2
= U
2
∩ (V
1
c
∩ V
2
c
) Y
2
= V
2
∩ (U
1
c
∩ U
2
c
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
W
k
= U
k

_
k

i=1
V
i
c
_
Y
k
= V
k

_
k

i=1
U
i
c
_
.
.
.
.
.
.
Let W = ∪

i=1
W
i
and Y =

j=1
Y
j
. We make the following observations:
• Each set W
i
and Y
j
is open as a ﬁnite intersection of open sets.
• W and Y are open as a union of open sets.
• A ⊂ W and B ⊂ Y .
To see this, we note that by construction, U
i
∩ A ⊂ W
i
for each i. Hence, the sets W
i
cover A. Thus, A ⊂ W. Similarly, B ⊂ Y .
• W ∩ Y = ∅.
To see this, we prove that W
m
∩Y
n
= ∅ for every m, n. If we write W
m
= U
m

_
m
i=1
V
i
_
,
then we see that if W
m
∩ Y
n
is nonempty, then n > m. However, writing Y
n
= V
n

_

n
j=1
U
j
_
allows us to see that if W
m
∩ Y
n
is nonempty, then m > n. This situation is
impossible from trichotomy, and hence, W
m
∩ Y
n
= ∅. Therefore, W ∩ Y = ∅.
Thus, we have constructed disjoint open sets W and Y containing A and B respectively.
Therefore, X is normal.
2

. Thus. Suppose X is normal and Y is a closed subset of X. . Therefore. Yj . . there is an open neighborhood Ua of a such that Ua ⊂ B c . Solution. Munkres. A ⊂ W . The set A is covered by Ua and B is covered by Vb . p. Munkres. Solution. problem 3 Show that every locally compact Hausdorﬀ space is regular. Let W = ∪∞ Wi and Y = i=1 ∞ j=1 . • W and Y are open as a union of open sets. we have constructed disjoint open sets W and Y containing A and B respectively. Then. X satisﬁes all the conditions necessary for one-point compactiﬁcation. Therefore. . The space X is completely regular as a subspace of a completely regular space. Munkres. there exists a compact Hausdorﬀ set Y containing X as a subspace. for each b ∈ B. V2 . problem 4 Show that every regular Lindel¨f space is normal. V such that A ⊂ U . U2 . .3. . then m > n. . then n > m. and so each of them must also be closed. and V1 . W ∩ Y = ∅. . We make the following observations: • Each set Wi and Yj is open as a ﬁnite intersection of open sets. U ∩ Y and V ∩ Y are open in Y and separate A and B. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space. p. In particular. However. we note that by construction. a countable subcover of A and B. there are open. B ⊂ Y . n. k Y2 = V2 ∩ (U1 ∩ U2 ) . m To see this. k Wk = Uk ∩ i=1 Vi c Yk = Vk ∩ i=1 Ui c . The Lindel¨f condition guarantees that there is a countable subcover of X. p. . Y is completely regular. Hence. We must show that o A and B can be separated by disjoint open sets. • A ⊂ W and B ⊂ Y . Symmetrically. Thus. X is normal. Let A and B be closed subsets of a regular Lindel¨f space X. Then. we deﬁne c c c c c c W1 = U1 ∩ V1 Y1 = V1 ∩ U1 W2 = U2 ∩ (V1 ∩ V2 ) . . We denote these covers by U1 . We also know that the set X − (A ∪ B) together with the sets Ua and Vb cover X. A and B must each be the intersection of Y with closed sets in X. there is an open neighborhood Vb of b such that Vb ⊂ Ac . • W ∩ Y = ∅. the sets Wi cover A. Thus. This situation is impossible from trichotomy. we prove that Wm ∩Yn = ∅ for every m. B ⊂ V . problem 1 Show that a closed subspace of a normal space is normal. disjoint U. . 5. Since X is regular. Ui ∩ A ⊂ Wi for each i. 2 . . 205. then we see that if Wm ∩ Yn is nonempty. writing Yn = Vn − n j=1 Uj allows us to see that if Wm ∩ Yn is nonempty. and hence. and o hence. If we write Wm = Um − i=1 Vi . . o Solution.. Y is normal. 4. That is. 205. we know that for each a ∈ A.. Wm ∩ Yn = ∅. 205. To see this. Since X is normal. Now. Let A and B be two closed sets in Y . Similarly. Therefore. .