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# MAT 325: Topology

**Professor Zoltan Szabo
**

Problem Set 6

Rik Sengupta

rsengupt@princeton.edu

March 30, 2010

1. Munkres, p. 199, problem 3

Show that every order topology is regular.

Solution. We ﬁrst prove that every order topology is Hausdorﬀ. So let (X, ≤) be a simply

ordered set. Let X be equipped with the order topology induced by the simple order. Fur-

thermore, let a and b be two distinct points in X, and suppose without loss of generality that

a < b. Let

A = {x ∈ X : a < x < b},

i.e. the set of elements between a and b. So now, if A is empty, then a ∈ (−∞, b), b ∈ (a, ∞),

and (−∞, b) ∩ (a, ∞) = ∅, and so X is Hausdorﬀ. If A is nonempty, then a ∈ (−∞, x),

b ∈ (x, ∞), and (−∞, x) ∩ (x, ∞) = ∅ for any x ∈ A, and therefore, X is Hausdorﬀ.

So in particular, single points in X are closed. Suppose now that x ∈ X, and A is a closed set,

disjoint from x. Then, there exists a basis element (a, b) containing x which is disjoint from

A. So pick any a

∈ (a, x), and let U

1

= (−∞, a

), V

1

= (a

, ∞). If no such a

exists, then

let U

1

= (−∞, x), V

1

= (a, ∞). Exactly as before, in both cases, the pair of sets is disjoint.

Similarly, try to ﬁnd b

**∈ (x, b), and if that exists, let U
**

2

= (b

, ∞), V

2

= (−∞, b

), and if

not, let U

2

= (x, ∞), V

2

= (−∞, b). Again, these are disjoint, meaning that U = U

1

∪ U

2

and V = V

1

∪ V

2

are disjoint. Furthermore, x ∈ V and A ⊂ U, and so, X is regular, thereby

completing the proof.

2. Munkres, p. 199, problem 4

Let X and X

denote a single set under two topologies T and T

**, respectively; assume that
**

T

**⊃ T . If one of the spaces is Hausdorﬀ (or regular, or normal), what does that imply about
**

the other?

Solution. If X is Hausdorﬀ, then so is X

**: the same neighbourhoods that are disjoint for two
**

distinct points p and q in X still work for X

.

If X

**is Hausdorﬀ then X need not be so as well: consider the Sierpinski topology {{0}, ∅, {0, 1}}
**

on {0, 1} as X and the discrete one as X

, for instance.

For regularity this trick does not work: X

**also has diﬀerent closed sets from X. So we don’t
**

have any implications: take any non-regular or non-normal topology as X and let X

be the

discrete one (normal and regular). This shows that a nice X

**says nothing about X.
**

The other way round is taken care of by the example: X is R with the usual topology, X

is

the R

k

-topology, which is not regular (and hence not normal), but X is.

1

3. Munkres, p. 205, problem 1

Show that a closed subspace of a normal space is normal.

Solution. Suppose X is normal and Y is a closed subset of X. Let A and B be two closed

sets in Y . Then, A and B must each be the intersection of Y with closed sets in X, and so

each of them must also be closed. Since X is normal, there are open, disjoint U, V such that

A ⊂ U, B ⊂ V . Thus, U ∩ Y and V ∩ Y are open in Y and separate A and B.

4. Munkres, p. 205, problem 3

Show that every locally compact Hausdorﬀ space is regular.

Solution. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space. Then, X satisﬁes all the conditions

necessary for one-point compactiﬁcation. That is, there exists a compact Hausdorﬀ set Y

containing X as a subspace. In particular, Y is normal. Therefore, Y is completely regular.

The space X is completely regular as a subspace of a completely regular space.

5. Munkres, p. 205, problem 4

Show that every regular Lindel¨of space is normal.

Solution. Let A and B be closed subsets of a regular Lindel¨of space X. We must show that

A and B can be separated by disjoint open sets. Since X is regular, we know that for each

a ∈ A, there is an open neighborhood U

a

of a such that U

a

⊂ B

c

. Symmetrically, for each

b ∈ B, there is an open neighborhood V

b

of b such that V

b

⊂ A

c

. The set A is covered by U

a

and B is covered by V

b

. We also know that the set X −(A∪B) together with the sets U

a

and

V

b

cover X. The Lindel¨of condition guarantees that there is a countable subcover of X, and

hence, a countable subcover of A and B. We denote these covers by U

1

, U

2

, . . ., and V

1

, V

2

, . . ..

Now, we deﬁne

W

1

= U

1

∩ V

1

c

Y

1

= V

1

∩ U

1

c

W

2

= U

2

∩ (V

1

c

∩ V

2

c

) Y

2

= V

2

∩ (U

1

c

∩ U

2

c

)

.

.

.

.

.

.

W

k

= U

k

∩

_

k

i=1

V

i

c

_

Y

k

= V

k

∩

_

k

i=1

U

i

c

_

.

.

.

.

.

.

Let W = ∪

∞

i=1

W

i

and Y =

∞

j=1

Y

j

. We make the following observations:

• Each set W

i

and Y

j

is open as a ﬁnite intersection of open sets.

• W and Y are open as a union of open sets.

• A ⊂ W and B ⊂ Y .

To see this, we note that by construction, U

i

∩ A ⊂ W

i

for each i. Hence, the sets W

i

cover A. Thus, A ⊂ W. Similarly, B ⊂ Y .

• W ∩ Y = ∅.

To see this, we prove that W

m

∩Y

n

= ∅ for every m, n. If we write W

m

= U

m

−

_

m

i=1

V

i

_

,

then we see that if W

m

∩ Y

n

is nonempty, then n > m. However, writing Y

n

= V

n

−

_

n

j=1

U

j

_

allows us to see that if W

m

∩ Y

n

is nonempty, then m > n. This situation is

impossible from trichotomy, and hence, W

m

∩ Y

n

= ∅. Therefore, W ∩ Y = ∅.

Thus, we have constructed disjoint open sets W and Y containing A and B respectively.

Therefore, X is normal.

2

. Thus. Suppose X is normal and Y is a closed subset of X. . Therefore. Yj . . there is an open neighborhood Ua of a such that Ua ⊂ B c . Solution. Munkres. A ⊂ W . The set A is covered by Ua and B is covered by Vb . p. Munkres. Solution. problem 3 Show that every locally compact Hausdorﬀ space is regular. Let W = ∪∞ Wi and Y = i=1 ∞ j=1 . • W and Y are open as a union of open sets. we have constructed disjoint open sets W and Y containing A and B respectively. Then. X satisﬁes all the conditions necessary for one-point compactiﬁcation. Therefore. . The space X is completely regular as a subspace of a completely regular space. Munkres. there exists a compact Hausdorﬀ set Y containing X as a subspace. for each b ∈ B. V2 . problem 4 Show that every regular Lindel¨f space is normal. V such that A ⊂ U . U2 . .3. . then m > n. . then n > m. and so each of them must also be closed. and V1 . W ∩ Y = ∅. . We make the following observations: • Each set Wi and Yj is open as a ﬁnite intersection of open sets. U ∩ Y and V ∩ Y are open in Y and separate A and B. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space. p. In particular. However. we note that by construction. a countable subcover of A and B. there are open. B ⊂ Y . n. k Y2 = V2 ∩ (U1 ∩ U2 ) . m To see this. k Wk = Uk ∩ i=1 Vi c Yk = Vk ∩ i=1 Ui c . The Lindel¨f condition guarantees that there is a countable subcover of X. p. . Y is completely regular. Hence. We must show that o A and B can be separated by disjoint open sets. • A ⊂ W and B ⊂ Y . Symmetrically. Thus. X is normal. Let A and B be closed subsets of a regular Lindel¨f space X. Then. we deﬁne c c c c c c W1 = U1 ∩ V1 Y1 = V1 ∩ U1 W2 = U2 ∩ (V1 ∩ V2 ) . . We denote these covers by U1 . We also know that the set X − (A ∪ B) together with the sets Ua and Vb cover X. A and B must each be the intersection of Y with closed sets in X. there is an open neighborhood Vb of b such that Vb ⊂ Ac . • W ∩ Y = ∅. the sets Wi cover A. Thus. This situation is impossible from trichotomy. we prove that Wm ∩Yn = ∅ for every m. B ⊂ V . problem 1 Show that a closed subspace of a normal space is normal. disjoint U. . 5. Since X is regular. Ui ∩ A ⊂ Wi for each i. 2 . . 205. then we see that if Wm ∩ Yn is nonempty. writing Yn = Vn − n j=1 Uj allows us to see that if Wm ∩ Yn is nonempty. and hence. and o hence. If we write Wm = Um − i=1 Vi . . o Solution.. Y is normal. 4. That is. 205. we know that for each a ∈ A.. Wm ∩ Yn = ∅. 205. To see this. Since X is normal. Now. Let A and B be two closed sets in Y . Similarly. Therefore. .