Submitted to Dr Seema Jilani

Environment project
Noise pollution in textile industry

By: Abeer Anwaar and Rijah Sarah
5/7/2010

We would like to thank her for being so kind and generous through out her teaching period. SEEMA JILANI because without her we wont be able to complete this report as she had delivered her knowledge in a way that was very easy for us to understand and also for her kind. 2| Page . gracious and helpful attitude which she had shown on various moments.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to acknowledge our course instructor Dr.

spinning .TABLE OF CONTENTS 1) 2) 3) 4) 4. 3) 5) 6) 7) Introduction Noise pollution Effects of noise pollution on health Level of noise in textile machineries Yarn production Weaving and knitting Stitching Noise level in textile industry (texturizing. 1) 4. weaving and stitching) Remedial measures References 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7to 8 9 3| Page . 2) 4.

The effects of noise pollution are just like a slow poison that slowly affects the human capabilities of listening. There is no doubt that it has adverse effect on human beings.000 dyes and chemicals are used and a significant quantity of these goes in the solid. at 1000 Hz at the threshold of hearing which is given as 20 micro Pascal’s. thereby impart pollution of air. It is estimated that there are around 12. processing and finishing. and their surroundings. The ISO defines noise intensity level [2] as: L = 20 log10 (P / P0) = 10 log10 (I / I0) (1) Where. Low-pitched sound of high intensity level (decibel count) could not be judged by the human ear to be particularly loud. Noise pollution contributes to a larger extent in Textile Industry. Textile concept is emerged to facilitate eco-management in textile arena.INTRODUCTION: Textile industry contributes 52% of export. Starting from cotton cultivation and manufacturing of fibers’. learning and communicating.500 textile processing units wherein the requirement of water ranges from 10 liters’ with an average of 100 liters per kg. more than 14. spinning. The sound does not get perceived by the human ear in the same manner over the whole audible frequency range. It produces over 800 million meters of cloth and around 1500 million kg of yarn per annum. Textile sector is labor intensive and nearly a million of employees are associated in different unit operations of about 700 mills. world has become more ecology consciousness and thus green. Towards the end of 20th century. liquid and air wastes. Textile wet processing activity contributes about 70% of pollution in textile industry. weaving. I is the sound intensity level being measured and I0 is the reference sound intensity at 1000 Hz at the threshold of hearing and is given by 10-12 W/m2. NOISE POLLUTION: Noise is one of the most pervasive environmental problems. Similarly. the 4| Page . land and surface water. P and P0 are the sound pressures of the noise present at a place and the reference sound pressure.

increased mechanization results in increased noise levels. according to the design. Noise levels of 100 to 120 dB must be expected in weaving rooms. WEAVING AND KNITTING Although con siderable progress has been made in the weaving sector over the last 20 years. Operation of textile machines carries a high risk of hearing loss. 5| Page . closely associated with it. EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION ON HEALTH: • • • • • • • • Respiratory modification Gastrointestinal Endocrine stimulation Galvanic skin resistance alteration Permanent or temporary hearing loss Increased human annoyance Communication interference resulting in reduced worker’s efficiency Heart ailments LEVEL OF NOISE IN TEXTILE MACHINERIES: YARN PRODUCTION Because of high spindle speeds reached on new machines (ring spindles up to 20000 rpm.000 cycles per second. In industry. although many animals such as dog have been able to detect these sounds. and to avoid this special vibration absorbers are now provided. vibration coming from looms. fitting. fabric structure. type. rotor up to 110000 rpm) spinning mills can generally be assumed to generate a great deal of noise. erection and number of looms used. The vibration transmitted from the running looms to the building can. However. The evaluation of textile worker’s noise induced hearing loss was reported elsewhere in the literature. under certain circumstances. building type and size etc. cause a nuisance to the local population and damage to nearby buildings. the whole area of noise nuisance and.human ear has been incapable of perceiving vibrations of a frequency much above 20. cause major problems. Noise levels of 70 to 100 dB are commonly recorded in workrooms.

While the standards defined by the National environmental Quality Standards are as under: 6| Page .20 Texturizing section 94. These Noise Level Estimation result gave us an in-depth understanding of the wastes and industrial pollution being generated by the textile industries of Pakistan specifically. SPINNING . reducing workers’ noise to below 80 dba. Typical values of noise level in textile machines are shown in as under: STITCHING The stitching unit itself yields a high level of noise pollution which have an adverse effect on the health of the worker and also decreases the efficiency of the worker. No w a days in developed world countries they have somehow achieve 5 . WEAVING AND STITCHING) Process Noise level (dB) Texturizing Plant: Filament take-up section 93. An average level of 85 dba of noise is generated by a single stitching machine working at its full pace.permissible limit set up at 90 dB by the standards given by the Environmental Pollution and control agency of Pakistan for maximum exposure duration of 8 hours per day.50 Spinning: Ring spinning 80 Weaving 100 -1204 Stitching unit 85 We observed more in detail about the noise pollution by conducting a survey at Rajby Industries Pvt Limited which works in making towels and bath robes specifically.80 Compressor house 99. The industry gave us results which were precisely observed regarding the noise pollution by the industry. NOISE LEVEL IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY (TEXTURIZING.7 dba noise reduction achieved on numerous stitching machines at very low cost.

Where technical methods are insufficient. greater output may generate higher noise levels. Noise pollution is a problem that has unsatisfactorily been tackled so far. But those shuttles less looms are costly. absorbers. noise exposure may be reduced by the use of hearing protection and by administrative controls such as limiting the time spent in noisy environment and scheduling noisy operation outside normal shifts or at distant location. 7| Page . warp knitting looms by 12 dB and in fans by around 18 to 24 dB. In modern shuttle less looms because of better engineering designs of the machines the noise level is lesser.REMEDIAL MEASURES Noise level can be lowered by the use of noise control enclosures. every doubling of the speed of rotary machines the noise emission rises by about 7 dB. silencers and baffles and by the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). still more appropriate means need to be devised. such as earmuffs. Though noise-absorbing sheets are used to cover the inner walls of loom shed. such as job rotation to ensure each of the worker stays healthy and we see the impacts of noise pollution very less. For instance. Even though noise-reducing measures may have been incorporated in the design of the machinery. In addition to that management must take measures.

betterfactories.REFERENCES: • • www.%20Noise%20and %20Lighting%20_OSH%20manual.com http://www.pdf www.wikipedia.org Mr. Rehan sayed (compliance manager rajby industries) • • 8| Page .org/content/documents/1/Chapter %204%20%20Temperature.%20Ventilation.scribd.