TECHNICAL SEMINAR

ON

~HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE¨


A technical seminar report submitted in partial IulIillment oI
the requirement Ior the Degree oI Bachelor oI Technology
Under BPUT





By

Name: Ashutosh Dwibedi
Regd No: 0801214018
Branch: Electrical Engineering
Year: 2011-2012






KONARK INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
BHUBANESWAR



DEPT. OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING




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Seminar coordinator Head oI the Dept.







ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to express my hearty thanks to all those who individually as
well as collectively helped me in the successIul completion oI this seminar.


I would like to express my immense gratitude and sincere thanks to Ms.Anupama
Majhi, whose co-operative guidance has helped me in successIul completion oI
this seminar on 'HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE¨. I am very much thankIul to
Mr. Raj kishor Swain (HOD, Dept. oI Electrical) and Project coordinator Mr. Alok
Panda Ior helping me to complete the seminar successIully. .


I express my deep sense oI gratitude and appreciation to the entire Iaculty
members in Dept. oI Electrical Engineering Ior their valuable and scholarly
guidance, constant supervision and timely advice and non-teaching staII oI the
Dept. oI Electrical Engineering and my Iriends without whom my endeavors
wouldn`t have been successIul.


Name: Ashutosh Dwibedi
Branch: Electrical Engineering
Regd No: 0801214018







ABSTRACT

A hybrid electric vehicle is a hybrid vehicle that combines a
conventional propulsion system with a rechargeable energy storage
system to achieve better Iuel economy than a conventional vehicle. Its
secondary propulsion system, additional to the electric motor, means that
it does not require regular visits to a charging unit as a battery electric
vehicle does. Modern mass-produced HEVs prolong the charge in their
batteries by capturing kinetic energy by means oI regenerative braking,
and some HEVs can use internal combustion engines (ICE) to
generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator to either recharge
the battery or directly Ieed power to an electric motor that drives the
vehicle. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the internal
combustion engine at idle and restarting it when needed. An HEVs
engine is smaller than a non-hybrid Iossil Iuel vehicle and may be run at
various speeds, providing greater eIIiciency. Have you pulled your car
up to the gas pump lately and been shocked by the high price oI
gasoline? As the pump clicked past $20 or $30, maybe you thought
about trading in that SUV Ior something that gets better mileage. Or
maybe you are worried that your car is contributing to the greenhouse
eIIect. Or maybe you just want to have the coolest car on the block.
Currently, there is a solution Ior all this problems; it's the hybrid electric
vehicle. The vehicle is lighter and roomier than a purely electric vehicle,
because there is less need to carry as many heavy batteries. The internal
combustion engine in hybrid-electric is much smaller and lighter and
more eIIicient than the engine in a conventional vehicle. In Iact, most
automobile manuIacturers have announced plans to manuIacture their
own hybrid versions. Hybrid electric vehicles are all around us. Most oI
the locomotives we see pulling trains are diesel-electric hybrids. Cities
like Seattle have diesel-electric buses -- these can draw electric power
Irom overhead wires or run on diesel when they are away Irom the
wires. Giant mining trucks are oIten diesel-electric hybrids. Submarines
are also hybrid vehicles -- some are nuclear-electric and some are diesel-
electric. Any vehicle that combines two or more sources oI power that
can directly or indirectly provide propulsion power is a hybrid electric
vehicle.










INTRODUCTION

The world started down a new road in 1997 when the Iirst modern
hybrid electric car, the Toyota Prius, was sold in Japan. Two years later,
the United States saw its Iirst sale oI a hybrid, the Honda Insight. These
two Vehicles, Iollowed by the Honda Civic Hybrid, marked a radial
change in the type oI car being oIIered to the public: vehicles that bring
some oI the beneIits oI battery electric vehicles into the conventional
gasoline powered cars and trucks we have been using Ior more than 100
years. In the coming years, hybrids can play a signiIicant role in
addressing several oI the major problems Iaced by the United States and
the whole world today: climate change, air pollution and oil dependence.
Whether this new technology delivers on its promise hinges on the
choices automakers, consumers and policymakers make over the coming
years. Poor choices could result in hybrids that Iall short even oI what
conventional technology could deliver on Iuel economy, emission or
both. II they designed well, these hybrids can equal or better the utility,
comIort, perIormance and saIety we`ve come to expect, while saving us
thousand oI dollars at the gas pump.




WHAT IS HEV?

A hybrid electric (HEV) is a type oI hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle
which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE)
propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The combination
oI an internal combustion engine(ICE) with one or more electric motor
or generators and a battery pack Combines propulsion system with
RESS and gets better Iuel economy. An HEV uses less gasoline because
the electric motor does some oI the work. A hybrid electric vehicle
(HEV) combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE)
propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The presence oI
the electric power train is intended to achieve either better Iuel economy
than a conventional vehicle, or better perIormance. A variety oI types oI
HEV exist, and the degree to which they Iunction as EVs varies as well.
The most common Iorm oI HEV is the hybrid electric car, although
hybrid electric trucks (pickups and tractors) also exist. Modern HEVs
make use oI eIIiciency-improving technologies such as regenerative
braking, which converts the vehicle's kinetic energy into battery-
replenishing electric energy, rather than wasting it as heat energy as
conventional brakes do. Some varieties oI HEVs use their internal
combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical
generator (this combination is known as a motor-generator), to either
recharge their batteries or to directly power the electric drive motors.
Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and
restarting it when needed; this is known as a start-stop system. A hybrid-
electric produces less emissions Irom its ICE than a comparably-sized
gasoline car, as an HEV's gasoline engine is usually smaller than a pure
Iossil-Iuel vehicle, and iI not used to directly drive the car, can be geared
to run at maximum eIIiciency, Iurther improving Iuel economy. The
hybrid-electric vehicle did not become widely available until the release
oI the Toyota Prius in Japan in 1997, Iollowed by the Honda Insight in
1999. While initially perceived as unnecessary due to the low cost oI
gasoline, worldwide increases in the price oI petroleum caused many
automakers to release hybrids in the late 2000s; they are now perceived
as a core segment oI the automotive market oI the Iuture. Worldwide
sales oI hybrid vehicles produced by Toyota reached 1.0 million vehicles
by May 31, 2007, and the 2.0 million mark was reached by August 31,
2009, with hybrids sold in 50 countries. Worldwide sales are led by the
Prius, with cumulative sales oI 1.43 million by August 2009. The
second-generation Honda Insight was the top-selling vehicle in Japan in
April 2009, marking the Iirst occasion that an HEV has received the
distinction. American automakers have made development oI hybrid
cars a top priority.



HOW HEV WORKS

Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) combines the beneIits oI gasoline
engines and electric motors and can be conIigured to obtain diIIerent
objectives, such as improved Iuel economy, increased power or
additional auxiliary power Ior electronic devices and power tools. Some
oI the advanced technologies typically used by hybrid include.

REGENERATIVE BREAKING:

The electric motor applies resistance to the drive train causing the
wheels to slow down. In return, the energy Irom the wheels turns the
motor, which Iunctions as a generator, converting energy normally
wasted during coasting and breaking into electricity, which is stored in a
battery until needed by the electric motor.

ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVE/ASSIST:

The electric motor provides additional power to assist the engine in
accelerating, passing or hill climbing. This allows a smaller, more
eIIicient engine to be used. In some vehicles, the motor alone provides
power Ior low-speed driving condition where internal combustion
engines are least eIIicient.

AUTOMATIC START/SHUTOFF:

Automatically shuts oII the engine when the vehicle comes to a stop and
restarts it when the accelerator is pressed. This prevents wasted energy
Irom idling.

Power

Power sources Ior hybrid vehicles include:
· On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS)
· Compressed air
· Coal, wood or other solid combustibles
· Electricity
· Electromagnetic Iields, Radio waves
· Compressed or liqueIied natural gas
· Human powered e.g. pedaling or rowing
· Hydrogen
· Liquid nitrogen
· Petrol or Diesel Iuel
· Solar
· Wind
· Waste heat Irom internal combustion engine.

PROCESS OF WORKING

Overview

Full hybrids use a gasoline engine as the primary source oI power and
an electric motor provides additional power when needed In addition,
Iull hybrids can use the electric motor as the electric motor as the sole
source oI propulsion Ior low-speed, low-acceleration driving, such as in
stop-and-go traIIic or Ior breaking up. This electric-only driving mode
can Iurther increase Iuel eIIiciency under some driving conditions.
When a Iull hybrid vehicle is initially started, the battery typically
powers all accessories. The gasoline engine only starts iI the battery
needs to be charged or the accessories require more power than available
Irom the battery The battery stores energy generated Irom the gasoline
engine or during regenerative braking Irom the electric motor. Since the
battery powers the vehicle at low speeds, it is larger and holds much
more energy than battery used to start conventional vehicles Low speed.
For initial acceleration and low-speed driving, as well as reverse, the
electric motor uses electricity Irom the battery to power the vehicle II
the battery needs to be recharged, the generator starts the engine and
converts energy Irom the engine into electricity. This is stored in the
battery.


Cruising

At speeds above mid-range, both the engine and electric motor are used
to propel the vehicle The gasoline engine provides power to the drive-
train directly and to the electric motor via the generator. During heavy
accelerating or when additional power is needed the gasoline engine and
electric motor are both use to propel the vehicle. Braking part
Regenerative braking converts otherwise wasted energy Irom baking
into electricity and stores it in battery. In regenerative braking, the
electric motor is reversed so that, instead oI using electricity to run the
wheels, the rotating wheels turn the motor and create electricity. Using
energy Irom the wheels turn the motor slows the vehicle down stopped
When the vehicle is stopped, such as at a red light, the gasoline engine
and electric motor shut oII automatically so that energy is not wasted I
idling. All other systems, including the electric air conditioning,
continue to run Rollover area: Battery: The battery stores energy
generated Irom the gasoline engine or, during regenerative braking, Irom
the electric motor. Since the battery powers the vehicle at low speeds, it
is larger and holds much energy than batteries used to start conventional
vehicles.

Technology

The varieties oI hybrid electric designs can be diIIerentiated by the
structure oI the hybrid vehicle drivetrain, the Iuel type, and the mode oI
operation. In 2007, several automobile manuIacturers announced that
Iuture vehicles will use aspects oI hybrid electric technology to reduce
Iuel consumption without the use oI the hybrid drivetrain. Regenerative
braking can be used to recapture energy and stored to power electrical
accessories, such as air conditioning. Shutting down the engine at idle
can also be used to reduce Iuel consumption and reduce emissions
without the addition oI a hybrid drivetrain. In both cases, some oI the
advantages oI hybrid electric technology are gained while additional cost
and weight may be limited to the addition oI larger batteries and starter
motors. There is no standard terminology Ior such vehicles, although
they may be termed mild hybrids.

Engines and fuel sources
Fossil fuels
Main article: Fossil Iuel
Free-piston engines could be used to generate electricity as eIIiciently
as, and less expensively than, Iuel cells.


Gasoline

Gasoline engines are used in most hybrid electric designs, and will likely
remain dominant Ior the Ioreseeable Iuture. While petroleum-derived
gasoline is the primary Iuel, it is possible to mix in varying levels oI
ethanol created Irom renewable energy sources. Like most modern ICE
powered vehicles, HEVs can typically use up to about 15° bioethanol.
ManuIacturers may move to Ilexible Iuel engines, which would increase
allowable ratios, but no plans are in place at present.


Diesel

Diesel-electric HEVs use a diesel engine Ior power generation. Diesels
have advantages when delivering constant power Ior long periods oI
time, suIIering less wear while operating at higher eIIiciency. The diesel
engine's high torque, combined with hybrid technology, may oIIer
substantially improved mileage. Most diesel vehicles can use 100° pure
bioIuels (biodiesel), so they can use but do not need petroleum at all Ior
Iuel (although mixes oI bioIuel and petroleum are more common, and
petroleum may be needed Ior lubrication). II diesel-electric HEVs were
in use, this beneIit would likely also apply. Diesel-electric hybrid
drivetrains have begun to appear in commercial vehicles (particularly
buses); as oI 2007, no light duty diesel-electric hybrid passenger cars are
currently available, although prototypes exist. Peugeot is expected to
produce a diesel-electric hybrid version oI its 308 in late 2008 Ior the
European market.

Hydrogen

Hydrogen can be used in cars in two ways: a source oI combustible heat,
or a source oI electrons Ior an electric motor. The burning oI hydrogen is
not being developed in practical terms; it is the hydrogen Iuel-cell
electric vehicle (HFEV) which is garnering all the attention. Hydrogen
Iuel cells create electricity Ied into an electric motor to drives the
wheels. Hydrogen is not burned, but it is consumed. This means
molecular hydrogen, H2, is combined with oxygen to Iorm water. 2H2
(4e-) ¹ O2 --~ 2H2O (4e-). The molecular hydrogen and oxygen's
mutual aIIinity drives the Iuel cell to separate the electrons Irom the
hydrogen, to use them to power the electric motor, and to return them
to the ionized water molecules that were Iormed when the electron-
depleted hydrogen combined with the oxygen in the Iuel cell. Recaling
that a hydrogen atom is nothing more than a proton and an electron; in
essence, the motor is driven by the proton's atomic attraction to the
oxygen nucleus, and the electron's attraction to the ionized water
molecule. An HFEV is an all-electric car Ieaturing an open-source
battery in the Iorm oI a hydrogen tank and the atmosphere. HFEV's may
also comprise closed-cell batteries Ior the purpose oI power storage Irom
regenerative braking, but this does not change the source oI the
motivation. It implies the HFEV is an electric car with two types oI
batteries. Since HFEV's are purely electric, and do not contain any type
oI heat engine, they are not hybrids.

Biofuels

Hybrid vehicles might use an internal combustion engine running on
bioIuels, such as ethanol Iuel or biodiesel. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in
hybrid electric vehicle would be the Iirst commercially available Ilex-
Iuel plug-in hybrid capable oI adapting the propulsion to the bioIuels
used in several world markets such as the ethanol blend E85 in the US,
or E100 in Brazil, or biodiesel in Sweden.

Electric machines

In split path vehicles (Toyota, Ford, GM, Chrysler) there are two
electrical machines, one oI which Iunctions as a motor primarily, and the
other Iunctions as a generator primarily. One oI the primary
requirements oI these machines is that they are very eIIicient, as the
electrical portion oI the energy must be converted Irom the engine to the
generator, through two inverters, through the motor again and then to the
wheels. Most oI the electric machines used in hybrid vehicles are
brushless DC motors (BLDC). SpeciIically, they are oI a type called an
interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine (or motor). These machines
are wound similarly to the induction motors Iound in a typical home, but
(Ior high eIIiciency) use very strong rare earth magnets in the rotor.
These magnets contain neodymium, iron and boron, and are thereIore
called Neodymium magnets. The magnet material is expensive, and its
cost is one oI the limiting Iactors in the use oI these machines.


Design considerations

In some cases, manuIacturers are producing HEVs that use the added
energy provided by the hybrid systems to give vehicles a power boost,
rather than signiIicantly improved Iuel eIIiciency compared to their
traditional counterparts. The trade-oII between added perIormance and
improved Iuel eIIiciency is partly controlled by the soItware within the
hybrid system and partly the result oI the engine, battery and motor size.
In the Iuture, manuIacturers may provide HEV owners with the ability to
partially control this balance (Iuel eIIiciency vs. added perIormance) as
they wish, through a user-controlled setting. Toyota announced in
January, 2006 that it was considering a "high-eIIiciency" button.


Hybrid Reliability

The cost oI maintenance is reduced due to operation oI hybrid
technology Regenerative braking reduces wear on brakes. Idle stop
extends battery liIe Electric accessories reduce load on engine. Battery
charge is computer controlled which extends battery liIe.



USE OF HEV

When it comes to purchasing a car many oI us used to only think about
how it looked and how Iast we could go in it. But that was beIore gas
prices skyrocketed and we were Iorced to think more about convenience
rather then what we really wanted. People who are trying to purchase
new cars are not in search oI a car that receives good gas mileage. Many
manuIacturers are designing their cars around this one Ieature to make
them more appealing Ior people. One oI the most common car that
people Ieel can save them the most money are hybrids. These cars
combine the use oI two diIIerent types oI engines in order to produce
low measures oI pollution. Thanks to the uniqueness oI the engine it is
one oI the quietest types oI cars that you will ever see. They are
designed with a Iuel tank that is connected to the gasoline engine - but it
is smaller and more eIIicient then in the average vehicle. It is also
designed with an electric motor that uses batteries to Iunction. These
hybrids have many Ieatures that include being able to travel long
distances without using large amounts oI Iuel. When the car is idling or
when it is traveling at low speeds it will switch to battery power. These
batteries can be recharged at home. When stopping the car it uses the
electric motor and what is commonly known as regenerative braking. In
the standard car they used Iriction to stop the car - but in a hybrid car
kinetic energy will charge up the battery and use the energy to stop it.
One oI the best Ieatures that it has is the ability to shut itselI oII. When
the car is idling it will automatically shut oII and save Iuel. The Cash
For Clunkers program is used to help people save money and purchase a
car they can aIIord. Some oI the most popular types are the Hybrids -
which help to save people in gas money

LATEST DEVELOPMENTS

2011-2012
Volkswagen announced at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show the launch oI
the 2012 Touareg Hybrid, scheduled Ior 2011 VW also announced plans
to introduce diesel-electric hybrid versions oI its most popular models in
2012, beginning with the new Jetta, Iollowed by the GolI Hybrid in 2013
together with hybrid versions oI the Passat. The Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4
will be launched in the European market in early 2011 and is expected to
become the world's Iirst production diesel-electric hybrid. According to
Peugeot the new hybrid delivers a Iuel economy oI up to 62 miles per
US gallon (3.8 L/100 km; 74 mpg-imp) and CO2 emissions oI 99g/km
on the European test cycle. The Toyota Prius V, the Iirst spinoII Irom
the Prius Iamily, was unveiled at the January 2011 and is scheduled to
be released to the U.S. market by mid 2011. Other gasoline-electric
hybrids already scheduled Ior commercial sales in 2011 are the Lexus
CT 200h, the InIiniti M35 Hybrid, the Hyundai Sonata Hybrid and its
siblling the Kia Optima Hybrid.

ADVANTAGES OF HEV

Mechanical
Environmental
Energy resilience
Energy eIIiciency
Cost oI recharge
Stabilization oI the grid
Use less Iuel
Lighter batteries
Mobility
System Integration
Value Added Features


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Fuel consumption

Current HEVs reduce petroleum consumption under certain
circumstances, compared to otherwise similar conventional vehicles,
primarily by using three mechanisms:

1. Reducing wasted energy during idle/low output, generally by turning
the ICE oII

2. Recapturing waste energy (i.e. regenerative braking)

3. Reducing the size and power oI the ICE, and hence ineIIiciencies
Irom under-utilization, by using the added power Irom the electric motor
to compensate Ior the loss in peak power output Irom the smaller ICE.

Any combination oI these three primary hybrid advantages may be used
in diIIerent vehicles to realize diIIerent Iuel usage, power, emissions,
weight and cost proIiles. The ICE in an HEV can be smaller, lighter, and
more eIIicient than the one in a conventional vehicle, because the
combustion engine can be sized Ior slightly above ,;07,0 power
demand rather than 50,power demand. The drive system in a vehicle is
required to operate over a range oI speed and power, but an ICE's
highest eIIiciency is in a narrow range oI operation, making
conventional vehicles ineIIicient. On the contrary, in most HEV designs,
the ICE operates closer to its range oI highest eIIiciency more
Irequently. The power curve oI electric motors is better suited to
variable speeds and can provide substantially greater torque at low
speeds compared with internal-combustion engines. The greater Iuel
economy oI HEVs has implication Ior reduced petroleum consumption
and vehicle air pollution emissions worldwide.


Noise

Reduced noise emissions resulting Irom substantial use oI the electric
motor at idling and low speeds, leading to roadway noise reduction,in
comparison to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles,
resulting in beneIicial noise health eIIects (although road noise Irom
tires and wind, the loudest noises at highway speeds Irom the interior oI
most vehicles, are not aIIected by the hybrid design alone). Reduced
noise may not be beneIicial Ior all road users, as blind people or the
visually-impaired consider the noise oI combustion engines a helpIul aid
while crossing streets and Ieel quiet hybrids could pose an unexpected
hazard. The U.S. Congress and the European Commission are exploring
legislation to establish a minimum level oI sound Ior electric and hybrid
electric vehicles when operating in electric mode, so that blind people
and other pedestrians and cyclists can hear them coming and detect Irom
which direction they are approaching. Tests have shown that vehicles
operating in electric mode can be particularly hard to hear below 20 mph
(32 km/h).

A study conducted by the U.S. National Highway TraIIic SaIety
Administration Iound that crashes involving pedestrian and bicyclist
have higher incidence rates Ior HEVs than internal combustion engine
(ICE) vehicles in certain vehicle maneuvers. These accidents commonly
occurred on in zones with low speed limits, during daytime and in clear
weather. The study Iound that a HEV was two times more likely to be
involved in a pedestrian crash than was an ICE vehicle when a vehicle is
slowing or stopping, backing up, or entering or leaving a parking space.
Vehicle maneuvers were grouped in one category considering those
maneuvers that might have occurred at very low speeds where the
diIIerence between the sound levels produced by the
hybrid versus ICE vehicle is the greatest. Also the study Iound that the
incidence rate oI pedestrian crashes in scenarios when vehicles make a
turn was signiIicantly higher Ior HEVs when compared to ICE vehicles.
Similarly, The NHTSA study also concluded that the incidence rate oI
bicyclist crashes involving HEVs Ior the same kind oI maneuvers was
signiIicantly higher when compared to ICE vehicles.

Pollution

Reduced air pollution emissions, due to lower Iuel consumption, lead
improved human health with regard to respiratory problems and other
illnesses. Pollution reduction in urban environments may be particularly
signiIicant due to elimination oI idle-at-rest. Battery toxicity is a
concern, although today's hybrids use NiMH batteries, not the
environmentally problematic rechargeable nickel cadmium. "Nickel
metal hydride batteries are benign. They can be Iully recycled," says
Ron Cogan, editor oI the Green Car Journal. Toyota and Honda say that
they will recycle dead batteries and that disposal will pose no toxic
hazards. Toyota puts a phone number on each battery, and they pay a
$200 "bounty" Ior each battery to help ensure that it will be properly
recycled.


CONCLUSION

A Cooler, Cleaner and Secure Future

A technology exists to build a Iuture with a signiIicant lower
dependence on oil and a cleaner, cooler atmosphere. With suIIicient
political will and automaker participation, this Iuture can arrive in time
to address these signiIicant and growing problems. Hybrids can play an
important role in realizing this Iuture, Iilling the gap between immediate
improvements through conventional technology; hybrids can help drive
passengers vehicle oil consumption and global warming emulsions Irom
cars and trucks below 1990 levels.









BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. www.wikipedia.org
2. www.Iueleconomy.gov
3. www.aIdc.energy.gov
3. www.unep.org

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