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Ln 8AnC

C8 no 132601 !anuary 19 1999


LLC LCPLCA8A? peLlLloner vs SLC8L1A8? Cl !uS1lCL L1 AL respondenLs
ALLy 1heodore C 1e for peLlLloner
1he SollclLor Ceneral for respondenLs
S?nCSlS
1hls ls Lhe urgenL MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon and Lhe SupplemenL LhereLo of Lhe 8esoluLlon of Lhe
Supreme CourL daLed !anuary 4 1999 Lemporarlly resLralnlng Lhe execuLlon of Lhe deaLh convlcL Leo
Lchegaray by leLhal ln[ecLlon lL ls Lhe maln submlsslon of publlc respondenLs LhaL Lhe ueclslon of Lhe
case havlng become flnal and execuLory lLs execuLlon enLers Lhe excluslve amblL of auLhorlLy of Lhe
execuLlve auLhorlLy caPASl
1he CourL ruled LhaL Lhe power Lo conLrol Lhe execuLlon of lLs declslon ls an essenLlal aspecL of
[urlsdlcLlon lL cannoL be Lhe sub[ecL of subsLanLlal subLracLlon for our ConsLlLuLlon vesLs Lhe enLlreLy of
[udlclal power ln one Supreme CourL and ln such lower courLs as may be esLabllshed by law 1o be sure
Lhe mosL lmporLanL parL of a llLlgaLlon wheLher clvll or crlmlnal ls Lhe process of execuLlon of declslons
where supervenlng evenLs may change Lhe clrcumsLance of Lhe parLles and compel courLs Lo lnLervene
and ad[usL Lhe rlghLs of Lhe llLlganLs Lo prevenL unfalrness lL ls because of Lhese unforeseen
supervenlng conLlngencles LhaL courLs have been conceded Lhe lnherenL and necessary power of conLrol
of lLs processes and orders Lo make Lhem conformable Lo law and [usLlce lor Lhls purpose SecLlon 6 of
8ule 133 provldes LhaL when by law [urlsdlcLlon ls conferred on a courL or [udlclal offlcer all auxlllary
wrlLs processes and oLher means necessary Lo carry lL lnLo effecL may be employed by such courL or
offlcer and lf Lhe procedure Lo be followed ln Lhe exerclse of such [urlsdlcLlon ls noL speclflcally polnLed
ouL by law or by Lhese rules any sulLable process or mode of proceedlngs may be adopLed whlch
appears conformable Lo Lhe splrlL of sald law or rules lL bears repeaLlng LhaL whaL Lhe CourL resLralned
Lemporarlly ls Lhe execuLlon of lLs own ueclslon Lo glve lL reasonable Llme Lo check lLs falrness ln llghL of
supervenlng evenLs ln Congress as alleged by peLlLloner 1he CourL conLrary Lo popular mlslmpresslon
dld noL resLraln Lhe effecLlvlLy of a law enacLed by Congress CPlLuS
Moreover Lhe Lemporary resLralnlng order of Lhls CourL has produced lLs deslred resulL le Lhe
crysLalllzaLlon of Lhe lssue wheLher Congress ls dlsposed Lo revlew caplLal punlshmenL 1he publlc
respondenLs Lhru Lhe SollclLor Ceneral clLe posLerlor evenLs LhaL negaLe beyond doubL Lhe posslblllLy
LhaL Congress wlll repeal or amend Lhe deaLh penalLy law ln llghL of Lhese developmenLs Lhe CourLs
18C should now be llfLed as lL has served lLs legal and humanlLarlan purpose
1he lnsLanL moLlon ls C8An1Lu laAPCL
S?LLA8uS
1 8LMLulAL LAW AC1lCnS 8uLL Cn llnALl1? Cl !uuCMLn1 CAnnC1 ulvLS1 CCu81 Cl l1S
!u8lSulC1lCn 1he rule on flnallLy of [udgmenL cannoL dlvesL Lhls CourL of lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo execuLe
and enforce Lhe same [udgmenL 8eLlred !usLlce Camllo Culason synLheslzed Lhe well esLabllshed
[urlsprudence on Lhls lssue as follows Lhe flnallLy of a [udgmenL does noL mean LhaL Lhe CourL has
losL all lLs powers nor Lhe case 8y Lhe flnallLy of Lhe [udgmenL whaL Lhe courL loses ls lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo
amend modlfy or alLer Lhe same Lven afLer Lhe [udgmenL has become flnal Lhe courL reLalns lLs
[urlsdlcLlon Lo execuLe and enforce lL 1here ls a dlfference beLween Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courL Lo
execuLe lLs [udgmenL and lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo amend modlfy or alLer Lhe same 1he former conLlnues even
afLer Lhe [udgmenL has become flnal for Lhe purpose of enforcemenL of [udgmenL Lhe laLLer LermlnaLes
when Lhe [udgmenL becomes flnal lor afLer Lhe [udgmenL has become flnal facLs and clrcumsLances
may Lransplre whlch can render Lhe execuLlon un[usL or lmposslble
2 lu Su8LML CCu81 llnALl1? Cl uLClSlCn ln C8lMlnAL CASLS A81lCuLA8 Cl LxLCu1lCn
l1SLLl S1lLL unuL8 CCn18CL Cl !uulClAL Au1PC8l1? ln crlmlnal cases afLer Lhe senLence has been
pronounced and Lhe perlod for reopenlng Lhe same has elapsed Lhe courL cannoL change or alLer lLs
[udgmenL as lLs [urlsdlcLlon has LermlnaLed When ln cases of appeal or revlew Lhe cause has been
reLurned LhereLo for execuLlon ln Lhe evenL LhaL Lhe [udgmenL has been afflrmed lL performs a
mlnlsLerlal duLy ln lssulng Lhe proper order 8uL lL does noL follow from Lhls cessaLlon of funcLlons on Lhe
parL of Lhe courL wlLh reference Lo Lhe endlng of Lhe cause LhaL Lhe [udlclal auLhorlLy LermlnaLes by
havlng Lhen passed compleLely Lo Lhe LxecuLlve 1he parLlculars of Lhe execuLlon lLself whlch are
cerLalnly noL always lncluded ln Lhe [udgmenL and wrlL of execuLlon ln any evenL are absoluLely under
Lhe conLrol of Lhe [udlclal auLhorlLy whlle Lhe execuLlve has no power over Lhe person of Lhe convlcL
excepL Lo provlde for carrylng ouL of Lhe penalLy and Lo pardon (ulrecLor of rlsons v !udge of llrsL
lnsLance 26 hll 267 1913)
3 lu C8lMlnAL 8CCLuu8L LxLCu1lCn Cl SLn1LnCL C8CunuS lC8 CS1CnLMLn1
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe order of execuLlon and Lhe execuLory naLure Lhereof on Lhe daLe seL or aL Lhe
proper Llme Lhe daLe Lherefor can be posLponed even ln senLences of deaLh under Lhe common law
Lhls posLponemenL can be ordered ln Lhree ways (1) 8y command of Lhe klng (2) by dlscreLlon (arblLrlo)
of Lhe courL and (3) by mandaLe of Lhe law lL ls sufflclenL Lo sLaLe Lhls prlnclple of Lhe common law Lo
render lmposslble LhaL asserLlon ln absoluLe Lerms LhaL afLer Lhe convlcL has once been placed ln [all Lhe
Lrlal courL can noL reopen Lhe case Lo lnvesLlgaLe Lhe facLs LhaL show Lhe need for posLponemenL
lu1cPa
4 lu AC1lCnS !u8lSulC1lCn CWL8 1C CCn18CL LxLCu1lCn Cl uLClSlCn An LSSLn1lAL
ASLC1 1PL8LCl 1he power Lo conLrol Lhe execuLlon of lLs declslon ls an essenLlal aspecL of
[urlsdlcLlon lL cannoL be Lhe sub[ecL of subsLanLlal subLracLlon for our ConsLlLuLlon vesLs Lhe enLlreLy of
[udlclal power ln one Supreme CourL and ln such lower courLs as may be esLabllshed by law 1o be sure
Lhe mosL lmporLanL parL of a llLlgaLlon wheLher clvll or crlmlnal ls Lhe process of execuLlon of declslons
where supervenlng evenLs may change Lhe clrcumsLance of Lhe parLles and compel courLs Lo lnLervene
and ad[usL Lhe rlghLs of Lhe llLlganLs Lo prevenL unfalrness lL ls because of Lhese unforeseen
supervenlng conLlngencles LhaL courLs have been conceded Lhe lnherenL and necessary power of conLrol
of lLs processes and orders Lo make Lhem conformable Lo law and [usLlce
3 lu Su8LML CCu81 !u8lSulC1lCn Cl 1PlS CCu81 uCLS nC1 uLLnu Cn CCnvLnlLnCL Cl
Ll1lCAn1S 1he same moLlon Lo compel !udge onferrada Lo reveal Lhe daLe of execuLlon of
peLlLloner Lchegaray was flled by hls counsel ALLy 1heodore 1e on uecember 7 1998 Pe lnvoked hls
cllenLs rlghL Lo due process and Lhe publlcs rlghL Lo lnformaLlon 1he SollclLor Ceneral as counsel for
publlc respondenLs dld noL oppose peLlLloners moLlon on Lhe ground LhaL Lhls CourL has no more
[urlsdlcLlon over Lhe process of execuLlon of Lchegaray 1hls CourL granLed Lhe rellef prayed for by Lhe
SecreLary of !usLlce and by Lhe counsel of Lhe peLlLloner ln lLs 8esoluLlon of uecember 13 1998 1here
was noL a whlmper of proLesL from Lhe publlc respondenLs and Lhey are now esLopped from conLendlng
LhaL Lhls CourL has losL lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo granL sald rellef 1he [urlsdlcLlon of Lhls CourL does noL depend
on Lhe convenlence of llLlganLs
6 lu lu CWL8 1C SuSLnu LxLCu1lCn Cl CCnvlC1S uCLS nC1 vlCLA1L CCLCuAL Anu
CCC8ulnA1L CWL8S Cl 88AnCPLS Cl CCvL8nMLn1 1he LexL and Lone of Lhls provlslon wlll noL
yleld Lo Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon suggesLed by Lhe publlc respondenLs 1he provlslon ls slmply Lhe source of
power of Lhe resldenL Lo granL reprleves commuLaLlons and pardons and remlL flnes and forfelLures
afLer convlcLlon by flnal [udgmenL lL also provldes Lhe auLhorlLy for Lhe resldenL Lo granL amnesLy wlLh
Lhe concurrence of a ma[orlLy of all Lhe members of Lhe Congress 1he provlslon however cannoL be
lnLerpreLed as denylng Lhe power of courLs Lo conLrol Lhe enforcemenL of Lhelr declslons afLer Lhelr
flnallLy ln LruLh an accused who has been convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL sLlll possesses collaLeral rlghLs
and Lhese rlghLs can be clalmed ln Lhe approprlaLe courLs lor lnsLance a deaLh convlcL who becomes
lnsane afLer hls flnal convlcLlon cannoL be execuLed whlle ln a sLaLe of lnsanlLy As observed by AnLleau
Loday lL ls generally assumed LhaL due process of law wlll prevenL Lhe governmenL from execuLlng Lhe
deaLh senLence upon a person who ls lnsane aL Lhe Llme of execuLlon 1he suspenslon of such a deaLh
senLence ls undlspuLably an exerclse of [udlclal power lL ls noL a usurpaLlon of Lhe presldenLlal power of
reprleve Lhough lLs effecL ls Lhe same Lhe Lemporary suspenslon of Lhe execuLlon of Lhe deaLh
convlcL ln Lhe same veln lL cannoL be denled LhaL Congress can aL any Llme amend 8 A no 7639 by
reduclng Lhe penalLy of deaLh Lo llfe lmprlsonmenL 1he effecL of such an amendmenL ls llke LhaL of
commuLaLlon of senLence 8uL by no sLreLch of Lhe lmaglnaLlon can Lhe exerclse by Congress of lLs
plenary power Lo amend laws be consldered as a vlolaLlon of Lhe power of Lhe resldenL Lo commuLe
flnal senLences of convlcLlon 1he powers of Lhe LxecuLlve Lhe LeglslaLlve and Lhe !udlclary Lo save Lhe
llfe of a deaLh convlcL do noL exclude each oLher for Lhe slmple reason LhaL Lhere ls no hlgher rlghL Lhan
Lhe rlghL Lo llfe lndeed ln varlous SLaLes ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes laws have even been enacLed expressly
granLlng courLs Lhe power Lo suspend execuLlon of convlcLs and Lhelr consLlLuLlonallLy has been upheld
over argumenLs LhaL Lhey lnfrlnge upon Lhe power of Lhe resldenL Lo granL reprleves lor Lhe publlc
respondenLs Lherefore Lo conLend LhaL only Lhe LxecuLlve can proLecL Lhe rlghL Lo llfe of an accused
afLer hls flnal convlcLlon ls Lo vlolaLe Lhe prlnclple of coequal and coordlnaLe powers of Lhe Lhree
branches of our governmenL
vl1uC ! separaLe oplnlon
1 CCnS1l1u1lCnAL LAW 8A nC 7639 unCCnS1l1u1lCnAL LeL me sLaLe aL Lhe ouLseL LhaL l
have humbly malnLalned LhaL 8epubllc AcL no 7639 lnsofar as lL prescrlbes Lhe deaLh penalLy falls
shorL of Lhe sLrlcL norm seL forLh by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon l and some of my breLhren on Lhe CourL who hold
slmllarly have conslsLenLly expressed Lhls sLand ln Lhe afflrmance by Lhe CourL of deaLh senLences
lmposed by 8eglonal 1rlal CourLs unLll Lhe exacLlng sLandards of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon are clearly meL as so
herelnabove expressed l wlll have Lo dlsagree mosL respecLfully wlLh my colleagues ln Lhe ma[orlLy
who conLlnue Lo hold Lhe presenLly sLrucLured 8epubllc AcL no 7639 Lo be ln accord wlLh Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon an lssue LhaL ls fundamenLal consLanL and lnexLrlcably llnked Lo Lhe lmposlLlon each Llme
of Lhe deaLh penalLy and llke Lhe lnsLanL peLlLlon Lo Lhe legal lncldenLs perLlnenL LhereLo PAau1l
2 8LMLulAL LAW Su8LML CCu81 Wl1P !u8lSulC1lCn 1C lSSuL 1LMC8A8? 8LS18AlnlnC
C8uL8 Cn LxLCu1lCn Cl uLA1P LnAL1? ln lLs resoluLlon of 04 !anuary 1999 Lhe CourL resolved
Lo lssue ln Lhe abovenumbered peLlLlon a Lemporary resLralnlng order (18C) because among oLher
Lhlngs of whaL had been sLaLed Lo be lndlcaLlons LhaL Congress would reexamlne Lhe deaLh penalLy
law 1he CourL lL musL be sLressed dld noL by lssulng Lhe 18C Lhereby reconslder lLs [udgmenL
convlcLlng Lhe accused or recall Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy 1he docLrlne has almosL lnvarlably
been LhaL afLer a declslon becomes flnal and execuLory noLhlng else ls furLher done excepL Lo see Lo lLs
compllance slnce for Lhe CourL Lo adopL oLherwlse would be Lo puL no end Lo llLlgaLlons 1he rule
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe CourL reLalns conLrol over Lhe case unLll Lhe full saLlsfacLlon of Lhe flnal [udgmenL
conformably wlLh esLabllshed legal processes Pence Lhe CourL has Laken cognlzance of Lhe peLlLlon
assalllng before lL Lhe use of leLhal ln[ecLlon by Lhe SLaLe Lo carry ouL Lhe deaLh senLence ln flne Lhe
auLhorlLy of Lhe CourL Lo see Lo Lhe proper execuLlon of lLs flnal [udgmenL Lhe power of Lhe resldenL Lo
granL pardon commuLaLlon or reprleve and Lhe prerogaLlve of Congress Lo repeal or modlfy Lhe law
LhaL could beneflL Lhe convlcLed accused are noL essenLlally precluslve of one anoLher nor
consLlLuLlonally lncompaLlble and may each be exerclsed wlLhln Lhelr respecLlve spheres and conflnes
1hus Lhe sLay of execuLlon lssued by Lhe CourL would noL prevenL elLher Lhe resldenL from exerclslng
hls pardonlng power or Congress from enacLlng a measure LhaL may be advanLageous Lo Lhe ad[udged
offender
3 lu AC1lCnS !uuCMLn1 lMMu1A8lLl1? Cl llnAL Anu LxLCu1C8? !uuCMLn1S LxCL1lCnS
ln any evenL [urlsprudence Leaches LhaL Lhe rule of lmmuLablllLy of flnal and execuLory [udgmenLs
admlLs of seLLled excepLlons Concededly Lhe CourL may for lnsLance suspend Lhe execuLlon of a flnal
[udgmenL when lL becomes lmperaLlve ln Lhe hlgher lnLeresL of [usLlce or when supervenlng evenLs
warranL lL CerLalnly Lhls exLraordlnary rellef cannoL be denled any man whaLever mlghL be hls sLaLlon
whose rlghL Lo llfe ls Lhe lssue aL sLake
AnCAnl8An ! separaLe oplnlon
1 CCnS1l1u1lCnAL LAW 8A nC 7639 (uLA1P LnAL1? LAW) unCCnS1l1u1lCnAL 8A
7639 (Lhe ueaLh enalLy Law) ls unconsLlLuLlonal lnsofar as some parLs Lhereof prescrlblng Lhe caplLal
penalLy fall Lo comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of helnousness and compelllng reasons prescrlbed by
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe hlllpplnes
2 lu 8A nC 8177 (LL1PAL ln!LC1lCn LAW) unCCnS1l1u1lCnAL 8A 8177 (Lhe LeLhal
ln[ecLlon Law) ls llkewlse unconsLlLuLlonal slnce lL merely prescrlbes Lhe manner ln whlch 8A 7639 (Lhe
ueaLh enalLy Law) ls Lo be lmplemenLed u1AaCL
8 L S C L u 1 l C n
unC ! p
lor resoluLlon are publlc respondenLs urgenL MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon of Lhe 8esoluLlon of Lhls CourL
daLed !anuary 4 1999 Lemporarlly resLralnlng Lhe execuLlon of peLlLloner and SupplemenLal MoLlon Lo
urgenL MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon lL ls Lhe submlsslon of publlc respondenLs LhaL cdasla
(1) 1he ueclslon ln Lhls case havlng become flnal and execuLory lLs execuLlon enLers Lhe excluslve
amblL of auLhorlLy of Lhe execuLlve auLhorlLy 1he lssuance of Lhe 18C may be consLrued as Lrenchlng on
LhaL sphere of execuLlve auLhorlLy
(2) 1he lssuance of Lhe Lemporary resLralnlng order creaLes dangerous precedenL as Lhere wlll
never be an end Lo llLlgaLlon because Lhere ls always a posslblllLy LhaL Congress may repeal a law
(3) Congress had earller dellberaLed exLenslvely on Lhe deaLh penalLy blll 1o be cerLaln whaLever
quesLlon may now be ralsed on Lhe ueaLh enalLy Law before Lhe presenL Congress wlLhln Lhe 6monLh
perlod glven by Lhls Ponorable CourL had ln all probablllLy been fully debaLed upon
(4) under Lhe Llme honored maxlm lex fuLuro [udex praeLerlLo Lhe law looks forward whlle Lhe
[udge looks aL Lhe pasL Lhe Ponorable CourL ln lssulng Lhe 18C has Lranscended lLs power of [udlclal
revlew
(3) AL Lhls momenL cerLaln clrcumsLances/supervenlng evenLs Lransplred Lo Lhe effecL LhaL Lhe
repeal or modlflcaLlon of Lhe law lmposlng deaLh penalLy has become nll Lo wlL
a 1he publlc pronouncemenL of resldenL LsLrada LhaL he wlll veLo any law lmposlng Lhe deaLh
penalLy lnvolvlng helnous crlmes
b 1he resoluLlon of Congressman Colez eL al LhaL Lhey are agalnsL Lhe repeal of Lhe law
c 1he facL LhaL SenaLor 8ocos resoluLlon Lo repeal Lhe law only bears hls slgnaLure and LhaL of
SenaLor lmenLel
ln Lhelr SupplemenLal MoLlon Lo urgenL MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon publlc respondenLs aLLached a
copy of Pouse 8esoluLlon no 629 lnLroduced by Congressman Colez enLlLled 8esoluLlon expresslng Lhe
sense of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlve Lo re[ecL any move Lo revlew 8epubllc AcL no 7639 whlch
provlded for Lhe relmposlLlon of deaLh penalLy noLlfylng Lhe SenaLe Lhe !udlclary and Lhe LxecuLlve
ueparLmenL of Lhe poslLlon of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves on Lhls maLLer and urglng Lhe resldenL Lo
exhausL all means under Lhe law Lo lmmedlaLely lmplemenL Lhe deaLh penalLy law 1he 8esoluLlon was
concurred ln by one hundred LhlrLeen (113) congressmen
ln Lhelr ConsolldaLed CommenL peLlLloner conLends (1) Lhe sLay order ls wlLhln Lhe scope of [udlclal
power and duLy and does noL Lrench on execuLlve powers nor on congresslonal prerogaLlves (2) Lhe
exerclse by Lhls CourL of lLs power Lo sLay execuLlon was reasonable (3) Lhe CourL dld noL lose
[urlsdlcLlon Lo address lncldenLal maLLers lnvolved or arlslng from Lhe peLlLlon (4) publlc respondenLs
are esLopped from challenglng Lhe CourLs [urlsdlcLlon and (3) Lhere ls no cerLalnLy LhaL Lhe law on
caplLal punlshmenL wlll noL be repealed or modlfled unLll Congress convenes and conslders all Lhe
varlous resoluLlons and bllls flled before lL
refaLorlly Lhe CourL llkes Lo emphaslze LhaL Lhe lnsLanL moLlons concern maLLers LhaL are noL lncldenLs
ln C8 no 117472 where Lhe deaLh penalLy was lmposed on peLlLloner on auLomaLlc revlew of hls
convlcLlon by Lhls CourL 1he lnsLanL moLlons were flled ln Lhls case C8 no 132601 where Lhe
consLlLuLlonallLy of 8A no 8177 (LeLhal ln[ecLlon Law) and lLs lmplemenLlng rules and regulaLlons was
assalled by peLlLloner lor Lhls reason Lhe CourL ln lLs 8esoluLlon of !anuary 4 1999 merely noLed Lhe
MoLlon Lo SeL Aslde of 8odessa 8aby 8 Lchegaray daLed !anuary 7 1999 and LnLry of Appearance of
her counsel daLed !anuary 3 1999 Clearly she has no legal sLandlng Lo lnLervene ln Lhe case aL bar leL
alone Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe SLaLe ls properly represenLed by Lhe SollclLor Ceneral
We shall now resolve Lhe baslc lssues ralsed by Lhe publlc respondenLs
l
llrsL We do noL agree wlLh Lhe sweeplng submlsslon of Lhe publlc respondenLs LhaL Lhls CourL losL lLs
[urlsdlcLlon over Lhe case aL bar and hence can no longer resLraln Lhe execuLlon of Lhe peLlLloner
Cbvlously publlc respondenLs are lnvoklng Lhe rule LhaL flnal [udgmenLs can no longer be alLered ln
accord wlLh Lhe prlnclple LhaL lL ls [usL as lmporLanL LhaL Lhere should be a place Lo end as Lhere should
be a place Lo begln llLlgaLlon 1 1o sLarL wlLh Lhe CourL ls noL changlng even a comma of lLs flnal
ueclslon lL ls approprlaLe Lo examlne wlLh preclslon Lhe meLes and bounds of Lhe ueclslon of Lhls CourL
LhaL became flnal 1hese meLes and bounds are clearly spelled ouL ln Lhe LnLry of !udgmenL ln Lhls case
vlz LL[ur
Ln18? Cl !uuCMLn1
1hls ls Lo cerLlfy LhaL on CcLober 12 1998 a declslon rendered ln Lhe aboveenLlLled case was flled ln Lhls
Cfflce Lhe dlsposlLlve parL of whlch reads as follows
WPL8LlC8L Lhe peLlLlon ls uLnlLu lnsofar as peLlLloner seeks Lo declare Lhe assalled sLaLuLe (8epubllc
AcL no 8177) as unconsLlLuLlonal buL C8An1Lu lnsofar as SecLlons 17 and 19 of Lhe 8ules and
8egulaLlons Lo lmplemenL 8epubllc AcL no 8177 are concerned whlch are hereby declared lnvALlu
because (a) SecLlon 17 conLravenes ArLlcle 83 of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code as amended by SecLlon 23 of
8epubllc AcL no 7639 and (b) SecLlon 19 falls Lo provlde for revlew and approval of Lhe LeLhal ln[ecLlon
Manual by Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce and un[usLlflably makes Lhe manual confldenLlal hence unavallable
Lo lnLeresLed parLles lncludlng Lhe accused/convlcL and counsel 8espondenLs are hereby en[olned from
enforclng and lmplemenLlng 8epubllc AcL no 8177 unLll Lhe aforesald SecLlons 17 and 19 of Lhe 8ules
and 8egulaLlons Lo lmplemenL 8epubllc AcL no 8177 are approprlaLely amended revlsed and/or
correcLed ln accordance wlLh Lhls ueclslon
SC C8uL8Lu
and LhaL Lhe same has on november 6 1998 become flnal and execuLory and ls hereby recorded ln Lhe
8ook of LnLrles of !udgmenL
Manlla hlllpplnes
Clerk of CourL
8y (SCu) 1L8LSl1A C ulMAlSl
AcLlng Chlef
!udlclal 8ecords Cfflce
1he records wlll show LhaL before Lhe LnLry of !udgmenL Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce Lhe Ponorable Serafln
Cuevas flled wlLh Lhls CourL on CcLober 21 1998 a Compllance where he submlLLed Lhe Amended 8ules
and 8egulaLlons lmplemenLlng 8A no 8177 ln compllance wlLh our ueclslon Cn CcLober 28 1998
SecreLary Cuevas submlLLed a ManlfesLaLlon lnformlng Lhe CourL LhaL he has caused Lhe publlcaLlon of
Lhe sald Amended 8ules and 8egulaLlons as requlred by Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve Code lL ls crysLalllne LhaL Lhe
ueclslon of Lhls CourL LhaL became flnal and unalLerable mandaLed (1) LhaL 8A no 8177 ls noL
unconsLlLuLlonal (2) LhaL secLlons 17 and 19 of Lhe 8ules and 8egulaLlons Lo lmplemenL 8A no 8177
are lnvalld and (3) 8A no 8177 cannoL be enforced and lmplemenLed unLll secLlons 17 and 19 of Lhe
8ules and 8egulaLlons Lo lmplemenL 8A no 8177 are amended lL ls also dayllghL clear LhaL Lhls
ueclslon was noL alLered a whlL by Lhls CourL ConLrary Lo Lhe submlsslon of Lhe SollclLor Ceneral Lhe
rule on flnallLy of [udgmenL cannoL dlvesL Lhls CourL of lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo execuLe and enforce Lhe same
[udgmenL 8eLlred !usLlce Camllo Culason synLheslzed Lhe well esLabllshed [urlsprudence on Lhls lssue as
follows 2
xxx xxx xxx
Lhe flnallLy of a [udgmenL does noL mean LhaL Lhe CourL has losL all lLs powers nor Lhe case 8y Lhe
flnallLy of Lhe [udgmenL whaL Lhe courL loses ls lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo amend modlfy or alLer Lhe same Lven
afLer Lhe [udgmenL has become flnal Lhe courL reLalns lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo execuLe and enforce lL 3 1here
ls a dlfference beLween Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courL Lo execuLe lLs [udgmenL and lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo
amend modlfy or alLer Lhe same 1he former conLlnues even afLer Lhe [udgmenL has become flnal for
Lhe purpose of enforcemenL of [udgmenL Lhe laLLer LermlnaLes when Lhe [udgmenL becomes flnal 4
lor afLer Lhe [udgmenL has become flnal facLs and clrcumsLances may Lransplre whlch can render Lhe
execuLlon un[usL or lmposslble 3
ln LruLh Lhe argumenL of Lhe SollclLor Ceneral has long been re[ecLed by Lhls CourL As apLly polnLed ouL
by Lhe peLlLloner as early as 1913 Lhls CourL has unequlvocably ruled ln Lhe case of ulrecLor of rlsons
v !udge of llrsL lnsLance 6 vlz
1hls Supreme CourL has repeaLedly declared ln varlous declslons whlch consLlLuLe [urlsprudence on Lhe
sub[ecL LhaL ln crlmlnal cases afLer Lhe senLence has been pronounced and Lhe perlod for reopenlng
Lhe same has elapsed Lhe courL cannoL change or alLer lLs [udgmenL as lLs [urlsdlcLlon has LermlnaLed
When ln cases of appeal or revlew Lhe cause has been reLurned LhereLo for execuLlon ln Lhe evenL LhaL
Lhe [udgmenL has been afflrmed lL performs a mlnlsLerlal duLy ln lssulng Lhe proper order 8uL lL does
noL follow from Lhls cessaLlon of funcLlons on Lhe parL of Lhe courL wlLh reference Lo Lhe endlng of Lhe
cause LhaL Lhe [udlclal auLhorlLy LermlnaLes by havlng Lhen passed compleLely Lo Lhe LxecuLlve 1he
parLlculars of Lhe execuLlon lLself whlch are cerLalnly noL always lncluded ln Lhe [udgmenL and wrlL of
execuLlon ln any evenL are absoluLely under Lhe conLrol of Lhe [udlclal auLhorlLy whlle Lhe execuLlve has
no power over Lhe person of Lhe convlcL excepL Lo provlde for carrylng ouL of Lhe penalLy and Lo pardon
cdasla
CeLLlng down Lo Lhe soluLlon of Lhe quesLlon ln Lhe case aL bar whlch ls LhaL of execuLlon of a caplLal
senLence lL musL be accepLed as a hypoLhesls LhaL posLponemenL of Lhe daLe can be requesLed 1here
can be no dlspuLe on Lhls polnL lL ls a wellknown prlnclple LhaL noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe order of execuLlon
and Lhe execuLory naLure Lhereof on Lhe daLe seL or aL Lhe proper Llme Lhe daLe Lherefor can be
posLponed even ln senLences of deaLh under Lhe common law Lhls posLponemenL can be ordered ln
Lhree ways (1) 8y command of Lhe klng (2) by dlscreLlon (arblLrlo) of Lhe courL and (3) by mandaLe of
Lhe law lL ls sufflclenL Lo sLaLe Lhls prlnclple of Lhe common law Lo render lmposslble LhaL asserLlon ln
absoluLe Lerms LhaL afLer Lhe convlcL has once been placed ln [all Lhe Lrlal courL can noL reopen Lhe case
Lo lnvesLlgaLe Lhe facLs LhaL show Lhe need for posLponemenL lf one of Lhe ways ls by dlrecLlon of Lhe
courL lL ls acknowledged LhaL even afLer Lhe daLe of Lhe execuLlon has been flxed and noLwlLhsLandlng
Lhe general rule LhaL afLer Lhe (courL) has performed lLs mlnlsLerlal duLy of orderlng Lhe execuLlon
and lLs parL ls ended lf however a clrcumsLance arlses LhaL oughL Lo delay Lhe execuLlon and Lhere ls an
lmperaLlve duLy Lo lnvesLlgaLe Lhe emergency and Lo order a posLponemenL 1hen Lhe quesLlon arlses as
Lo whom Lhe appllcaLlon for posLponlng Lhe execuLlon oughL Lo be addressed whlle Lhe clrcumsLances ls
under lnvesLlgaLlon and as Lo who has [urlsdlcLlon Lo make Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon
1he power Lo conLrol Lhe execuLlon of lLs declslon ls an essenLlal aspecL of [urlsdlcLlon lL cannoL be Lhe
sub[ecL of subsLanLlal subLracLlon for our ConsLlLuLlon 7 vesLs Lhe enLlreLy of [udlclal power ln one
Supreme CourL and ln such lower courLs as may be esLabllshed by law 1o be sure Lhe mosL lmporLanL
parL of a llLlgaLlon wheLher clvll or crlmlnal ls Lhe process of execuLlon of declslons where supervenlng
evenLs may change Lhe clrcumsLance of Lhe parLles and compel courLs Lo lnLervene and ad[usL Lhe rlghLs
of Lhe llLlganLs Lo prevenL unfalrness lL ls because of Lhese unforeseen supervenlng conLlngencles LhaL
courLs have been conceded Lhe lnherenL and necessary power of conLrol of lLs processes and orders Lo
make Lhem conformable Lo law and [usLlce 8 lor Lhls purpose SecLlon 6 of 8ule 133 provldes LhaL
when by law [urlsdlcLlon ls conferred on a courL or [udlclal offlcer all auxlllary wrlLs processes and
oLher means necessary Lo carry lL lnLo effecL may be employed by such courL or offlcer and lf Lhe
procedure Lo be followed ln Lhe exerclse of such [urlsdlcLlon ls noL speclflcally polnLed ouL by law or by
Lhese rules any sulLable process or mode of proceedlng may be adopLed whlch appears conformable Lo
Lhe splrlL of sald law or rules lL bears repeaLlng LhaL whaL Lhe CourL resLralned Lemporarlly ls Lhe
execuLlon of lLs own ueclslon Lo glve lL reasonable Llme Lo check lLs falrness ln llghL of supervenlng
evenLs ln Congress as alleged by peLlLloner 1he CourL conLrary Lo popular mlslmpresslon dld noL
resLraln Lhe effecLlvlLy of a law enacLed by Congress
1he more dlsquleLlng dlmenslon of Lhe submlsslon of Lhe publlc respondenLs LhaL Lhls CourL has no
[urlsdlcLlon Lo resLraln Lhe execuLlon of peLlLloner ls LhaL lL can dlmlnlsh Lhe lndependence of Lhe
[udlclary Slnce Lhe lmplanL of republlcanlsm ln our soll our courLs have been conceded Lhe [urlsdlcLlon
Lo enforce Lhelr flnal declslons ln accord wlLh Lhls unquesLloned [urlsdlcLlon Lhls CourL promulgaLed
rules concernlng pleadlng pracLlce and procedure whlch among oLhers spelled ouL Lhe rules on
execuLlon of [udgmenLs 1hese rules are all predlcaLed on Lhe assumpLlon LhaL courLs have Lhe lnherenL
necessary and lncldenLal power Lo conLrol and supervlse Lhe process of execuLlon of Lhelr declslons
8ule 39 governs execuLlon saLlsfacLlon and effecLs of [udgmenLs ln clvll cases 8ule 120 governs
[udgmenLs ln crlmlnal cases lL should be sLressed LhaL Lhe power Lo promulgaLe rules of pleadlng
pracLlce and procedure was granLed by our ConsLlLuLlons Lo Lhls CourL Lo enhance lLs lndependence for
ln Lhe words of !usLlce lsaganl Cruz wlLhouL lndependence and lnLegrlLy courLs wlll lose LhaL popular
LrusL so essenLlal Lo Lhe malnLenance of Lhelr vlgor as champlons of [usLlce 9 Pence our ConsLlLuLlons
conLlnuously vesLed Lhls power Lo Lhls CourL for lL enhances lLs lndependence under Lhe 1933
ConsLlLuLlon Lhe power of Lhls CourL Lo promulgaLe rules concernlng pleadlng pracLlce and procedure
was granLed buL lL appeared Lo be coexlsLenL wlLh leglslaLlve power for lL was sub[ecL Lo Lhe power of
Congress Lo repeal alLer or supplemenL 1hus lLs SecLlon 13 ArLlcle vlll provldes
Sec 13 1he Supreme CourL shall have Lhe power Lo promulgaLe rules concernlng pleadlng
pracLlce and procedure ln all courLs and Lhe admlsslon Lo Lhe pracLlce of law Sald rules shall be unlform
for all courLs of Lhe same grade and shall noL dlmlnlsh lncrease or modlfy subsLanLlve rlghLs 1he
exlsLlng laws on pleadlng pracLlce and procedure are hereby repealed as sLaLuLes and are declared
8ules of CourL sub[ecL Lo Lhe power of Lhe Supreme CourL Lo alLer and modlfy Lhe same 1he Congress
shall have Lhe power Lo repeal alLer or supplemenL Lhe rules concernlng pleadlng pracLlce and
procedure and Lhe admlsslon Lo Lhe pracLlce of law ln Lhe hlllpplnes
1he sald power of Congress however ls noL as absoluLe as lL may appear on lLs surface ln ln re Cunanan
10 Congress ln Lhe exerclse of lLs power Lo amend rules of Lhe Supreme CourL regardlng admlsslon Lo
Lhe pracLlce of law enacLed Lhe 8ar llunkers AcL of 1933 11 whlch consldered as a passlng grade Lhe
average of 70 ln Lhe bar examlnaLlons afLer !uly 4 1946 up Lo AugusL 1931 and 71 ln Lhe 1932 bar
examlnaLlons 1hls CourL sLruck down Lhe law as unconsLlLuLlonal ln hls ponencla Mr !usLlce ulokno
held LhaL Lhe dlspuLed law ls noL a leglslaLlon lL ls a [udgmenL a [udgmenL promulgaLed by Lhls
CourL durlng Lhe aforeclLed years affecLlng Lhe bar candldaLes concerned and alLhough Lhls CourL
cerLalnly can revoke Lhese [udgmenLs even now for [usLlflable reasons lL ls no less cerLaln LhaL only Lhls
CourL and noL Lhe leglslaLlve nor execuLlve deparLmenL LhaL may do so Any aLLempL on Lhe parL of
Lhese deparLmenLs would be a clear usurpaLlon of lLs funcLlon as ls Lhe case wlLh Lhe law ln quesLlon
12 1he venerable [urlsL furLher ruled lL ls obvlous Lherefore LhaL Lhe ulLlmaLe power Lo granL llcense
for Lhe pracLlce of law belongs excluslvely Lo Lhls CourL and Lhe law passed by Congress on Lhe maLLer ls
of permlsslve characLer or as oLher auLhorlLles say merely Lo flx Lhe mlnlmum condlLlons for Lhe
llcense 8y lLs rullng Lhls CourL quallfled Lhe absoluLlsL Lone of Lhe power of Congress Lo repeal alLer
or supplemenL Lhe rules concernlng pleadlng pracLlce and procedure and Lhe admlsslon Lo Lhe pracLlce
of law ln Lhe hlllpplnes cdasla
1he rullng of Lhls CourL ln ln re Cunanan was noL changed by Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon lor Lhe 1973
ConsLlLuLlon relLeraLed Lhe power of Lhls CourL Lo promulgaLe rules concernlng pleadlng pracLlce and
procedure ln all courLs whlch however may be repealed alLered or supplemenLed by Lhe 8aLasang
ambansa More compleLely SecLlon 3(2)3 of lLs ArLlcle x provlded
xxx xxx xxx
Sec 3 1he Supreme CourL shall have Lhe followlng powers
xxx xxx xxx
(3) romulgaLe rules concernlng pleadlng pracLlce and procedure ln all courLs Lhe admlsslon Lo
Lhe pracLlce of law and Lhe lnLegraLlon of Lhe 8ar whlch however may be repealed alLered or
supplemenLed by Lhe 8aLasang ambansa Such rules shall provlde a slmpllfled and lnexpenslve
procedure for Lhe speedy dlsposlLlon of cases shall be unlform for all courLs of Lhe same grade and shall
noL dlmlnlsh lncrease or modlfy subsLanLlve rlghLs
Well worLh noLlng ls LhaL Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon furLher sLrengLhened Lhe lndependence of Lhe [udlclary
by glvlng Lo lL Lhe addlLlonal power Lo promulgaLe rules governlng Lhe lnLegraLlon of Lhe 8ar 13
1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon molded an even sLronger and more lndependenL [udlclary Among oLhers lL
enhanced Lhe rule maklng power of Lhls CourL lLs SecLlon 3(3) ArLlcle vlll provldes
xxx xxx xxx
SecLlon 3 1he Supreme CourL shall have Lhe followlng powers
xxx xxx xxx
(3) romulgaLe rules concernlng Lhe proLecLlon and enforcemenL of consLlLuLlonal rlghLs pleadlng
pracLlce and procedure ln all courLs Lhe admlsslon Lo Lhe pracLlce of law Lhe lnLegraLed 8ar and legal
asslsLance Lo Lhe underprlvlleged Such rules shall provlde a slmpllfled and lnexpenslve procedure for
Lhe speedy dlsposlLlon of cases shall be unlform for all courLs of Lhe same grade and shall noL dlmlnlsh
lncrease or modlfy subsLanLlve rlghLs 8ules of procedure of speclal courLs and quasl[udlclal bodles
shall remaln effecLlve unless dlsapproved by Lhe Supreme CourL
1he rule maklng power of Lhls CourL was expanded 1hls CourL for Lhe flrsL Llme was glven Lhe power Lo
promulgaLe rules concernlng Lhe proLecLlon and enforcemenL of consLlLuLlonal rlghLs 1he CourL was
also granLed for Lhe flrsL Llme Lhe power Lo dlsapprove rules of procedure of speclal courLs and quasl
[udlclal bodles 8uL mosL lmporLanLly Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon Look away Lhe power of Congress Lo repeal
alLer or supplemenL rules concernlng pleadlng pracLlce and procedure ln flne Lhe power Lo
promulgaLe rules of pleadlng pracLlce and procedure ls no longer shared by Lhls CourL wlLh Congress
more so wlLh Lhe LxecuLlve lf Lhe manlfesL lnLenL of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon ls Lo sLrengLhen Lhe
lndependence of Lhe [udlclary lL ls lnuLlle Lo urge as publlc respondenLs do LhaL Lhls CourL has no
[urlsdlcLlon Lo conLrol Lhe process of execuLlon of lLs declslons a power conceded Lo lL and whlch lL has
exerclsed slnce Llme lmmemorlal LLphll
1o be sure lL ls Loo laLe ln Lhe day for publlc respondenLs Lo assall Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhls CourL Lo conLrol
and supervlse Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of lLs declslon ln Lhe case aL bar As aforesLaLed our ueclslon became
flnal and execuLory on november 6 1998 1he records reveal LhaL afLer november 6 1998 or on
uecember 8 1998 no less Lhan Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce recognlzed Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhls CourL by flllng
a ManlfesLaLlon and urgenL MoLlon Lo compel Lhe Lrlal [udge Lhe Ponorable 1helma A onferrada 81C
8r 104 Cuezon ClLy Lo provlde hlm a cerLlfled Lrue copy of Lhe WarranL of LxecuLlon daLed
november 17 1998 bearlng Lhe deslgnaLed execuLlon day of deaLh convlcL Leo Lchegaray and allow
(hlm) Lo reveal or announce Lhe conLenLs Lhereof parLlcularly Lhe execuLlon daLe flxed by such Lrlal
courL Lo Lhe publlc when requesLed 1he relevanL porLlons of Lhe ManlfesLaLlon and urgenL MoLlon
flled by Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce beseechlng Lhls CourL Lo provlde Lhe approprlaLe rellef sLaLe
xxx xxx xxx
3 lnsLead of flllng a commenL on !udge onferradas ManlfesLaLlon however hereln respondenL ls
submlLLlng Lhe lnsLanL ManlfesLaLlon and MoLlon (a) Lo sLress lnLer alla LhaL Lhe nondlsclosure of Lhe
daLe of execuLlon deprlves hereln respondenL of vlLal lnformaLlon necessary for Lhe exerclse of hls
sLaLuLory powers as well as renders nugaLory Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLee LhaL recognlzes Lhe peoples
rlghL Lo lnformaLlon of publlc concern and (b) Lo ask Lhls Ponorable CourL Lo provlde Lhe approprlaLe
rellef
6 1he nondlsclosure of Lhe daLe of execuLlon deprlves hereln respondenL of vlLal lnformaLlon
necessary for Lhe exerclse of hls power of supervlslon and conLrol over Lhe 8ureau of CorrecLlons
pursuanL Lo SecLlon 39 ChapLer 8 8ook lv of Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1987 ln relaLlon Lo 1lLle lll
8ook lv of such AdmlnlsLraLlve Code lnsofar as Lhe enforcemenL of 8epubllc AcL no 8177 and Lhe
Amended 8ules and 8egulaLlons Lo lmplemenL 8epubllc AcL no 8177 ls concerned and for Lhe dlscharge
of Lhe mandaLe of seelng Lo lL LhaL laws and rules relaLlve Lo Lhe execuLlon of senLence are falLhfully
observed
7 Cn Lhe oLher hand Lhe wlllful omlsslon Lo reveal Lhe lnformaLlon abouL Lhe preclse day of
execuLlon llmlLs Lhe exerclse by Lhe resldenL of execuLlve clemency powers pursuanL Lo SecLlon 19
ArLlcle vll (LxecuLlve ueparLmenL) of Lhe 1987 hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon and ArLlcle 81 of Lhe 8evlsed
enal Code as amended whlch provldes LhaL Lhe deaLh senLence shall be carrled ouL wlLhouL pre[udlce
Lo Lhe exerclse by Lhe resldenL of hls execuLlve clemency powers aL all Llmes (underscorlng supplled)
lor lnsLance Lhe resldenL cannoL granL reprleve le posLpone Lhe execuLlon of a senLence Lo a day
cerLaln (eople v vera 63 hll 36 110 1937) ln Lhe absence of a preclse daLe Lo reckon wlLh 1he
exerclse of such clemency power aL Lhls Llme mlghL even work Lo Lhe pre[udlce of Lhe convlcL and
defeaL Lhe purpose of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and Lhe appllcable sLaLuLe as when Lhe daLe of execuLlon seL by
Lhe resldenL would be earller Lhan LhaL deslgnaLed by Lhe courL
8 Moreover Lhe dellberaLe nondlsclosure of lnformaLlon abouL Lhe daLe of execuLlon Lo hereln
respondenL and Lhe publlc vlolaLes SecLlon 7 ArLlcle lll (8lll of 8lghLs) and SecLlon 28 ArLlcle ll
(ueclaraLlon of rlnclples and SLaLe ollcles) of Lhe 1987 hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon whlch read
SLC 7 1he rlghL of Lhe people Lo lnformaLlon on maLLers of publlc concern shall be recognlzed Access
Lo offlclal records and Lo documenLs and papers perLalnlng Lo offlclal acLs LransacLlons or declslons as
well as Lo governmenL research daLa used as basls for pollcy developmenL shall be afforded Lhe clLlzen
sub[ecL Lo such llmlLaLlons as may be provlded by law
SLC 28 Sub[ecL Lo reasonable condlLlons prescrlbed by law Lhe SLaLe adopLs and lmplemenLs a pollcy of
full publlc dlsclosure of all lLs LransacLlons lnvolvlng publlc lnLeresL
9 1he rlghL Lo lnformaLlon provlslon ls selfexecuLlng lL supplles Lhe rules by means of whlch Lhe
rlghL Lo lnformaLlon may be en[oyed (Cooley A 1reaLlse on Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal LlmlLaLlons 167 1972) by
guaranLeelng Lhe rlghL and mandaLlng Lhe duLy Lo afford access Lo sources of lnformaLlon Pence Lhe
fundamenLal rlghL Lhereln recognlzed may be asserLed by Lhe people upon Lhe raLlflcaLlon of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon wlLhouL need for any anclllary acL of Lhe LeglslaLure (ld aL p 163) WhaL may be provlded
for by Lhe LeglslaLure are reasonable condlLlons and llmlLaLlons upon Lhe access Lo be afforded whlch
musL of necesslLy be conslsLenL wlLh Lhe declared SLaLe pollcy of full publlc dlsclosure of all
LransacLlons lnvolvlng publlc lnLeresL (ConsLlLuLlon ArL ll Sec 28) Powever lL cannoL be
overemphaslzed LhaL whaLever llmlLaLlon may be prescrlbed by Lhe LeglslaLure Lhe rlghL and Lhe duLy
under ArL lll Sec 7 have become operaLlve and enforceable by vlrLue of Lhe adopLlon of Lhe new
CharLer (ueclslon of Lhe Supreme CourL Ln 8anc ln Legaspl v Clvll Servlce Commlsslon 130 SC8A 330
334333 1987
1he same moLlon Lo compel !udge onferrada Lo reveal Lhe daLe of execuLlon of peLlLloner Lchegaray
was flled by hls counsel ALLy 1heodore 1e on uecember 7 1998 Pe lnvoked hls cllenLs rlghL Lo due
process and Lhe publlcs rlghL Lo lnformaLlon 1he SollclLor Ceneral as counsel for publlc respondenLs
dld noL oppose peLlLloners moLlon on Lhe ground LhaL Lhls CourL has no more [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe
process of execuLlon of Lchegaray 1hls CourL granLed Lhe rellef prayed for by Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce
and by Lhe counsel of Lhe peLlLloner ln lLs 8esoluLlon of uecember 13 1998 1here was noL a whlmper of
proLesL from Lhe publlc respondenLs and Lhey are now esLopped from conLendlng LhaL Lhls CourL has
losL lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo granL sald rellef 1he [urlsdlcLlon of Lhls CourL does noL depend on Lhe convenlence
of llLlganLs cdLal
ll
Second We llkewlse re[ecL Lhe publlc respondenLs conLenLlon LhaL Lhe declslon ln Lhls case havlng
become flnal and execuLory lLs execuLlon enLers Lhe excluslve amblL of auLhorlLy of Lhe execuLlve
deparLmenL 8y granLlng Lhe 18C Lhe Ponorable CourL has ln effecL granLed reprleve whlch ls an
execuLlve funcLlon 14 ubllc respondenLs clLe as Lhelr auLhorlLy for Lhls proposlLlon SecLlon 19 ArLlcle
vll of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon whlch reads
LxcepL ln cases of lmpeachmenL or as oLherwlse provlded ln Lhls ConsLlLuLlon Lhe resldenL may granL
reprleves commuLaLlons and pardons and remlL flnes and forfelLures afLer convlcLlon by flnal
[udgmenL Pe shall also have Lhe power Lo granL amnesLy wlLh Lhe concurrence of a ma[orlLy of all Lhe
members of Lhe Congress
1he LexL and Lone of Lhls provlslon wlll noL yleld Lo Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon suggesLed by Lhe publlc
respondenLs 1he provlslon ls slmply Lhe source of power of Lhe resldenL Lo granL reprleves
commuLaLlons and pardons and remlL flnes and forfelLures afLer convlcLlon by flnal [udgmenL lL also
provldes Lhe auLhorlLy for Lhe resldenL Lo granL amnesLy wlLh Lhe concurrence of a ma[orlLy of all Lhe
members of Lhe Congress 1he provlslon however cannoL be lnLerpreLed as denylng Lhe power of
courLs Lo conLrol Lhe enforcemenL of Lhelr declslons afLer Lhelr flnallLy ln LruLh an accused who has
been convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL sLlll possesses collaLeral rlghLs and Lhese rlghLs can be clalmed ln Lhe
approprlaLe courLs lor lnsLance a deaLh convlcL who becomes lnsane afLer hls flnal convlcLlon cannoL
be execuLed whlle ln a sLaLe of lnsanlLy 13 As observed by AnLleau Loday lL ls generally assumed LhaL
due process of law wlll prevenL Lhe governmenL from execuLlng Lhe deaLh senLence upon a person who
ls lnsane aL Lhe Llme of execuLlon 16 1he suspenslon of such a deaLh senLence ls undlspuLably an
exerclse of [udlclal power lL ls noL a usurpaLlon of Lhe presldenLlal power of reprleve Lhough lLs effecL ls
Lhe same Lhe Lemporary suspenslon of Lhe execuLlon of Lhe deaLh convlcL ln Lhe same veln lL cannoL
be denled LhaL Congress can aL any Llme amend 8A no 7639 by reduclng Lhe penalLy of deaLh Lo llfe
lmprlsonmenL 1he effecL of such an amendmenL ls llke LhaL of commuLaLlon of senLence 8uL by no
sLreLch of Lhe lmaglnaLlon can Lhe exerclse by Congress of lLs plenary power Lo amend laws be
consldered as a vlolaLlon of Lhe power of Lhe resldenL Lo commuLe flnal senLences of convlcLlon 1he
powers of Lhe LxecuLlve Lhe LeglslaLlve and Lhe !udlclary Lo save Lhe llfe of a deaLh convlcL do noL
exclude each oLher for Lhe slmple reason LhaL Lhere ls no hlgher rlghL Lhan Lhe rlghL Lo llfe lndeed ln
varlous SLaLes ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes laws have even been enacLed expressly granLlng courLs Lhe power Lo
suspend execuLlon of convlcLs and Lhelr consLlLuLlonallLy has been upheld over argumenLs LhaL Lhey
lnfrlnge upon Lhe power of Lhe resldenL Lo granL reprleves lor Lhe publlc respondenLs Lherefore Lo
conLend LhaL only Lhe LxecuLlve can proLecL Lhe rlghL Lo llfe of an accused afLer hls flnal convlcLlon ls Lo
vlolaLe Lhe prlnclple of coequal and coordlnaLe powers of Lhe Lhree branches of our governmenL
lll
1hlrd 1he CourLs resoluLlon Lemporarlly resLralnlng Lhe execuLlon of peLlLloner musL be puL ln lLs
proper perspecLlve as lL has been grlevously dlsLorLed especlally by Lhose who make a llvlng by vlllfylng
courLs eLlLloner flled hls very urgenL MoLlon for lssuance of 18C on uecember 28 1998 aL abouL 1130
pm Pe lnvoked several grounds vlz (1) LhaL hls execuLlon has been seL on !anuary 4 Lhe flrsL worklng
day of 1999 (b) LhaL members of Congress had elLher soughL for hls execuLlve clemency and/or revlew
or repeal of Lhe law auLhorlzlng caplLal punlshmenL (b1) LhaL SenaLor Aqulllno lmenLels resoluLlon
asklng LhaL clemency be granLed Lo Lhe peLlLloner and LhaL caplLal punlshmenL be revlewed has been
concurred by LhlrLeen (13) oLher senaLors (b2) SenaLe resldenL Marcelo lernan and SenaLor Mlrlam S
uefensor have publlcly declared Lhey would seek a revlew of Lhe deaLh penalLy law (b3) SenaLor 8aul
8oco has also soughL Lhe repeal of caplLal punlshmenL and (b4) Congressman Salacrlb 8aLerlna !r and
LhlrLy flve (33) oLher congressmen are demandlng revlew of Lhe same law
When Lhe very urgenL MoLlon was flled Lhe CourL was already ln lLs LradlLlonal recess and would only
resume sesslon on !anuary 18 1999 Lven Lhen Chlef !usLlce Pllarlo uavlde !r called Lhe CourL Lo a
Speclal Sesslon on !anuary 4 1999 17 aL 10 am Lo dellberaLe on peLlLloners very urgenL MoLlon 1he
CourL hardly had flve (3) hours Lo resolve peLlLloners moLlon as he was due Lo be execuLed aL 3 pm
1hus Lhe CourL had Lhe dlfflculL problem of resolvlng wheLher peLlLloners allegaLlons abouL Lhe moves
ln Congress Lo repeal or amend Lhe ueaLh enalLy Law are mere speculaLlons or noL 1o Lhe CourLs
ma[orlLy Lhere were good reasons why Lhe CourL should noL lmmedlaLely dlsmlss peLlLloners
allegaLlons as mere speculaLlons and surmlses 1hey noLed LhaL peLlLloners allegaLlons were made ln a
pleadlng under oaLh and were wldely publlclzed ln Lhe prlnL and broadcasL medla lL was also of [udlclal
noLlce LhaL Lhe 11Lh Congress ls a new Congress and has no less Lhan one hundred LhlrLy (130) new
members whose vlews on caplLal punlshmenL are sLlll unexpressed 1he presenL Congress ls Lherefore
dlfferenL from Lhe Congress LhaL enacLed Lhe ueaLh enalLy Law (8A no 7639) and Lhe LeLhal ln[ecLlon
Law (8A no 8177) ln conLrasL Lhe CourLs mlnorlLy felL LhaL peLlLloners allegaLlons lacked clear facLual
bases 1here was hardly a Llme Lo verlfy peLlLloners allegaLlons as hls execuLlon was seL aL 3 pm And
verlflcaLlon from Congress was lmposslble as Congress was noL ln sesslon Clven Lhese consLralnLs Lhe
CourLs ma[orlLy dld noL rush Lo [udgmenL buL Look an exLremely cauLlous sLance by Lemporarlly
resLralnlng Lhe execuLlon of peLlLloner 1he suspenslon was Lemporary unLll !une 13 1999 coeval
wlLh Lhe consLlLuLlonal duraLlon of Lhe presenL regular sesslon of Congress unless lL sooner becomes
cerLaln LhaL no repeal or modlflcaLlon of Lhe law ls golng Lo be made 1he exLreme cauLlon Laken by Lhe
CourL was compelled among oLhers by Lhe fear LhaL any error of Lhe CourL ln noL sLopplng Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe peLlLloner wlll preclude any furLher rellef for all rlghLs sLop aL Lhe graveyard As llfe was
aL sLake Lhe CourL refused Lo consLlLuLlonallze hasLe and Lhe hysLerla of some parLlsans 1he CourLs
ma[orlLy felL lL needed Lhe cerLalnLy LhaL Lhe leglslaLure wlll noL change Lhe clrcumsLance of peLlLloner as
alleged by hls counsel lL was belleved LhaL law and equlLable conslderaLlons demand no less before
allowlng Lhe SLaLe Lo Lake Lhe llfe of one of lLs clLlzens
1he Lemporary resLralnlng order of Lhls CourL has produced lLs deslred resulL le Lhe crysLalllzaLlon of
Lhe lssue wheLher Congress ls dlsposed Lo revlew caplLal punlshmenL 1he publlc respondenLs Lhru Lhe
SollclLor Ceneral clLe posLerlor evenLs LhaL negaLe beyond doubL Lhe posslblllLy LhaL Congress wlll
repeal or amend Lhe deaLh penalLy law Pe names Lhese supervenlng evenLs as follows cda
xxx xxx xxx
a 1he publlc pronouncemenL of resldenL LsLrada LhaL he wlll veLo any law repeallng Lhe deaLh
penalLy lnvolvlng helnous crlmes
b 1he resoluLlon of Congressman Colez eL al LhaL Lhey are agalnsL Lhe repeal of Lhe law
c 1he facL LhaL SenaLor 8ocos resoluLlon Lo repeal Lhe law only bears hls slgnaLure and LhaL of
SenaLor lmenLel 18
ln Lhelr SupplemenLal MoLlon Lo urgenL MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon Lhe SollclLor Ceneral clLed Pouse
8esoluLlon no 629 lnLroduced by Congressman Colez enLlLled 8esoluLlon expresslng Lhe sense of Lhe
Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves Lo re[ecL any move Lo revlew 8A no 7639 whlch provlded for Lhe
relmposlLlon of deaLh penalLy noLlfylng Lhe SenaLe Lhe !udlclary and Lhe LxecuLlve ueparLmenL of Lhe
poslLlon of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves on Lhls maLLer and urglng Lhe resldenL Lo exhausL all means
under Lhe law Lo lmmedlaLely lmplemenL Lhe deaLh penalLy law 1he Colez resoluLlon was slgned by
113 congressmen as of !anuary 11 1999 ln a maraLhon sesslon yesLerday LhaL exLended up Lo 3 oclock
ln Lhe mornlng Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves wlLh mlnor amendmenLs formally adopLed Lhe Colez
resoluLlon by an overwhelmlng voLe Pouse 8esoluLlon no 23 expressed Lhe senLlmenL LhaL Lhe Pouse
does noL deslre aL Lhls Llme Lo revlew 8epubllc AcL 7639 ln addlLlon Lhe resldenL has sLaLed LhaL
he wlll noL requesL Congress Lo raLlfy Lhe Second roLocol ln vlew of Lhe prevalence of helnous crlmes ln
Lhe counLry ln llghL of Lhese developmenLs Lhe CourLs 18C should now be llfLed as lL has served lLs
legal and humanlLarlan purpose
A lasL noLe ln 1922 Lhe famous Clarence uarrow predlcLed LhaL Lhe quesLlon of caplLal punlshmenL
has been Lhe sub[ecL of endless dlscusslon and wlll probably never be seLLled so long as men belleve ln
punlshmenL 19 ln our cllme and Llme when helnous crlmes conLlnue Lo be unchecked Lhe debaLe on
Lhe legal and moral predlcaLes of caplLal punlshmenL has been regreLLably blurred by emoLlonallsm
because of Lhe unfalLerlng falLh of Lhe pro and anLldeaLh parLlsans on Lhe rlghL and rlghLeousness of
Lhelr posLulaLes 1o be sure any debaLe even lf lL ls no more Lhan an exchange of eplLheLs ls healLhy ln a
democracy 8uL when Lhe debaLe deLerloraLes Lo dlscord due Lo Lhe overuse of words LhaL wound when
anger LhreaLens Lo Lurn Lhe ma[orlLy rule Lo Lyranny lL ls Lhe especlal duLy of Lhls CourL Lo assure LhaL
Lhe guaranLees of Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs Lo Lhe mlnorlLy fully hold As !usLlce 8rennan remlnds us lL ls Lhe
very purpose of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and parLlcularly Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs Lo declare cerLaln values
LranscendenL beyond Lhe reach of Lemporary pollLlcal ma[orlLles 20 Man has yeL Lo lnvenL a beLLer
haLchery of [usLlce Lhan Lhe courLs lL ls a haLchery where [usLlce wlll bloom only when we can prevenL
Lhe rooLs of reason Lo be blown away by Lhe wlnds of rage 1he flame of Lhe rule of law cannoL be
lgnlLed by rage especlally Lhe rage of Lhe mob whlch ls Lhe moLher of unfalrness 1he buslness of courLs
ln renderlng [usLlce ls Lo be falr and Lhey can pass Lhelr llLmus LesL only when Lhey can be falr Lo hlm
who ls momenLarlly Lhe mosL haLed by socleLy 21
ln vlLW WPL8LCl Lhe CourL granLs Lhe publlc respondenLs urgenL MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon and
SupplemenLal MoLlon Lo urgenL MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon and llfLs Lhe 1emporary 8esLralnlng Crder
lssued ln lLs 8esoluLlon of !anuary 4 1999
1he CourL also orders respondenL Lrlal courL [udge (Pon 1helma A onferrada 8eglonal 1rlal CourL
Cuezon ClLy 8ranch 104) Lo seL anew Lhe daLe for execuLlon of Lhe convlcL/peLlLloner ln accordance
wlLh appllcable provlslons of law and Lhe 8ules of CourL wlLhouL furLher delay cdasla
SC C8uL8Lu
uavlde !r C! 8omero 8elloslllo Melo kapunan Mendoza MarLlnez Culsumblng urlslma and
ardo !! concur
vlLug and anganlban !! please see separaLe oplnlon
8uena and Conzaga8eyes !! Look no parL
SeparaLe Cplnlons
vl1uC !
LeL me sLaLe aL Lhe ouLseL LhaL l have humbly malnLalned LhaL 8epubllc AcL no 7639 lnsofar as lL
prescrlbes Lhe deaLh penalLy falls shorL of Lhe sLrlcL norm seL forLh by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon l and some of
my breLhren on Lhe CourL who hold slmllarly have conslsLenLly expressed Lhls sLand ln Lhe afflrmance
by Lhe CourL of deaLh senLences lmposed by 8eglonal 1rlal CourLs
ln lLs resoluLlon of 04 !anuary 1999 Lhe CourL resolved Lo lssue ln Lhe abovenumbered peLlLlon a
Lemporary resLralnlng order (18C) because among oLher Lhlngs of whaL had been sLaLed Lo be
lndlcaLlons LhaL Congress would reexamlne Lhe deaLh penalLy law lL was prlnclpally ouL of respecL and
comlLy Lo a coequal branch of Lhe governmenL le Lo reasonably allow lL LhaL opporLunlLy lf Lruly
mlnded LhaL moLlvaLed Lhe CourL Lo granL afLer dellberaLlon a llmlLed Llme for Lhe purpose
1he CourL lL musL be sLressed dld noL by lssulng Lhe 18C Lhereby reconslder lLs [udgmenL convlcLlng
Lhe accused or recall Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy cdLal
1he docLrlne has almosL lnvarlably been LhaL afLer a declslon becomes flnal and execuLory noLhlng else
ls furLher done excepL Lo see Lo lLs compllance slnce for Lhe CourL Lo adopL oLherwlse would be Lo puL
no end Lo llLlgaLlons 1he rule noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe CourL reLalns conLrol over Lhe case unLll Lhe full
saLlsfacLlon of Lhe flnal [udgmenL conformably wlLh esLabllshed legal processes Pence Lhe CourL has
Laken cognlzance of Lhe peLlLlon assalllng before lL Lhe use of leLhal ln[ecLlon by Lhe SLaLe Lo carry ouL
Lhe deaLh senLence ln any evenL [urlsprudence Leaches LhaL Lhe rule of lmmuLablllLy of flnal and
execuLory [udgmenLs admlLs of seLLled excepLlons Concededly Lhe CourL may for lnsLance suspend Lhe
execuLlon of a flnal [udgmenL when lL becomes lmperaLlve ln Lhe hlgher lnLeresL of [usLlce or when
supervenlng evenLs warranL lL 1 CerLalnly Lhls exLraordlnary rellef cannoL be denled any man whaLever
mlghL be hls sLaLlon whose rlghL Lo llfe ls Lhe lssue aL sLake 1he pronouncemenL ln ulrecLor of rlsons
vs !udge of llrsL lnsLance of CavlLe 2 should be lnsLrucLlve 1hus
1hls Supreme CourL has repeaLedly declared ln varlous declslons whlch consLlLuLe [urlsprudence on Lhe
sub[ecL LhaL ln crlmlnal cases afLer Lhe senLence has been pronounced and Lhe perlod for reopenlng
Lhe same has elapsed Lhe courL can noL change or alLer lLs [udgmenL as lLs [urlsdlcLlon has LermlnaLed
funcLus esL offlclo suo accordlng Lo Lhe classlcal phrase When ln cases of appeal or revlew Lhe cause
has been reLurned LhereLo for execuLlon ln Lhe evenL LhaL Lhe [udgmenL has been afflrmed lL performs
a mlnlsLerlal duLy ln lssulng Lhe proper order 8uL lL does noL follow from Lhls cessaLlon of funcLlons on
Lhe parL of Lhe courL wlLh reference Lo Lhe endlng of Lhe cause LhaL Lhe [udlclal auLhorlLy LermlnaLes by
havlng Lhen passed compleLely Lo Lhe execuLlve 1he parLlculars of Lhe execuLlon lLself whlch are
cerLalnly noL always lncluded ln Lhe [udgmenL and wrlL of execuLlon ln any evenL are absoluLely under
Lhe conLrol of Lhe [udlclal auLhorlLy whlle Lhe execuLlve has no power over Lhe person of Lhe convlcL
excepL Lo provlde for carrylng ouL Lhe penalLy and Lo pardon
CeLLlng down Lo Lhe soluLlon of Lhe quesLlon ln Lhe case aL bar whlch ls LhaL of execuLlon of a caplLal
senLence lL musL be accepLed as a hypoLhesls LhaL posLponemenL of Lhe daLe can be requesLed 1here
can be no dlspuLe on Lhls polnL lL ls a wellknown prlnclple LhaL noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe order of execuLlon
and Lhe execuLory naLure Lhereof on Lhe daLe seL or aL Lhe proper Llme Lhe daLe Lherefor can be
posLponed even ln senLences of deaLh under Lhe common law Lhls posLponemenL can be ordered ln
Lhree ways (1) 8y command of Lhe klng (2) by dlscreLlon (arblLrlo) of Lhe courL and (3) by mandaLe of
Lhe law lL ls sufflclenL Lo sLaLe Lhls prlnclple of Lhe common law Lo render lmposslble Lhe asserLlon ln
absoluLe Lerms LhaL afLer Lhe convlcL has once been placed ln [all Lhe Lrlal courL can noL reopen Lhe case
Lo lnvesLlgaLe Lhe facLs LhaL show Lhe need for posLponemenL lf one of Lhe ways ls by dlrecLlon of Lhe
courL lL ls acknowledged LhaL even afLer Lhe daLe of Lhe execuLlon has been flxed and noLwlLhsLandlng
Lhe general rule LhaL afLer Lhe CourL of llrsL lnsLance has performed lLs mlnlsLerlal duLy of orderlng Lhe
execuLlon funcLus esL offlclo suo and lLs parL ls ended lf however a clrcumsLance arlses LhaL oughL Lo
delay Lhe execuLlon Lhere ls an lmperaLlve duLy Lo lnvesLlgaLe Lhe emergency and Lo order a
posLponemenL
ln flne Lhe auLhorlLy of Lhe CourL Lo see Lo Lhe proper execuLlon of lLs flnal [udgmenL Lhe power of Lhe
resldenL Lo granL pardon commuLaLlon or reprleve and Lhe prerogaLlve of Congress Lo repeal or
modlfy Lhe law LhaL could beneflL Lhe convlcLed accused are noL essenLlally precluslve of one anoLher
nor consLlLuLlonally lncompaLlble and may each be exerclsed wlLhln Lhelr respecLlve spheres and
conflnes 1hus Lhe sLay of execuLlon lssued by Lhe CourL would noL prevenL elLher Lhe resldenL from
exerclslng hls pardonlng power or Congress from enacLlng a measure LhaL may be advanLageous Lo Lhe
ad[udged offender
1he 18C of Lhls CourL has provlded LhaL lL shall be llfLed even before lLs explry daLe of 13 !une 1999
coeval wlLh Lhe duraLlon of Lhe presenL regular sesslon of Congress lf lL sooner becomes cerLaln LhaL
no repeal or modlflcaLlon of Lhe law ls golng Lo be made 1he urgenL MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon flled
by Lhe Cfflce of Lhe SollclLor Ceneral sLaLes LhaL as of Lhe momenL cerLaln clrcumsLances/supervenlng
evenLs (have) Lransplred Lo Lhe effecL LhaL Lhe repeal or modlflcaLlon of Lhe law lmposlng deaLh penalLy
has become nll lf lndeed lL would be fuLlle Lo yeL expecL any chance for a Llmely 3 reexamlnaLlon
by Congress of Lhe deaLh penalLy law Lhen l can appreclaLe why Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe !usLlces on Lhe
CourL feel rlghLly bound even now Lo llfL Lhe 18C
l am hopeful neverLheless LhaL Congress wlll ln Llme flnd lLs way clear Lo underLaklng a mosL Lhorough
and dlspasslonaLe reexamlnaLlon of Lhe law noL so much for lLs quesLloned wlsdom as for Lhe need Lo
have a second look aL Lhe condlLlons slne qua non prescrlbed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ln Lhe lmposlLlon of
Lhe deaLh penalLy ln eople vs MasallhlL 4 ln urglng wlLh all due respecL Congress Lo conslder a
prompL reexamlnaLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy law l have sald
1he deLermlnaLlon of when Lo prescrlbe Lhe deaLh penalLy lles ln Lhe lnlLlal lnsLance wlLh Lhe law
maklng auLhorlLy Lhe Congress of Lhe hlllpplnes sub[ecL Lo Lhe condlLlons LhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lLself
has seL forLh vlz (1) 1haL Lhere musL be compelllng reasons Lo [usLlfy Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh
penalLy and (2) 1haL Lhe caplLal offense musL lnvolve a helnous crlme lL appears LhaL Lhe fundamenLal
law dld noL conLemplaLe a slmple relmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy Lo offenses LhereLofore already
provlded ln Lhe 8evlsed enal Code or leL alone [usL because of lL 1he Lerm compelllng reasons would
lndlcaLe Lo me LhaL Lhere musL flrsL be a marked change ln Lhe mllleu from LhaL whlch has prevalled aL
Lhe Llme of adopLlon of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon on Lhe one hand Lo LhaL whlch exlsLs aL Lhe enacLmenL of
Lhe sLaLuLe prescrlblng Lhe deaLh penalLy upon Lhe oLher hand LhaL would make lL dlsLlncLlvely
lnexorable Lo allow Lhe relmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy MosL lmporLanLly Lhe clrcumsLances LhaL
would characLerlze Lhe helnous naLure of Lhe crlme and make lL so excepLlonally offenslve as Lo
warranL Lhe deaLh penalLy musL be spelled ouL wlLh greaL clarlLy ln Lhe law albelL wlLhouL necessarlly
precludlng Lhe CourL from exerclslng lLs power of [udlclal revlew glven Lhe clrcumsLances of each case
1o venLure ln Lhe case of murder Lhe crlme would become helnous wlLhln Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal concepL
when Lo exempllfy Lhe vlcLlm ls unnecessarlly sub[ecLed Lo a palnful and excruclaLlng deaLh or ln Lhe
crlme of rape when Lhe offended parLy ls callously humlllaLed or even bruLally kllled by Lhe accused 1he
lndlscrlmlnaLe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy could somehow consLraln courLs Lo apply perhaps
wlLhouL consclously meanlng Lo sLrlngenL sLandards for convlcLlon noL Loo unllkely beyond whaL mlghL
normally be requlred ln crlmlnal cases LhaL can ln facL resulL ln undue exculpaLlon of offenders Lo Lhe
greaL pre[udlce of vlcLlms and socleLy
1oday l relLeraLe Lhe above vlew and unLll Lhe exacLlng sLandards of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon are clearly meL as
so herelnabove expressed l wlll have Lo dlsagree mosL respecLfully wlLh my colleagues ln Lhe ma[orlLy
who conLlnue Lo hold Lhe presenLly sLrucLured 8epubllc AcL no 7639 Lo be ln accord wlLh Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon an lssue LhaL ls fundamenLal consLanL and lnexLrlcably llnked Lo Lhe lmposlLlon each Llme
of Lhe deaLh penalLy and llke Lhe lnsLanL peLlLlon Lo Lhe legal lncldenLs perLlnenL LhereLo
Accordlngly l voLe agalnsL Lhe llfLlng of Lhe resLralnlng order of Lhe CourL even as l llke everyone else
however musL respecL and be held bound by Lhe rullng of Lhe ma[orlLy
AnCAnl8An !
l agree wlLh Lhe CourLs 8esoluLlon LhaL wlLhouL doubL Lhls CourL has [urlsdlcLlon Lo lssue Lhe dlspuLed
1emporary 8esLralnlng Crder (18C) on !anuary 4 1999 l wlll noL repeaL lLs wellreasoned dlsqulslLlon l
wrlLe only Lo explaln my voLe ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe larger lssue of Lhe deaLh penalLy
Slnce Lhe sollclLor general has demonsLraLed LhaL Congress wlll noL repeal or amend 8A 7639 durlng lLs
currenL sesslon whlch ends on !une 13 1999 and LhaL ln any evenL Lhe resldenL wlll veLo any such
repeal or amendmenL Lhe 18C should by lLs own Lerms be deemed llfLed now Powever my ob[ecLlons
Lo Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy Lranscend Lhe 18C and permeaLe lLs [urldlcal essence cdasla
l malnLaln my vlew LhaL 8A 7639 (Lhe ueaLh enalLy Law) ls unconsLlLuLlonal lnsofar as some parLs
Lhereof prescrlblng Lhe caplLal penalLy fall Lo comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of helnousness and
compelllng reasons prescrlbed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe hlllpplnes * 1hls l have repeaLedly sLaLed ln
my ulssenLlng Cplnlons ln varlous deaLh cases declded by Lhe CourL as well as durlng Lhe CourLs
dellberaLlon on Lhls maLLer on !anuary 4 1999 lor easy reference l hereby aLLach a copy of my ulssenL
promulgaLed on lebruary 7 1997
ConsequenLly l cannoL now voLe Lo llfL Lhe 18C because Lo do so would mean Lhe upholdlng and
enforcemenL of a law (or Lhe relevanL porLlons Lhereof) whlch l submlL wlLh all due respecL ls
unconsLlLuLlonal and Lherefore legally nonexlsLenL l also relLeraLe LhaL ln my humble oplnlon 8A 8177
(Lhe LeLhal ln[ecLlon Law) ls llkewlse unconsLlLuLlonal slnce lL merely prescrlbes Lhe manner ln whlch 8A
7639 (Lhe ueaLh enalLy Law) ls Lo be lmplemenLed
Pavlng sald LhaL l sLress however LhaL l defer Lo Lhe rule of law and wlll ablde by Lhe rullng of Lhe CourL
LhaL boLh 8A 7639 and 8A 8177 are consLlLuLlonal and LhaL Lhe deaLh penalLy should by ma[orlLy voLe
be lmplemenLed by means of leLhal ln[ecLlon
lC8 1PL A8CvL 8LASCnS l voLe Lo deny Lhe sollclLor generals MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon
Ln 8AnC
C8 no 117472 lebruary 7 1997
LCLL Cl 1PL PlLllnLS plalnLlffappellee vs LLC LCPLCA8A? y lLC accusedappellanL
SupplemenLal MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon
ueaLh enalLy Law unconsLlLuLlonal
ln hls SupplemenLal MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon 1 daLed AugusL 22 1996 flled by hls newlyreLalned
counsel 2 Lhe accused ralses for Lhe flrsL Llme a very cruclal ground for hls defense LhaL 8epubllc AcL
no 7639 Lhe law relmposlng Lhe deaLh penalLy ls unconsLlLuLlonal ln Lhe 8rlef and (orlglnal) MoLlon
for 8econslderaLlon flled by hls prevlous counsel 3 Lhls LranscendenLal lssue was noL broughL up Pence
lL was noL passed upon by Lhls CourL ln lLs ueclslon afflrmlng Lhe Lrlal courLs senLence of deaLh 4
1he ConsLlLuLlon Abollshed ueaLh enalLy
SecLlon 19 ArLlcle lll of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon provldes
Sec 19 (1) Lxcesslve flnes shall noL be lmposed nor cruel degradlng or lnhuman punlshmenL
lnfllcLed nelLher shall deaLh penalLy be lmposed unless for compelllng reasons lnvolvlng helnous
crlmes Lhe Congress hereafLer provldes for lL Any deaLh penalLy already lmposed shall be reduced Lo
recluslon perpeLua (underscorlng supplled)
1he second and Lhlrd senLences of Lhe above provlslon are new and had noL been wrlLLen ln Lhe 1933
1973 or even ln Lhe 1986 lreedom ConsLlLuLlon 1hey proscrlbe Lhe lmposlLlon 3 of Lhe deaLh penalLy
unless for compelllng reasons lnvolvlng helnous crlmes Congress provldes for lL and reduced any
deaLh penalLy already lmposed Lo recluslon perpeLua 1he provlslon has boLh a prospecLlve aspecL (lL
bars Lhe fuLure lmposlLlon of Lhe penalLy) and a reLroacLlve one (lL reduces lmposed caplLal senLences Lo
Lhe lesser penalLy of lmprlsonmenL)
1hls Lwofold aspecL ls slgnlflcanL lL sLresses LhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon dld noL merely suspend Lhe
lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy buL ln facL compleLely abollshed lL from Lhe sLaLuLe books 1he
auLomaLlc commuLaLlon or reducLlon Lo recluslon perpeLua of any deaLh penalLy exLanL as of Lhe
effecLlvlLy of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon clearly recognlzes LhaL whlle Lhe convlcLlon of an accused for a caplLal
crlme remalns deaLh as a penalLy ceased Lo exlsL ln our penal laws and Lhus may no longer be carrled
ouL 1hls ls Lhe clear lnLenL of Lhe framers of our ConsLlLuLlon As Comm 8ernas exclalmed 6 (L)he
ma[orlLy voLed for Lhe consLlLuLlonal abollLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy
ClLlng Lhls and oLher slmllar pronouncemenLs of Lhe dlsLlngulshed Concom delegaLe Mme !usLlce
Ameurflna MelencloPerrera emphaslzed 7 lL ls Lhus clear LhaL when lr 8ernas sponsored Lhe
provlslon regardlng Lhe nonlmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy whaL he had ln mlnd was Lhe LoLal
abollLlon and removal from Lhe sLaLuLe books of Lhe deaLh penalLy 1hls became Lhe lnLenL of Lhe
framers of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon when Lhey approved Lhe provlslon and made lL a parL of Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs
WlLh such abollLlon as a premlse resLoraLlon Lhereof becomes an excepLlon Lo a consLlLuLlonal
mandaLe 8elng an excepLlon and Lhus ln derogaLlon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lL musL Lhen be sLrlcLly
consLrued agalnsL Lhe SLaLe and llberally ln favor of Lhe people 8 ln Lhls llghL 8A 7639 en[oys no
presumpLlon of consLlLuLlonallLy
1he ConsLlLuLlon SLrlcLly LlmlLs
Congresslonal rerogaLlve Lo rescrlbe ueaLh
1o me lL ls very clear LhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon (1) effecLlvely removed Lhe deaLh penalLy from Lhe Lhen
exlsLlng sLaLuLes buL (2) auLhorlzed Congress Lo resLore lL aL some fuLure Llme Lo enable or empower
courLs Lo relmpose lL on condlLlon LhaL lL (Congress) 9 flnds compelllng reasons lnvolvlng helnous
crlmes 1he language of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls emphaLlc (even lf awkward 10) Lhe auLhorlLy of Congress
Lo provlde for lL ls noL absoluLe 8aLher lL ls sLrlcLly llmlLed
(1) by compelllng reasons LhaL may arlse afLer Lhe ConsLlLuLlon became effecLlve and
(2) Lo crlmes whlch Congress should ldenLlfy or deflne or characLerlze as helnous
1he ConsLlLuLlon lnexorably placed upon Congress Lhe burden of deLermlnlng Lhe exlsLence of
compelllng reasons and of deflnlng whaL crlmes are helnous before lL could exerclse lLs lawmaklng
prerogaLlve Lo resLore Lhe deaLh penalLy lor clarlLys sake may l emphaslze LhaL Congress by law
prescrlbes Lhe deaLh penalLy on cerLaln crlmes and courLs by Lhelr declslons lmpose lL on lndlvldual
offenders found gullLy beyond reasonable doubL of commlLLlng sald crlmes
ln Lhe exerclse of Lhls fundamenLal mandaLe Congress enacLed 8A 7639 11 Lo provlde for lL (Lhe deaLh
penalLy) (1) by amendlng cerLaln provlslons of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code 12 (2) by lncorporaLlng a new
arLlcle Lhereln 13 and (3) by amendlng cerLaln speclal laws 14
8uL 8A 7639 dld noL change Lhe naLure or Lhe elemenLs of Lhe crlmes sLaLed ln Lhe enal Code and ln Lhe
speclal laws lL merely made Lhe penalLy more severe nelLher dld lLs provlslons (oLher Lhan Lhe
preamble whlch was casL ln general Lerms) dlscuss or [usLlfy Lhe reasons for Lhe more severe sancLlon
elLher collecLlvely for all Lhe offenses or lndlvldually for each of Lhem LL[ur
Cenerally lL merely relnsLaLed Lhe concepL of and Lhe meLhod by whlch Lhe deaLh penalLy had been
lmposed unLll lebruary 2 1987 when Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Look effecL as follows (1) a person ls convlcLed
of a caplLal offense and (2) Lhe commlsslon of whlch was accompanled by aggravaLlng clrcumsLances
noL ouLwelghed by mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances
1he baslc quesLlon Lhen ls ln enacLlng 8A 7639 dld Congress exceed Lhe llmlLed auLhorlLy granLed lL by
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon? More legally puL ln revlvlng Lhe deaLh penalLy dld Congress acL wlLh grave abuse of
dlscreLlon or ln excess of Lhe very llmlLed power or [urlsdlcLlon conferred on lL by ArL lll Sec 19? 1he
answer l respecLfully submlL ls ?LS
Pelnous Crlmes
1o repeaL whlle Lhe ConsLlLuLlon llmlLed Lhe power of Congress Lo prescrlbe Lhe deaLh penalLy CnL? Lo
helnous crlmes lL dld noL deflne or characLerlze Lhe meanlng of helnous nelLher dld Congress As
already sLaLed 8A 7639 lLself merely selecLed some exlsLlng crlmes for whlch lL prescrlbed deaLh as an
appllcable penalLy lL dld noL glve a sLandard or a characLerlzaLlon by whlch courLs may be able Lo
appreclaLe Lhe helnousness of a crlme l concede LhaL Congress was only Loo well aware of lLs
consLlLuLlonally llmlLed power ln deference LhereLo lL lncluded a paragraph ln Lhe preambular or
whereas clauses of 8A 7639 as follows
WPL8LAS Lhe crlmes punlshable by deaLh under Lhls AcL are helnous for belng grlevous odlous and
haLeful offenses and whlch by reason of Lhelr lnherenL or manlfesL wlckedness vlclousness aLroclLy and
perverslLy are repugnanL and ouLrageous Lo Lhe common sLandards and norms of decency and morallLy
ln a [usL clvlllzed and ordered socleLy
ln my humble vlew however Lhe foregolng clause ls clearly an lnsufflclenL deflnlLlon or characLerlzaLlon
of whaL a helnous crlme ls lL slmply and graLulLously declared cerLaln crlmes Lo be helnous wlLhouL
adequaLely [usLlfylng lLs bases Lherefor lL supplles no useful workable clear and unamblguous sLandard
by whlch Lhe presence of helnousness can be deLermlned Calllng Lhe crlmes grlevous odlous and
haLeful ls noL a subsLlLuLe for an ob[ecLlve [urldlcal deflnlLlon nelLher ls Lhe descrlpLlon lnherenL or
manlfesL wlckedness vlclousness aLroclLy and perverslLy uescrlblng blood as blue does noL deLracL
from lLs belng crlmson ln facL and renamlng gumamela as rose wlll noL arm lL wlLh Lhorns
8esldes a preamble ls really noL an lnLegral parL of a law lL ls merely an lnLroducLlon Lo show lLs lnLenL
or purposes lL cannoL be Lhe orlgln of rlghLs and obllgaLlons Where Lhe meanlng of a sLaLuLe ls clear
and unamblguous Lhe preamble can nelLher expand nor resLrlcL lLs operaLlon much less prevall over lLs
LexL 13 ln Lhls case lL cannoL be Lhe auLhorlLaLlve source Lo show compllance wlLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
As already alluded Lo 8A 7639 merely amended cerLaln laws Lo prescrlbe deaLh as Lhe maxlmum
lmposable penalLy once Lhe courL appreclaLes Lhe presence or absence of aggravaLlng clrcumsLances 16
1heres noLhlng really new LhaL Congress dld whlch lL could noL have oLherwlse done had such provlslon
noL been lncluded ln our fundamenLal law cdL
ln oLher words lL [usL relnsLaLed caplLal punlshmenL for crlmes whlch were already punlshable wlLh
deaLh prlor Lo Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon WlLh Lhe posslble excepLlon of plunder and
quallfled brlbery 17 no new crlmes were lnLroduced by 8A 7639 1he offenses punlshed by deaLh under
sald law were already so punlshable by Lhe 8evlsed enal Code 18 and by speclal laws ln shorL Sec 19
ArLlcle lll of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon dld noL have any lmpacL upon Lhe leglslaLlve acLlon lL was effecLlvely
lgnored by Congress ln enacLlng Lhe caplLal punlshmenL law
uurlng Lhe debaLe on SenaLe 8lll no 891 whlch laLer became 8A 7639 Sen !ose Llna ln answer Lo a
quesLlon of Sen LrnesLo Maceda wryly sald 19
So we dld noL go LhaL far from Lhe 8evlsed enal Code Mr resldenL and from exlsLlng speclal laws
whlch before abollLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy had already deaLh as Lhe maxlmum penalLy
8y merely relmposlng caplLal punlshmenL on Lhe very same crlmes whlch were already penallzed wlLh
deaLh prlor Lo Lhe charLers effecLlvlLy Congress l submlL has noL fulfllled lLs speclflc and poslLlve
consLlLuLlonal duLy lf Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon lnLended merely Lo allow Congress Lo prescrlbe
deaLh for Lhese very same crlmes lL would noL have wrlLLen Sec 19 of ArLlcle lll lnLo Lhe fundamenLal
law 8uL Lhe sLubborn facL ls lL dld verlly Lhe lnLenLlon Lo 1) deleLe Lhe deaLh penalLy from our crlmlnal
laws and 2) make lLs resLoraLlon posslble only under and sub[ecL Lo sLrlngenL condlLlons ls evldenL noL
only from Lhe language of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon buL also from Lhe charLer debaLes on Lhls maLLer
1he crlLlcal phrase unless for compelllng reasons lnvolvlng helnous crlmes was an amendmenL
lnLroduced by Comm ChrlsLlan Monsod ln explalnlng whaL posslble crlmes could quallfy as helnous he
and Comm !ose Suarez agreed on organlzed murder or bruLal murder of a rape vlcLlm 20 noLe LhaL
Lhe honorable commlssloners dld noL [usL say murder buL organlzed murder noL [usL rape buL bruLal
murder of a rape vlcLlm Whlle Lhe debaLes were admlLLedly raLher scanLy l belleve LhaL Lhe avallable
lnformaLlon shows LhaL when dellberaLlng on helnousness Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon dld noL
have ln mlnd Lhe offenses already exlsLlng and already penallzed wlLh deaLh l also belleve LhaL Lhe
helnousness clause requlres LhaL
1) Lhe crlmes should be enLlrely new offenses Lhe elemenLs of whlch have an lnherenL quallLy
degree or level of perverslLy depravlLy or vlclousness unheard of unLll Lhen or
2) even exlsLlng crlmes provlded some new elemenL or essenLlal lngredlenL llke organlzed or
bruLal ls added Lo show Lhelr uLLer perverslLy odlousness or malevolence or
3) Lhe means or meLhod by whlch Lhe crlme wheLher new or old ls carrled ouL evlnces a degree or
magnlLude of exLreme vlolence evll cruelLy aLroclLy vlclousness as Lo demonsLraLe lLs helnousness 21
lor Lhls purpose Congress could enacL an enLlrely new seL of clrcumsLances Lo quallfy Lhe crlme as
helnous ln Lhe same manner LhaL Lhe presence of Lreachery ln a homlclde aggravaLes Lhe crlme Lo
murder for whlch a heavler penalLy ls prescrlbed
Compelllng 8easons
CulLe aparL from requlrlng Lhe aLLendanL elemenL of helnousness Lhe ConsLlLuLlon also dlrecLs Congress
Lo deLermlne compelllng reasons for Lhe revlval of Lhe caplLal penalLy lL ls Lrue LhaL paragraphs 3 and
4 of Lhe preamble of 8A 7639 22 made some aLLempL aL meeLlng Lhls requlremenL 8uL such efforL was
aL besL feeble and lnconsequenLlal lL should be remembered LhaL every word or phrase ln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon ls sacred and should never be lgnored cavallerlyLreaLed or brushed aslde 1hus l belleve
LhaL Lhe compelllng reasons and Lhe characLerlzaLlon of helnousness cannoL be done wholesale buL
musL be shown for each and every crlme lndlvldually and separaLely
1he words compelllng reasons were lncluded ln Lhe CharLer because ln Lhe words of Comm Monsod
ln Lhe fuLure clrcumsLances may arlse whlch we should noL preclude Loday and LhaL Lhe condlLlons
and Lhe slLuaLlon (durlng Lhe dellberaLlons of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon) mlghL change for very
speclflc reasons requlrlng Lhe reLurn of Lhe consLlLuLlonallyabhorred penalLy
ln hls sponsorshlp of Pouse 8lll no 62 whlch laLer evolved lnLo 8A 7639 Congressman ablo Carcla ln
answer Lo quesLlons ralsed by 8epresenLaLlve Ldcel Lagman Lrled Lo explaln Lhese compelllng reasons
23
M8 LACMAn
So whaL are Lhe compelllng reasons now Mr Speaker?
M8 CA8ClA ()
1he worsenlng peace and order condlLlon ln Lhe counLry Mr Speaker 1haL ls one
M8 LACMAn
So Lhe compelllng reason whlch Lhe dlsLlngulshed sponsor would llke Lo [usLlfy or serve as an
anchor for Lhe [usLlflcaLlon of Lhe relmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy ls Lhe alleged worsenlng peace and
order slLuaLlon 1he CenLleman clalms LhaL LhaL ls one of Lhe compelllng reasons 8uL before we dlssecL
Lhls parLlcular compelllng reason may we know whaL are Lhe oLher compelllng reasons Mr Speaker?
M8 CA8ClA ()
!usLlce Mr Speaker
M8 LACMAn
!usLlce
M8 CA8ClA ()
?es Mr Speaker
M8 LACMAn
!usLlce ls a compelllng reason Mr Speaker? Could Lhe CenLleman klndly elaboraLe on LhaL
answer? Why ls [usLlce a compelllng reason as lf [usLlce was noL obLalned aL Lhe Llme Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
abollshed Lhe deaLh penalLy? Any compelllng reason should be a supervenlng clrcumsLances afLer 1987
M8 CA8ClA ()
Mr Speaker l have repeaLedly sald agaln and agaln LhaL lf one llves ln an organlzed socleLy
governed by law [usLlce demands LhaL crlme be punlshed and LhaL Lhe penalLy lmposed be
commensuraLe wlLh Lhe offense commlLLed
M8 LACMAn
1he CenLleman would agree wlLh me LhaL when Lhe ConsLlLuLlon speaks of Lhe compelllng
reasons Lo [usLlfy Lhe relmposlLlon of deaLh penalLy lL refers Lo reasons whlch would supervene or come
afLer Lhe approval of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon ls he submlLLlng LhaL [usLlce ln hls own concepL of a
commensuraLe penalLy for Lhe offense commlLLed was noL obLalned ln 1987 when Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
abollshed Lhe deaLh penalLy and Lhe people raLlfled lL?
M8 CA8ClA ()
1haL ls preclsely why we are saylng LhaL now under presenL condlLlons because of Lhe
serlousness of Lhe offenses belng commlLLed aL Lhls Llme [usLlce demands LhaL Lhe approprlaLe penalLy
musL be meLed ouL for Lhose who have commlLLed helnous crlmes
xxx xxx xxx
ln shorL Congressman Carcla lnvoked Lhe preambular [usLlflcaLlons of worsenlng peace and order and
[usLlce WlLh all due respecL l submlL LhaL Lhese grounds are noL compelllng enough Lo [usLlfy Lhe
revlval of sLaLedecreed deaLhs ln facL l dare say LhaL Lhese reasons were even nonexlsLenL SLaLlsLlcs
from Lhe hlllpplne naLlonal ollce show LhaL Lhe crlme volume and crlme raLe parLlcularly on Lhose
leglslaLed caplLal offenses dld noL worsen buL ln facL decllned beLween 1987 Lhe daLe when Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon Look effecL and 1993 Lhe year when 8A 7639 was enacLed WlLness Lhe followlng debaLe
24 also beLween 8epresenLaLlves Carcla and Lagman
M8 LACMAn
very good Mr Speaker now can we go Lo 1987 Could Lhe CenLleman from Cebu lnform us Lhe
volume of Lhe crlme of murder ln 1987?
M8 CA8ClA ()
1he volume of Lhe crlme of murder ln 1987 ls 12303
M8 LACMAn
So Lhe correspondlng crlme raLe was 21 percenL
M8 CA8ClA ()
?es Mr Speaker
M8 LACMAn
1haL was ln 1987 Mr Speaker could Lhe dlsLlngulshed chalrman lnform us Lhe volume of
murder ln 1988?
M8 CA8ClA ()
lL was 10321 Mr Speaker
M8 LACMAn
Cr lL was a reducLlon from 12303 ln 1987 Lo 10321 ln 1988 Correspondlngly Lhe crlme raLe ln
Lhe very year afLer Lhe abollLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy was reduced from 21 percenL Lo 18 percenL ls LhaL
correcL Mr Speaker?
M8 CA8ClA ()
1haL ls correcL Mr Speaker 1hose are Lhe sLaLlsLlcs supplled by Lhe C
M8 LACMAn
now can we go agaln Lo 1987 when Lhe ConsLlLuLlon abollshed Lhe deaLh penalLy? May we know
from Lhe dlsLlngulshed CenLleman Lhe volume of robbery ln 1987?
M8 CA8ClA ()
Wlll Lhe CenLleman sLaLe Lhe flgure? l wlll conflrm lL
M8 LACMAn
no Mr Speaker l am asklng Lhe quesLlon
M8 CA8ClA ()
lL was 22942 Mr Speaker and Lhe crlme raLe was 40 percenL
M8 LACMAn
1hls was Lhe year lmmedlaLely afLer Lhe abollLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy Could Lhe CenLleman Lell
us Lhe volume of robbery cases ln 1988?
M8 CA8ClA ()
lL was 16926 Mr Speaker
M8 LACMAn
Cbvlously Lhe CenLleman would agree wlLh me Mr Speaker LhaL Lhe volume of robbery cases
decllned from 22942 ln 1987 or crlme raLe of 40 percenL Lo 16926 or a crlme raLe of 29 percenL Would
Lhe CenLleman conflrm LhaL Mr Speaker?
M8 CA8ClA ()
1hls ls whaL Lhe sLaLlsLlcs say l undersLand we are readlng now from Lhe same documenL
M8 LACMAn
now golng Lo homlclde Lhe volume 1987 was 12870 or a crlme raLe of 22 percenL 1he volume
ln 1988 was 11132 or a crlme raLe of 19 percenL Would Lhe CenLleman conflrm LhaL Mr Speaker?
M8 CA8ClA ()
As l Sald Mr Speaker we are readlng from Lhe same documenL and l would noL wanL Lo say
LhaL Lhe CenLleman ls mlsreadlng Lhe documenL LhaL l have here
M8 LACMAn
8uL would Lhe CenLleman conflrm LhaL?
M8 CA8ClA ()
1he documenL speaks for lLself
When lnLerpellaLed by Sen ArLuro 1olenLlno Sen !ose Llna gave some flgures on Lhe number of persons
arresLed ln regard Lo drugrelaLed offenses ln Lhe year 1987 as compared Lo 1991 23
LeL me clLe Lhls concreLe sLaLlsLlcs by Lhe uangerous urug 8oard
ln 1987 Lhls was Lhe year when Lhe deaLh penalLy was abollshed Lhe persons arresLed ln drug
relaLed cases were 3062 and Lhe flgure dropped Lo 2686 ln 1988 cdLal
8y Lhe way l wlll furnlsh my Colleagues wlLh a phoLocopy of Lhls reporL
lrom 3062 ln 1987 lL dropped Lo 2686 Agaln lL lncreased a blL Lo 2862 ln 1989 lL sLlll decreased Lo
2202 ln 1990 and lL lncreased agaln Lo 2862 ln 1991
8uL ln 1987 when Lhe deaLh penalLy was abollshed as far as Lhe drugrelaLed cases are concerned Lhe
flgure conLlnued a downward Lrend and Lhere was no deaLh penalLy ln Lhls Llme from 1988 Lo 1991
ln a furLher aLLempL Lo show compelllng reasons Lhe proponenLs of Lhe deaLh penalLy argue LhaL lLs
relmposlLlon would pose as an effecLlve deLerrenL agalnsL helnous crlmes 26 Powever no sLaLlsLlcal
daLa no sufflclenL proof emplrlcal or oLherwlse have been submlLLed Lo show wlLh any concluslveness
Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe prescrlpLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy for cerLaln offenses and Lhe commlsslon
or noncommlsslon Lhereof 1hls ls a Lheory LhaL can be debaLed on and on 27 ln Lhe same manner LhaL
anoLher proposlLlon LhaL Lhe real deLerrenL Lo crlme ls Lhe cerLalnLy of lmmedlaLe arresL prosecuLlon
and convlcLlon of Lhe culprlL wlLhouL unnecessary rlsk expense and lnconvenlence Lo Lhe vlcLlm hls
helrs or hls wlLnesses can be argued lndeflnlLely 28 1hls debaLe can lasL Llll Lhe academlcs grow
weary of Lhe spoken word buL lL would noL lessen Lhe consLlLuLlonallylmposed burden of Congress Lo
acL wlLhln Lhe helnousness and compelllng reasons llmlLs of lLs deaLhprescrlblng power
CLher ConsLlLuLlonal 8lghLs
MlllLaLe AgalnsL 8A 7639
lL should be emphaslzed LhaL Lhe consLlLuLlonal ban agalnsL Lhe deaLh penalLy ls lncluded ln our 8lll of
8lghLs As such lL should llke any oLher guaranLee ln favor of Lhe accused be zealously proLecLed
29 and any excepLlon LhereLo meLlculously screened Any doubL should be resolved ln favor of Lhe
people parLlcularly where Lhe rlghL perLalns Lo persons accused of crlmes 30 Pere Lhe lssue ls noL [usL
crlmes buL caplLal crlmes!
So Loo all our prevlous ConsLlLuLlons lncludlng Lhe flrsL one ordalned aL Malolos guaranLee LhaL (n)o
person shall be deprlved of llfe llberLy or properLy wlLhouL due process of law 31 1hls prlmary rlghL of
Lhe people Lo en[oy llfe llfe aL lLs fullesL llfe ln dlgnlLy and honor ls noL only relLeraLed by Lhe 1987
CharLer buL ls ln facL forLlfled by lLs oLher prollfe and prohuman rlghLs provlslons Pence Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon values Lhe dlgnlLy of every human person and guaranLees full respecL for human rlghLs 32
expressly prohlblLs any form of LorLure 33 whlch ls arguably a lesser penalLy Lhan deaLh emphaslzes Lhe
lndlvldual rlghL Lo llfe by glvlng proLecLlon Lo Lhe llfe of Lhe moLher and Lhe unborn from Lhe momenL of
concepLlon 34 and esLabllshes Lhe peoples rlghLs Lo healLh a balanced ecology and educaLlon 33
1hls ConsLlLuLlonal exploslon of concern for man more Lhan properLy for people more Lhan Lhe sLaLe
and for llfe more Lhan mere exlsLence augurs well for Lhe sLrlcL appllcaLlon of Lhe consLlLuLlonal llmlLs
agalnsL Lhe revlval of deaLh penalLy as Lhe flnal and lrreverslble exacLlon of socleLy agalnsL lLs percelved
enemles
lndeed volumes have been wrlLLen abouL lndlvldual rlghLs Lo free speech assembly and even rellglon
8uL Lhe mosL baslc and mosL lmporLanL of Lhese rlghLs ls Lhe rlghL Lo llfe WlLhouL llfe Lhe oLher rlghLs
cease ln Lhelr en[oymenL uLlllLy and expresslon
1hls oplnlon would noL be compleLe wlLhouL a word on Lhe wrenchlng facL LhaL Lhe deaLh penalLy
mlllLaLes agalnsL Lhe poor Lhe powerless and Lhe marglnallzed 1he roflle of 163 ueaLh 8ow ConvlcLs
submlLLed by Lhe lree Legal AsslsLance Croup 36 hlghllghLs Lhls sad facL
(1) Slnce Lhe relmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy 186 persons 37 have been senLenced Lo deaLh AL
Lhe end of 1994 Lhere were 24 deaLh penalLy convlcLs aL Lhe end of 1993 Lhe number rose Lo 90 an
average of seven (7) convlcLs per monLh double Lhe monLhly average of caplLal senLences lmposed Lhe
prlor year lrom !anuary Lo !une 1996 Lhe number of deaLh penalLy convlcLs reached 72 an average of
12 convlcLs per monLh almosL double Lhe monLhly average of caplLal senLences lmposed ln 1993
(2) Cf Lhe 163 convlcLs polled approxlmaLely LwenLy one percenL (21) earn beLween 200 Lo
2900 monLhly whlle approxlmaLely LwenLy seven percenL (27) earn beLween 3000 Lo 3999
monLhly 1hose earnlng above 4000 monLhly are exceedlngly few seven percenL (7) earn beLween
4000 Lo 4999 four percenL (4) earn beLween 3000 Lo 3999 seven percenL (7) earn beLween
6000 Lo 6999 Lhose earnlng beLween 7000 Lo 13000 comprlse only four percenL (4) Lhose
earnlng 13000 and above only one percenL (1) ApproxlmaLely LhlrLeen percenL (13) earn noLhlng
aL all whlle approxlmaLely Lwo percenL (2) earn subslsLence wages wlLh anoLher flve percenL (3)
earnlng varlable lncome ApproxlmaLely nlne percenL (9) do noL know how much Lhey earn ln a monLh
lllbrls
(3) 1hus approxlmaLely LwoLhlrds of Lhe convlcLs abouL 112 of Lhem earn below Lhe governmenL
mandaLed mlnlmum monLhly wage of 4290 Len (10) of Lhese earn below Lhe offlclal poverLy llne seL
by governmenL 1wenLy slx (26) earn beLween 430000 and 1100000 monLhly lndlcaLlng Lhey
belong Lo Lhe mlddle class only one (1) earns 3000000 monLhly nlne (9) convlcLs earn varlable
lncome or earn on a percenLage or allowance basls flfLeen (13) convlcLs do noL know or are unsure of
Lhelr monLhly lncome 1wenLy Lwo (22) convlcLs earn noLhlng aL all
(4) ln Lerms of occupaLlon approxlmaLely LwenLy one percenL (21) are agrlculLural workers or
workers ln anlmal husbandry of Lhese LhlrLy (30) or almosL oneflfLh Lhereof are farmers 1hlrLy flve
percenL (33) are ln Lhe LransporL and consLrucLlon lndusLry wlLh LhlrLy one (31) consLrucLlon workers
or workers ln allled flelds (carpenLry palnLlng weldlng) whlle LwenLy seven (27) are LransporL workers
(dellvery dlspaLcher mechanlc Llre man Lruck helper) wlLh slxLeen (16) of Lhem drlvers LlghLeen
percenL (18) are ln clerlcal sales and servlce lndusLrles wlLh fourLeen (14) sales workers (engaged ln
buy and sell or flsh clgareLLe or rlce vendors) Lwelve (12) servlce workers (buLchers beauLlclans
securlLy guards shoemakers Lour guldes compuLer programmers radlo Lechnlclans) and four (4) clerks
([anlLors ML8ALCC employee and clerk) AbouL four percenL (4) are governmenL workers wlLh slx (6)
persons belonglng Lo Lhe armed servlces (Al n and even CAlCu) rofesslonals admlnlsLraLlve
employee and execuLlves comprlse only Lhree percenL (3) nlne percenL (9) are unemployed
(3) none of Lhe u8Cs use Lngllsh as Lhelr medlum of communlcaLlon AbouL forLy four percenL
(44) or sllghLly less Lhan half speak and undersLand 1agalog LwenLy slx percenL (26) or abouL one
fourLh speak and undersLand Cebuano 1he resL speak and undersLand 8lcolano llocano llonggo
kapampangan angaslnense and Waray Cne (1) convlcL ls a forelgn naLlonal and speaks and
undersLand nlponggo
(6) ApproxlmaLely Lwelve percenL (12) graduaLed from college abouL forLy seven percenL (47)
flnlshed varylng levels of elemenLary educaLlon wlLh LwenLy seven (27) graduaLlng from elemenLary
AbouL LhlrLy flve percenL (33) flfLy elghL (38) convlcLs flnlshed varylng levels of hlgh school wlLh more
Lhan half of Lhem graduaLlng from hlgh school 1wo (2) convlcLs flnlshed vocaLlonal educaLlon nlne (9)
convlcLs dld noL sLudy aL all
1he foregolng proflle based on age language and socloeconomlc slLuaLlons sufflclenLly demonsLraLes
LhaL 8A 7639 has mlllLaLed agalnsL Lhe poor and Lhe powerless ln socleLy Lhose who cannoL afford Lhe
legal servlces necessary ln caplLal crlmes where exLenslve preparaLlon lnvesLlgaLlon research and
presenLaLlon are requlred 1he besL example Lo show Lhe sad pllghL of Lhe underprlvlleged ls Lhls very
case where Lhe cruclal lssue of consLlLuLlonallLy was woefully omlLLed ln Lhe proceedlngs ln Lhe Lrlal
courL and even before Lhls CourL unLll Lhe lree Legal AsslsLance Croup belaLedly broughL lL up ln Lhe
SupplemenLal MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon
1o Lhe poor and unleLLered lL ls bad enough LhaL Lhe law ls complex and wrlLLen ln a sLrange
lncomprehenslble language Worse sLlll [udlclal proceedlngs are Lhemselves compllcaLed lnLlmldaLlng
and damnlng 1he neL effecL of havlng a deaLh penalLy LhaL ls lmposed more ofLen Lhan noL upon Lhe
lmpecunlous ls Lo engender ln Lhe mlnds of Lhe laLLer a sense unfounded Lo be sure buL unhealLhy
neverLheless of Lhe unequal balance of Lhe scales of [usLlce cdLal
MosL assuredly lL may be conLended LhaL Lhe foregolng argumenLs and ln parLlcular Lhe sLaLlsLlcs
aboveclLed are ln a very real sense prone Lo be mlsleadlng and LhaL regardless of Lhe socloeconomlc
proflle of Lhe u8Cs Lhe law revlvlng caplLal punlshmenL does noL ln any way slngle ouL or dlscrlmlnaLe
agalnsL Lhe poor Lhe unleLLered or Lhe underprlvlleged 1o puL lL ln anoLher way as far as Lhe
dlsadvanLaged are concerned Lhe law would sLlll be complex and wrlLLen ln a sLrange and
lncomprehenslble language and [udlclal proceedlngs compllcaLed and lnLlmldaLlng wheLher Lhe
ulLlmaLe penalLy lnvolved be llfe (senLence) or deaLh AnoLher aspecL of Lhe whole conLroversy ls LhaL
whaLever Lhe penalLles seL by law lL seems Lo me LhaL Lhere wlll always be a cerLaln class or classes of
people ln our socleLy who by reason of Lhelr poverLy lack of educaLlonal aLLalnmenL and employmenL
opporLunlLles are consequenLly conflned Lo llvlng worklng and subslsLlng ln lessLhanldeal
envlronmenLs amldsL lessLhangenLeel nelghbors slmllarly slLuaLed as Lhemselves and are Lherefore
lnherenLly more prone Lo be lnvolved (as vlcLlms or perpeLraLors) ln vlces vlolence and crlme So from
LhaL perspecLlve Lhe law revlvlng Lhe deaLh penalLy nelLher lmproves nor worsens Lhelr loL subsLanLlally
Cr Lo be more preclse such law may even be sald Lo help lmprove Lhelr slLuaLlon (aL leasL ln Lheory) by
poslng a much sLronger deLerrenL Lo Lhe commlsslon of helnous crlmes
Powever such a vlewpolnL slmply lgnores Lhe very baslc dlfferences LhaL exlsL ln Lhe slLuaLlons of Lhe
poor and Lhe nonpoor reclsely because Lhe underprlvlleged are whaL Lhey are Lhey requlre and
deserve a greaLer degree of proLecLlon and asslsLance from our laws and ConsLlLuLlon and from Lhe
courLs and Lhe SLaLe so LhaL ln splLe of Lhemselves Lhey can be empowered Lo rlse above Lhemselves
and Lhelr slLuaLlon 1he baslc posLulaLes for such a poslLlon are l Lhlnk slmply LhaL everyone ulLlmaLely
wanLs Lo beLLer hlmself and LhaL we cannoL beLLer ourselves lndlvldually Lo any slgnlflcanL degree lf we
are unable Lo advance as an enLlre people and naLlon All Lhe propoor provlslons of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
polnL ln Lhls dlrecLlon ?eL we are faced wlLh Lhls law LhaL effecLlvely lnfllcLs Lhe ulLlmaLe punlshmenL on
none oLher Lhan Lhe poor and dlsadvanLaged ln Lhe greaLer ma[orlLy of cases and whlch penalLy belng
so obvlously flnal and so lrreverslbly permanenL erases all hope of reform of change for Lhe beLLer 1hls
law l submlL has no place ln our legal [udlclal and consLlLuLlonal flrmamenL
Lpllogue
ln sum l respecLfully submlL LhaL
(1) 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon abollshed Lhe deaLh penalLy from our sLaLuLe books lL dld noL merely
suspend or prohlblL lLs lmposlLlon
(2) 1he CharLer effecLlvely granLed a new rlghL Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlghL agalnsL Lhe deaLh penalLy
whlch ls really a specles of Lhe rlghL Lo llfe
(3) Any law revlvlng Lhe caplLal penalLy musL be sLrlcLly consLrued agalnsL Lhe SLaLe and llberally ln
favor of Lhe accused because such a sLaLuLe denlgraLes Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lmplnges on a baslc rlghL and
Lends Lo deny equal [usLlce Lo Lhe underprlvlleged llblex
(4) Lvery word or phrase ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls sacred and should never be lgnored cavallerly
LreaLed or brushed aslde
(3) Congresslonal power Lo prescrlbe deaLh ls severely llmlLed by Lwo concurrenL requlremenLs
(a) llrsL Congress musL provlde a seL of aLLendanL clrcumsLances whlch Lhe prosecuLlon musL prove
beyond reasonable doubL aparL from Lhe elemenLs of Lhe crlme and lLself Congress musL explaln why
and how Lhese clrcumsLances deflne or characLerlze Lhe crlme as helnous
(b) Second Congress has also Lhe duLy of laylng ouL clear and speclflc reasons whlch arose afLer Lhe
effecLlvlLy of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon compelllng Lhe enacLmenL of Lhe law lL bears repeaLlng LhaL Lhese
requlremenLs are lnseparable 1hey musL boLh be presenL ln vlew of Lhe speclflc consLlLuLlonal mandaLe
for compelllng reasons lnvolvlng helnous crlmes 1he compelllng reason musL flow from Lhe
helnous naLure of Lhe offense
(6) ln every law revlvlng Lhe caplLal penalLy Lhe helnousness and compelllng reasons musL be seL
ouL for each and every crlme and noL [usL for all crlmes generally and collecLlvely
1hou shall noL klll ls a fundamenLal commandmenL Lo all ChrlsLlans as well as Lo Lhe resL of Lhe
soverelgn llllplno people who belleve ln AlmlghLy Cod 38 Whlle Lhe CaLhollc Church Lo whlch Lhe
vasL ma[orlLy of our people belong acknowledges Lhe power of publlc auLhorlLles Lo prescrlbe Lhe deaLh
penalLy lL advlsedly llmlLs such prerogaLlve only Lo cases of exLreme gravlLy 39 1o quoLe ope !ohn
aul ll ln hls encycllcal Lvangellum vlLae (A Pymn Lo Llfe) 40 punlshmenL musL be carefully evaluaLed
and declded upon and oughL noL go Lo Lhe exLreme of execuLlng Lhe offender excepL ln cases of
absoluLe necesslLy ln oLher words when lL would noL be posslble oLherwlse Lo defend socleLy
(whlch ls) very rare lf noL pracLlcally nonexlsLenL
AlLhough noL absoluLely bannlng lL boLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and Lhe Church lndublLably abhor Lhe deaLh
penalLy 8oLh are propeople and prollfe 8oLh clearly recognlze Lhe prlmacy of human llfe over and
above even Lhe sLaLe whlch man creaLed preclsely Lo proLecL cherlsh and defend hlm 1he ConsLlLuLlon
relucLanLly allows caplLal punlshmenL only for compelllng reasons lnvolvlng helnous crlmes [usL as Lhe
Church grudglngly permlLs lL only for reasons of absoluLe necesslLy lnvolvlng crlmes of exLreme
gravlLy whlch are very rare and pracLlcally nonexlsLenL
ln Lhe face of Lhese evldenL Lrulsms l ask Pas Congress ln enacLlng 8A 7639 amply dlscharged lLs
consLlLuLlonal burden of provlng Lhe exlsLence of compelllng reasons Lo prescrlbe deaLh agalnsL well
deflned helnous crlmes?
l respecLfully submlL lL has noL
WPL8LlC8L premlses consldered l respecLfully voLe Lo granL parLlally Lhe SupplemenLal MoLlon for
8econslderaLlon and Lo modlfy Lhe dlsposlLlve porLlon of Lhe declslon of Lhe Lrlal courL by deleLlng Lhe
words uLA1P as provlded for under 8A 7639 and subsLlLuLe Lherefor recluslon perpeLua
l furLher voLe Lo declare 8A 7639 unconsLlLuLlonal lnsofar as lL prescrlbes Lhe penalLy of deaLh for Lhe
crlmes menLloned ln lLs LexL cdasla
looLnoLes
1 SLoll v CoLLlleb 303 uS 163 172 39 S CL 134 138 83 L ed 104 1938
2 hlllpplne CourLs and Lhelr !urlsdlcLlon p 13 1998 ed
3 ClLlng Mlranda v 1langco 96 hll 326 SanLos v Acuna 100 hll 230 Amerlcan lnsurance Co v
uS Llnes Co 63 SC8A 323 8epubllc v 8eyes 71 SC8A 426 Luzon SLevedorlng Corp v 8eyes 71 SC8A
633 AgrlculLural and lndusLrlal MarkeLlng lnc v CA 118 SC8A 49 vasco v CA 81 SC8A 712 Mlndanao
orLland CemenL Corp v Laqulhan 120 SC8A 930
4 lbld aL pp 1214 clLlng Mlranda v 1langco 96 hll 326 SanLos v Acuna 63 CC 338 Cabaya v
Pon 8 Mendoza 113 SC8A 400 8ueno lndusLrlal and uevelopmenL Corp v Lnca[e 104 SC8A 388
3 lbld pp 1413 clLlng Mollna v dela 8lva 8 hll 369 8ehn Meyer Co v McMlcklng 11 hll
276 Warmer 8arnes Co v !auclan 13 hll 4 LsplrlLu v Crossfleld 14 hll 388 MaLa v Llchauco 36
hll 809 ue la CosLa v Cleofas 67 hll 686 Cmar v !ose 77 hll 703 ClLy of 8uLuan v CrLlz 113 hll
636 ue los SanLos v 8odrlguez 22 SC8A 331 ClLy of Cebu v Mendoza 66 SC8A 174
6 29 hll 267 (1913) p 270
7 SecLlon 1 ArLlcle vlll of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon
8 SecLlon 3(f) 8ule 133
9 hlllpplne ollLlcal Law p 223 1993 ed
10 94 hll 334 (1934) pp 330 333
11 8A no 372
12 94 hll 330 p 331
13 See ln re lnLegraLlon of Lhe 8ar of Lhe hlllpplnes !anuary 9 1973 49 SC8A 22
14 See pp 34 of urgenL MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon
13 See ArLlcle 79 of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code
16 Modern ConsLlLuLlonal Law vol l p 409 1969 ed clLlng CarlLaLlvo v Callfornla 337 uS 349 21
L ed 2d 1331 78 S CL 1263 1938
17 uecember 30 and 31 1998 were declared holldays !anuary 1 1999 was an offlclal hollday
!anuary 2 was a SaLurday and !anuary 3 was a Sunday
18 urgenL MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon of publlc respondenLs p 8
19 uarrow Crlme lLs Cause and 1reaLmenL p 166 (1922)
20 Llsler A !usLlce lor All p 268
21 Where personal llberLy ls lnvolved a democraLlc socleLy employs a dlfferenL arlLhmeLlc and
lnslsLs LhaL lL ls less lmporLanL Lo reach an unshakable declslon Lhan Lo do [usLlce ollack roposals Lo
CurLall Pabeas Corpus for SLaLe rlsoners CollaLeral ALLack on Lhe CreaL WrlL 66 ?ale L! 30 63 (1936)
vl1uC !
1 Candelarla vs Canlzares 4 SC8A 738 hlllpplne veLerans 8ank vs lnLermedlaLe AppellaLe CourL
178 SC8A 643 Llpana vs uevelopmenL 8ank of 8lzal 134 SC8A 237 Lee vs ue Cuzman 187 SC8A 276
8achrach CorporaLlon vs CourL of Appeals C8 no 128349 23 SepLember 1998
2 29 hll 267
3 AL leasL for Mr Lchegaray
4 C8 no 124329 14 uecember 1998
AnCAnl8An !
* l have furLher explalned my unfllnchlng poslLlon on Lhls maLLer ln my recenL book 8aLLles ln Lhe
Supreme CourL parLlcularly on pages 38 Lo 84
SLA8A1L ClnlCn
1 lL ls called SupplemenLal because Lhere was a (maln) MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon flled by Lhe
prevlous counsel of Lhe accused whlch Lhls CourL already denled
2 1he AnLl ueaLh enalLy 1ask lorce of Lhe lree Legal AsslsLance Croup abllLo v Sanldad !ose
Manuel l ulokno Arno v Sanldad Lfren Moncupa Lduardo 8 Abaya and Ma vlcLorla l ulokno flled
lLs noLlce of Appearance daLed AugusL 22 1996 only on AugusL 23 1996 afLer Lhe er Curlam ueclslon
of Lhls CourL was promulgaLed on !une 23 1996
3 ALLy !ullan 8 vlLug !r cdLal
4 1he bulk of [urlsprudence precludes ralslng an lssue for Lhe flrsL Llme only on appeal See for
lnsLance Manlla 8ay Club CorporaLlon vs CourL of Appeals 249 SC8A 303 CcLober 13 1993 Manlla 8ay
Club CorporaLlon vs CourL of Appeals 243 SC8A 713 !uly 11 1993 SecurlLles and Lxchange Commlsslon
vs CourL of Appeals 246 SC8A 738 !uly 21 1993 Powever Lhe CourL resolved Lo Lackle Lhe quesLlon of
consLlLuLlonallLy of 8epubllc AcL no 7639 ln Lhls case anLlclpaLlng LhaL Lhe same quesLlon would be
ralsed anyway ln many oLher subsequenL lnsLances 1he CourL resolved Lo deLermlne and dlspose of Lhe
lssue once and for all aL Lhe flrsL opporLunlLy 1o leL Lhe lssue pass unresolved [usL because lL was ralsed
afLer Lhe promulgaLlon of Lhe declslon afflrmlng convlcLlon may resulL ln grave ln[usLlce
3 ln eople vs Munoz 170 SC8A 107 lebruary 9 1989 Lhe CourL prlor Lo Lhe enacLmenL and
effecLlvlLy of 8A 7639 ruled by a voLe of 96 (! Cruz ponenLe C ! lernan !! CuLlerrez !r lellclano
Cancayco adllla 8ldln CrlnoAqulno and Medlaldea concurrlng) LhaL Lhe deaLh penalLy was noL
abollshed buL only prohlblLed from belng lmposed 8uL see also Lhe persuaslve ulssenLlng Cplnlon of
Mme !usLlce Ameurflna MelencloPerrera ([olned by !! narvasa aras SarmlenLo CorLes and
8egalado) who conLended LhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon LoLally abollshed Lhe deaLh penalLy and removed lL from
Lhe sLaLuLe books eople vs Munoz reversed Lhe earller abollLlon docLrlne unlformly held ln eople
vs Cavarra 133 SC8A 327 CcLober 30 1987 (per C ! ?ap) eople vs Masangkay 133 SC8A 113
CcLober 27 1987 (per ! MelencloPerrera) and eople vs ALenclo 136 SC8A 242 uecember 10 1987
(per C ! narvasa) lL ls Llme LhaL Lhese cases are revlslLed by Lhls CourL
6 1hls quoLe ls Laken from l 8ecord of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon p 676 (!uly 17 1986) as
follows
lr 8ernas
xxx xxx xxx
My recollecLlon on Lhls ls LhaL Lhere was a dlvlslon ln Lhe CommlLLee noL on wheLher Lhe deaLh penalLy
should be abollshed or noL buL raLher on wheLher Lhe abollLlon should be done by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ln
whlch case lL cannoL be resLored by Lhe leglslaLure or lefL Lo Lhe leglslaLure 1he ma[orlLy voLed for
Lhe consLlLuLlonal abollLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy And Lhe reason ls LhaL caplLal punlshmenL ls lnhuman
for Lhe convlcL and hls famlly who are LraumaLlzed by Lhe walLlng even lf lL ls never carrled ouL 1here ls
no evldence LhaL Lhe deaLh penalLy deLerred deadly crlmlnals hence llfe should noL be desLroyed [usL ln
Lhe hope LhaL oLher llves mlghL be saved Assumlng masLery over Lhe llfe of anoLher man ls [usL Loo
presumpLuous for any man 1he facL LhaL Lhe deaLh penalLy as an lnsLlLuLlon has been Lhere from Llme
lmmemorlal should noL deLer us from revlewlng lL Puman llfe ls more valuable Lhan an lnsLlLuLlon
lnLended preclsely Lo serve human llfe So baslcally Lhls ls Lhe summary of Lhe reasons whlch were
presenLed ln supporL of Lhe consLlLuLlonal abollLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy (underscorlng supplled)
7 ulssenLlng Cplnlon ln eople vs Munoz supra p 129
8 1hus ln eople vs 8urgos 144 SC8A 1 SepLember 4 1986 we held LhaL a sLaLuLe whlch allows
an excepLlon Lo a consLlLuLlonal rlghL (agalnsL warranLless arresLs) should be sLrlcLly consLrued
9 ln hls scholarly Memorandum lr !oaquln C 8ernas S! as amlcus curlae ln eople vs edro v
Malabago (C8 no 113686 uecember 2 1996) vlgorously argues LhaL 8A 7639 has valldly resLored Lhe
deaLh penalLy whlch may now be lmposed provlded LhaL Lhe prosecuLlon proves and Lhe courL ls
convlnced LhaL (a) Lhe accused ls gullLy of a crlme deslgnaLed by 8A 7639 as caplLal (b) whose
commlsslon ls accompanled by aggravaLlng clrcumsLances as deflned by ArLs 14 and 13 of Lhe 8evlsed
enal Code (c) Lhe accompanylng aggravaLlng clrcumsLance musL be one whlch can be characLerlzed by
Lhe courL as maklng Lhe crlme helnous and (d) LhaL Lhe execuLlon of Lhe offender ls demanded by
compelllng reasons relaLed Lo Lhe offense ln oLher words accordlng Lo hlm lL ls Lhe courLs noL
Congress LhaL have Lhe responslblllLy of deLermlnlng Lhe helnousness of a crlme and Lhe compelllng
reason for lLs lmposlLlon upon a parLlcular offender dependlng on Lhe facLs of each case l cannoL
however subscrlbe Lo Lhls vlew 1he ConsLlLuLlon clearly ldenLlfles Congress as Lhe soverelgn enLlLy
whlch ls glven Lhe onus of fulfllllng Lhese Lwo consLlLuLlonal llmlLaLlons
10 eople vs Munoz supra p 121
11 Whlch became effecLlve on uecember 31 1993 per eople vs 8urgos 234 SC8A 333 369 !uly
29 1994 eople vs Codoy 230 SC8A 676 uecember 6 1993 eople vs AlberL 231 SC8A 136
uecember 11 1993
12 ArL 114 1reason ArL 123 Cuallfled lracy ArL 246 arrlclde ArL 248 Murder ArL
233 lnfanLlclde ArL 267 kldnapplng and Serlous lllegal ueLenLlon ArL 294 8obbery wlLh
vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of persons ArL 320 uesLrucLlve Arson ArL 333 8ape
13 ArL 211A on Cuallfled 8rlbery
14 SecLlon 2 8A 7080 lunder Secs 3 4 3 7 8 and 9 of ArLlcle ll of 8A 6423 rohlblLed
urugs Secs 14 14A and 13 of ArLlcle lll of sald 8A 6423 Carnapplng
13 A preamble ls noL an essenLlal parL of a sLaLuLe (Agpalo SLaLuLory ConsLrucLlon Second LdlLlon
1990 MarLln SLaLuLory ConsLrucLlon SlxLh LdlLlon 1984) 1he funcLlon of Lhe preamble ls Lo supply
reasons and explanaLlon and noL Lo confer power or deLermlne rlghLs Pence lL cannoL be glven Lhe
effecL of enlarglng Lhe scope or effecL of a sLaLuLe (C uallas Sands SLaLuLes and SLaLuLory ConsLrucLlon
lourLh LdlLlon volume lA 2003)
16 under Sec 11 8A 7639 lL appears LhaL deaLh ls Lhe mandaLory penalLy for rape regardless of
Lhe presence or absence of aggravaLlng or mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances (w)hen by reason or on Lhe
occaslon of Lhe rape a homlclde ls commlLLed or when lL ls commlLLed wlLh any of Lhe aLLendanL
clrcumsLances enumeraLed ln sald secLlon
17 Whlle plunder and quallfled brlbery are new caplLal offenses 8A 7639 noneLheless falls Lo
[usLlfy why Lhey are consldered helnous ln addlLlon Lhe speclflc compelllng reasons for Lhe prescrlbed
penalLy of deaLh are noL lald ouL by Lhe sLaLuLe
18 ln Lhe case of rape 8A 7639 provlded cerLaln aLLendanL clrcumsLances whlch Lhe prosecuLlon
musL prove before courLs can lmpose Lhe exLreme penalLy !usL Lhe same however Lhe law dld noL
explaln why sald clrcumsLances would make Lhe crlmes helnous nelLher dld lL seL forLh Lhe compelllng
reasons Lherefor
19 8ecord of Lhe SenaLe llrsL 8egular Sesslon !anuary 18 Lo March 11 1993 volume lll no 48
!anuary 23 1993 p 122
20 l 8ecord of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon !uly 18 1986 pp 742743
M8 SuA8LZ 1he CenLleman advlsedly used Lhe words helnous crlmes whaLever ls Lhe
pronunclaLlon Wlll Lhe CenLleman glve examples of helnous crlmes? lor example would Lhe head of
an organlzed syndlcaLe ln dope dlsLrlbuLlon or dope smuggllng fall wlLhln Lhe quallflcaLlon of a helnous
offender such as Lo preclude Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe prlnclple of abollLlon of deaLh penalLy?
M8 MCnSCu ?es Madam resldenL 1haL ls one of Lhe posslble crlmes LhaL would quallfy for
a helnous crlme AnoLher would be organlzed murder ln oLher words yesLerday Lhere were many
argumenLs for and agalnsL and Lhey all had merlL 8uL ln Lhe conLemporary socleLy we recognlze Lhe
sacredness of human llfe and l Lhlnk lL was Ponorable Laurel who sald Lhls yesLerday lL ls only Cod
who glves and Lakes llfe Powever Lhe volce of Lhe people ls also Lhe volce of Cod and we cannoL
presume Lo have Lhe wlsdom of Lhe ages 1herefore lL ls enLlrely posslble ln Lhe fuLure LhaL
clrcumsLances may arlse whlch we should noL preclude Loday We know LhaL Lhls ls very dlfflculL
quesLlon 1he facL LhaL Lhe argumenLs yesLerday were qulLe lmpassloned and merlLorlous merely Lell us
LhaL Lhls ls far from a wellseLLled lssue AL leasL ln my personal oplnlon we would llke Lhe deaLh penalLy
Lo be abollshed Powever ln Lhe fuLure we should allow Lhe naLlonal Assembly ln lLs wlsdom and as
represenLaLlves of Lhe people Lo sLlll lmpose Lhe deaLh penalLy for Lhe common good ln speclflc cases
M8 SuA8LZ 1hank you
l would llke Lo pursue some more Lhe CenLlemans deflnlLlon of helnous crlmes Would Lhe
bruLal murder of a rape vlcLlm be consldered as falllng wlLhln LhaL classlflcaLlon?
M8 MCnSCu Madam resldenL yes parLlcularly lf lL ls a person ln auLhorlLy Pe would
Lherefore add as an aggravaLlng clrcumsLance Lo Lhe crlme Lhe abuse of hls poslLlon ln auLhorlLy
M8 SuA8LZ 1hank you
21 Some examples of Lhls may be Laken by Congress from 8lchmond vs Lewls 306 uS 40 llke
graLulLous vlolence or needless muLllaLlon of Lhe vlcLlm
22 aragraph 3 4 of Lhe preamble reads
WPL8LAS due Lo Lhe alarmlng upsurge of such crlmes whlch has resulLed noL only ln Lhe loss
of human llves and wanLon desLrucLlon of properLy buL has also affecLed Lhe naLlons efforLs Lowards
susLalnable economlc developmenL and prosperlLy whlle aL Lhe same Llme has undermlned Lhe peoples
falLh ln Lhe CovernmenL and Lhe laLLers ablllLy Lo malnLaln peace and order ln Lhe counLry
WPL8LAS Lhe Congress ln Lhe lnLeresL of [usLlce publlc order and Lhe rule of law and Lhe need
Lo raLlonallze and harmonlze Lhe penal sancLlons for helnous crlmes flnds compelllng reasons Lo lmpose
Lhe deaLh penalLy for sald crlmes
23 8ecord of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves llrsL 8egular Sesslon 19921993 volume lv lebruary
10 1993 p 674 underscorlng supplled
24 8ecord of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves llrsL 8egular Sesslon 19921993 vol lll november 10
1992 p 448 underscorlng supplled
23 8ecord of Lhe SenaLe llrsL 8egular Sesslon !anuary 18 Lo March 11 1993 volume lll no 30
!anuary 27 1993 pp 176177
26 See Sponsorshlp 8emarks of 8ep Manuel Sanchez 8ecord of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves
november 9 1992 pp 4042
27 WlLness for lnsLance Lhls lnLeresLlng exchange beLween Commlssloners !oaquln 8ernas and
napoleon 8ama (l 8ecord of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon p 678)
l8 8L8nAS When some experLs appeared before us and we asked Lhem lf Lhere was
evldence Lo show LhaL Lhe deaLh penalLy had deLerred Lhe commlsslon of deadly crlmes none of Lhem
was able Lo say LhaL Lhere was evldence concluslve evldence for LhaL
M8 8AMA l am curlous Who are Lhese experLs Lhen soclal sclenLlsL or penologlsLs or
whaL?
l8 8L8nAS enologlsLs
M8 8AMA Cf course we are aware LhaL Lhere ls also anoLher school of LhoughL here
anoLher seL of experLs who would swear LhaL Lhe deaLh penalLy dlscourages crlmes or crlmlnallLy Cf
course Commlssloner 8ernas knows LhaL never ln our hlsLory has Lhere been a hlgher lncldence of
crlme l say LhaL crlmlnallLy was aL lLs zenlLh durlng Lhe lasL decade
l8 8L8nAS CorrecL ln splLe of Lhe exlsLence of Lhe deaLh penalLy
M8 8AMA ?es buL noL necessarlly ln splLe of Lhe exlsLence of Lhe deaLh penalLy AL any
raLe does Lhe sponsor Lhlnk LhaL ln removlng Lhe deaLh penalLy lL would noL affecL one way or anoLher
Lhe crlme raLe of Lhe counLry?
l8 8L8nAS 1he poslLlon Laken by Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhose who voLed ln favor of Lhls provlslon
ls LhaL means oLher Lhan Lhe deaLh penalLy should be used for Lhe prevenLlon of crlme
28 Cf 8eporL Lo Lhe unlLed naLlons CommlLLee on Crlme rosecuLlon and ConLrol unlLed naLlons
Soclal Affalrs ulvlslon Crlme revenLlon and Crlmlnal !usLlce 8ranch vlenna 1988 p 110
29 lormer Chlef !usLlce Lnrlque M lernando ln hls book 1he 8lll of 8lghLs (Second LdlLlon 1972
p 4) sLaLes A reglme of consLlLuLlonallsm ls Lhus unLhlnkable wlLhouL an assurance of Lhe prlmacy of a
blll of rlghLs reclsely a consLlLuLlon exlsLs Lo assure LhaL ln Lhe dlscharge of Lhe governmenLal
funcLlons Lhe dlgnlLy LhaL ls Lhe blrLhrlghL of every human belng ls duly safeguarded ln Lhe conLexL
of Lhe role of a blll of rlghLs Lhe vasL powers of governmenL are clearly Lo be exerclsed wlLhln Lhe llmlLs
seL by Lhe consLlLuLlon parLlcularly Lhe blll of rlghLs ln LrmlLaMalaLe PoLel and MoLel CperaLors vs ClLy
Mayor of Manlla (L24693 !uly 31 1967) lL was held LhaL Lhe exerclse of pollce power lnsofar as lL may
affecL Lhe llfe llberLy or properLy of any person ls sub[ecL Lo [udlclal lnqulry 1he guaranLee ln Sec 1 of
ArLlcle lll of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon embraces llfe llberLy and properLy ln Lhe words of !usLlce 8oberLo
Concepclon ln eople vs Pernandez (99 hll 313 3312 1936) lndlvldual freedom ls Loo baslc
Loo LranscendenLal and vlLal ln a republlcan sLaLe llke ours Lo be denled upon mere general prlnclples
and absLracL conslderaLlon of publlc safeLy lndeed Lhe preservaLlon of llberLy ls such a ma[or
preoccupaLlon of our pollLlcal sysLem LhaL noL saLlsfled wlLh guaranLeelng lLs en[oymenL ln Lhe very flrsL
paragraph of secLlon (1) of Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs Lhe framers of our ConsLlLuLlon devoLed paragraphs (3) (4)
(3) (6) (7) (8) (11) (12) (13) (14) (13) (16) (17) (18) and (21) of sald secLlon (1) Lo Lhe proLecLlon of
several aspecLs of freedom 1hese guaranLees are preserved ln Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon accordlng Lo
lr 8ernas
30 See for lnsLance eople vs SlnaLao 249 SC8A 334 371 CcLober 23 1993 and eople vs ldla
249 SC8A 687 702703 november 10 1993
31 ArL lll Sec 1
32 ArL lll Sec 11
33 ArL ll Sec 12(2)
34 ArL ll Sec 12
33 ArL ll Secs 13 16 17
36 lor deLalls see Annex A of Lhe Memorandum for Lhe AccusedAppellanL daLed SepLember 26
1996 flled by Lhe lree Legal AsslsLance Croup ln eople vs Malabago C8 no 113686 uecember 2
1996
37 1he lLACsubmlLLed roflle sLaLes LhaL 186 have been senLenced Lo deaLh by Lrlal courLs slnce
Lhe effecLlvlLy of 8A 7639 1he hlllpplne SLar lssue of uecember 9 1996 page 17 however reporLs LhaL
quoLlng Sen LrnesLo Perrera Lhe LoLal number of deaLh row lnmaLes has gone up Lo 267 as of
november 1996 of whom more Lhan one half (139) are rape convlcLs Some ma[or dallles (hlllpplne
ually lnqulrer hlllpplne SLar Manlla SLandard) ln Lhelr lebruary 3 1997 lssue up Lhe deaLh row flgure
Lo 300 as of Lhe end of !anuary 1997 wlLh 430 as Lhe probable number aL Lhe end of 1997
38 1he preamble of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls LhelsLlc lL declares Lhe soverelgn llllplno peoples
lmploraLlon of Lhe ald of AlmlghLy Cod
39 CaLechlsm of Lhe CaLhollc Church p 312 Word and Llfe ubllcaLlons
2266 reservlng Lhe common good of socleLy requlres renderlng Lhe aggressor unable Lo lnfllcL harm
lor Lhls reason Lhe LradlLlonal Leachlng of Lhe Church has acknowledged as wellfounded Lhe rlghL and
duLy of leglLlmaLe publlc auLhorlLy Lo punlsh malefacLors by means of penalLles commensuraLe wlLh Lhe
gravlLy of Lhe crlme noL excludlng ln cases of exLreme gravlLy Lhe deaLh penalLy lor analogous reasons
Lhose holdlng auLhorlLy have Lhe rlghL Lo repel by armed force aggressors agalnsL Lhe communlLy ln Lhelr
charge
40 Lvangellum vlLae lLems no 33 and 36 sLaLes
33 1hls should noL cause surprlse Lo klll a human belng ln whom Lhe lmage of Cod ls presenL ls a
parLlcularly serlous sln Cnly Cod ls Lhe masLer of llfe! ?eL from Lhe beglnnlng faced wlLh Lhe many and
ofLen Lraglc cases whlch occur ln Lhe llfe of lndlvlduals and socleLy ChrlsLlan reflecLlon has soughL a
fuller and deeper undersLandlng of whaL Cods commandmenL prohlblLs and prescrlbes 1here are ln
facL slLuaLlons ln whlch values proposed by Cods Law seem Lo lnvolve a genulne paradox 1hls happens
for example ln Lhe case of leglLlmaLe defence ln whlch Lhe rlghL Lo proLecL ones own llfe and Lhe duLy
noL Lo harm someone elses llfe are dlfflculL Lo reconclle ln pracLlce CerLalnly Lhe lnLrlnslc value of llfe
and Lhe duLy Lo love oneself no less Lhan oLhers are Lhe basls of a Lrue rlghL Lo selfdefence 1he
demandlng commandmenL of love of nelghbor seL forLh ln Lhe Cld 1esLamenL and conflrmed by !esus
lLself presupposes love of oneself as Lhe basls of comparlson ?ou shall love your nelghbor as yourself
(Mk 1231) ConsequenLly no one can renounce Lhe rlghL Lo selfdefence ouL of lack of love for llfe or for
self 1hls can only be done ln vlrLue of a herolc love whlch deepens and Lransflgures Lhe love of self lnLo
a radlcal selfofferlng accordlng Lo Lhe splrlL of Lhe Cospel 8eaLlLudes (cf ML 33840) 1he subllme
example of Lhls selfofferlng ls Lhe Lord !esus hlmself
Moreover leglLlmaLe defence can be noL only a rlghL buL a grave duLy for someone
responslble for anoLhers llfe Lhe common good of Lhe famlly or of Lhe SLaLe unforLunaLely lL happens
LhaL Lhe need Lo render Lhe aggressor lncapable of causlng harm someLlmes lnvolves Laklng hls llfe ln
Lhls case Lhe faLal ouLcome ls aLLrlbuLable Lo Lhe aggressor whose acLlon broughL lL abouL even Lhough
he may noL be morally responslble because of a lack of Lhe use of reason
36 1hls ls Lhe conLexL ln whlch Lo place Lhe problem of Lhe deaLh penalLy Cn Lhls maLLer Lhere ls a
growlng Lendency boLh ln Lhe Church and ln clvll socleLy Lo demand LhaL lL be applled ln a very llmlLed
way or even LhaL lL be abollshed compleLely 1he problem musL be vlewed ln Lhe conLexL of a sysLem of
penal [usLlce even more ln llne wlLh human dlgnlLy and Lhus ln Lhe end wlLh Cods plan for man and
socleLy 1he prlmary purpose of Lhe punlshmenL whlch socleLy lnfllcLs ls Lo redress Lhe dlsorder caused
by Lhe offence ubllc auLhorlLy musL redress Lhe vlolaLlon of personal and soclal rlghLs by lmposlng on
Lhe offender an adequaLe punlshmenL for Lhe crlme as a condlLlon for Lhe offender Lo regaln Lhe
exerclse of hls or her freedom ln Lhls way auLhorlLy also fulfllls Lhe purpose of defendlng publlc order
and ensurlng peoples safeLy whlle aL Lhe same Llme offerlng Lhe offender an lncenLlve and help Lo
change hls or her behavlor and be rehablllLaLed
lL ls clear LhaL for Lhese purposes Lo be achleved Lhe naLure and exLenL of Lhe
punlshmenL musL be carefully evaluaLed and declded upon and oughL noL go Lo Lhe exLreme of
execuLlng Lhe offender excepL ln cases of absoluLe necesslLy ln oLher words when lL would noL be
posslble oLherwlse Lo defend socleLy 1oday however as a resulL of sLeady lmprovemenLs ln Lhe
organlzaLlon of Lhe penal sysLem such cases are very rare lf noL pracLlcally nonexlsLenL
ln any evenL Lhe prlnclple seL forLh ln Lhe new CaLechlsm of Lhe CaLhollc Church
remalns valld lf bloodless means are sufflclenL Lo defend human llves agalnsL an aggressor and Lo
proLecL publlc order and Lhe safeLy of persons publlc auLhorlLy musL llmlL lLself Lo such means because
Lhey beLLer correspond Lo Lhe concreLe condlLlons of Lhe common good and are more ln conformlLy Lo
Lhe dlgnlLy of Lhe human person