Contents

Executive summary ......................................................................... 2 1. 2. Rig selection ........................................................................... 2 Pore pressure and fracture pressure. ......................................... 4

3. Problems that could be encountered during drilling in different formations. ..................................................................................... 5 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Casing scheme ........................................................................ 6 Mud types. Mud programme ..................................................... 7 Functions of cement. Cement programme .................................. 9 Maximum hook load .............................................................. 10 Safety while drilling ............................................................... 11 Well completion .................................................................... 12

Conclusion .................................................................................... 13 Appendix A. Molly field pressure profile, mud weights and casing strings depths ......................................................................................... 14 Appendix B. Hook load calculation ................................................... 15 Appendix C. BOP stack working pressure calculation .......................... 16 Appendix D. Downhole completion design ......................................... 17 References.................................................................................... 18 Bibliography.................................................................................. 18

2|Page . are contacting the bottom of the sea and are supported by it. on the other hand. Generally. Water depth rating 2. horsepower. Bottom-supported rigs.e. Mobile Offshore Drilling Units are divided into two categories: floaters and bottom supported. Availability and cost Water depth rating is usually considered as most important selection criteria for offshore rigs. This is the list of main criteria: 1. Deck load capacity 5. Duration of drilling programme 7. Rig selection There are many criteria that should be taken into account when selecting a proper marine rig. Exploratory vs. pipe handling capabilities. the selection process of suitable rig to drill a well in Molly field should be considered in accordance with this main factor. The main steps include: rig selection. construction of casing design. Derrick and substructure capacity 3. For this reason. 1. study of pore pressures. Rig rating features. completion design and design of well control system. This group includes two types of drilling rigs semisubmersibles and drill ships. mud mixing capacity 8. Floaters are located on top of the water surface or slightly below it. development drilling 9.Executive summary This report provides a brief description of main steps of well planning process through the example of an exploratory well in the Molly field in the North Sea. Physical rig size and weight 4. Stability in rough weather 6. mud and cement programme. fracture pressures and lithology. i.

thus there is no necessity to use floating units that are capable to operate in deeper waters. The largest jackup rigs are able to drill in locations with water depths up to 400 feet. therefore operation costs are generally much higher due to large amounts of initial investment required. Implementation of a jackup rig for drilling a well in Molly field would be economically most efficient alternative. but their usage is economically justified only for long-term development drilling. while the maximum well depth is around 30. (Baker 2001) Deep platforms are capable of drilling wells in water depths up to 1000 ft.Most widely used type of marine drilling units is a jackup rig. therefore there is no need to utilize a drillship capable of carrying large amounts of equipment and materials required for drilling. From the shallow water depth it can be assumed that Molly field is located not far from the shore.000 feet. (Adams and Charrier 1985) Semisubmersible rigs are specially designed vessels for offshore petroleum industry. The water depth of 160 ft is in the range of operation of most jackup rigs. Operation costs of a jackup rig are much lower and they are more easily available on the market. 3|Page .

in zones of abnormal pressures it can be very challenging to predict formation pressures accurately. Areal analysis from seismic data 2. hole instability. it can lead to variety of drilling problems.2. 4|Page . Offset well correlation a. lost circulation. Formation pressure is one of the most important factors that influences well design and drilling operations. stuck pipe and excessive costs. To predict formation pressure several methods can be implemented. They can be categorized in three groups: 1. for instance blowouts. thus not enough attention paid to formation pressure evaluation can cause in the other stages of well planning being inadequate. Pore pressure. Pore pressure and fracture pressure. It becomes even more valuable when drilling in zones of low permeability. However. qualitative b. drilling parameter evaluation c. If formation pressure is not correctly estimated. log analysis b. since it is necessary to propagate hydraulic fracturing to increase well productivity. production or test data 3. Knowledge of formation pressures is the basis of the whole well planning process. quantitative (Adams and Charrier 1985) Fracture pressure Reliable information on fracture pressure gradient is essential to avoid problems with lost circulation and selecting a proper casing seat depth. real-time evaluation a.

3. These two factors are very important for the safety of drilling process. Mud weight should always be kept in the window between pore pressures and fracture pressures of all formations that mud is affecting. fissured and jointed zones. Lost Circulation In porous sandstone. Most of them can be avoided by implementation of proper mud control programme. particularly casing design. which are present in the Molly field have specific properties that could cause a number of problems that are discussed further.While there are numerous theoretical and field developed equations of determining the fracture pressure gradient. Problems that could be encountered during drilling in different formations. Shales and sandstone formations. 5|Page . testing each new casing seat for fracture pressure to determine accurate fracture pressure gradient is very common in the field. These two parameters are the basis for further well design process. vugular limestones or any rock formation that has faulted. Leak-off test is the most widely used direct method for identifying fracture pressures. Different hazards occur while drilling in different rock formations. gravel formations. to use heavier muds to drill lower formations. The casing is run to isolate the weaker formations. as well as planning the drilling mud programme. none of the theoretical methods can consider all characteristics of the rock formations. For this reason. high permeability results in drilling fluid flowing into the formations rather than circulating back up the hole.

OD 30" 13 3/8" 9 5/8" Table 1. However. clays and light sandstones that could cause heaving and sloughing problems. Casing scheme The casing scheme is based on the consideration of formation and fracture gradients. In the given well there is a number of formations that should be considered. It isolates the possible hydrocarbon bearing zone and gives support to weak and hydratable Jurassic and Triassic formations. 4. The most effective way to deal with this problem is to utilize an inhibitive mud. TVD of casing seat. there are other geological factors that should be taken into account during selection of casing seat depths. Casing scheme 6|Page . ft 984 5640 10240 Hole size 33" 17 1/2" 12 1/4" Casing size.Heaving shale problems Some shale layers demonstrate high adsorption of water. The surface casing is lowered to 5640 ft below RKB to ensure that Paleocene lower sands that could contain fresh waters are covered prior further drilling. It also provides support for the BOP stack. hole bridging and excessive build-up of solids in the mud. It isolates Paleocene middle shales. The reason for that is the presence of hydratable clays in the formation. which will reduce the hydration rate of the clays. such as pipe sticking. The production casing is run from the bottom up to the casing hanger on the surface. It can lead to the clays swelling and sloughing into the hole and result in further drilling problems.

However. Water based fluids Water is the main component and is the continuous phase of the fluid. Mud types. Very simple CMC Gel or Spud Gel mud systems. Non-dispersed and non-inhibited muds. Simple clay-based systems. though could be used in drilling only very unreactive formations. Dispersed and non-inhibited muds. Generally. Fresh or sea water based muds made through addition of lime or gypsum. High level of calcium ions in the solution assists in prevention borehole instability. they can be divided into three categories: water. The mechanism of inhibition varies depending on the inhibition agent. 7|Page . especially in highly reactive clay formations and while drilling though salt layers. These categories can be subdivided depending on the different additives used to change the density or chemical and physical properties of mud. Very widely used mud type. oil and in some cases gas based fluids. Dispersed and inhibited systems. because of the problems while drilling in reactive clay is not commonly used in oil industry.5. Mud programme There is a large variety of drilling fluids currently exploited in the industry. clay heaving and sloughing. Non-dispersed and inhibited systems. Water based muds can be categorized into four groups depending on the presence or absence of inhibitor and dispersant additives.

Environmental problems related to the usage of oil based muds led to development of biodegradable synthetic oil muds.Oil based fluids These muds contain oil as their main component and continuous phase. 8|Page . TVD. stuck pipe prevention. in that case it is called invert emulsion. Water can be added to the mixture as discontinuous phase. Mud programme Mud weight graph is provided in Appendix A. such as production zones and shales. These muds are very expensive and should be considered only in situations where it is impossible to drill using water based muds. Corrosion resistance. They are also useful in drilling complex geometry wells due to their high lubricity characteristics. ft Hole size Casing size 984 33" 30" Sea water/bentonite Mud type Mud weight. It is beneficial to use this type of mud in water sensitive formations. contamination are some other factors that make oil based muds relatively cost effective. ppg 10 5640 17 1/2" 13 3/8" Sea water/bentonite 12 Water based mud with inhibition additives is used to prevent clay hydration and sloughing 10240 12 1/4" 9 5/8" Oil based mud* 13 *Oil based mud is used to reduce formation damage in the potential reservoir formations and to avoid clay hydration Table 2. since oil doesn't hydrate the shales.

and a higher density cement slurry with better compressive strength for isolating formations with possible water migration Paleocene water sands. Supports the borehole Cementing of the surface casing string will be conducted up to the surface. Top of cement is run only up to the "Piper" sandstones with a safety margin of 9|Page . A spacer should be run between mud and cement to act as a buffer to prevent contamination of cement slurry from mud. Cementing of the production casing string will be conducted with the same class G cement with high density that provides good compressive strength and has fluid loss control additives to avoid dehydration of the cement filtrate to permeable formations. It also helps in providing good mud removal and cement bond. Functions of cement. heaving shales. i. Main objectives of this cementing stage are: 1) to provide zonal isolation of weak formations. 4500 ft-5640 ft. 2) Provide good casing shoe for further drilling with higher mud density. Protects from the corrosive influence of fluids and offers casing support.6. Sustains axial load of casing string 3. since mud and cement are incompatible fluids and contamination could lead to channelling or premature setting of cement inside the casing For economical reasons two types of cement slurries will be used: lower density extended cement slurry for non-critical parts. Provides zonal isolation 2. The amount of spacer needed should provide enough annular depth to ensure that no contact between cement and mud is possible. Cement programme Cement is used for four main reasons: 1. weak sandstones and water bearing formations.e. 4. since it is providing support to the next string. from 4500 ft up to the surface.

the critical possible hydrocarbon bearing formations and zones of possible water migration are cased and cemented. to less than 85% of the BHA weight. 7. For this reason. (Rabia) 10 | P a g e . Maximum hook load The two main loads that have the strongest impact on derrick structure are the longest drill string configuration and the longest casing string used. so that the point of zero stress will always be lower than drill pipe to BHA connection. Cementing the production string up to the top should be avoided due to risk of possible trapped annular pressure. This pressures can represent a large hazard for casing and tubing. it is important to make sure that the total weight of Bottom-hole assembly in mud is higher than the maximum required weight on bit. in most of the modern medium to deep wells the casing string is much heavier than the drill string. Thus. it is suggested to decrease the weight on bit value even further. Accordingly. Also it is essential to have proper centralisation in this section to aid in proper mud filter cake removal to get a good cement bond to casing and formation. In this casing section gas migration control additives like latex polymers should be included in the slurry to prevent gas trapping in the cement during its thickening period. In addition. as it can largely reduce cement's physical characteristics. Usually.500 ft additional annular length. the top of cement will be at 7000 ft point. Drill string buoyant weight calculation Common practice recommends avoiding putting ordinary drill pipes under compression. since they are only designed to work under tension. To make an estimate of derrick capacity weights of both strings will be calculated. it is beneficial from the financial point of view to use smaller amounts of cement. In practice.

For this reason deflocculants are added to the drilling fluid. Therefore. This phenomenon is described as pipe suction and depends on the speed of pulling. They occur when hydrostatic pressure of mud column becomes lower than formation pressure. The pressure that impacts the BOP stack is calculated in appendix C and it is equal to 3848 psi. However. it is not always possible to predict all regions of abnormal pressures. it is important to keep the mud viscosity as low as possible. the maximum load on the derrick structure is imposed by casing string and is equal to lbs. It is obvious that adequate mud weight is the main method to control this risk. Safety while drilling Blowouts Blowouts are the most hazardous problem in drilling operations. With an additional 150 000 lbs allowance for over pull during tripping operations the maximum hook 8. and hole-pipe clearance. The key equipment used for this is the blowout prevention stack. so blowouts happening is inevitable in drilling industry. mud viscosity and gel strength. They are designed to stop the flow of fluid through the drill pipes or annulus. That is why second barrier in safety deals with mitigation of this risk. although excessively rapid withdrawal of the drill string is also commonly overseen as the cause of blowouts. Velocity of drill string retraction is also a big concern and must be always kept in adequate ranges.In the calculation presented in Appendix B it is shown that the total drill string weight in mud is equal to load equals to 384 715 lbs. From the BOP pressure ratings available on the 11 | P a g e . through implementation of a proper well control system. The total buoyant weight of production casing is Therefore.

Nipple can be used in many other applications. This function is served by sliding sleeves. such as sealing and locking of different downhole equipment. For this reason it is necessary to set the plug in the nipple. cleaning the well from the scale and paraffins. 12 | P a g e . Downhole completion design is provided in Appendix D. 1986). For safety reasons. Automatic shutdown system provides another safety barrier to control different types of blowouts. to prevent uncontrollable release of hydrocarbons it is required to install a safety valve. which acts as a second barrier in well control system. To support and secure the tubing string it is necessary to install a tubing hanger. Depending on the needs of well operation. Two zones of perforation require installing of selective production equipment. e. which also provide means for downhole tubing anchoring and casing protection.market (Burgoyne et al.g. it is essential to provide isolation of this zones from each other. which will assist in producing only from particular zone. we can assume that a 5000 psi working pressure stack would be suitable for this well. there is a variety completion accessories: chemical injection mandrel .provides ability to inject chemicals in various applications. Well completion Since the well drilled has two possible hydrocarbon bearing zones. that are placed on both perforations. Installing of hydraulic set packers requires pressure differential between tubing and annulus. 9. while shutting off the other. This function is served by packers.

Packers 7. Sliding sleeve 6. Tubing Hanger 2. TRSSSV 5.List of installed equipment 1. Automatic shutdown system Conclusion All stages of well design process that were described show close interconnection between each other. For example. Word count: 2493 13 | P a g e . Chemical Injection Mandrel 3. Nipple 8. Gauge Mandrel with the P/T gauge 4. adequate mud programme or casing design influences every later stage of the design process.

Molly field pressure profile. ppg 14 | P a g e .Appendix A. ft -6000 Trip margin Safety margin Mud density Conductor -8000 Surface Production -10000 -12000 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Equivalent mud density. mud weights and casing strings depths 0 -2000 -4000 Pore pressure Fracture gradient Depth.

we should divide the total required weight of DC in mud by its nominal weight per foot and the length of one drill collar: . The total weight of 24 drill collars is the total length is The drill string is consisting of 5" OD drill pipes with nominal weight of lbs/ft. Thus. In the table of ranges of bit weights and rotary speeds recommended by manufacturers (Burgoyne et al. required WOB is ⁄ .Appendix B. to ensure that weight on bit will always remain 15% lower than the total weight of drill collars. So. 1986) it is suggested to use WOB not more than 6200 lb/in of bit diameter for ⁄ drill bits. after applying the safety factor and buoyancy factor the required weight of drill collars is Rabia (198 recommends using drill collars to drill ⁄ hole sections. Hook load calculation To calculate the weight of drill collars it is necessary to estimate the maximum required weight on bit. to drill in hard limestones and dolomites. To determine the number of drill collars and their weight. the ( ) while ( ) 15 | P a g e .

BOP stack working pressure calculation The pressure that the BOP stack must withstand is equal to the between the formation pressure and the gas hydrostatic pressure: Therefore. Usually. operator's experience suggests using 80% design factor: (Adams and Charrier 1985) 16 | P a g e . these parameters should be calculated: As a result. only for shallow depth wells. This calculation should be used for a worst case scenario.Appendix C.

Downhole completion design 17 | P a g e .Appendix D.

Bibliography ECONOMIDES. J.lloydminsterheavyoil. Petroleum well construction. Available from: http://www. H. 1986. M. Society of Petroleum Engineers. GATLIN. Oilwell drilling engineering: principles and practice. T..J.. TX: First Printing. A. London: Graham and Trotman. C. 2001. A complete well planning approach. 2011. Drilling and well completions. R. et al. 1960. 6th ed. BAKER. CARRIER.. N. T. [online]. Available from: http://www.com/drilling. TX: University of Texas at Austin. Applied drilling engineering. Heavy oil science centre. HEAVY OIL SCIENCE CENTRE.php [Accessed 1 December 2011]. 1998. NJ: John Wiley & Sons.. Richardson. Petroleum engineering. 18 | P a g e ...htm [Accessed 19 November 2011]. JR.sereneenergy. et al. Aberdeen: Serene Energy. 1985. Drilling engineering.org/BHAWeight-and-Weight-on-Bit. Drilling problems and drilling operations. SERENE ENERGY.. 1985. BOURGOYNE. Inc. BHA weight & weight-on-bit.. 2010. NJ: Prentice-Hall. [online].. RABIA. OK: PennWell publishing company. Austin. Tulsa.References ADAMS. Hoboken. Englewood Cliffs. A primer of oilwell drilling: a basic text of oil and gas drilling.

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